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Remote Sensing Beyond Obstacles

Or

IR to RF Conversion, Transmission & Detection

Contents: 1) Acknowledgment 2) Abstract (Overview of whole project) 3) Introduction a) Communication System b) Brief review of IR to RF conversion & transmission c) Limitation of IR to RF conversion & transmission 4) Objective of the project 5) Brief introduction to Remote Sensing 6) Block diagram and circuit diagram 7) Working principle 8) Procedures and Problems 9) Performance characteristics of device used 10) 11) 12) 13) Results and Simulations Comparisons Future prospects Conclusion

Acknowledgment
We wish to express our profound indebtedness and undoubted gratitude to Prof. Dr. Quamrul Huda, Professor of Dept. of EEE, BUET. His sincere guidance, friendly supervision, constant encouragement and active support during the entire level for the continuous and completion of the project. Our deepest regard and profound indebtedness to Md. Mahabub Sattar, lecturer, Dept. of EEE, BUET, for his interest and invaluable advice. He presented new ideas and solutions to different problems that arose at different levels of the Project work. Our thanks also goes to the Prof. Dr. Mohammad Ali Chowdhury, Dean, Faculty of EEE, BUET, in charge of the Power Electronics Lab for permitting us to work on his lab frequently and independently. Sincere thanks to Mr. Sanaullah for his continuous support. Its a pleasure to thank the Telecommunication Lab for their kind cooperation. Special thanks to all the classmates for their cooperation.

Abstract
The IR signal generator is the conventional handset used for TV remote control with the working frequency varying from 40-50 kHz. The carrier was produced from 555 timer IC. This provided robustness, stability and easy frequency control that are necessary. The carrier signal was used to modulate the signal coming from sensor. The device was efficient at frequency of 45.2 kHz. From modulation, we initially used digital modulation technique using ANACOM-1 TRAINER MODULE. The modulated output was fed to CE amplifier. The amplifier was used to produce sufficient amplification so as to drive the antenna. The RF signal transmitted to the demodulator part of the module where the RF signal was received by another antenna. It was then filtered, amplified and demodulated to recover the original signal. On a different procedure, the signal was detected by the sensor which was directly transmitted through wire after 2-Stage amplification. The amplified signal was modulated with a carrier signal of 45.2 kHz using an AND gate that when applied to IR LED reproduce the original remote signal. The power supply for the whole unit was provided from a variable dc source of two different values of 5 volts and 10 volts. The 10 volts was used for 555 timer IC and 5 volts for the other elements. The last stage of the transmitter was supposed to be an antenna able to transmit RF signal beyond obstacle but due to shortage of power of the signal it was transmitted through wire.

At the receiver end, the carrier signal together with the amplified signal from sensor reproduce the pulse train required for driving IR LED which was applied to the appliance. The complete project was tested for different remote signals of varying frequency and found to work satisfactory enough.

Introduction Communication system


With the advent of communication technology, human civilization had a great leap in its development. Till today this technology has got enormous achievements. Telecommunication requires transmission of information from one place to another. Basic concept behind telecommunication is that information is first converted to electrical signal which after transferring to another place is again reconverted back to information. Transmission of this information signal to a distant place is done by using electromagnetic wave. For this transmission, information signal is superimposed (modulated) on an electromagnetic wave called carrier. This modulated carrier is then transmitted to the destination, where information is recovered (demodulated) from the carrier. The carrier electromagnetic waves are designated by its location in the frequency spectrum.

Band VLF name Band 4 number Frequency

LF 5

MF 6

HF 7

VHF 8

UHF 9

SHF 10

EHF 11

3kHz 30 kHz 300 kHz 3 MHz 30 MHz 300MHz 3 GHz 30GHz

300 GHz

The electromagnetic wave can be transmitted either through guided channel such as wire or waveguide or through unguided atmosphere or free space. When information is modulated on the carrier it occupies certain band of frequency around the carrier called transmission bandwidth. Amount of information transmitted per unit time is called transmission bandwidth. Transmission bandwidth is directly proportional to the information rate and on the other hand available transmission bandwidth increases with the increase of carrier frequency. With the development of telecommunication technology demand for higher and higher information rate was felt and hence the higher the bands were called for. When it was very difficult to meet the growing demand by RF spectra, development of technology made it possible to utilize another spectrum called optical spectra and thus a wide window for information transmission channel was open to mankind. Optical communication system utilizes the infra red portion of the optical spectra.
3 3 Cosmic Gamma Xrays 10^ rays 10^ rays 22 20 10^-8 10^-6 10^-4 10^-2 3 X10^ rays 18 1 3 UV 10^ 16 10^2 3 infra 10^ red 14 3 radio 10^ waves 12 (m)

