ECE 370 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS - FALL 2012

Text: These lecture notes and board notes.
Optional Texts: H.P. Hsu, Signals & Systems. Shaum's Outline: McGraw{Hill, 1995.
This is essentially a good source of worked examples, all in the standard EE notation that
we use in ECE 370. Reasonably priced!
C.L. Phillips, J.M. Parr, and E.A. Riskin, Signals, Systems, & Transforms. 4th Edition,
Prentice-Hall, 2008. Only get this if you are inclined to read additional books!
Prerequisites: ECE 225 Electric Circuits, MA 238 Di®erential Equations.
Course Goals: To provide electrical engineers with physical understanding and competence in mathematical signal analysis and systems theory.
Instructor: Robert W. Scharstein, Houser 209
phone 205-348-1761, e-mail rscharst@bama.ua.edu
O±ce hours: to be announced and by appointment.
Lecture: 12:00 noon { 12:50 pm, Mon, Wed, Fri; SERC 1013.
Problem Session: Wednesday 7:00-8:00 pm, Houser 301, optional. Bring your questions!
Daily Homework: Homework problems and textbook reading will be assigned for each
class.
FFF !!!THESE ARE YOUR PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY!!! FFF
Tests will consist of homework problems, modi¯ed homework problems, new problems,
and concepts and derivations from the text and lecture. Details and discussion of the
MATLAB homework problems will appear on tests.
Tentative Grades: All quizzes and tests are closed-book.
Eleven Friday quizzes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1/3
Test 1, Friday September 21 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1/6
Test 2, Friday November 2 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1/6
Final Exam, Monday December 10 11:30 am { 2:00 pm : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1/3
Instructor may determine ¯nal course grades using any combination of the above. However,
the ¯nal exam will not be weighted less than 1/3.
Friday quiz dates: 1: Aug 24, 2: Aug 31, 3: Sept 7, 4: Sept 14, 5: Sept 28, 6: Oct 12
7: Oct 19, 8: Oct 26, 9: Nov 9, 10: Nov 16 11: Nov 30

\Our goal is not to develop all the applications, but to prepare for them
- and that preparation can only come by understanding the theory."
Gilbert Strang Linear Algebra and Its Applications, Academic Press, 1976 page x

Typeset by AMS-TEX
0

ECE 370 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS - ROUGH LECTURE NOTES
Robert W. Scharstein
23 July 2012
CONTENTS
BACKGROUND AND TIME-DOMAIN SYSTEMS
Complex Numbers : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1.
A Couple of Singularity Functions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.
Symmetry : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10.
A Note on Mathematical Functions and Units/Physical Dimensions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.
Linear System : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 15.
Time-Invariant System : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 16.
Input/Output Relationship for a LTI System : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :17.
Convolution : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 18.
Another Convolution Example: The Convolution of Two Gaussian Pulses : : : : : : : : : : : 21.
Yet Another Convolution Example : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 22.
Causal System : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 28.
Bounded Input/Bounded Output Stability : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 28.
Singular Functions and Integrals : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 29.
Homework Problems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :35.
Relationship Between Impulse Response and Step Response : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 37.
Time-Domain RC Circuit Analysis : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 38.
Step Response of an RC Circuit : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 41.
Step Response of Another RC Circuit : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 43.
Homework Problems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :45.
Step and Impulse Response of Series RLC Circuit : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 46.
Homework : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :53.
FOURIER INTEGRAL
Evaluation of an Important Integral via the Laplace Transform : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 54.
Spectral Form of the Dirac-Delta Function : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 57.
Fourier Transform : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 58.
Fourier Transform Exercises : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 59.
Tables of Integral Transforms : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 60.
Fourier Transform of the Gaussian : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 63.
Fourier Transform of the Heaviside Unit Step Function : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 65.
Duality Property of the Fourier Transform : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 68.
Half-Power Bandwidth or Pulse width : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 70.
Homework : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :73.
Uncertainty Principle for the Fourier Integral : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 74.

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*Riemann-Lebesgue Lemma (two serious treatments) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 76.
Riemann-Lebesgue Lemma (one reasonable treatment) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 78.
Convergence of the Fourier Integral Representation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :79.
System Transfer Function : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :81.
Superposition Interpretation of the System Transfer Function : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 83.
Transfer Function for Linear Electric Circuits : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 84.
Parseval's Theorem for the Fourier Integral : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 87.
Other Conventions for the Fourier Transform Pair : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :88.
Cascade of Two LTI Systems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 90.
Linear Dispersionless Filter : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 90.
Rectangular Pulse Response of Ideal Low Pass Filter : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 91.
Ideal Band-Pass Filter : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 95.
Complex Phasors for Time-Harmonic Circuit Analysis : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :96.
Homework Problem on Uncertainty Principle : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 98.
*Approximate Analysis of Dispersion : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 99.
Fourier Integral Solution of Potential Problem : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 103.
FOURIER SERIES
Fourier Transform of the comb : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :106.
Fourier Transform of a Periodic Signal : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 107.
Periodic Signals and Fourier Series : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :110.
Orthogonality : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 110.
Kronecker delta : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 111.
Orthogonality of the Fourier basis : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 111.
Derivation of Fourier Coe±cients by Minimizing the Mean Square Error : : : : : : : : : : : : 112.
Fourier Coe±cients by a Direct Inner Product : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 114.
Trigonometric Form of the Fourier Series : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 114.
Two Standard Notations for the Trig Fourier Series : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 116.
Riemann-Lebesgue Lemma: Fourier Coe±cients : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 117.
Gibbs' Phenomenon: Example Square Wave : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 118.
Pointwise Convergence of the Fourier Series : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 119.
On the Convergence and Summation of Some Series : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :126.
Kummer Transform : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 129.
Homework Problem: Convergence of Fourier Series : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 131.
Fourier Series of Full-Wave Recti¯ed Sine Wave : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 132.
Parseval's Theorem for the Fourier Series : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 134.
Power Supply Performance : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 135.
Periodic Excitation of a Simple Parallel GLC Circuit : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 139.
Homework Problems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 140.
Simple Low-Pass and Hi-Pass Filter Response to a Periodic Input : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 141.
The Vibrating String : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 147.
Homework Problems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 150.
Poisson Sum Formula : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 151.

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Systems. Simon. Example: DFT Approximation of a Fourier Sine Integral : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 174. Fibonacci Sequence . Example of a LTI Discrete-Time System : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 161. The Z-Transform : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 163. System Transfer Function : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 166. page ix. Discrete-Time Fourier Transform : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 167.TRANSITION TO DISCRETE-TIME SYSTEMS Sampling and Reconstruction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 153. Discrete Fourier Transform : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 167. Exercises : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 169.. DFT Approximation of the Continuous-Time Fourier Transform : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :170. and Transforms : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 157. Z-Transform of a Delayed Sequence : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 166. Discrete-Time Signals.. Linear Time-Invariant Discrete-Time Systems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 160. so put these last in your prioritized list of study topics. Convolution Theorem of the Z-Transform : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 166. Exercises : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 159. mathematics is learned by doing it. Functional Analysis. Input/Output Relationship : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 160. Numerical Example of Using the FFT to Evaluate the Fourier Integral : : : : : : : : : : : : : 171. 1980.. * Sections marked by the asterisk are A+ level.. not by watching other people do it . Discrete-Time Approximation for the Step Response of Series RLC Circuit : : : : : : : : : 177. Reed and B. \.Di®erence Equation and Z-Transform : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 165. Academic Press. " M. Discrete-Time Systems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 159. iii .

.... .... .................. ...... ............. ................. ......... .. . . ... .. . .. ... .... ..... .. . ...... y... ² z r Á x complex z = x + jy plane If z 2 C and x. .... . .. ... . .. . . then we write the complex number z in rectangular and polar form as z = x + jy = rejÁ : Refzg = x and Imfzg = y The modulus or magnitude of z is jzj = r and the argument or angle of z is argfzg = Á: The complex conjugate of z = x + jy = rejÁ is z ¤ = x ¡ jy = re¡jÁ : z + z ¤ = 2x and z ¡ z ¤ = 2jy zz ¤ = jzj2 = r2 Euler's identity: ejÁ = cos Á + j sin Á Taylor series for the exponential function.... . ...... ..... . ... ...... .. ... ........... . ..... .... ... ..... . ......... . . . .......... ........ .................... . . ... ... .... ... r. Á 2 R. ... ... ..... ......Complex Numbers p j = + ¡1 y .. .. .. .... ............................ written as a function of the complex variable z is 1 X zn z e = : n! n=0 1 ... ... . .. .. ................ ... .. ........ ........ .. ........................ ...... ..

2 . In MATLAB. For example. it's called atan2(y. observe that μ ¶ p j3¼=4 1 3¼ ¡1 z1 = ¡1 + j = 2e where tan = ¡1 4 is certainly di®erent from μ ¶ p ¡j¼=4 ¡1 ¼ ¡1 z2 = 1 ¡ j = 2e where tan =¡ 1 4 Your calculator has the two-argument arctangent function as part of its rectangular-topolar conversion. and we also write ejÁ = cos Á + j sin Á: The sum of ejÁ and its conjugate gives ejÁ + e¡jÁ = 2 cos Á and the di®erence gives ejÁ ¡ e¡jÁ = 2j sin Á which are the important representations ejÁ + e¡jÁ 2 jÁ e ¡ e¡jÁ sin Á = 2j Many (all?) of the trig identities are easily seen in complex form: Consider ³ ´³ ´ ³ ´³ ´ jÁ 2 jÁ ¡jÁ 1 = je j = e e = cos Á + j sin Á cos Á ¡ j sin Á = cos2 Á + sin2 Á: cos Á = Now observe £ ¤ z = x + jy = rejÁ = r cos Á + j sin Á Equating real and imaginary parts separately gives x = r cos Á 2 ¤ and 2 y = r sin Á: jzj = zz = r = (x + jy)(x ¡ jy) = x2 + y 2 p r = + x2 + y 2 ³y ´ Á = tan¡1 x Note that the two-argument arctangent function (that maintains full information about quadrant) is required.x) just like Fortran and probably C§ .Let z = jy and separate the real and imaginary parts via the even and odd powers in 1 1 1 X X X (jy)n (jy)2m (jy)2m+1 = + ejy = n! (2m)! (2m + 1)! n=0 m=0 m=0 Note that j 2m = (¡1)m and j 2m+1 = j(¡1)m so that 1 1 X X (¡1)m y 2m (¡1)m y 2m+1 jy +j = cos y + j sin y e = (2m)! (2m + 1)! m=0 m=0 There was nothing special about the real number y.

there is no inequality on the complex plane. One notable di®erence between the real number line and the more general complex plane is the lack of ordering on z: That is. i.Consider z1 = x1 + jy1 and z2 = x2 + jy2 . jz1 + z2 j · jz1 j + jz2 j ¯ ¯ jz1 ¡ z2 j ¸ ¯jz1 j ¡ jz2 j¯ 3 etc . Then our four basic operations are: addition z1 + z2 = x1 + jy1 + x2 + jy2 = (x1 + x2 ) + j(y1 + y2 ) multiplication by a real constant c: cz1 = c(x1 + jy1 ) = cx1 + jcy1 multiplication z1 z2 = (x1 + jy1 )(x2 + jy2 ) = (x1 x2 ¡ y1 y2 ) + j(x1 y2 + x2 y1 ) and division z1 z2 = (r1 ejÁ1 )(r2 ejÁ2 ) = r1 r2 ej(Á1 +Á2 ) (x1 x2 + y1 y2 ) + j(x2 y1 ¡ x1 y2 ) z1 x1 + jy1 (x1 + jy1 )(x2 ¡ jy2 ) = = = z2 x2 + jy2 (x2 + jy2 )(x2 ¡ jy2 ) x22 + y22 and z1 r1 ejÁ1 r1 = = ej(Á1 ¡Á2 ) jÁ 2 z2 r2 e r2 Generally. but something like z1 < z2 is meaningless.e. y1 · y2 . all of our ordinary functions f (x) of a real variable x have extensions (or continuations) to a function f (z) of a complex variable z. since the real number line is a subset of the complex plane. x1 > x2 . Triangle inequalities. Inequality is only de¯ned on the reals. 7 < 13.

.... ... .. .......Proof of the ¯rst triangle inequality: jzj2 = x2 + y 2 jzj = p x2 + y 2 ¸ jxj jzj ¸ jRe(z)j jzj ¸ Re(z) jz1 z2¤ j ¸ Re(z1 z2¤ ) (1) jz1 + z2 j2 = (z1 + z2 )(z1¤ + z2¤ ) = z1 z1¤ + z2 z2¤ + z1 z2¤ + z1¤ z2 = jz1 j2 + jz2 j2 + 2Re(z1 z2¤ ) (jz1 j + jz2 j)2 = jz1 j2 + jz2 j2 + 2jz1 jjz2 j = jz1 j2 + jz2 j2 + 2jz1 z2¤ j compare (2) and (3) in view of (1) jz1 + z2 j2 · (jz1 j + jz2 j)2 .. ... . .. ............. ... .............. ... .... ... ..... .. ....... ...... ... .......... Hint: let z1 = ³1 ¡ ³2 and z2 = ³2 in the ¯rst triangle inequality... . . ...... ...... ........ .. ... ..... ......... .. .. ... . .... .... ......... 4 (2) (3) ... . . ...... ........... ...... ........... ............ . .. . . . 2 ......... ........ ....... ... ....... ............ ................... ..... . ....... ... z +z jz1 + z2 j · jz1 j + jz2 j z z1 Extensions ¯N ¯ N ¯X ¯ X ¯ ¯ f (z) · jfn (z)j ¯ ¯ n ¯ ¯ n=0 n=0 ¯ b ¯ ¯Z ¯ Zb ¯ ¯ ¯ f (t) dt¯ · jf (t)j dt ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ a a (Sometimes called the monotonicity property of the integral.. ...... .. . 1 2.. ............ . ........) F Prove the second triangle inequality...........

...... ......... ... ... 1=2 1 11=3 = ½ ej0 = 1 (k = 0) ej¼ = ¡1 (k = 1) 8 j0 e =1 > > p > > < j2¼=3 ¡1 + j 3 = = e 2 p > > > > ¡1 ¡ j 3 : ej4¼=3 = 2 ² ² .. .... ...... §1......... ............. .... .. .. ..... : : : ) (k = 0... ... : : : ... §2........ .....Multivalued functions..... ........... Examples.. . ...... ............ . . ..... ....... .............. .. 2.... . ... .... ............... .. .. . . . ... ... . ... ........ ...... ..... . ... 1... . .. ....... ..... ...... ..... . .. .. .. .. . ........ .... ... : : : ) The value for k = 0 is called the principal branch of the logarithm. ........ . ........ .. ... ..... ..... .... .. . .. .......... ... .......... . . . The nth roots of unity 1 = ej2k¼ 11=n = ej2k¼=n (k = 0..... .. ... .. .. ... ... 5 . . .. .. . ... ........ .... ..... ... . ..... .. .... ... .. .. . .... . ........... ... . . ... .. . ...... ..... .... ....... .. ... ...... . .. ....... ... .. ......... .... .... ... .... ... .... ...... .. .. .. . ... . .... .... . ... . .... .... .. .. . ........... ... ..... .. ... .............. .. . ... §1....... ......... . .... ... .. . . .. . .......... ... ... . ..... .. ... ..... ................... §2. ...... . .. n ¡ 1) distinct roots .. ... (k = 0) ² (k = 1) ² (k = 2) ² logarithm ¤ £ ¤ £ ln(z) = ln rejÁ = ln rej(Á+2k¼) = ln(r) + j(Á + 2k¼) (k = 0...... . . . ...... ..

powers: Let z = x + jy and w = u + jv be two complex numbers. proof: an z n + an¡1 z n¡1 + ¢ ¢ ¢ + a2 z 2 + a1 z + a0 = 0 take the complex conjugate an (z ¤ )n + an¡1 (z ¤ )n¡1 + ¢ ¢ ¢ + a2 (z ¤ )2 + a1 z ¤ + a0 = 0 6 . That is. w 2 C and x. : : : . n) of the polynomial Pn (z) are all real. then any complex roots must occur in complex conjugate pairs. v 2 R. The polynomial Pn (z) = an z n + an¡1 z n¡1 + ¢ ¢ ¢ + a2 z 2 + a1 z + a0 with an 6 = 0 is said to be of degree n. u. 2. Proposition: If the coe±cients ak (k = 0. ln(j) = j(¼=2 + 2k¼) j j = ej¢j(¼=2+2k¼) = e¡(¼=2+2k¼) principal value is j j = exp(¡¼=2) = 0:2079 ¢ ¢ ¢ μ Problem: Show that Hint: use the ¯nite geometric series n¡1 P a k ¶ on page 164 k=0 n¡1 X ej2¼k=n = 0 k=0 Fundamental theorem of algebra. if Pn (z) = 0 then Pn (z ¤ ) = 0. £ ¤ £ ¤ z w = exp ln(z w ) = exp w ln z and we know how to interpret/evaluate £ ¤ ez = ex+jy = ex cos y + j sin y Example. It has exactly n roots (zeros) counting multiplicity. 1. that is z. y.

