You are on page 1of 3

MSMW'2001 Symposium Proceedings.

Kharkov, Ukraine, June 4 -9, 2001

Stefanie Hirsch', Qi Chen', Karen Duwe2, and Rolf Judaschke' 'Arbeitsbereich Hochfrequenztechnik *ArbeitsbereichMikrosystemtechnik Technische Universiat Hamburg-Harburg DenickestraOe 22, D-21073 Hamburg, Germany Phone: +49 40 42878-2225, Fax:+49 40 42878-2755, E-mail:

Abstract Several types of' grounded coplanar waveguides on thin dielectric membranes which have shown promising performance at lower frequencies [l] have been designed and characterized for D-band frequencies. Waveguides with different characteristic impedances have been fabricated and their Sparameters and propagation constants as well as their attenuation have Lccn experimentally determined. Simulated and measured data are shown in this paper. Furthermore, low pass filters for D-band frequencies have been investigated. The classics1 five section approach [2] has been optimized for comer frequency of 120 GHz. Simu!zted and measured insertion and return loss are in close agreement. The investigated structures were measured using a test fixture which provides a transition from coplamr waveguide to conventional rectangular waveguide. Introduction Micromachined coplanar waveguide; on thin dielectric membranes proved very satisfactory transmission properties because of the absence of substrate modes, low losses, and low dispersion [I]. In this contribution, this kind of waveguide has been adapted for D-band frequencies. The conducting gold structures of the investigated transmission lines are entirely based on 4 pm thick dielectric HMDSN (hexametl:yldisilazane) membranes. Fig. 1 shows the waveguide structure.
Coplanar Linc

Silicon Substrate

Figure 1: Schematic of the coplanar waveguide on membrane. Because the membrane is very thin compared to the wavelength, the mounting of the transmission line on membrane results in an effective relative dielectric constant of almost one, what leads to a relatively low frequency dispersion of the waveguide characteristics. Since low-cost low-resistivity Silicon wafers are used, the surrounding carrier substrate holding the membrane acts as a suBciently good shielding for the transmission line. Unlike other approaches [ 11, there is no need for gold-plating of the sidewalls. In addition to the advantage of cost reduction, the fabrication process is significantly simplified in this way. The test fixture ([3], 14)) acts as a lower ground plane which equalizes the voltage potentials of the two upper ground planes via the low-resistivity sidewalls. Undesired higher-order modes are suppressed by a cut-off channel in the test fixture. The transmission lines as well as the filter structures are placed between two transitions from CPW to rectangular waveguide [3] what allows the structures to be measured by standard D-band waveghde
0-7803-6473-2/00/$10.00 92000 IEEE


MSMW'2001 Symposium Pmceedings. Kharkov, Ukraine, June 4 -9, 2001

components. A D-band BWO serves as a power source for the Characterization of both the transmission lines and the low-pass filter structures. Simulation and design of the coplanar transmission lines The investigated transmission lines have been analyzed by the field simulator HPHFSS, and optimization was done by means of empipe3d, both software tools by Agilent Technologies. The simulation includes losses due to the membrane material HMDSN and the finite conductivity of the sidewalls of the shielding cavity. Several characteristic impedances have been investigated and their propagation constants have been evaluated. Presented here are the results for a 100 L transmission line with a center conductor width of 80 l m and a 2 spacing between the two ground planes of 148 l m . For 150 GHz, the theoretical attenuation a was calculated to 0.1 dB/mm, and the phase constant p to 3.5 radmin, the wavelength h on the transmission line is hence h=2dp=1.795 mm, in comparison to h=2.0 m m for free-space propagation. Experimental characterization of the coplanar transmission lines The coplanar transmission lines described above have been fabricated and characterized in four Merent lengths: 3.0 mm, 3.5 mm, 4.5 mm, and 7.0 mm. Measured S-parameters of a 3.0 mm long transmission line are shown in Fig. 2. The simulated data for a corresponding structure of a transmission line between two transitions froin C?W to rectangular waveguide are shown in the same plot. Tlie return loss frequency dependence in the simulated data is due to reflections at the two :ra.ansi%ns between the coplanar waveguide and the rectangular waveguide. The measured data show an additioiial narrower ripple, which means that there are other reflections at a longer distance from each other within the measurement system, probably due to waveguide flanges. The difference in the center frequency of perfect match between simulated and measured data i c nrobably due to the fact that the simulation has been performed with an estimated value of the relative dielectric constant of the membrane material HMDSN. Tlie exact value is to be determined in funlies studies. The determinatior. of the attenuation can be ex$racted via different line length attenuations, Fig. 3 shows the insert!-? ! x s for the 3.5 mm, the 4.5 nun, the 5.5 mm, and the 7.0 mm long transmission lines. Tlie offset between the curves is the absolute attenuation of a piece of transmissioq line of the corresponding length difference. These results are in good agreement with the simulated values. For the coplanar transmission line on HMDSN-membrane, an attenuation of 0.3 dB/mm can hence be determined.