10^-2 10^-2

Restriction of RF communication

1. Frequency use restriction

2. Susceptibility to noise
3. Interference from the near frequencies bands

4. Use of Antenna Because of its random use, the RF spectrums happen to be the most crowded. While designing any RF transmitter, this frequency concentration is to be kept in mind. Some bands are just banned to be further used. Noise is a dangerous design limitation for RF transmission and reception. As the circuit gets clumsier, it becomes more susceptible to noise. Some noise work over the whole of the RF band while some are confined to a definite frequency band. Motors running all around produce interfering radio frequency waves.

Limitations to IR transmission

IR detectors are merely photo-detectors and may detect others signals like the room lightings. The range of IR transmitter is another limitation. IR signals are not known for long distance operation, as all light waves gets scattered as the distance increases. So, only way transmit as IR signal is by transferring it to RF on microwave frequency or using guiding wires, as in optical fiber.

Objective of this project

1. To build a low cost and useful circuit to capture the IR signal from a remote control and transmit longer distance through RF. In doing so, we can get the signal transmitted across physical obstacles. 2. IR signals are used in various fields like IR cameras, spectroscopy and numerous other applications. The ability to transmit this signal effectively longer distance should mean a leap ahead.

Brief introduction to Remote Sensing Beyond Obstacles


Remote sensing devices are mainly used to detect the remote signals which are flashes of Infra red rays. The wavelength of Infra red ray varies from 8000Angstrom to 0.04 cm. The ray contains heat energy more than light energy. The conventional sources of IR are the Sun, extremely heated solid metals and IR lamps etc. Usually sued for cooking, heating and medication. More profound use, now-a-days, is for communication purpose. But the limitations of such transmission are evoked by long distance and opaque obstacles. Different types of sensors such as photo transistors, photo diodes and IR sensors of different characteristics are available. They transform the IR flashing into a pulse train of pulse width modulated signals. Each of these pulses is actually group of spikes integrated in the form of pulses. Different buttons of the handsets produces different pulse width modulated digital signals. Some sensors can cover a wide range of frequencies while others are limited of narrower bandwidth. The sensors possess a definite range of angles within which it can detect signals. The output of the sensors may be sine wave or pulse train.

To transform the detected IR signal certain amplifications are necessary to feed the antenna that can transmit the signal beyond obstacles and to a desired distance. But due to power limitation the signal could not be transmitted through antenna. Moreover, recovery of original signal by RF antenna introduced inseparable noise which could not be reproduced after amplification and filtration. An alternative was direct transmission through wires just after amplification stages. Since the pulse trains are actually integrated narrow spikes of frequency around 45.2kHz, it was necessary to introduce a carrier signal of the same frequency through an AND gate. Finally the output from AND gate was applied to the IR LED positioned in front of the appliance. Thus at low expense of power and economy, the limitation of distance and obstacles are overcome.

Present status and Future development

We had a limited time to work on this project. Working practically needs through involvement, checking-rechecking, supply of components needed along with proper counseling. Although we had a well-equipped lab support, we found it really hard to find out what we can use. The project had to be as cheap as possible. Nevertheless, we tried out a few things and at last were half successful. Presently, we can transmit the remote signal through a pair of wires up to 15 feet and can make it work. We would be very pleased to complete the actual idea of transmission through RF. But our knowledge on that was, frankly speaking just not of any practical value. The size of the circuit is, to the best of our knowledge, the minimum. It was cost only about $3. We are in search of suitable circuitry for the Radio transceiver and fulfill our work objective. A critical analysis of the circuit would be our next endeavor. To minimize the circuit, to improve its capability in terms of range and flexibility and with some outstanding idea may be someday, the work can become worthy of representation.