... ............. t > 0 (1) ........... the two-statement de¯nition of the Dirac-delta function... and thus it is sometimes said that \every Dirac-delta function is begging to be integrated............... .......... ..... Here are several: μ ¶ t 1 lim ¦ = ±(t) ²!0 ² ² ²=¼ lim 2 = ±(t) ²!0 t + ²2 r ® ¡®t2 lim e = ±(t) ®!1 ¼ sin −t 1 = lim lim −!1 ¼t −!1 2¼ μ ¶ ½ 1 jtj < T =2 t where ¦ ............................. 0 u(t ¡ T ) = =) ½ t 0............ It is under the operation of integration that the Dirac delta-function enjoys meaning.. in some limit.......... u(t + T =2) ¡ u(t ¡ T =2) = T 0 jtj > T =2 Cauchy or Lorenz distribution Gaussian distribution Z− e§j!t d! = ±(t) ¡− 7 Dirichlet kernel ........ the sampling or sifting property follows: Zb a f (t)±(t ¡ t0 ) dt = ½ f (t0 )................... t < 0 u(t) = 1........ .. N ....... t > T Dirac delta-function (de¯nition) ±(t) = 0 if t6 =0 AND Z1 ±(t) dt = 1 ¡1 From this strange de¯nition.....................A Couple of Singularity Functions (or \Distributions" or \Generalized Functions") u(t) ±(t) 1 .......... o............ ................ This is e®ectively an operational de¯nition of the Dirac-delta.. ... . t < T : 1.. t 0 Heaviside unit-step function ½ 0........" Relationship: Zt ±(¿ ) d¿ = u(t) ¡1 () ±(t) = du(t) dt Dirac-Delta Sequences: There are lots (1!) of ordinary functions that satisfy........................w... . a < t0 < b 0.. if f (t) is continuous at t = t0 ........ .......................

But. Note: we don't ever try to evaluate ±(0). Or you will have to agree on some scheme to cut it up while minimizing bloodshed.Study the time behavior of the above \Dirac-delta sequences" to see how they approach the ideal delta function. a for f (t) continuous in a neighborhood of t = 0. a < 0 < b f (t)±(t) dt = 0. Zb a 1 f (t)±(t) dt = lim ²!0 ² ¸ Z²=2 · t2 00 0 f (0) + tf (0) + f (0) + : : : dt: 2! ¡²=2 8 . Another note: (along the same line) If a Dirac-delta function appears in the integrand of some integral. the integral is evaluated from the sampling property." for example Z1 ±(t) dt 0 should be either Z1 ±(t) dt = 1 or 0¡ Z1 ±(t) dt = 0: 0+ You either capture all of the delta-function or you don't get any of it. It cannot be divided. but I would prefer we avoid this point. it's \nothin' to get hung about" from Strawberry Fields Forever. and some books might say that \±(0) = 1 ". in the words of Lennon & McCartney. You might want to. so that we want to show ½ Zb f (0).w. Proof of the SAMPLING PROPERTY: No harm is done in taking t0 = 0. For de¯niteness. o. We don't ever have to attach a value to the Dirac delta function when its argument is zero. Warning: the integration limits cannot \split" a Dirac-delta function \down the middle. Also examine the Heaviside unit-step sequence lim 1 [1 ®!1 2 + tanh ®t] = u(t) and its time-derivative. use the limit of the rectangular pulse to represent μ ¶ t 1 ±(t) = lim ¦ ²!0 ² ² and represent the continuous f (t) by its Taylor series about t = 0: f (t) = f (0) + tf 0 (0) + t2 00 t3 f (0) + f 000 (0) + O(t4 ): 2! 3! Then the integral of interest is. for a < 0 < b.

" Edwin Bliss 9 . 1991. and a terrible waste of time. Statistical Physics. it's not worth being said at all. ¥ F Provide an alternate proof of the sampling property by appealing to the mean value theorem of the integral. then the integral is zero since ±(t) = 0 for t 6 = 0. Z²=2 t dt = 0. If it can't be said simply. neurotic. The pursuit of perfection is frustrating. \Heavy formalism is not required to get across fundamental ideas. \The pursuit of excellence is gratifying and healthy. for a < b." Bernard H.Note Z²=2 ¡²=2 and so Zb a dt = ². either 0 < a or b < 0. viii. ¡²=2 Z²=2 ²3 t dt = 12 2 ¡²=2 ¸ · 1 ²3 00 5 f (t)±(t) dt = lim ²f (0) + f (0) + O(² ) = f (0): ²!0 ² 24 If. Lavenda. p.

.. . .. ........ .... . . . ... . ...... ............... . . ... ..... ..... . ...... . .. .. ... ... .. .. . . ....... . ..... .... ..... ..... . . ....... .... . ..... . .. .... ..... ...... ..... .............. . . ..... .... ............ ............ .. .... ........ Springer.. . ....... . ... . .. . ... .... ... ... ......... Symmetry Rules.... . ...... .. . ... .. .. ....... ... .......... ... .... ... .. ........... ..... .. ..... ......... .. .. ..... ....... . .... ....... .... . . ..... ...... . ....... .. .. 2008. .... . . .............. .. ....... .. ......... ........ .......... .. .... ........... .... ... ... . .... . .. .. ...... . .. ..... ... ......... .. .... .. ..... ... . ........ .......... ...... ..... ..... ....... . . ...... . . ..... .......... .... ............. . . ...... .... ........... ........ .. .... ..... . .. ... . . ... ... ... ........ .. .. . .... .. ............ ....... ... ..... ... ..... . .... .. . ..... ..... ..... .. ...... ... ..... ....... .. ..... .. .... ............... ...... ... . ... ... .. .. .. . .......... ........... ..... ..... .. . ..... .. ........... ... ... .. . . ....... ... . . ...... . ....... .... ..... ... ... ............... .. ......... ...... . . ...... . .... ........ ....... ... ....... .............. ... . ....... ....... .. ........ ... ............ . . .. ..... . . ........ .. . .... ... ... . . .. .. . . .. ............ .. ...... . . ... ....... .. ........ ....... .. ... . ...... . .. .... ......... . . ... ... .. ... ... ........ ... .... ... .... .... ....... .. . ... .......... .. .. ... . . ... . .. ...... .. . .... . .... .." J. . .. . ... .. .. . . .... . .. ... ... ... ... is immunity to a possible change.... .. ........... .. .... . . .. .... . .... ... ... . 2 ........ .............. .. ..... ..... .. ...... ........ ........ ... . .... . . ... .......... . . .... . ... ..... . ... .... .... ..Symmetry1 symmetric or even fe (¡x) = fe (x) asymmetric or odd fo (¡x) = ¡fo (x) cos(x) sin(x) ...... . ............... .. ... ..... .. . ...... ....... . . ... .. .... ..... . . .... .. .. .... ... .. ... .... ......... ... .... . ...... ..... .... .. . ....... . .... ........ ... . ... ............ ..... .. ..... . .. .. ... .......... .. .. ... .... . . ....... ......... ... ...... ...... ....... ..... ..... ... .............. .............. . ..... .. ... . ..... . .. .. . . ..... ........ ....... .... ........ .. .. .......... ...... .. .. . .... ...... ....................... . . ...... . . .. .. ..... .... .......... ............... .......... ... ... ....... ..... ..... . ... . . . ..... ......... . .... . ...... ... 1 3 2 (5x ....... . . .... . .......... .. .. . ... .. . . .. ... ... .. ... . .... ........ . ........ . .... .... . ... ...... ..... ..... ................. .. ....... ...... ........ ......... . . .... ..... ..... .. . ... ... .......... . .... ...... ...... .. .. ...... . ....... ...... .... .... . ... .. .... . .. ...... . .......... . ... .. .................. ........ . ..... ..... ........ ....... .. . .... .. ........ x x x ¡ 25 1 4 8 (35x 1 \Symmetry x . .... ... . . .. ... ..... ...... . ... .. . ........ ..... .......... ........... . .. ........... .. ....... . .. . ....... .. ........ ........ . ...... .. ... ... ....... .... ... .... ......... ... .............................. .. ... ......... .... . .. . . .. ............ . . ............ ...... ... . .. ... .......... ... . ..... ........... . ... . ..... ............. .. ......... ..... .... .... ..... .. .................. ..... ...... .... ............ x x 3x) . ... ......... ... ............ ..... ...... ..... .. ..... .. . . .. .. . ......... . ... ...... . ....... . ..... . . ............. ...... .. Rosen...... .... ......... .. ... . . ...... ...... ... 4 10 x x ... .... ... . .. . . ... ....... .. .. ..... .. .. .. . .......... ............... ...... ....... .. .......... ....... . ...... . ..... .. . ¡ ¡ 30x2 + 3) ..... ... ....... ........ . . . ........ ........... ....... .... ........ . ........ .. .. ... .......... . . .. .... . p.. . .................... ...... .. ...... ....... ....... ......... . ... ... ......... . .. ... .... ......... . ............. ..... ..... .. ........ .... . ........ ............ ..... ....... ......... . ............ . .. ......... .. .. ....... ...... .. .... ..... ..... .. .. . . ... .... .. .. .. ... ...... ..... . ... .. . .

: : : are continuous) then f (x) can be represented by a Taylor series about the origin 1 X f (n) (0) n f (x) = x : n! n=0 The Taylor series of an even function will have only even powers of x 1 X f (2n) (0) 2n fe (x) = x (2n)! n=0 and therefore all of its odd derivatives (at the origin) vanish ¯ d2n+1 f (x) ¯¯ (2n+1) fe (0) = = 0: dx2n+1 ¯ x=0 In particular. dt This is also seen by appealing to the Taylor series for even and odd functions. d fo (t) is even where fo (¡t) = ¡fo (t) is an odd function. Even-Order Derivatives Preserve Symmetry and Odd-Order Derivatives Reverse Symmetry f (t + ¢t=2) ¡ f (t ¡ ¢t=2) ¢t!0 ¢t f (¡t + ¢t=2) ¡ f (¡t ¡ ¢t=2) f 0 (¡t) = lim ¢t!0 ¢t Even function fe (t) = fe (¡t) f 0 (t) = lim fe (t + ¢t=2) ¡ fe (t ¡ ¢t=2) ¢t!0 ¢t fe0 (t) = lim fe (¡t + ¢t=2) ¡ fe (¡t ¡ ¢t=2) fe (t ¡ ¢t=2) ¡ fe (t + ¢t=2) = lim ¢t!0 ¢t!0 ¢t ¢t fe (t + ¢t=2) ¡ fe (t ¡ ¢t=2) d = ¡ lim = ¡fe0 (t) =) fe (t) is odd. Similarly. note that fo (0) = 0 (if fo (x) is continuous at the origin). the Taylor series of an odd function will have only odd powers of x 1 X f (2n+1) (0) 2n+1 x fo (x) = (2n + 1)! n=0 and therefore all of its even derivatives (at the origin) vanish ¯ d2n f (x) ¯¯ (2n) fo (0) = = 0: dx2n ¯ x=0 In particular.If a function f (x) is continuous to all orders (the function f (x) and all of its nth derivatives f (1) (x). f (2) (x). 11 . note that fe0 (0) = 0 (if fe (x) is continuous and di®erentiable at the origin). ¢t!0 ¢t dt fe0 (¡t) = lim Similarly.

....... .. .. . ....... .................. . ... .. ................... ...... ...... ........... ... ....... ... . ..... ................... .. .............. ...... ....... .. ...... ......... ... ............. . ... ............. ... ... ......... .. .. . . . .... ........................ .... .. .............. ... .. ........... ...................... ...... ......... .. .... . .................. ... .. ......... .. . ..........Consider the integral of f (t) between limits that are symmetrically disposed about the origin.... ..... .. ..... . . ...... .... .......... ............. .. . ....... ......... ¡T T t ZT fe (t) dt = 2 ¡T ZT fe (t) dt 0 Any function f (t) (neither symmetric nor antisymmetric) can always be decomposed into a linear combination of a symmetric plus an antisymmetric part since f (t) = Example..... ........................... .. ... . ........ ..... .. ... ......... ....... .......... .. ......... . ... ..... .. .... .... .. ...... ... ........ ..... ....... .. .. ................ ...... that is look at ZT f (t) dt ¡T where T is some ¯xed... .. ............... ... Decompose the Heaviside unit step function u(t) into the sum of a symmetric plus antisymmetric signal....... ... ¡T T t t F Homework........ ..... ..... ..... .......... .... . .......... . .................. .... ......... ....... ..... ........ ........... . . ........... ..... . . ...... t = + ¡T T .... ........ ............ .............. ...... .............. ...... ...... .. .... .. ..... .. . 12 . ...... ...... ................. ......... .... ...... .................. .... ... .... ...... .. .... fo (t) ....... .......... ... ..... .............. ............ .... .... .... ................ ......... . ... ... ....... ............ ......... . ..... ............... ......... .... ... ... .............. ........ .. ..... .. .... ... . . .. . .. . ¡T T ZT t fo (t) dt = 0 ¡T fe (t) .... ........ . . .......... ..... .. ...... . .... ...................... .... ....... f (t) + f (¡t) f (t) ¡ f (¡t) + = fe (t) + fo (t): 2 2 .... positive constant... .. . ........ ......... ...... . ..... . ... ... ... .............. ... . .. .......................... . ... ..... ........ ... ... ... .. .. . . ............... 0 T ... ................ .. .... .... ...... .. . ... . .......... ......................... . ..... ........... .. ............. ....... ...... ......... .................... ...... ..... ....... .... ....... .... ...... ... .. .......... ... ... .... .. ... ..... .......... . ..... ............. ...................... .... ..... ..... ...................... ... ................... .... .................... ........... ... .. ....... .. ....... ... .................... .... ... . ... .................................. ... ... ..... ...... ............................. ... .. ..... ...... ... .... ........ ........... . ...... ........... .. .... .... . . ..... ... ...... ..... ... . . .... ..... . ........ .......................... .. .............. ....................... . ..........

then there really is a transparent (or hidden) frequency ! = 1 (s¡1 ) multiplying the t so that v(t) = V0 cos(!t + Á): Now the argument !t + Á of the cosine is clearly dimensionless. To see this. then the sum would be nonsense since the ¯rst term is dimensionless. to name a few exceptions. the third term has units (m)4 . Di®erentiation with respect to the dimensioned variable t imparts the units of 1=t or (s¡1 ) since di(t) = ¡!I0 sin(!t): dt We can also see that the di®erential operator has to have units of inverse time by appealing to the de¯nition of the derivative df (t) f (t + ¢t) ¡ f (t) = lim : ¢t!0 dt ¢t The (s¡1 ) comes from the denominator ¢t that is in (s). the second term has units (m)2 . the frequency ! is in (s¡1 ).A Note on Mathematical Functions and Units/Physical Dimensions Consider almost any \ordinary" or \regular" function2 of an independent variable x. but a radian is not dimensioned: Its use in (rad/s) is simply a reminder that we are using the angular frequency ! and not the common experimentalist's frequency f = !=2¼ (cycle/s=Hz). Also note that we often say ! has units of (rad/s). Also note that the function f (x) itself is dimensionless. 13 . This may seem strange and somewhat contrary to your previous experience. examine the Taylor series expansion. the current amplitude I0 is in (A). such as f (x) = cos(x) or sin2 (x) or 3x2 ¡ 7x or ex : The argument or independent variable x is always dimensionless. and the time t is in (s). 2 Not ±(x) or u(x) or jxj. such as f (x) = cos(x) = 1 ¡ x2 x4 + ¡ :::: 2! 4! If x has units such as meters (m). For example. etc. The operators di®erentiation and integration impart units: Consider the timedomain current signal i(t) = I0 cos(!t): In our standard mksC (SI) units. The constant V0 = 12 (V) carries the dimensions of the voltage signal v(t). too. you have dealt with a time-domain voltage signal such as v(t) = 12 cos(t + 45± ) or 12 cos(t + ¼=4): If the time variable t is measured in (s).