frequency in GHz




Figure 2: 3.0 mm long transmission line between two transitions from CPW to rectangular waveguide. Simulation and design of low-pass filters

Figure 3: Insertion loss of transmission lines of

. four different lengths.

A five section low-pass filter with tllree high-impedance sections and two low-impedance sections has been optimized with empipe3d for use as an input filter in a 150/450 GHz frequency multiplier. The calculated corner frequency is 170 GHz. Since the only suitable power source that was available for the measurements is a


MSMW'ZOOI Symposiuni Proceedings. Kharkov, Ukraine,June 4 -9, 2001

D-band BWO wt an upper frequency of 170 GHz, only part of the pass-band could be measured for this ih structure. Fig. 4 shows the simulated data'and some measurement points of the low-pass filter. For demonstration purpose, another low-pass filter has been designed to show both pass-band and stop-band within the D-band frequency range. Since this design requires much steeper slopes than the first one, four additional sections had to be used for realization. The new design consists of five high-impedince sections and four low-impedance sections. The calculated insertion loss within the pass-band is 0.8 dB. Experimental characterization of the low-pass filters Fig. 5 compares the simulated and measured S-parameter data of the demonstration low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 120 GHz. It should be noted, that the measured data have been deembedded from the losses of the transitions from coplanar waveguide to rectangular waveguide as well as the short pieces of CPW on each side of the low-pass filter. The effective insertion loss of the low-pass filter is hence around 2 dB. The measured data show a ripple versus frequency which is due to reflection points in the measurement system, as explained before.


250 frequency in GHz





120 130 140 frequency in GHz

"> \,


Figure 4: Frequency multiplier input low-pass filter.


Figure 5 : Demonstration low-pass filter.

Fabrication of planar circuits on thin HMDSN-membranes is a very promising technique for low-cost circuits in the upper frequency range. Simple transmission lines and low-pass filter structures have been designed and experimentally characterized, and the results promise success for firther development of active and passive planar structures. Acknowledgement

The authors are indebted to the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinscllaft for financial support

[l] N. I. Dib, W.P. Harokopus Jr., P. B. Katehi, C. C. Ling, and G. M. Rebeiz, "Study of a Novel Planar Transmission Line", IEEEMlT-S Digest, 1991, pp. 623-626. [2] S . V. Robertson, L. P. B. Katehi, and G. M. Rebeiz, "Micromachined W-Band Filters", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., April 1996, vol. MTT-44, pp. 598-606. [3] S. Hirsch, K. Duwe, R. Judaschke, "A Transition from Rectangular Waveguide to Coplanar Waveguide on Membrane", 25th International Conference on Infared and Millimeter Waves, Sept. 2000, Beijing, China, pp. 299-300. [4] K. Duwe, S . Hirsch, R. Judaschke, J. Muller, "Micromachined Coplanar Waveguides on Thin HMDSNMembranes", 25th International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Sept. 2000, Beijing, China, pp. 297-298.