You are on page 1of 3

Dante Inferno Study Guide Punished and Punishment-Vestibule: Opportunists- Have no sides. Belong neither in Heaven nor Hell.

Only seek to please themselves. Chase a blank banner, chased by wasps and hornets which produce blood and putrid over their bodies. Virtuous Pagans- Lack hope of achieving salvation. Born before Christ. Carnals- Lustful, so much to deny reason and God. Denied reason and travel with partners on an endless whirlpool The Gluttonous- Purpose was to just eat in excess. Hell = garbage dump. Storms of putrefaction falls. Cerberus tear and rips them apart. Hoarders and Wasters- Thought nothing but money and lacked consideration for God. Encumbered by weights (mundanity). Wrathful and Sullen- Hateful during their lifetime, they strike each other openly. The sullen, internally wrathful, unable to express hatred, gurgle the filth of Styx. Fallen Angels, Heretics- Denied the existence of Soul. Soul dies with body so they are stuck in grave eternally in flames.

Circle 1 (Limbo): Circle 2:

Circle 3:

Circle 4:

Circle 5:

Circle 6:

Circle 7 (Round 1): Violent against Neighbors- Warlords, tyrants, highwaymen. Immersed in boiling blood and shot by centaurs if they try to escape. Immersion depends on amount of violence. Circle 7 (Round 2): Violent against Self- Wood of Suicides. Encased and part of thorny tress, denied a human body form. Harpies feed upon them as they bleed. Circle 7 (Round 3): Violent against God, Art, Nature (Blasphemers, Sodomites, and usurers)Blasphemers stretched across the burning sand on eternal rain of fire. Sodomites (gay people) (violence against nature) run in endless circles. Usurers sit on edge of burning plain, purses over their necks, eyes gushing with tears only fixed on the purses. Circle 8 (Bolgia 1): Seducers and Panderers- seduced/provoked others for self-desires. Endlessly fast walk, horned beasts hurry them along with lashes. Circle 8 (Bolgia 2): Flatterers- Suffer in sewage and excrement, as symbol of their false flatteries on earth. Circle 8 (Bolgia 3): Simonicas- Sold ecclesiastical positions for own sake mocking the holy office. Put into baptismal fonts upside down as soles of feet burn. New simoniacs take the place of previous and fall eternally down the crevice.

Circle 8 (Bolgia 4): Fortune tellers- Head backward, cannot see their front. Must walk backwards for eternity for trying to see the future. Circle 8 (Bolgia 5): Grafters- Used their position to steal money and took every opportunity to take advantage/exploit others. Sticky hands, thusly stuck on a sticky pit where demons take every opportunity they have to tear them apart. Circle 8 (Bolgia 6): Hypocrites-Wear great robes that are dazzling with glitter but lined heavily with lead and walk round and round a narrow track. Circle 8 (Bolgia 7): Thieves- Reptiles bind each sinners hands and know their bodies. They burst into flames and reform. Take turns transforming between two forms: reptiles and humans. Circle 8 (Bolgia 8): Evil Counselors- Used their intellect and power for evil purposes. Each are Hidden within their own flames, stolen from sight, fire representing the guilt. Circle 8 (Bolgia 9): Sowers of Discord- Torn to pieces what God had intended to be whole. Whether religious, political or kinsmen. They are hacked and torn by a demon with a bloody sword having to drag their bodies afterwards only to be hacked again. Circle 8 (Bolgia 10): Falsifiers- Alchemists, Evil Impersonators, Counterfeiters, False witnessesAlchemists were falsifiers of things and objects. Evil Impersonators, falsifiers of people; counterfeiters, falsifiers of Money, False witnesses, falsifier of words. They are punished in every sense with darkness, stench, thirst, filth, loathsome disease and shrieking din. Some of them are tear each other to pieces. Circle 9 (Caina): Treacherous to Kin- Denied Gods love as well as humans so they are frozen in a huge sheet of ice. Removed of human warmth and light. They are frozen with only their necks and head out. Of the ice.

Circle 9 (Antenora): Treacherous to Country- Treason. Same punishment as all Treacherous sinners in the 9th circle but their necks are covered so they do not have the freedom to move their heads. Circle 9 (Ptolemea): Treacherous to Guests and Hosts- only half their faces are above the ice sheet and they cannot even shed tears. Circle 9 (Judaica): Treacherous to Masters- All of their bodies are covered in the ice sheets and twisted in every shape and form imaginable.

Beasts, their form and their representation: Three beasts of Worldliness representing the divisions in Hell: The leopard of malice and fraud, the lion of violence and ambition, and the she-wolf of incontinence. Minos- Beast sitting on the second level of hell wraps tail around sinner; number of wraps show the circle placement. Use logic/human reason to get passed. Cerberus- Third circle, three-headed beast that rips apart gluttons. Virgil throws dirt to get pass. Furies- Circle six in the gates of dis and woods of suicides in circle seven.

Medusa- Virgil calls upon creature with snake hair to turn furies into stone. Divine messenger comes instead and breaks open the gate. Centaurs- Half horse, half human. Guard and patrol the river of boiling blood in circle 7 of the violent against neighbors. Geryon- Monster of Fraud- Body is a beast, face looks very innocent and has scorpion tail. Dante and Virgil must ride on back to enter 8th circle. Demons of Grafters- Grotesque, cruel and evil, beasts that threaten and instill fear into Dante the most. Violent and perfect for fraudulence. Giants- Guards of the 9th circle/pit. Not placed for sin but for nature. Sons of Earth, embodiments of elemental forces.

Important Humanities Characters and Placement: Virgil- Guide for Dante throughout journey and representation of human reason. Beatrice- Symbol of Divine Love Charon- ferry men to cross Acheron, the first river of hell. Homer, Horace, Ovid, Lucan, Socrates, Plato, Democritus, Orpheus, Seneca, Hippocrates, many other virtuous pagans in limbo. Helen, Achilles, and Paris- among the lustful. Ciacco, the hog- Thrid circle with the gluttonous, a citizen in Florence. Nessus- Centaur who carried travelers across the River Evenus. Carried Dejanira, wife of Hercules and kidnapped her but died in the process. Now in hell, he is a guard and patrol. Tiresias- With the fortune tellers in circle eight, bolgia 4 Ulysses and Diomedes- Circle eight, bolgia 8 for building the Trojan horse and destroying Troy, they are both punished at the same time. Ulysses led his men to death using his persuasive speech on his last voyage Myrrha- In last bolgia of circle 8 as an evil impersonator for tricking her dad into making him sleep with her. What a horrible way to end these notes!