When dealing with a generic function such as f (t) or g(x). we commonly denote derivatives using the prime df (t) = f 0 (t) dt and dg(x) = g 0 (x): dx The prime denotes di®erentiation to the entire argument of the function. as in f 0 (») = Note that df (») d» or f 0 (~) = df (~) : d~ d d» df (») d» f (») = = f 0 (») : dt d» dt dt 14 . We can also see that the integral operator has to have units of time by appealing to the de¯nition of the integral in terms of a limit on the Riemann sum Zb f (t) dt = lim N !1 a N X f (tn )¢tn : n=1 The prime notation for derivatives.Integration with respect to the dimensioned variable t imparts the units of t or (s) since Zt t0 Zt i(¿ ) d¿ = I0 cos(!¿ ) d¿ = t0 ¤ I0 £ sin(!t) ¡ sin(!t0 ) : ! Note the good practice of using a dummy time variable for the integration. to avoid confusion with the ¯nal time that is the upper integration limit.

. .... Examples might be T1 fx(t)g = Ax(t). such that y(t) = T fx(t)g: Another name for T is system transformation rule........ T7 above for linearity..... ... ............ .... T2 .... dt dt T6 fx(t)g = x2 (t). .... μ ¶ d2 d T4 fx(t)g = c2 2 + c1 + c0 x(t).......... x(t) y(t) T Assume the zero-state response y(t) of a system to the input x(t) is described by an operator T ...... ............... ...... . ................... ... then the system is said to be linear........................... F HW 1 Test the examples T1 .... 15 ........... .. ....... .. .. .. ........Linear System ........ : : : .. T3 fx(t)g = T5 fx(t)g = Zt d x(t) dt x(¿ ) d¿ ¡1 T7 fx(t)g = Ax(t) + B: Linear System: If the input/output relationship or system operator or system transformation rule satis¯es the superposition principle T fc1 x1 (t) + c2 x2 (t)g = c1 T fx1 (t)g + c2 T fx2 (t)g.... .. ............ T2 fx(t)g = x(t ¡ t0 )... .

. .. ..... F HW 2 Give an example of a linear....... .... . .. ....... ....... ..... .. R...... ..... . ... .. .............. ......... such as R L ........ ... ..... ............. and 1=C........... . ... .... ...... .. .. ....... ... .......... ...... . t so that di(t) 1 d2 i(t) +R + i(t) = vg0 (t): L 2 dt dt C Again................... . ........ ......... ............ ... . the characteristics of the system did not change in time....... .......... . .... . . . . i(t) vg (t) + ¡ C Zt di(t) 1 L + Ri(t) + dt C vg (t) ... ......................... .. ......... i(t) i(¿ ) d¿ = vg (t) ¡1 which is easily converted to an ordinary di®erential equation by di®erentiating w... . ..... .. . . .. ... .. .... .. ........ ................ ......... note the constant coe±cients L...... . ..... .......... .. .. ...... .. . ............... .............. ..... ......... ...... ........ .. ...... ............. ...... . .. ...... .......... . ........... ........... . ... ...... .. .... . .... .... ...... time varying) coe±cients..... . ...... ... .t.. .... ............ .............. ....... ..... . ........ ... ... ......... ..... .. ..... ........ ........ . .... ........... ....... . . .......................... ... ......... .. ...... ......Time-Invariant System: ...... ... .. x(t ¡ t0 ) y(t ¡ t0 ) T Let the response of a system to the input signal x(t) be the output signal y(t)..... .. .. .... ....... .. .... ......... .. ........................... ..... . . ....... the equation-of-motion is typically a linear integrodi®erential equation...... ...... ....... ... ......... .. .. ........... ............ .. . ...................... and the system is said to be time-invariant......... . . ............ ...... . ... then the system is a time-variant system.. . ......... . . 16 .... with constant coe±cients. If the equation-of-motion of a system is a di®erential equation with non-constant (i........... . ............. .. .... ............ . ..............e.. ... ........ ....... ...... ...... ....... ........ time-varying system... .. .. ............. ...................... ..... ........... .......... If the response to the delayed input x(t ¡ t0 ) is the delayed response y(t ¡ t0 )......... ............. x(t) y(t) T .......... .. . .. .. .........r... ... ...... . .................. ........ . ............... .. ... ..... . ......... ..... ............................... Note: In our linear RLC circuit analysis........................ ................... ... ........ .................................. . . .

....... invoke the sampling property of the Dirac-delta function to write Z1 x(t) = ¡1 x(¿ )±(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿: Now exploit the linearity of the operator T and note that T f¢g operates only on functions of time t......................... ... ...................... ±(t) h(t) T ........ and acts only on the time-domain function ±(t ¡ ¿ ) 8 1 9 Z1 <Z = y(t) = T fx(t)g = T x(¿ )±(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ = x(¿ )T f±(t ¡ ¿ )g d¿: : ....... ............ . .................. .. starting with a little \trick" by way of the notation.......... ............. ...... and produces a third function of time y(t). ...................... It is a fundamental characterization of any linear.... In particular................ ...... ......................... .... we write y(t) = x(t) ~ h(t): 17 ... ... ............. ....... . .......... First.............. T treats x(¿ ) as a constant............... ............. . . ....... ......Input/Output Relationship for a LTI System (zero-state or driven response) x(t) ........ ......... . ........ ...... .. . ................ ............... ............ T y(t) = T fx(t)g This fundamental concept is easy to see and derive........... T f±(t ¡ ¿ )g = h(t ¡ ¿ ) and the result above is y(t) = Z1 ¡1 x(¿ )h(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿: This integral operator that takes two functions of time x(t) and h(t)................................. .... ...... . ...... is called the convolution integral. .................... .. time-invariant system......... .. ..... ... ........... ... .......... ..... ....... ..... ±(t ¡ ¿ ) T h(t ¡ ¿ ) Since the system is also time-invariant........ ... ¡1 ¡1 The response of our system to the Dirac-delta function or impulse function is called the system impulse response and it is denoted by the signal h(t).......... ............. . ......... ..... . ... ... ...

... .... .............. ...... ............... . . ............. .. . .................. .. ........ ......... ....................... ............................ .................. .. . ...... ......................... ................ ... .. .. ....... .. ............. .... .. ...... .... .... ..... ........ ................... .. ......... ......... ... .............. ......... ............... ..... ......... ........... .... .................. ......... .. . .................... .... ... .............. .......... ................................ ................... t ¿ 0 f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) ...... ... .............. .............. ...... ... ....................... . ................................. ................ ......... ...... .............. .... ..... ........................................ It can operate on any two (reasonably) arbitrary signals..................... .. ................................................. ........... .... ....... ................. ... ....... ... ....... ..... ............ .... ... . ....... .............. ..... ..... . . .... ...................... ........ ..... . ........ ........................ ..... ... ................. .................. decaying exponential signals f (t) = e¡at u(t) and g(t) = e¡bt u(t) with 0 < a < b: case: t < 0 f (¿ ) = e¡a¿ u(¿ ) ......... ................... ... .................... ................ ...... . ...... ........... ........... ....... say f (t) and g(t): f (t) ~ g(t) = Z1 ¡1 f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿: Example... ¿ 0 ) g(t ¡ ¿ ) = e¡b(t¡¿ u(t ¡ ¿ ) . . ......... ......... ................ ..................... ..... ...................... ........... ........... ............ . ....... ...... . ........... ..... t s(t) = Z1 ¡1 0 f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ = 18 Z1 ¡1 0 d¿ = 0 ¿ ...... ... ...................... .... .... ........... .. ........... .... ........ .......... ..... ..... ...................... Evaluate s(t) = f (t) ~ g(t) where f and g are causal....... ....... .. ........ ............ ... ......................... ......... ........ ......Convolution The convolution operation is not restricted to our above LTI system application............ .. .......... ......

........... ........................................... ..... ..... ...... ..... ............... ......... ... ............ .............. .................. ..... ......... ...................................... ........... .. .......... ............................... ............... . ................ ... .. ................... .............. .......................... ........................ ........ ........ ............... .... ...... . .. ..... ...... .................................. ........... ................ .... .... ..... .... ............... ............... ..................... .................. .... .............. ........................ ........................ ................... ....... ........................... .. .. ............................. ... ............. .......... ..... ..case: t > 0 f (¿ ) = e¡a¿ u(¿ ) ............... ...... ............ ............... ....... .... ....... ............... ............. . . .. .... ................. ............ ... ... ....... ............ .......... ...... ....................... . ........ ...... .......... ............. ............ .......................... ......... .................................... ..................... .... ....... .... .................... ........ ........... ...... ..... .......... ¿ 0 ) g(t ¡ ¿ ) = e¡b(t¡¿ u(t ¡ ¿ ) ............ ..... . ........ t 0 s(t) = Z1 ¡1 = Z0 f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ 0 d¿ + ¡1 = e¡bt Zt ¡a¿ ¡b(t¡¿ ) e e d¿ + t 0 Zt Z1 e(b¡a)¿ d¿ = 0 19 e¡at ¡ e¡bt b¡a 0 d¿ ¿ ... ... .............................. ......................... ............... ...... . ............................... .... ........................ ........... .......... ... ........ ...... ..................... ................................. ............ .......... .................. .... .. ¿ t 0 f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) ..... ...... .......... .......................................... ................ ... .......................... ........ .. ............................................ ..........

...... ... .......... ............ . .. .... . .. ...... ................ .................. ..................... ..... ............ ............... ........... ......................... .... ................. so write s0 (tm ) = 0 so that ae¡atm = be¡btm b e(b¡a)tm = a tm = ln(b=a) b¡a 20 ...... ..... ........ ... ........... .................. .... ................... ........ ........ ..... ....... ...................... ...............Now combine both expressions (¯rst one for t < 0 and second one for t > 0) into a single equation valid for all t e¡at ¡ e¡bt u(t): s(t) = b¡a s(t) ............. ........ .............. ..... . ..... ... ........ ................... .. ........ ..... ... . 0 tm t Let's look for the maximum of s(t) analytically: The derivative be¡bt ¡ ae¡at e¡at ¡ e¡bt u(t) + ±(t) b¡a b¡a be¡bt ¡ ae¡at = u(t) b¡a s0 (t) = since ¯ e¡at ¡ e¡bt ¯¯ = 0: b ¡ a ¯t=0 Recall that Ã(t)±(t) = Ã(0)±(t)............ .. ......... .. .......... ....... ......... The derivative vanishes at time t = tm ..

Both f (t) and g(t) are \on" for all time. so we don't have to worry about sketching them to see when they turn on or o®. 21 .Another Convolution Example: The Convolution of Two Gaussian Pulses Evaluate z(t) = f (t) ~ g(t) with f (t) = exp(¡at2 ) and g(t) = exp(¡bt2 ). z(t) = Z1 ¡1 f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ = 2 = e¡bt Z1 e¡[(a+b)¿ 2 Z1 2 2 e¡a¿ e¡b(t¡¿ ) d¿ ¡1 ¡2bt¿ ] d¿ ¡1 complete the square μ ¶2 p bt (bt)2 (a + b)¿ ¡ 2bt¿ = a + b¿ ¡ p ¡ a+b a+b 2 z(t) = exp ·μ " μ ¶ ¸ Z1 ¶2 # p bt b2 2 ¡b t exp ¡ a + b¿ ¡ p d¿ a+b a+b ¡1 let x= p bt a + b¿ ¡ p a+b p dx = a + b d¿ ¿ = §1 ¡! x = §1 recall or use (\and it is a trick!"see page 63) Z1 2 e¡x dx = p ¼ ¡1 ·μ ¶ ¸ Z1 2 b2 dx z(t) = exp ¡ b t2 e¡x p a+b a+b ¡1 r · μ ¶ ¸ b2 ¼ = exp ¡ b ¡ t2 a+b a+b r · ¸ ¼ ab 2 = exp ¡ t a+b a+b The convolution of two Gaussians is a third Gaussian.

................................................ ....... ...... ...................... ...... ............................................................. ............... .. ........... ................... ...... ........ ............................................. .................................................................................. ........... ........ .......................... .. t < 0 or t>b Here the pulse width a of f (t) has been arbitrarily selected to be greater than the pulse width b of g(t)......................... ......................................... .. ...... ............. ................... ........................................ .... ........................ f (¿ ) 1 a 0 ...................... f (t) 1 a 0 .................. ...................................... ............................ ... ...... .............................. ....... ........ ... ................................... ............ ........................................................... ............................ .................................................. ................. ................................. ............. g(t) t 1 0 b Z1 s(t) = f (t) ~ g(t) = ¡1 t f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ Since the arguments of our individual signals are ¿ (and a shifted.. ... rotated version of ¿ ) in the convolution integral......................... ..................... g(¿ ) ¿ 1 0 b 22 ¿ ................................................. ..................... .............. ............................................. .......... ... ..... let's redraw our functions f and g as functions of the dummy variable ¿ .. ....... ..................... ............................................ .......................................... .......................... ...... ............... ................ . ............................... ... ............... ................. ........ ........ . .................... ... ........................................... ........................ . ............. ............... ............................. ....... ................ .......................Yet Another Convolution Example Evaluate s(t) = f (t) ~ g(t) where f (t) and g(t) are the given rectangular pulses: f (t) = u(t) ¡ u(t ¡ a) = g(t) = u(t) ¡ u(t ¡ b) = ½ ½ 1............................. ... .................... ........ 0 < t < a 0. .......... ........................................ ..................... ...... ........................ .............. .............................................. ............................................................................... ............. .... ............................. ................... ................................................ ....... ................ .... ........................................................................................... ............................................. ....... t < 0 or t>a 1........ ........................... ......... ... .................................................... 0 < t < b 0.................. .. ..

.. ... ............ .................. ............. ..... .............................................................. g(¿ ¡ t) t 0 t+b .............................................. ......... ......... ................... ...................... ................ .................................... ........ ................................. .............................. ........... .... .................................... ........................................................................................................ ............................................................... .. ....... ........... ¿ f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) 0 s(t) = f (t) ~ g(t) = Z1 ¡1 f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ = 23 Z1 ¡1 0 d¿ = 0 ¿ ........................ ....... ......... . ............ .................... .... ............ ............. ... ..... ............. .... ......... ................... ........ .. ........ .......... ........................................................ ............................ ....... ............. .. . . ................. ¿ g(t ¡ ¿ ) t¡ b t 0 ...... ............ .. .................. ............ ....................................... . ........................ ................................................................... .................... ...... f (¿ ) 0 a b ... ................. ...................... ........... .................................................................... .. ¿ g(t ¡ ¿ ) 0 t¡b t ¿ Now let's vary the parameter t (it survives the ¿ integration)......................... ............................ ...................... ........... ........ ........................................................ .......... ....... ........... .. ... . ...................... .... and shift and rotate g(¿ ) (as it appears in the version of the convolution integral above)........ ........... .............. ................ ........... ............. ......... ... . ................................... ....... .................................................................................................... ....... and evaluate the in¯nite range integral from ¿ = ¡1 to ¿ = +1............... . ........................ ............. ............ ............................. ............ ............................... .............. ........ .............. . ..................... ............. ... ......... ............. .... we must calculate the total area under the curve of f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ). ................................. ............................................................................. ..... ................. . .............. ......... ................. ..... case: t < 0 ................. ... .................. ................................ ................................. ...................... .............. ........................ ................. .... . ............................ . ............. ..................................... .......... ..... ............................... ................................................ .......................... .......................... ..............................Let's leave f (¿ ) alone (as in the version of the convolution integral above)...... ................... ....... ... ............... ................................. ...... ...... .... ........................................... ...... ......................... ... .......... ... ............ ........................... That is..... .......................... ................. ............... compute (graph!) the product of f (¿ ) and g(t ¡ ¿ )...

............. ... ................................ ....... ... .. ... ¿ f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) 0 t¡ b s(t) = f (t) ~ g(t) = Z1 ¡1 b f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ = t a Zt t¡b 24 d¿ = b ¿ ........ ..................... f (¿ ) 0 a b ................. .. ................................... ........................... ....... ............................................ ..... ........ ........... ..................................... ...... .................. ..... ....................................... ............ .................. . ...................................... ..... ........... ................................... ......... ..... ................. ... ....................... .......... ......... .................. ........ .. ... ................................................................................ ............... ............................................................................................... ........ .. ......... .................................. ........................ ................ ...................... .. .......................................... .......... ................ ................................................................... ................................. .... ................ ...... .................... ....................................................... ............. f (¿ ) 0 a b ............. ............... . ....... ................... .. ....... ................... ............. ... ................. ............. .................. ............ ............ .... .......... ............................... ................... ........ ................................................ ........................... ..... .... ........................ ........ ........ ......................... ...................................................................... ................ ............................ ........................... ........................ ............ ................................................... ....................... .. .... ..................... . ........ .. ...... ¿ f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) 0 s(t) = f (t) ~ g(t) = Z1 ¡1 t a b f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ = Zt ¿ d¿ = t 0 case: b < t < a ..................... ...... ........................................................................... . ................ ..................................... .......................... ..................... .................................................................... ........................ ............ ..................................... ....... ...................................... ....... ....................... ........................ ....... ..................... .... ... ..... ........ .case: 0 < t < b .................. ................... .................. ........ .......... .... .......................... ...... ... .................... .............. ............................................................... .... ................ .............................................. ........... .............................. ... ..... ....................................... .. ..... ....... ........... ......... ............... .......... ...... ................ ......................... ............. .... ........................ . .. ................................ ......................... ...... ........... ........................................................ ... ........................................... .............................................. .... ...................... .............................................................. .......... ............. ........................ ......... .. .............. ............. .................... ¿ g(t ¡ ¿ ) t¡ b 0 t .......................... .............. ¿ g(t ¡ ¿ ) 0 t¡ b t ...... ...................... ................................ ............. .......................... ........................................................................................

.................... ................ ....................... .. .............. .................... ........................................................................................... ........................................................... . ............ ......... ................ .. ......... .......................... ................. .................................. ............. ........... .... ................................................................................................................. ............................................. . ...................................... ........... ...... ... ................ ... ................. ... ... ................ ........ ......... ............. ¿ g(t ¡ ¿ ) a 0 t¡b a + b t ............ ......... ............ .......... ............................... .................. ... ................ .................................................................... ........... ........ .................. ........... ...... ..... ............ ................... ......... ................... ................. .................... ................ ................... ........... . ............ .... ......................... ........... ..... .............. .. f (¿ ) 0 a b a+b ......................................................................................................... .................... ................. ................................... . ............................................ ........ ..... ................................................... ¿ g(t ¡ ¿ ) t¡b 0 a t a+b ................ ................ ............................ ................ ..................................................................... . ....... ........................... ........................................................ ...... ...... ................. ................................................. ......... ... .................... .................................................. ................ .... ..... ... ............... ....................... ....................... ....... ....................... .... .............................. ......................... .................. ....... .... ......................................................... ......................... .......... ..................... . ............. . ......... . .. ............................. ................... ................ ....... .... . ............. ....................................................... ......... ...... ... ........................ .............................................................. ...... ............... .............. ......... ................................ ............case: a < t < a + b ......... ............. ............................ . .. ..................... ............... .......... .......... ..................... ....... ..... ........................................... .......... ..... . ......... ....... .................................... . ........... .. ..................................... .. .............. ............... . ............. .. ........... ..... ............ ....................... ........ ................................. f (¿ ) 0 a b a+b ....................... ......... ...... ............................... ....... . .. ........ ........ .............................. ¿ f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) t¡b 0 s(t) = f (t) ~ g(t) = Z1 ¡1 a f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ = t Za a+b ¿ d¿ = a + b ¡ t t¡b case: t > a + b ............... ...... ................. ....... ¿ f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) 0 s(t) = f (t) ~ g(t) = Z1 ¡1 f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ = 25 Z1 ¡1 0 d¿ = 0 ¿ ........... ........................................................................................ .......................... .................. ........... .............................. ................. ............. .....................................

. . .... ........ ......................... .. > > : 0...... .... ....... ................... .. ....... ...... ...All together now.......... ... ..... .................. ... .......................... . .... .......... ..... . . ... ...................... . . ........ . b 0 a b 26 a+b t .......... .... ...... ........................ ........ . ..... ...... . .. . .... .......... .. ............ ... . ..... ........... ...... .. ...... . ..................... ......... ... . ...... ... ........ .. .... ............ ........ ... .... ............ .. ............... ...... .... .. .. .... . ......... .... .. .. .......... .... ........................... . .... ..... t<0 0<t<b b<t<a a<t<a+b t>a+b s(t) .... ..... ..... 8 0. . ............... ............ ........ .. .. ............. ... ....... .... ... . ....... . .... ................ . . ....... ... ........... > > > > > < t.... ........... ......... ..... . .. ..... . .................. ................................ ........ ...... ......... ...... .... .. ... s(t) = f (t) ~ g(t) = b... .. . ............... ... .. ............. ... ...... ............... .. . .... .... . ........ > > > a + b ¡ t........ . ........ . ................ ...... ...............

.... .. . .... ..... .... ....... Evaluate the convolution of the standard rectangular pulse with itself ¦(t=T ) ~ ¦(t=T ).. ............... and graph... ........ each of the derivatives d ¤(t=T ) dt and 27 d ¦(t=T ): dt ½ 1 ¡ jtj=T... ... ............ ..................... . .......... . ............ ..... .... ... ..... ........ ....... ... . Show that f (t) ~ ±(t ¡ t0 ) = f (t ¡ t0 )......... ... ..... ......... . .. .. .. .......... ...... ..... ..... ... . ........ . ...... Find an expression for... ................... .... .............. ...... ......... .. .. . ..... ...... Show that Zt f (t) ~ u(t) = f (¿ ) d¿: ¡1 4....... ... ... ......... .......... ... . ... . ........ ... . ........................ ... . .... . ...... ....... ... . .. ... . .. .......... . .... ...... . ............ ... .... ...... ....... ..... .... ...... .... ............... ..... .... . ..... ... 3... . ...... ... ............. ... 1 ......... ... . .............. .. . ...... ..... (jtj < T ) 0... (jtj > T ) ............ .. ........ ..... (jtj > T =2) T =2 0 .. . .... ... .............. .......... ...... ... . ........ ..... .. ............. ... ....... ¦(t=T ) ¡T =2 t 1 ¤(t=T ) 0 1....... (jtj < T =2) 0..... . .. .. ................ ........... Show that your result can also be obtained from the limit of the above as b ! a r(t) = lim s(t): b!a Use l'Hopital's rule to disarm the 0=0 form......Homework Problems 1...... ...... ........ ................ .... ... ¡T ¦(t=T ) = ½ ¤(t=T ) = t T 5..... . . ................. ........ .. . .. ..... . . ... ..... In the above example on page 18. .... ..... . . .... ......... ... .. ... ....... that is let b = a..... . ..... ...... ..... ........ . ... . . .................. . .... .. .......... ........ .. ..... .. ... 2.. .. .. . .. ¯nd r(t) = f (t) ~ f (t). Express the result in terms of the standard triangular pulse ¤(t=T ).

then so is their convolution f (t) ~ g(t).Causal system: If the input x(t) = 0 for t < t0 . then the zero-state response y(t) = 0 for t < t0 . The impulse response of a causal system is therefore a causal signal. then the zero-state output y(t) is also bounded if the impulse response is absolutely integrable: ¯ ¯ 1 ¯ ¯Z Z1 Z1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯¯ ¯ ¯h(¿ )x(t ¡ ¿ )¯ d¿ = ¯h(¿ )¯¯x(t ¡ ¿ )¯ d¿ h(¿ )x(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ ¯¯ · jy(t)j = ¯¯ ¯ ¯ ¡1 ¡1 ¡1 ·A Z1 ¡1 if Z1 ¡1 ¯ ¯ ¯h(t)¯ dt < 1: 28 ¯ ¯ ¯h(¿ )¯ d¿ < 1 . such that jx(t)j · A < 1 for all time t. If f (t) and g(t) are both causal signals. Bounded input/bounded output stability: If the input signal is bounded.

. ... ......... ... . ....... .. ....... ... ...... . . ......... .... ... ... then we say the function f (x) is bounded..... .... ......... .... ..... ... .... 1=x ............. ..... .............. ................. .. ......... ....... .......... .. ... . .. ..... .... ......... . .... . ... . ......... .. . ............ ............. . .......... ...... With A some positive and ¯nite constant.. ..... ....... . ......... ........... ....Singular Functions and Integrals Consider a real-valued function f of a real variable x................ if jf (x)j · A < 1 for all x................ If jf (x0 )j = 1 for some particular x = x0 .... x 1 is singular at x = 0 x x sin(x) is bounded at x = 0 x x cos(x) is singular at x = 0 x sin(x)=x .. ... ................... ............... . ...... .. ... .......... .... .... ... . ... . .................. 29 ...... . .. . ...... . .... ..... ............ . .. ..... ....... ..... ........ .. ....... ....... . ................. . .. . cos(x)=x .......... . ........... .............. .. ... ...... ........... .. Examples.. ............ .. ...... . ........ .... and x0 is a singular point of f ...... .. .......... .. ............... .. ........ .. ......... . .. .................... . .... ... ................ . ...... . .... .. . .... ............... ........ .... ............ .......... .. .... . ............... . ......... ................ ............................. ....... . .. ........... ................................... ............. .. ..... ................. ... ..... ......................... ....................... .......... then we say f is singular at x0 .............. .............. . ...... ....... ........ ........ .......... ..... . .... .. .................. ............... ........ ... ..... . . . ...................... . ......... ........... ............... ... .... ...... ........... ..... .. ......... ... .... .... ..... . . . .. ...... ...........

.... ........ ........... ............... .. . . ... ............. ............. .. .. ... .. ..... . ... .......... .................. .. . . ........ .. . . ¯ ¯ then the integral converges............ .. .. ...... a From the triangle inequality ¯ Zb ¯Zb ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ f (x) dx¯ · jf (x)j dx: ¯ ¯ a a 30 .... ........ . ............. .... . 1 p is singular at x = 0 x x 0 Consider now the de¯nite integral of f (x) between the limits x = a and x = b. ............ ............ ....... ....... . ... ..... ....... ... ¯ ¯Zb ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ If ¯ f (x) dx¯ · A.. .... . These limits are arbitrary......... .... . .. but with the restriction that a · b... . ... .. .......... ....... .. ...... ... . .. .................... ¯ ¯ then the integral diverges........ ... ............... ..................... ..... a ¯Zb ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ If ¯ f (x) dx¯ = 1.. . and it does not exist........... ...... .. ... ...... .. ......... .. . ............................................ ... ...................... . .. ...... ..... ....... and it exists...... ............ ... ......... . .. .. . . . .. ..... . .............. ...... ......... . ..... ...... . ....... . . ..... . .... ............. .. ........ ..... ..... . ..... ... ... ...... .................. ..1=(x ¡ 7)2 ................... . . .. .... .... ..... .. . . ....... ... .... .. .. .... . 0 1 is singular at x = 7 (x ¡ 7)2 x 7 p 1= x .. ........ ...... ....... . ....... ..

if we avoid the second-order pole at the origin. (2) An in¯nite range integral (a = ¡1 and/or b = 1) having a bounded integrand that doesn't decay fast enough at 1. then Zb a f (x) dx ¸ 0: Therefore. that is f (x) ¸ 0). and if b > a. let's temporarily restrict our attention to non-negative f (x). there are two ways to get a divergent integral: (1) A ¯nite range integral (¡1 < a < b < 1) having an integrand with a non-integrable (too big!) singularity. x x=0 ¯1 dx 1 ¯¯ = ¯ x2 x¯ x=1 = 1 ¡ 0 = 1 is convergent. 0 With ² > 0. Examples. the integral evaluates to Z1 ¯² 1 ¯¯ dx = ¯ x2 x¯ x=1 ² = 1 ¡ 1: ² Clearly this integral is unbounded (singular) if we let ² ! 0. 31 . for simplicity. x x=0 Z1 0 Z1 1 ¯1 dx ¯ p = 2x1=2 ¯ = 2 is convergent. Z1 0 ¯1 dx ¯ = ln(x)¯ = 0 ¡ ln(0) = 1 is divergent. Z1 dx x2 diverges because the integrand has a non-integrable singularity at the origin.If f (x) = jf (x)j (f is non-negative. Basically.

..... .......... .... Here is one example that demonstrates what is meant by the Cauchy principal value which is one possible interpretation of an otherwise divergent integral.... ......... .. .. ....... ....... . ... ....... ... If f (x) is bounded everywhere and if a < c < b........... .... we should not break it as Z1 ¡1 Z0 Z1 dx dx dx 6 = + : x x x ¡1 0 But under the Cauchy principal value interpretation... .. .. ............. ..... non-integrable.... ... . x 0 Also observe that Z0 dx x is divergent.. ..... ¡1 If we want to integrate 1=x from x = ¡1 to x = 1... ...... .. ..... . .......... ........ ......... then we can say PV Z1 ¡1 2 ¡² 3 Z1 Z Z1 dx dx dx dx 5 =| = lim 4 + = 0: ²!0 x x x x ¡1 ¡1 ² ... .......... . .. ...................... .. since Z1 dx is divergent.. .................. .... ............. ... then we can always break the integration domain from a to b at the point c and write Zb f (x) dx = a Zc f (x) dx + a Zb f (x) dx: c We have already seen that the function f (x) = 1=x has a non-integrable singularity at the origin........................ strictly speaking...... .Z1 1 ¯1 ¯ dx ¯ = ln(x)¯ = 1 ¡ 0 = 1 is divergent... .... ...... ......... .......... . 1=x ¡1 32 1 x ................................ .. .. .. .. ......... ..... ............... ....... .. if we exploit the odd symmetry of the integrand.. ignoring the singularity at the origin............. . ........... ....... ..... ...... ¯ x x=1 Cauchy Principal Value Sometimes we relax our concept of the integral to obtain a ¯nite result and \dance around" singularities in the integrand that are.......... .. .... . .. .. . ...... . . ... ..

. . . ......... ........ .. ...... . ... ... . .. ...................... . ........... .......... ... ... .... .. . .... ....... .. . .. .......... .. . . .. ..... ...... ... . .. .. . ........G. . ..... ... ....... . .. .. ... .. . ... . ... .. ....... . .. ..... ... .. ..... ... .... .. v 33 .. .. .. .. . .... .. ... . ..... ... ...... . . .. . ... .. . .... . ........ ............ . better to say something new and stimulating to the interested students than to show routine steps to the uninterested ones.... .. ...... .. . .. . .. . . . ... .. . . ... ... . .... .. ... ... .. . ... .. ... Peter Rowe Geometrical Physics in Minkowski Spacetime. .... ..... .. . ... . ... . . . . . ........ . . .. ... ." E. ... ...... .. .. .. .. ... .. . . ....¯ Z1 ¯ ¯ sin x ¯ ¯ ¯ SHOW THAT ¯ x ¯ dx IS DIVERGENT 0 . . ... .. . ..... . . .. .... ....... ...... ... ....... ... . p.......... ..... .. ... . .. .. . .. .. .. .... . . . .... . .... ... ..... ... . .. . ... ..... ..... ..... .... .. . ........... .. ...... ... .... .. .. .. .. . .. . .. ..... .. ....... Springer... ... .... ..... .. . . ..... .. . ..... .... .. ... .. .. .. . . .. ... ..... ..... . . ... . .. . .... ... .. . ........... ....... ... (k + 1=2)¼ k¼ x (k + 1)¼ (k+1)¼ Z ¯ k¼ ¯ ¯ sin x ¯ ¼=2 1 ¯ ¯ ¯ x ¯ dx > (k + 1=2)¼ = 2k + 1 (k+1)¼ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Z1 ¯ Z¼ ¯ Z ¯ Z¼ ¯ 1 1 X X ¯ sin x ¯ ¯ sin x ¯ ¯ sin x ¯ ¯ sin x ¯ 1 ¯ ¯ dx = ¯ ¯ dx + ¯ ¯ dx > ¯ ¯ dx + =1 ¯ x ¯ ¯ x ¯ ¯ x ¯ ¯ x ¯ 2k + 1 k=1 k¼ k=1 0 0 0 | {z } | {z } ¯nite divergent \.. .. .. . . . 2001......... .. .. . .. .. . ... .. .. .. ... . . ..... . . . .. . . . .. .. .... . ..... .. . ....... . .. .. ... ... . .. .. .. ... .... .......... .. ... .... . ....... .... ..... .. . .......... . .. . ....

.... . .. . .... ................. ............ ...... ........ . ... ............ .. .. ............ ...... ... ... .. . ... . . .... .............. .... . . . . . ... .. . ..... . ............ . ............... ...... .. ... ....... ....... ..... ... ..... . ...... . .... ........ .. .. . ....... ........... .......... ............ ....... ..... . .... . ..... .. . ..... ..... ..... ...... .. . .. . . . .. ..... ... .... . . .... ....... ...... .... .. .... ..... .. ... .... . ... ... ...... ... ..... . ... .. .. .............. .... ..... .. . . . . . . .... ... .... .. ... ... ...... . . . ... ... .... . . ...... ......... . ... . ................ ...... .. .... ........ ... . ........ .. ......... ........... .. . ..... ..... .. ......... ........ . .... . .... .. .. . .. . ... ......... ....... .... ....... ..... .............. . ............ .. ................... ... .... .............. ............ ... .. ....... .. ......... ............................... ..... .. . ........ .... ......... ..... . ...... ...... ... ... ............ ...... ..... .......... .. . .... .. .... ... ... ... .... . ...... .... . ... ...SHOW THAT Z1 sin x dx IS CONVERGENT x 0 .. ..... ..... .... .......... .... ........... .. .. . ..... .......... ...... ......... .. ..... . ... . ..... ... .. ..... .. . .. ... ...... (2k + 2)¼ (2k+2)¼ Z x (2k + 1)¼ 2k¼ sin x dx = x (2k+1)¼ Z 2k¼ sin x dx + x 2k¼ = (2k+1)¼ (2k+1)¼ Z | sin x dx ¡ x 2k¼ = (2k+2)¼ Z sin x dx x {z let t=x¡¼ (2k+1)¼ Z } sin t dt t+¼ 2k¼ (2k+1)¼ Z sin x μ 1 1 ¡ x x+¼ ¶ dx 2k¼ =¼ (2k+1)¼ Z sin x dx < ¼ x2 + ¼x 2k¼ Z1 0 sin x dx = x 2N Z ¼ 0 1 X sin x dx + x k=N (2k+1)¼ Z dx 1 = x2 4k2 + 2k 2k¼ (2k+2)¼ Z sin x dx < x 2N Z ¼ 0 2k¼ | 34 1 X sin x 1 dx + 2 x 4k + 2k k=N | {z } {z } ¯nite ¯nite .... . ..... ........... . ..... . ... .... .. ..... .. . .. ............ .. .. .... ....... . . ... ..... .. ... .....

. ...... .. ........ ........... .. ... .. ..... .......... ...... .. .... . .. . . ....... ............. ...... .... ...... ............. .... .. .. . .. .. .......... ... ... .. ..... .......... ....... . .. ......... ....... μ ¶ t ¤ T ... ... . ... . ... .. ...... Z1 Z1 u(t) dt.......... .. .... ... .... .. . . ... x2 1 Z1 0 dx ... . .... .............. +A ¡T 0 T t 1 ¡T T 0 t ¡A x(t) g(t) .... .... . ......................... ......... .... ... ...... ................. ............ . ...... .. ... x Z1 ¡1 0 Z2¼ · p ¡ ¼ u(t)e¡¾t e¡j!t dt cos x dx. ... ..................... ... ....... ..... .. .... ........ .... .. f (t) ..... ... . ....... ........ .... . ............ ...... ¡1 cos x dx........ ¡1 Z1 Z1 ¡1 Z1 Z¼ cos(!0 ¿ )±(¿ ) d¿........ ...... .... ..... ......... .... ..... ... . ..... . ¡1 Z1 u(t)e¡¾t dt (¾ > 0)... .... . ... ... ........ ......... .... .... ... .. ....... . ....... . ... .. ..... .. ........... .. ................ . . . . ........ ............ . .. . ....... ..... ... .......................... .. ... ... ....... ................... ... ....... ......... .......... ... ........ . . .. ..... . ... x 0 ¸ exp[j sin2 (!0 t)] ±(t + ¼) ¼ 2 sin(3t=2) ±(t ¡ ¼) ¡ 2 dt t3 tan(7t) + ln(sin t) t + 2t ¡ 4 sin¡1 (t=¼) 35 Z1 0 dx p x ........ ... ............. First sketch the integrand (except in an extreme case!). ......... . .. ...... .... . . ....... ....... ...... .. . ...... B ¡T 0 T A t 0 t T2 T1 ¡B 2..... .... .. ... ................. ......... . .... .... . .. . .... .... ...... .. ......... ........ .. . .... .. ........ .......... ... .. ... ......... ........ ........... ... ............... .... ...... . . .. ........ .. ..... .. ... ... ..... ................. .. Express each of these four functions (signals) in terms of shifted.................. . .... Discuss the existence and evaluate (if appropriate!) the following integrals................... .... . .... ........ . .... ......... . ......... ......... ..... ........ . .... ..... ..... .. .... ...................... . modulated......... .......... .... ... .... .. ......... ........ ............ ............ . .. ...... ... .. ... ......... ... ................. .. ......... ........... .. ... ....Homework Problems 1..... .. . ..... ... x2 Z1 dx p ... x sin(x2 ) ±(x ¡ 2¼) dx ln(x=¼) 0 Z1 dx ........ . ... ........ ........ .. .. ..... . ........................... .... .... .... . .. ¡1 sin(!0 ¿ )±(¿ ) d¿....... . .. ... . ................. . .... ..... . ... ............ ... ....... .... unit steps. .. .................. ....... .... .... ...... ...... . ..... ...... ....... ...... ....... ... ....... .............. ... ....

Evaluate u(t) ~ u(t). Show that ±(t) = ±(¡t) is an even function. If f (t) is continuous at t = t0 .3. show that f (t)±(t ¡ t0 ) = f (t0 )±(t ¡ t0 ). 6. Prove that convolution is commutative: f (t) ~ g(t) = g(t) ~ f (t): 4. 36 . 5.

Relationship Between Impulse Response and Step Response
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d
±(t) = u(t)
dt

±(t)

Zt

u(t)

u(t) =

h(t)

h(t) =

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±(¿ ) d¿

¡1

s(t)
s(t) =

Zt

d
s(t)
dt

h(¿ ) d¿

¡1

To see this, consider the general linear system input/output relationship.
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x(t)

y(t)

h(t)

Z1

y(t) = x(t) ~ h(t) =

¡1

d
y(t) =
dt

Z1
¡1

x(¿ )h(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ =

d
x(¿ ) h(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ =
dt

Z1
¡1

Z1
¡1

h(¿ )

h(¿ )x(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿

d
x(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿
dt

= x(t) ~ h (t) = x (t) ~ h(t)
0

0

The output of these two systems is identical, since the order of di®erentiation and passing
through the linear system having a given impulse response h(t) does not matter. More
concisely, the operators h(t)~ and d=dt commute.

x
e(t)

x
e(t)

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d
dt

h(t)

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d
dt

h(t)

37

ye(t)

ye(t)

Time-Domain RC Circuit Analysis
R

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+

t=0

V0 cos(!t)u(t) = vg (t)

+
¡

C

v(t)
¡

The capacitor is initially charged, such that v(t) = Vc0 prior to the closing of the switch
at time t = 0. Find an expression for the signal v(t) that is valid for all time t ¸ 0.
The constants R, C, !, V0 , and Vc0 are given and thus known.
The initial condition on the voltage v(t) that applies to our circuit for time t ¸ 0 is v(0+ )
and v(0+ ) = v(0¡ ) = Vc0 since the voltage across a capacitor must be a continuous function
of time. That is, if the capacitor current is bounded, because the voltage/current terminal
relationship of a capacitor is
d
iC (t) = C vC (t)
(1)
dt
where iC (t) and vC (t) are related by the passive sign convention. Inverting this, that is,
writing the voltage as a function of the current, we have
1
vC (t) =
C

Zt
¡1

1
iC (¿ ) d¿ =
C

Z0

1
iC (¿ ) d¿ +
C

¡1

Zt

1
iC (¿ ) d¿ = vC (0) +
C

0

Zt

iC (¿ ) d¿: (2)

0

The Kirchho® current law applied to the (single unknown) node of potential v(t), for time
t ¸ 0 is
dv(t) v(t) ¡ vg (t)
C
+
=0
(3)
dt
R
which is rearranged as
dv(t)
1
V0
+
v(t) =
cos(!t)u(t):
(4)
dt
RC
RC
Here we are already working in the time zone t ¸ 0, so with the stipulation that t ¸ 0, the
Heaviside unit step is probably unnecessary so we can write
dv(t)
1
V0
+
v(t) =
cos(!t):
dt
RC
RC

(5)

The homogeneous solution is the solution to
1
dvh (t)
+
vh (t) = 0
dt
RC
38

(6)

and it is
vh (t) = Ke¡t=RC

(7)

where the constant K cannot be determined until we construct the complete solution. The
particular solution is some speci¯c or particular function vp (t) that yields the right-hand
side (forcing term) when operated upon by the di®erential operator
μ

V0
d
1
+
vp (t) =
cos(!t):
(8)
dt RC
RC
There are no unknown constants (unknown by the di®erential operator) in the particular
solution.3 Since the forcing function is cos(!t) and since cos(!t) is not a homogeneous
solution, then we see that the particular solution must be a linear combination of cos(!t)
and sin(!t), as in
(9)
vp (t) = A cos(!t) + B sin(!t):
The constants A and B come directly from the di®erential equation (8) , which readily
surrenders them (to us): All we have to do is insert the form (9) into the di®erential
equation (8). To do this, ¯rst write the required derivative
dvp (t)
= !B cos(!t) ¡ !A sin(!t):
dt
Insertion of (9) and (10) into (8) yields
μ

μ

A
B
V0
+ !B cos(!t) +
¡ !A sin(!t) =
cos(!t):
RC
RC
RC

(10)

(11)

The only way this can be true for all t ¸ 0 is if the coe±cients of the cos(!t) and the
sin(!t) terms are separately equal on both sides of the equation, so that
A
V0
+ !B =
RC
RC

(12)

B
¡ !A = 0:
RC
The solution to this two-by-two system of simultaneous, linear equations is
A=

V0
1 + (!RC)2

and

B=

!RCV0
;
1 + (!RC)2

(13)

(14)

and so our particular solution (9) is
vp (t) =

£
¤
V0
cos(!t)
+
!RC
sin(!t)
:
1 + (!RC)2

3 In

(15)

other words, the particular solution comes only from the di®erential equation, that is, the particular
solution is completely independent and ignorant of any initial conditions.
39

so that Vc0 = 0. note that vp (t) comes completely from the di®erential equation alone. the sum of the homogeneous plus particular solutions. and is proportional to the non-zero initial condition voltage Vc0 . that is. then the response due to the input vg (t) that is proportional to V0 is called the zero-state response. because the di®erential equation is valid for time t ¸ 0) to (16) gives Vc0 = K + V0 1 + (!RC)2 K = Vc0 ¡ or V0 : 1 + (!RC)2 (17) Let's write out the complete solution in two forms. we have for t ¸ 0 v(t) = ¡t=RC Vc0 e | {z } zero-input response + h i V0 ¡t=RC cos(!t) + !RC sin(!t) ¡ e : 1 + (!RC)2 | {z } (19) zero-state response If there is no input signal (or generator voltage vg (t) or forcing term). If we instead group terms proportional to Vc0 and V0 . On the other hand. We now can assemble the complete solution v(t) = vh (t) + vp (t) or v(t) = Ke¡t=RC + £ ¤ V0 cos(!t) + !RC sin(!t) : 1 + (!RC)2 (16) Application of the one initial condition v(0) = v(0+ ) = Vc0 (note that it is the plus side of zero that applies to our di®erential equation.Again. observe that for t ¸ 0 · ¸ V0 v(t) = Vc0 ¡ e¡t=RC 1 + (!RC)2 | {z } homogeneous solution + £ ¤ V0 cos(!t) + !RC sin(!t) 1 + (!RC)2 | {z } (18) particular solution is exactly in the form in which we constructed the solution. Firstly. then V0 = 0 and the output signal v(t) is caused solely by the initial energy (or non-zero initial state of the system) stored in the capacitor. 40 . if the initial state of the system is zero.

..... ... ........ .... a zero-state response so the capacitor C is initially uncharged prior to the turning on of the input step function at time t = 0.. . . ...... we have the general form of a zero-state response y(t) to some arbitrary input x(t) like this: x(t) .. ........ Therefore..... by the continuity of capacitor voltage we have the initial condition v(0+ ) = v(0¡ ) = 0: (20) Ultimately..... ....... by de¯nition........... .......... ...... .. ... ............ ... ............ .......... . ... ... for example....... the step response s(t) = y(t) should be the response due to a non dimensioned input signal u(t) = x(t). ....... ........ .................. .......................... ................. ....... ............ ..... In systems engineering (\black-box") notation............ .... ................ ........ ............................ ............. .... ....... .......................... ........ but in doing circuit analysis I ¯nd it better to explicitly express all physical signals such as voltages and currents in appropriate mksC (SI) units...... .......... .............................................. .... y(t) ....................... ....... ........................................... .... .... .................. ...................... ............... ... ............. .................... ..... ................... .................. .. ................ ....................... ........ ....... At the end we can normalize by V0 . ................................... . . .............. ......................... ...... ..... .......... s(t) For the step response............................ The Kirchho® current law applied to the node of potential v(t) in the circuit is for time t ¸ 0 C dv(t) v(t) ¡ vg (t) + =0 dt R (21) which is rearranged as 1 V0 dv(t) + v(t) = u(t): dt RC RC 41 (22) ........... ... . .......... .Step Response of an RC Circuit R ... we have: u(t) Our ensuing circuit analysis regards the input as x(t) = vg (t) = V0 u(t) and our output signal is y(t) = v(t)......... ... ..................................... ......... + ¡ V0 u(t) = vg (t) C + v(t) ¡ The step response is......................... ....................................... .. .. .. . .... ...... ............... ... . .......... ................. ............... ..... .......

the chainrule di®erentiation that also di®erentiated the u(t) to get a ±(t) might appear super°uous. In this particular instance. and obtain the true. the Heaviside unit step is probably unnecessary so we can write 1 V0 dv(t) + v(t) = : dt RC RC The homogeneous solution is (still) of the form vh (t) = Ke¡t=RC (23) (24) where K is some (new) unknown constant. non dimensional step response £ ¤ s(t) = 1 ¡ e¡t=RC u(t): (30) The impulse response is the derivative of the step response £ ¤ d 1 ¡t=RC h(t) = s(t) = e u(t) + 1 ¡ e¡t=RC ±(t) dt RC 1 ¡t=RC e u(t): (31) = RC Note that the units of h(t) are [(−)(F)]¡1 = (s)¡1 . call it vp (t) = D: (25) This constant D is.Here we are already working in the time zone t ¸ 0. but its inclusion is invaluable in emphasizing the causal nature of the response. due to a constant forcing term. completely determined (that is known by) the di®erential equation (24). 42 . again. since the contribution £ ¤ £ ¤¯ ¡t=RC ¡t=RC ¯ 1¡e ±(t) = 1 ¡ e ±(t) = 0±(t) = 0 (32) ¯ t=0 is zero. whereupon the initial condition (20) gives K = ¡V0 so that £ ¤ v(t) = V0 1 ¡ e¡t=RC (t ¸ 0): A better (systems engineering style!) way to write this is £ ¤ v(t) = V0 1 ¡ e¡t=RC u(t): (26) (27) (28) (29) The unit step not only eliminates the need for the disclaimer t ¸ 0. But now the particular solution. and it is critically important if (when!) we di®erentiate the response. as advertised. is itself a constant. But that will not happen in general. Insertion of (25) into (23) gives the rather trivial V0 D = or D = V0 : RC RC The complete solution is now v(t) = vh (t) + vp (t) or v(t) = Ke¡t=RC + V0 . so with the stipulation that t ¸ 0. Now we can normalize by V0 .

....... . ...... ....... .. ................ .. ...... .. .... .... then the delta function is zero and we have (note the time restriction) 1 dv(t) + v(t) = 0 (t > 0): (37) dt RC It looks as though we have lost our excitation: The di®erential equation is now homogeneous.. The zero-state response demands that there is no initial energy storage in the capacitor so vC (0¡ ) = 0 prior to the unit step input turning on at time t = 0.... ... . ............. ............. we take our output signal to be the voltage v(t) across the resistor........................ ................. .... ... ... ..... ............... .. .. . . . .. . . ......... ........... . . .. ...... .... ... ... ... ......... .. .................................. + C V0 u(t) = vg (t) + ¡ R v(t) ¡ In this circuit.... ..... Information about the excitation....... ........ ................. ........... ... ....... ............... ..... . ...................... .. ....... . ... .. embodied by the source strength V0 ................... . ....... .... ......... .... .... is included in the initial condition... .......... . ....... .. .......... but the capacitor voltage vC (t) must also be speci¯cally addressed because of the importance of continuity of capacitor voltage for determining initial conditions........ ... By the continuity of capacitor voltage vC (0+ ) = vC (0¡ ) = 0: (33) The application of the Kirchho® current law to the node of potential v(t) gives ¤ d£ v(t) +C v(t) ¡ vg (t) = 0 R dt (34) or dv(t) 1 dvg (t) + v(t) = : (35) dt RC dt The forcing term is now the derivative of the voltage generator. .. .... .. . .. ... which puts us in the unfamiliar realm of solving a di®erential equation with a wild Dirac-delta forcing term 1 dv(t) + v(t) = V0 ±(t): dt RC (36) If we stay away from t = 0.... ... .... ... ....... .... ......... Observe in the circuit that vg (t) = vC (t) + v(t) 43 (38) ..... . .. ..........Step Response of Another RC Circuit + vC (t) ¡ ........... ......

which most de¯nitely contains a ±(t) term. The non dimensional step response is therefore (42) s(t) = e¡t=RC u(t) and the corresponding impulse response is h(t) = since 1 ¡t=RC d s(t) = e¡t=RC ±(t) ¡ e u(t) dt RC 1 ¡t=RC e = ±(t) ¡ u(t) RC ¯ ¯ ¡t=RC ¯ e ¯ ¯ = 1: (43) (44) t=0 Observe that the proper use of chain-rule di®erentiation and explicitly including the u(t) in the step response s(t) is necessary to get the true impulse response h(t). 44 . which is readily seen to be v(t) = V0 e¡t=RC (t > 0): (40) Inclusion of the Heaviside unit step function gives v(t) = V0 e¡t=RC u(t) (41) so that the time zone restriction t > 0 can be removed.and at time t = 0+ this is vg (0+ ) = vC (0+ ) + v(0+ ): (39) The initial condition (33) on the capacitor voltage together with vg (0+ ) = V0 reveals that the non-zero initial condition on our output signal v(t) is v(0+ ) = V0 . No particular solution is required for the complete solution to our homogeneous di®erential equation (37).

..... ....... .................. .. ... ..... .. ........... if Vc0 = 0 and ! = 0...... .. .... ............. . ... ....... . ..... .. .... .. . ... .... ... ....................... ... ² R ±(t) ¡ C + + ....... ... ............. Graph this response using MATLAB for several numerical values of the important (non dimensional) parameter T =RC................... .... .. ....... ................ ....... ... .......... ...... ..... ... ......................... .. .. . ................ ... .. .............. ... ......... ...... ........... ........ ......... ..... ... .... . .... . .. .... .. .. ... . . ...... ................... ............. .... ...... ................ ...... .... ......... .............. ..... . ....... ................... ......... Use convolution to ¯nd the zero-state (or driven) response of the RC circuit on page 41 to a rectangular input pulse vg (t) = V0 [u(t)¡u(t¡T )]......................... . ... ..Relationship Between the Two RC Circuits + . Observe that the circuit on page 41 is a special case of the circuit on page 38...... C ha (t) ±(t) ¡ ¡ ....... Therefore.. .. ..... . ............. . ...... ² ² + hb (t) R ² ¡ In the lab. ... ............ .... ........... 2................... ....... and obtain the two step responses (30) and (42) by integrating the corresponding impulse responses (31) and (43)................... ... .... .............. .................... . ... ..... ........... ... ....... .............................. since d h(t) = s(t) dt () 45 s(t) = Zt ¡1 h(¿ ) d¿: ... ...... Kirchho®'s voltage law clearly shows the simple relationship that is displayed by comparing (30) and (42) and by comparing (31) and (43)......... . Then we see that the output of circuit (a) is the voltage across C and the output of circuit (b) is the voltage across R..... .... ....................................... .......... ............ .................. ............ R vg (t) + ¡ C + vb (t) vg (t) = va (t) + vb (t) ¡ ±(t) = ha (t) + hb (t) + va (t) u(t) = sa (t) + sb (t) ¡ Homework Problems 1................... simply connect R and C in series and hang the series leg across the output terminals of a (ideal?) voltage source....... ............ .. ... ... ........... ................ ..... ... ............................ 3............................................... ...... show for yourself that the response (29) is the corresponding special case of the response (19)... .............................. .................... . ... .................. ...... ........................... ...... ............ Go backwards.. ................ ....... ............. ................ ....... .................................................... ..................... ... .... ....... .... ............ ................ ....

. ....... .... . ..... ...... . ..... ............ ... .... ... . ..... ...... ... ....... .. ... . ....... ....... .. . . .... ....... . . ... .... . .... ..... .. .. . . ... The system step response is a \zero-state" response: No energy is initially stored in the system prior to the onset of the exciting Heaviside step function that turns on at t = 0........... ..... .. .... ... . .... . . . ...... ........ .... ................. .. .... ..... . ... ...... ............ .. .... .. .. ... .. .. ... ..... .. ..... ....... . .. .... . .. ............. .. .. ..... .. .. .. .. ................. ............... . .... . ..... ........ .......... ... .... ......... ... ..... . .. . .. ........ .. . + v (t) ¡ L ² i(t) vg (t) + C + ¡ R ² vR (t) ¡ Fig.. .. ...... ... .. . .. .. .. ... ........ ...... . ... ..... . .. ........ ......... ......... ... . 1.. ......... ... .......... ................ ....... .. ............... .. . .. .. . ....... .......... . ..... .. ....... ........... ........ ..... . .. . .. ... ..... .. . . ...... .. .. ... ..... . .. .... .... ..... ........... ...... .. ....... .......... .. ....... .. ... ..... .. . ... ........ . ......... .... ..... . . ... .. ............... .. .... ... ...... ...... ...... .... .. . ... ........... ...... . ....... ................... .... ................... .. .... ............ .. .. . ......... . ... ... .... .... .. ........... . ...... .. ............. ..... ... . ..... . . .. ..... .... . . .. ... .... . ... ....... ............ ...... . ... .... ......... ..... ......... .... ......... . ........ ........ ... .... ................ . ...... .. ... .. ... . ...... ..... ......... ............ . .......... . ......... . .............. . ................ .. ........ ... .. .. . .................... ..... let vg (t) = V0 u(t) 46 (1) ... .. ...... ..... ................ .. ....... ..... ... ..... .... . 2.... .. .. .... ..... ...... System block diagram... ............ .... . .. .. . ... . .......... ... . ..... .... ..... .... . ..... .... .. ... ... ... .. ..... ..... ... ...... ....... ......... ..... ......... ... ... ........ ......... ... ........ . .. .. ........ .... ................Step and Impulse Response of Series RLC Circuit .... ... ....... .. ... ... . .. vg (t) = x(t) .. . ..... .... . .. .. Circuit layout....... . . .... . y(t) = Ri(t) Fig.. . .... .. .... ............... .. .. ... .. ........ .. .... ..... .. ..... ... .. . ......... . ...... ... .. ............... ...... ......... ....... ... . ... ...... .. ....... ... ........... ... .. . .. .. ...... ......... ..... .... ..... ................... . ..... ... ... .............. ................ ...... . ... ......... ............. ...... ... .... ... ... ..... For de¯niteness and to keep track of the physical units.. . . ... .............. .. ... .. .... ......... ...... . ...... . . . .. . .. ..... ........ ....... .... . .. ..... .. .. .. ..... ... .. ........... ........... .... . .. .. ..... ...... .. . .................. ..... .. .. ..... ... .. . ....... ..... ..... ... .......... .. ... ... ... ....... ...... .. ... .... C .. . ... ...... ...... .. . ..............

the resulting second-order di®erential equation di(t) d2 i(t) 1 +R (8) + i(t) = vg0 (t) 2 dt dt C now requires two initial conditions for a complete (unique) solution. the unique solution of equation (6). starts o® at zero vC (0+ ) = 0. If we di®erentiate (6) once to eliminate the integral operator. Evaluation of (6) at time t = 0+ is Li0 (0+ ) + Ri(0+ ) + vC (0+ ) = vg (0+ ): (9) L The capacitor voltage. With the forcing function vg (t) known. X i0 (0+ ) = 47 (11) . The physics of the circuit dictates i(0+ ) = 0. then its voltage must be a continuous function as in iC (t) = C vC (0+ ) = vC (0¡ ): (5) The equation-of-motion for the series circuit of Fig. and hence vL (t) = L i(0+ ) = i(0¡ ): (4) Similarly. (6) ¡1 an integrodi®erential equation in the unknown series current i(t). 1 is Kirchho®'s voltage law Zt di(t) 1 + Ri(t) + L dt C i(¿ ) d¿ = vg (t). Since the instantaneous energy stored in the inductor and capacitor at time t are wL (t) = 12 Li2 (t) 2 wC (t) = 12 CvC (t). if the capacitor current dvC (t) dt is to be bounded. then its current must be a continuous function of time. before we di®erentiated. This second initial condition was already contained in (6). and (2) respectively. whose highest derivative term is of degree one. (10) so that together with (1) and (7). statement (9) gives V0 : L Note that the dimensions are consistent in that (A/s) = (V/H). requires the speci¯cation of one initial condition. zero initial (at time t = 0¡ ) energy storage requires i(0¡ ) = 0 vC (0¡ ) = 0: and (3) If the inductor voltage di(t) dt is to be bounded.with the (real) constant V0 being the amplitude of the exciting step function. from (3) and (5). (7) from (3) and (4).

Homogeneous constant-coe±cient linear ordinary di®erential equations (LODE's) are particularly easy to solve. but even begs for physical interpretation. then our symbols and formulas and solution will be in a form that not only allows. Of course. L d2 i(t) di(t) 1 + i(t) = V0 ±(t): +R 2 dt dt C (15) That looks troublesome. Instead. and C by in a manner that anticipates the solution. I believe. say of the form i(t) = exp(rt) where two such linearly independent forms (i.The proper formulation of the above initial value problem. are required in our case of a second-order equation. the excitation of a nonzero response has to come from an explicit input. we want to let each step in our solution be guided by the physics that the mathematics represents. but if we stay away from t = 0. the forcing function on the right-hand side of (12) is a Dirac-delta function. but note that initial condition (14) has information about the original source in the circuit. it is expedient to condense the notation and in fact. If there is no initial energy storage to drive the \dead" circuit. especially stating the correct number (two) and type of initial conditions (on the current and its derivative). required our detailed understanding of the electrophysics embodied in the circuit. no one could truly do this in advance if they had not already solved the problem (or read someone else's solution). since the solutions are exponentials. But that's not the point: We choose the best path because it draws attention to what is important and because it is e±cient and 48 . If we do this right. but that is not the view we will take. L. And our input (1) is proportional to the constant V0 that explicitly appears in the nonzero (\nonhomogeneous") initial condition (14). combine the element values R. In one view the ensuing construction of the solution to the di®erential equation may seem like a pure exercise in mathematics. Before proceeding. then the delta function is zero and our equation is homogeneous L di(t) 1 d2 i(t) + R + i(t) = 0 dt2 dt C (t > 0): (16) It looks as though the homogeneous di®erential equation (16) has lost the source.e.e. Let's restate our initial value problem: L 1 di(t) d2 i(t) + i(t) = vg0 (t) +R 2 dt dt C i(0+ ) = 0 i0 (0+ ) = (12) (13) V0 : L (14) Since our voltage generator is vg (t) = V0 u(t). two di®erent r values). i. so that our mathematics will be e±cient and keep us in touch with the important physics that is our quest.

Under-damped circuit. Firstly.2 q = ¡® § ®2 ¡ !02 : (20) Two distinct possibilities exist: The case of an over-damped circuit having ® > !0 and an under-damped circuit when ® < !0 . normalize (16) so that the coe±cient of the highest derivative is unity 1 d2 i(t) R di(t) + i(t) = 0 + dt2 L dt LC and then introduce constants 1 LC (17) d2 i(t) di(t) + 2® + !02 i(t) = 0: 2 dt dt (18) ®= to write R 2L and !02 = Insertion of i(t) = exp(rt) into (18) gives £ 2 ¤ r + 2®r + !02 ert = 0. Or. introduce yet another parameter (constant) q ¯ = + !02 ¡ ®2 (21) so that the two roots (20) are a complex-conjugate pair r1.because it works.2 = ¡® § j¯: (22) The solution to the homogeneous di®erential equation (18) is a linear combination £ ¤ i(t) = K1 er1 t + K2 er2 t = K1 e¡(®¡j¯)t + K2 e¡(®+j¯)t = e¡®t K1 e¡j¯t + K2 e+j¯t = e¡®t [A cos(¯t) + B sin(¯t)] : (23) It is critically important to recognize that a linear combination of exp(§jx) is equivalent to a (di®erent) linear combination of cos x and sin x. it can be constructed directly. the 49 . we arrive at the characteristic polynomial for the two roots r2 + 2®r + !02 = 0: (19) The quadratic formula provides the two roots immediately r1. Although either form is ¯ne. and since the exponential cannot equal zero. and can be obtained from either of the other two cases in the limit as ® ! !0 . If ® < !0 . The case when ® = !0 is called critically-damped.

then the nondimensional input/output signals are R ¡®t x(t) = u(t) and y(t) = s(t) = e sin(¯t)u(t): (32) ¯L The response to the Heaviside unit step function is called the step response. and is denoted here as s(t). so that when the input vg (t) is regarded as x(t) = V0 u(t). 2 is the voltage vR (t) = Ri(t). with attention drawn to its \turned-on" nature.trig form is better here because it facilitates the application of initial conditions. i(t) = V0 ¡®t e sin(¯t)u(t): ¯L (29) Note that the dimensions of ® and ¯ are both (s¡1 ) and that the dimensions of the product ¯L are (H/s= −). The derivative of the convolution z(t) = f (t) ~ g(t) = Z1 ¡1 f (¿ )g(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ = 50 Z1 ¡1 g(¿ )f (t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ (33) . Initial condition (13) gives i(0) = A = 0 (24) immediately! The derivative of the remaining form is i(t) = Be¡®t sin(¯t) (25) £ ¤ i0 (t) = Be¡®t ¯ cos(¯t) ¡ ® sin(¯t) (26) i0 (0) = ¯B: (27) which has initial value Initial condition (14) is now V0 L and the complete solution to the initial value problem is (28) ¯B = i(t) = V0 ¡®t e sin(¯t) ¯L (t > 0) or. The signal that is regarded as the output in the linear system diagram of Fig. (30) the output is y(t) = RV0 ¡®t e sin(¯t)u(t): ¯L (31) If we normalize both signals by the amplitude V0 . so that the current is in (A).

..... .. .. .... ... ........... .. ....... .... .....is z 0 (t) = f 0 (t) ~ g(t) = f (t) ~ g 0 (t): (34) Therefore.... .. ....... . . ... .... ....... .......... . . ..... .... ....... .... . ............. .... .... ... . ... . . .. .... . .... ... . .. . ...... .. ..... ..... . .. ........ ... ... Normalized step response of underdamped RLC circuit..... ... .........25 0..... ...... ..... ............. .. ... .. ........ . ... .......... .. ..... .................. ....... ... ....... ...... ... . ... .... ............. ...... .. .. . .. ...... Sold curve: ®=¯ = 0:1.... . . ... .. . .............. ..... ....50 ¯L s(t) R 0...... .... ..... ...... ...... .. .... ....... ..... ..... . . ..... ....... 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 ¯t Fig 2. .. ... . . ...00 0..... ...... ...... . ...... .. . ...... ......... .......... ....... . . ... . . .... ............ . .......... . . ... ...... .. .. ........ .............. .. .. ................ .......75 0......... .. .... ... ... ..... as are the units of ±(t)..... ........... ............. . .. ...... . . 1 is therefore ¸ · R ¡®t ® h(t) = e cos(¯t) ¡ sin(¯t) : L ¯ (36) Note that the units of h(t) are (s¡1 )... 1. ..... .. .... .. ... ........ . .. .. ..... . ....00 ¡0:25 ¡0:50 ¡0:75 ... ........ . ... .. ... ..... ......... . .. ..... ..... ........... .. . . ....... .. .. .. ......... ................ ... .... ...... .... .............. . .. ... .. ..... ..... ............. the system impulse response is the derivative of its step response h(t) = s0 (t): (35) The impulse response of the RLC circuit of Fig... .. ... ..... . .... .... ...... ...... . . . . ..... ..... .. ..... ... .... . .. ..... ...... ..... .. Dashed curve: ®=¯ = 0:5 51 18 20 .. .... ...... ... . ........ ... . .... .... . .. ..... ....... .. ............ ............. .... .. . ..

(37) (38) we see that 0 < ®1 < ®2 and the solution to the homogeneous di®erential equation (16) can be written as the linear combination i(t) = k1 e¡®1 t + k2 e¡®2 t (t > 0): (39) Initial condition (13) is i(0+ ) = 0 so that k2 = ¡k1 and therefore £ ¤ i(t) = k1 e¡®1 t ¡ e¡®2 t : (40) £ ¤ i0 (t) = k1 ®2 e¡®2 t ¡ ®1 e¡®1 t (41) The required derivative is and at time t = 0+ this must be £ ¤ V0 i0 (0+ ) = k1 ®2 ¡ ®1 = L and therefore (42) V0 : (®2 ¡ ®1 )L (43) £ ¡®1 t ¤ V0 e ¡ e¡®2 t u(t) (®2 ¡ ®1 )L (44) k1 = The solution for the current is now i(t) = and the nondimensional step response is s(t) = £ ¡®1 t ¤ R e ¡ e¡®2 t u(t): (®2 ¡ ®1 )L 52 (45) . so with r1 = ¡®1 q with ®1 = ® ¡ ®2 ¡ !02 and r2 = ¡®2 with ®2 = ® + q ®2 ¡ !02 .Over-damped circuit. then both roots of the characteristic quadratic polynomial (19) are real. If ® > !0 .

.............. ................ .. .............. ..... ... L..........) Use MATLAB to compare graphs of h(t) with y(t) for several values of the pulse-width T ................ ....... ...... .... ................... ...................... .................. ....................... .................................................... .............. .................. ........................... . .................................. .. .......... ......... L ² ² C ±(t) ² R + ................... . .... ... ..... . .. ... .................................Homework....................... .................. ..... repeated root.... ....... . ....................................... ha (t) ............................ ...... .......................... .. ....... .... ... ............... ....... . .... . .................................................................. .................... ......... and C... .......... how small does T have to be so that the response y(t) of a system to the pulse x(t) is a good approximation to the true system impulse response h(t) ? Consider the underdamped RLC circuit with parameters ® and ¯.................. specifying the circuit element values R.... .............. ² R ±(t) ¡ + C ±(t) ¡ ¡ ¡ + + .... .... ..................... hb (t) R ² ....... ...... ...... ............. ... .......... ...................... ..... ..... ...... ..... .. and in fact more illuminating than.......... ........... Given that a (scaled) rectangular pulse 1 x(t) = ¦ T μ ¶ t T behaves as the Dirac-delta function in the limit as T ! 0........................... ................................ ................ ....... . Homework Exercises.................... ...................... ...................... ....... .......... ..................... .... + ............. ................. ................ ............ .......... .............. .................. ....................................................... ............................ The important parameter(s) of the problem should be nondimensional... ... ² + ............... ......................... Find the step and impulse responses of the series RLC circuit that is critically damped: when ® = !0 and the characteristic quadratic polynomaial has a single. ....... ...... . .................. ............. ....... ........ ... ...... Find the impulse response of these four circuits..... ....... ........ ....... ............... ...... .......... .................. ......................... ...................... .. .. ..... (Note that specifying ® and ¯ is equivalent to.. ................... ........ ... ² L hc (t) ±(t) ¡ ¡ What is the relationship between ha (t) and hb (t) ? + ¡ + hd (t) R ² ¡ Between ha (t) and hd (t) ? Homework... ........................................ . .... . ........................... ........ .. .. ........ .................................................................. ..... ............ .. 53 ........

........... ........ .. ...0 0.............. ..... ...... ..... ............ . . .......... .... .. .... ......... .. ... ......... ...... .. . . ......... .8 0..... .4 0. ... ....... ........ .............. . .... . ..... ... ...... ... .. ............ .. ............. .. .. .......... .....Evaluation of an Important Integral via the Laplace Transform 1..... . ..0 ¡0:2 ¡0:4 . . . . .... . ........... .. . ... ...... . . .............. ... ....... ......... ...... ... ................. . .. .... .. ........ ......... .. .. ................. ......... ......... ... .. ¡6¼ ¡4¼ ¡2¼ 0 2¼ 4¼ 6¼ x · ¸ 1 2n+1 sin(x) 1X 1 x3 x5 n x sinc(x) ..... ......... .... . . .... ..... .... .... ........ ..... ... ............. .... .......... ........... ....... . ... .... . ... ...... . ............ .. . .... . .. . ... . ....... .......... ....... ..... ...... ........... . . ... .. .. . ... ...... .. ..2 0.... ... .. . ..... .... ................ .. ... ..... .. = (¡1) = x¡ + ¡ ::: x x n=0 (2n + 1)! x 3! 5! · ¸ x2 x4 = 1¡ + ¡ ::: 3! 5! sin(x) =1 x!0 x sinc(0) = lim sinc(¡x) = sinc(x) We want to show that Z1 is even sin(x) dx = ¼: x (1) (2) (3) (4) ¡1 Since sinc(x) is even... .... . .................... . .. . .. ...... ..... ..... . .. ... .. ....... .... . ..... ..... .. observe that Z1 sin(x) dx = 2 x ¡1 Z1 0 54 sin(x) dx: x (5) ..... . ........ .. . ........ ......... ... ....... ........ ... .... ...... . ...........................6 sin(x) x 0. ...... ... . ........ ...... ...... ..... .... ..... . .. ....... ....

Zt sin(¿ ) d¿: ¿ (7) 0 We will use the following Laplace transform properties. If you don't know one. or you can use a symbolic mathematical tool such as MAPLE. or you can use a web-based integrator4 )." Our desired integral (half of it!) is the ¯nal value of Si(t). x (6) 0 called the \sine integral. Zt sin(x) dx.Our approach is to ¯nd the Laplace transform of the function Si(t) . If L[f (t)] = F (s). Although not important for our purposes. Consider y = tan(x) so that dy d sin(x) = = 1 + tan2 (x) dx dx cos(x) 4 If you know one. ¯nd one! 55 . Perhaps it is helpful to write Si(t) using ¿ as the dummy variable of integration Si(t) . then · ¸ Z1 f (t) L = F (¸) d¸ t (8) 2 t 3 Z F (s) L 4 f (¿ ) d¿ 5 = s (9) s 0 lim f (t) = lim sF (s) t!1 ¯nal value theorem s!0 (10) The Laplace transform of g(t) = sin(t)u(t) (11) 1 : +1 (12) is G(s) = s2 The Laplace transform of h(t) = g(t) = sinc(t)u(t) t is then H(s) = Z1 d¸ : +1 ¸2 (13) (14) s This integral can be found in a table (say in your calculus book. let's do it ourselves just for fun. that is Si(1). tell the class.

.. . .... .... ......... ....... ... .. ...... ....... . ... ...... .. ....... .. . ... .. ........ .. . ... ... . ..... . ....... ...Z Z1 s dy 1 + y2 dy = dx 1 + y2 Z = dx = x = tan¡1 (y) dy ¼ = tan¡1 (1) ¡ tan¡1 (s) = ¡ tan¡1 (s) = tan¡1 (1=s) 2 1+y 2 ..... . ... .. . . . .. .... .. .. . ...... .. ... . . . .... . . . . . .. ....... . .. .. . . . . ...... ..... ... .. .. .. . ......... ....... .... . ... . . ... .... .... . .. . .. ........ ... . ........ .. . .. ........ . . . . . ... . ...... . . .. ..... . . ... ..... .. .. .. .. . . . . ... . .... . ..... . ... . .............. .. .. . ..... . ... .. .. ...... .. . ....... ¼=2 ¡ μ tan¡1 (s) + tan¡1 (1=s) = s ¼ 2 μ 1 Therefore the Laplace transform of h(t) = sinc(t)u(t) is H(s) = tan¡1 (1=s): (15) The Laplace transform of f (t) = Si(t) = Zt sinc(¿ ) d¿ (16) 0 is now F (s) = tan¡1 (1=s) s (17) and the ¯nal value theorem gives Si(1) = f (1) = lim sF (s) = lim tan¡1 (1=s) = s!0 s!0 56 ¼ : ¥ 2 (18) . .. ....... ..

This Fourier integral satis¯es the de¯nition of the Dirac-delta (distribution or generalized function): 1 2¼ Z1 ej!t d! = ±(t): (1) ¡1 Given the integral Z1 sin x dx = ¼. o. x (2) ¡1 Dirichlet's discontinuous integral falls out Z1 ¡1 sin ®x dx = ¼ sgn(®) = §¼ x (® ? 0): (3) Integrate the left hand side of (1) from a to b: Zb a 1 2¼ Z1 j!t e ¡1 1 = 2¼ 1 d! dt = 2¼ Z1 · ¡1 Z1 Zb ¡1 a sin b! sin a! ¡ ! ! j!t e ¸ 1 dt d! = 2¼ Z1 ejb! ¡ eja! d! j! ¡1 1 d! = [¼ sgn(b) ¡ ¼ sgn(a)] = 2¼ This is the sampling property of ±(t) ¤: 57 ½ 1.w.Proposition (Spectral form of the Dirac-delta). (4) . a < 0 < b 0.

We can easily demonstrate the legitimacy of the Fourier transform pair by taking the inverse transform of the forward transform 2 3 Z1 Z1 n £ o ¤ 1 4 F ¡1 F f (t) = f (¿ )e¡j!¿ d¿ 5 ej!t d! 2¼ ¡1 ¡1 {z } | F (!) = Z1 ¡1 = Z1 ¡1 f (¿ ) Z1 1 ej!(t¡¿ ) d! d¿ 2¼ ¡1 | {z } ±(¿ ¡t) f (¿ )±(¿ ¡ t) d¿ = f (t): 58 .Fourier Transform F (!) = F[f (t)] = Z1 1 f (t) = F ¡1 [F (!)] = 2¼ F f (t)e¡j!t dt () ¡1 Z1 F (!)ej!t d! ¡1 ¯ 1 ¯ ¯Z ¯ Z1 Z1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯f (t)e¡j!t ¯ dt = ¯f (t)¯ dt f (t)e¡j!t dt¯¯ · ¯ ¯ ¯ ¡1 ¡1 ¡1 Therefore a su±cient (not necessary) condition for the existence of F (!) is the absolute integrability of f (t) Z1 ¯ ¯ ¯f (t)¯ dt < 1: ¡1 Note that the zero frequency value of the Fourier transform (or spectrum) F (0) = Z1 f (t) dt ¡1 is the DC or \average value" of the signal f (t).

f (t) = Ae¡®t Gaussian signal \and it is a trick" 6. !0 =2¼ = 1250 (kHz) and m(t) = \Your Cheatin' Heart" 11.Fourier Transform Exercises Find an expression for the Fourier transform of the following time-domain signals. f (t) = sinc(®t) 12. f (t) = C constant 4. decaying exponential (a > 0) 1.e. f (t) = t¦(t=T ) 14. f (t) = e¡at u(t) causal. f (t) = sgn(t) a = ¼±(!) + !2 signum (or signature or sign) function 10. f (t) = u(t) Heaviside unit-step function (why is this one so hard?) hint: write u(t) = lim e¡at u(t) and note lim a!0 a2 a!0 9. f (t) = A ±(t ¡ nT ) Woodward's comb function g(t ¡ kT ) periodic replication where F[g(t)] = G(!) 1 P k=¡1 ¦[(t ¡ kT )=¿ ] rectangular pulse train 59 . f (t) = ±(t ¡ t0 ) delayed Dirac impulse 2 5. f (t) = e¡®jtj ½ ¾ cos 7. f (t) = B¤(t=T ) triangular pulse 3. f (t) = D combT (t) = D 1 P n=¡1 15. f (t) = ¦(t=T ) ~ sgn(t) 13. f (t) = A¦(t=T ) rectangular pulse 2. f (t) = m(t) cos(!0 t) AM modulated signal i. f (t) = 1 P k=¡1 16. and sketch BOTH f (t) and F (!): 0. f (t) = (!0 t) sin 8.

duality 6. time delay 7. frequency translation F j!F (!) d F (!) d! f (¿ ) d¿ ¼F (0)±(!) + ¡1 60 1 F (!) j! .Fourier Series f (t) = a0 + 1 X cn ejn!0 t (!0 = 2¼=T ) n=¡1 n=1 1 a0 = T 1 X [an cos n!0 t + bn sin n!0 t] = tZ 0 +T ½ f (t) dt an bn ¾ 2 = T t0 tZ 0 +T f (t) ½ cos sin ¾ (n!0 t) dt t0 1 cn = T tZ 0 +T f (t)e¡jn!0 t dt t0 Fourier Transform F (!) = F[f (t)] = Z1 ¡j!t f (t)e ¡1 Properties 1. time scale 5. convolution dt () f (t) = F Signal 3. superposition 2. integration Rt ¡1 c1 F1 (!) + c2 F2 (!) F (!)G(!) 1 F (!) ~ G(!) 2¼ f (t)g(t) ¡jtf (t) F (!)ej!t d! F (! ¡ !0 ) f (t) ~ g(t) 9. time di®erentiation ¡1 Transform c1 f1 (t) + c2 f2 (t) 4. frequency di®erentiation Z1 2¼f (¡!) f (t)ej!0 t df (t) dt 1 [F (!)] = 2¼ e¡j!t0 F (!) 1 ³!´ F j®j ® f (t ¡ t0 ) 8. multiplication f (®t) F (t) 10.

frequency di®erentiation nx[n] 6. time delay 1 X x[n]z ¡n n=¡1 Signal Transform c1 x1 [n] + c2 x2 [n] z ¡m X(z) x[n ¡ m] 3. modulation x[n]³ n 4. superposition 2.Z1 ¡1 1 jf (t)j dt = 2¼ Z1 2 F u(t) () F ¦(t=¿ ) () ¿ 1 + ¼±(!) j! sin(!¿ =2) = ¿ sinc(!¿ =2) !¿ =2 F sinc(¯t) () F combT (t) () ¡1 jF (!)j2 d! ¼ ¦(!=2¯) ¯ 2¼ comb2¼=T (!) T Z-Transform Zfx[n]g = X(z) = Properties 1. accumulation n P c1 X1 (z) + c2 X2 (z) X(z=³) X(z)Y (z) d X(z) dz 1 X(z) 1 ¡ z ¡1 ¡z x[k] k=¡1 61 . convolution x[n] ~ y[n] 5.

F (s) 0 property t-domain linearity ®f (t) + ¯g(t) s-domain ®F (s) + ¯G(s) e¡st0 F (s) f (t ¡ t0 )u(t ¡ t0 ) time delay time scaling 1 ® F (s=®) f (®t) exponential modulation e¡®t f (t) time di®erentiation df (t)=dt time integration time integration s-domain di®erentiation sF (s) ¡ f (0) s2 F (s) ¡ sf (0) ¡ f 0 (0) F (s)=s F (s)=s + ¡dF (s)=ds R1 F (¸) d¸ s tf (t) division by t f (t)=t t-domain convolution f (t) ~ g(t) F (s)G(s) Initial value theorem lim f (t) = lim sF (s) t!0 s!1 lim f (t) = lim sF (s) Final value theorem t!1 s!0 Short Table of Laplace Transforms (s = ¾ + j!) ±(t) u(t) e¡at u(t) te¡at u(t) tn u(t) cos(®t)u(t) sin(®t)u(t) (® > 0) F (s + ®) d2 f (t)=dt2 Rt f (¿ ) d¿ 0 Rt f (¿ ) d¿ ¡1 reprise (t0 ¸ 0) 1 1 s 1 s+a 1 (s + a)2 n! n+1 s s 2 s + ®2 ® 2 s + ®2 62 (8s) (¾ > 0) (¾ > ¡Re[a]) (¾ > ¡Re[a]) (¾ > 0) (¾ > 0) (¾ > 0) 1 s R0 ¡1 f (t) dt .Lff (t)g = F (s) = Z1 f (t)e¡st dt is the transform pair L f (t) .

r. ! gives dF (!) = ¡2 d! Z1 2 te¡®t sin !t dt: 0 Integration by parts 5 \And Z u dv = uv ¡ it is a trick!" 63 Z v du p ¼: . The trick5 to derive this is to consider Z1 2 I = ¡x2 e dx ¡1 Z1 ¡y 2 e Z1 Z1 dy = ¡1 e¡(x 2 +y 2 ) dx dy: ¡1 ¡1 Conversion to polar coordinates via x = r cos Á and y = r sin Á gives 2 I = Z2¼Z1 0 ¡r2 e μ ¶ 1 =¼ r dr dÁ = (2¼) 2 and so I= 0 Our desired Fourier integral is F (!) = Z1 ¡®t2 ¡j!t e e dt = 2 Z 1 2 e¡®t cos !t dt 0 ¡1 since f (¡t) = f (t) is even. Di®erentiation w. so here is a classical derivation that uses nothing more than integration-by-parts and a simple ¯rst order di®erential equation. ® If f (t) = exp[¡®t2 ] This one is a bit involved to show.t. A preliminary integral Z1 I= 2 e¡x dx = p ¼ ¡1 is required. especially without complex variable theory. But it's so pervasive in signal analysis and communications that we use it almost daily.Fourier Transform of the Gaussian r ¼ then F (!) = exp[¡! 2 =4®].

... .... . . . . ... . ........ ........ .. . . ..... . .. .. .. ... . . ..... . . .. ....... ....... . . . . . .. . . . .. .. .... ...... .. . .... . . .. .. . . .. . .... .... . ... ... ... ... .... ....... .. ..... ... ..... . ... ..... .... . .. . . .......... . ......... . . . ......... .... .. . .0 0. .. . .. ... . . ... .. .. . . . . ... .... . .. .. . ... ... ........... . .. . . ... .. ... ...... ... . .. ...... ...8 0. .. . . . ... .... .. .. .. .. .0 0...... ... .. ... .0 .... ...... ... . ... . .... . .. .. ......... . . ..... .... ... .. . ..4 0.. . .2 0.. . ..... .............. .... .. dashed curves: ® = 2 f (t) 1. ... ... . . .. . . ... . . .... . ..... .. ... . .... .. . .with u = sin !t du = ! cos !t dt 2 e¡®t v= ® ¡®t2 dv = ¡2te gives ¯1 Z ¯ ! 1 ¡®t2 1 ¡®t2 dF (!) ¯ sin !t¯ ¡ e cos !t dt = e d! ® ® 0 t=0 or dF (!) ! = ¡ F (!) d! 2® dF (!) d! = ¡ ! F (!) 2® d ! ln F (!) = ¡ d! 2® 2 ! +C ln F (!) = ¡ 4® F (!) = eC e¡! Z1 C e = F (0) = 2 =4® ¡®t2 e dt = r ¼ ® ¡1 F (!) = r ¼ ¡!2 =4® e ® solid curves: ® = 1. ... . ..... . .6 0... ... ... . ... ... .. .. . ... . . .... . . ¡3 ¡2 ¡1 0 1 2 1. . ........ . . .. .. .. .. ..... .. .. . .. . . . .............. ... ... . . . ... .. ..... ...5 1.. ... . . ......... ....... . .. .. . ... .. .. ... . .. . . ... . . .... .. . . .. . ... .. .. . . ... ..... ...... ... . .. . . .. . . . ...... .... ...... . .. ...... .. .. .... ... .. .. ... .. . .. .. .. . . . . .. .. .. . ............ .... . ... . ... .. ... . ..... .. ... . .. .. ... . .0 F (!) 2. .5 0... . ....0 .. ..... .... . . . . . ... . . .... ...... .. ¡8 ¡6 ¡4 ¡2 0 ! 3 t 64 2 4 6 8 . ... ... . ..

so the truth of (1) is veri¯ed. 65 . Recall or note that the periodic signal cos(!0 t) is not absolutely integrable.Fourier Transform of the Heaviside Unit Step Function F (!) = F[f (t)] = Z1 ¡j!t f (t)e F () dt ¡1 f (t) = F ¡1 1 [F (!)] = 2¼ Z1 F (!)ej!t d! ¡1 Recall that a su±cient (but not necessary) condition for the Fourier transform F (!) of a signal f (t) to exist is that the signal be absolutely integrable. ®!0 ® + ! 2 The integral ® ¼ Z1 ¡1 d! 1 = 2 2 ® +! ¼ Z1 ¡1 ¯1 ¯ dx 1 ¼=2 ¡ (¡¼=2) ¡1 ¯ = tan (x) = =1 ¯ 2 1+x ¼ ¼ x=¡1 gives unity independently of ®. and its spectrum consists of Dirac-deltas 2 1 3 Z1 j!0 t Z Z1 ¡j!0 t e +e 1 e¡j!t dt = 4 F[cos(!0 t)] = e¡j(!¡!0 )t dt + e¡j(!+!0 )t dt5 2 2 ¡1 ¡1 ¡1 ¤ £ = ¼ ±(! ¡ !0 ) + ±(! + !0 ) : Two preliminary formulae or ideas: First: lim ®=¼ = ±(!) + !2 ®!0 ®2 (1) This is the Cauchy or Lorentz Dirac-delta sequence (that we already studied back on page 7). Clearly ®=¼ lim 2 = 0 if ! 6 = 0. that is Z1 ¡1 jf (t)j dt < 1: The Heaviside unit step function is not absolutely integrable Z1 ¡1 ju(t)j dt = Z1 dt ¥ 1 0 and therefore we might anticipate that its Fourier transform will be both di±cult to evaluate and exhibit singular behavior.

66 (F) . Although the restriction ® > 0 enabled us to evaluate the Fourier transform of the decaying exponential. That is £ ¤ F[u(t)] = lim F e¡®t u(t) = lim 1 : ®!0 ® + j! ®!0 Rewrite 1 ® ¡ j! ® ¡j! = = 2 + 2 2 ® + j! (® + j!)(® ¡ j!) ® +! ® + !2 so that F[u(t)] = lim ®!0 ®2 ® ¡j! 1 + lim 2 = ¼±(!) + 2 2 ®!0 ® + ! +! j! from (1) and (2) above. Therefore the only possibility is K = 0 and the truth of (2) is established. let's try to get our desired Fourier transform of the plain Heaviside unit-step by taking the limit of the above result as ® ! 0.Rewrite it as ¡j! 1 = 2 +! j! lim Second: (2) ®!0 ®2 1 1 = 2 ®!0 j![1 + (®=!) ] j! lim which is clearly true if ! 6 = 0. decaying exponential ¤ £ 1 (® > 0): F e¡®t u(t) = ® + j! The condition that ® > 0 is necessary to ensure convergence of the integral. One of our ¯rst examples (or exercises) of Fourier integral evaluations was the causal. by making the time-domain function decay su±ciently fast as t ! 1. The only other possibility is that our limit also has a Dirac-delta at the origin of strength or weight K 1 1 = + K±(!): ®!0 j![1 + (®=!)2 ] j! lim Integrate both sides of this from ! = ¡² to ! = +² 1 j Z² d! ![1 + (®=!)2 ] ¡² = Z² 1 j d! ! + ¡² K Z² ±(!) d! ¡² and observe that the integral on the left side and the ¯rst integral on the right side vanish because of the odd symmetry of their integrands.

dt we have the correct transform · ¸ 1 F[±(t)] = j! ¼±(!) + = 1: j! Using the convolution property of the Fourier transform F[f (t) ~ g(t)] = F (!)G(!) and the integral identity Zt f (¿ ) d¿ = f (t) ~ u(t).Since 2u(t) = 1 + sgn(t) we now have the Fourier transform of the signum function as · ¸ 2 1 F[sgn(t)] = 2F[u(t)] ¡ F[1] = 2 ¼±(!) + ¡ 2¼±(!) = : j! j! With F[u(t)] = ¼±(!) + 1 j! then by the time-di®erentiation property of the Fourier transform · ¸ df (t) F = j!F[f (t)] dt where ±(t) = du(t) . ¡1 we have the Fourier transform of the integral as 2 F4 Zt ¡1 3 · ¸ 1 F (!) f (¿ ) d¿ 5 = F (!) ¼±(!) + = ¼F (0)±(!) + : j! j! 67 .

Duality Property of the Fourier Transform Recall our notation for the Fourier transform F (!) = F[f (t)] = Z1 ¡j!t f (t)e ¡1 F dt () f (t) = F ¡1 1 [F (!)] = 2¼ Z1 F (!)ej!t d!: ¡1 For our duality property. we want the Fourier transform of some signal F (t): F[F (t)] = Z1 F (t)e¡j!t dt: (1) ¡1 The fact that our time domain signal is a \big" F of t means that we interpret our big F as related to some \little" f via a direct Fourier transform F (x) = Z1 f (»)e¡jx» d» (2) ¡1 and therefore the particular little f that must have spawned our big F must be Z1 1 f (») = 2¼ F (x)ejx» dx: (3) ¡1 According to (2). e¡j!t dt: (5) Reverse the orders of the » and t integrations F[F (t)] = Z1 ¡1 2 f (») 4 | Z1 ¡1 3 e¡j(»+!)t dt5 d» {z } recognize as 2¼±(»+!) 68 (6) . we can also write F (t) = Z1 f (»)e¡jt» d» (4) ¡1 and insertion of this into (1) yields F[F (t)] = 8 Z1 < Z1 ¡1 : f (»)e¡jt» d» ¡1 9 = .

T sinc(!T =2). Consider a function ª(x) related to a given function Á(u) through the direct Fourier transform operator ª(x) = Z1 Á(u)e¡jux du: (12) ¡1 Consider a second function Ã(x) related to our given function Á(u) through the inverse Fourier transform operator Z1 1 Ã(x) = Á(u)ejux du: (13) 2¼ ¡1 Observe that ª(x) = 2¼Ã(¡x).and so F[F (t)] = 2¼ Z1 f (»)±(» + !) d» = 2¼f (¡!): (7) ¡1 Our desired duality property of the Fourier transform is here F[F (t)] = 2¼f (¡!) where F f (t) . Now T is just a remnant parameter from the original pair (8). F (!) is the notation for the original Fourier transform pair F[f (t)] = F (!). Since we already know the Fourier transform pair μ ¶ t F ¦ . If we know the forward transform. so let's introduce a new (better!) constant ® = T =2 such that the above is F[sinc( T2 t)] = ¼ ³!´ F[sinc(®t)] = ¦ : ® 2® (11) Add this entry in your table of Fourier transforms! Another View. then we also know the reverse transform of any function. by inspection. and invoking the even symmetry of the pulse function ¦. Example. T (8) ³ !´ F[T sinc(tT =2)] = 2¼¦ ¡ T (9) it follows from duality that or 2¼ ³ ! ´ ¦ (10) T T by the linearity of the Fourier transform operator. 69 .

......Half-Power Bandwidth or Pulse width f1 (x) . . ... ......... .. . ..... .... .. ......... .. . ........ ... ... .. ..... ..... . ....... . ......... ........ . In a mechanical system.... ....... .... . .... ........ ..... ..... . . ........ . .. . ........... such as a voltage v(t) or a current i(t)........ .... .. . The instantaneous power associated with one of the linear signals f (t) is proportional to jf (t)j2 ...... ... ..... ... ......... ...... ........... ........ ........ ....... ... ...... ........ .... .. ........ ... ... ..... ....... . .. x f2 (x) .. .. . ..... ..... ..... ....... .... .... .. ... ........ ..... ................... . .. . ...... ........... ....... . . ....... ... .... ... .... ......... . . ... . ......... . .. ..... ..... .. .. . ..... . ..... ... ........ .. ... . ........... .. .......... ..... .. . . ... .. .. ... . .. ...... ..... .. .......... ...... .. .................. . . .... ... .... ... ..... .. ........ ......... ...... ....................... .... ...... .. . ......... .. ...... .. . ..... .... ........ . .......... .... . . ... .... Power p(t) (in Watts) is not equal to energy E(t) (in Joules) but we are approximately thinking that p(t) / E(t) / jf (t)j2 ... .. ...... . .. . .. .. ........ ... .. .. .. ..... . . .. . .. . .... .. ................ . ....... . ...... ........ ... .. .. ................. ............ ..... ..... ....... . .. .. .. . ....... ........... . too) language.. ... .... . ...... ... Often our time-domain signals are one of the \linear" signals in an electric circuit...... ....... ...... ........ ... ......... ... The oscillatory and somewhat wild signal f3 (x) possesses no obvious maximum that we see in its graph and it is unclear how to de¯ne any kind of a pulse width for it.. ......... . ...... ......... ... .. . . . .. ......... ... ... . ....... .. .... .... . ...... .. .. ... ... . . .... .... .... . .... ... .......... .. .... ........... .......... . . .. ..... ... but its \pulse width" is perhaps not as obvious. ... .... .... ....... . .. .. .. ...... ..... .. ........... .... ......... ................... ........... .. ....... ... ... ... .... . . ...... ... ...... ............ ....... .... ........... The same observation applies to the signal f2 (x). ........... .............. ................ ..... ... ....... .... ........... ........ .......... .. . .... . x f3 (x) . ....... ..... ...... ..... . .. ...... .............. ....... ... . . . ..... ............... The function f1 (x) has a clear maximum and a \function width" or \pulse width" about the maximum where most of its energy is concentrated... ....... ... .... .......... . ... .. . . . .......... .... .. ... .. .... .. . ... ... ..... .. . .. .. .... ......... ..... . ........... ... .. .. ... . . . .... ........ .... ............. .. ..... ... .. 70 ... ...... ..... ... . . .. .. . .... ... . .. ....... ........ .. ... .... ...... ... ..... .... ..... ... ............ .. .. .. .. ........... . . If the signal f (t) does possess a clear maximum and most of its energy or power 6 6 This is an example of hazy (perhaps lazy....... ..... . . ............. .... ...... .......... ...... ........ .... . .. . ........... .. ..... ... . ....... ..... ....... .. .. .. ..... ..... ... ..... ........ ...... .... ...... ...... .... .... . ...... .. .. . ....... .. . .............. ........ . ... . ......... . .................... .... ... . . .... . . ... ....... ............. ........ ... . . . .... ....... .................... . the displacements x(t) or velocities v(t) are examples of one of the so-called \linear" signals that we might be interested in....... .. .......... ..... ..... . .......... ...... . ...... .............. .... ...... . . ...... .. ... ... .. ........ ... .. . .. .... .. ..... ...... .............. . ... . .. x Consider the three functions (or signals) graphed above.. .. ..... ................... ... ... . . .. .... .... ........ . .. ...... . . ............... .. .... ............ .. .

.... ......... .. . . . ........ max .... .... . .. ..... .. ......is concentrated around the maximum (such as the functions f1 and f2 above). ........ .. . .. ... ....... ... ..... .... . . .. . .. .. ... ............. ... ... . ........ ... .... .. ........ .. .... . ... ... . .............. .... .... ....... ........ . ......... ..... .. ...... .. . . Note in this case that jf (t)j = f (t) and jF (!)j = F (!)... Example: Gaussian pulse.. ........ ... .. ..... ....... .... . .... . the half-power points t1.. . .. ............ .... .. ..... . ... ... ..... .. ......... .... ..... . ... ........ .... .. .... ... . . ....... .... ...... .. ..... .. ...... ... ... ..... ... . .... ... .. ............. .. .. .......... ....... .. .. ....... . .. .2 are also called the \3 (db)" points since p 10 log10 (1=2) = 20 log10 (1= 2) ¼ ¡3: The half-power pulse width is also then called the \3 (dB) pulse width........ ..... . . . ... . .. ..... then we de¯ne the half-power pulse width as T1=2 = t2 ¡ t1 where jf (t1..... .. ..... . ..... . ..... .... max ............ .. ....... ...... ... ....... .. .... .... . ..... ...... . . .. ... . ..... ........ ... .. .. ... . . ..... ...... ..... .... ..... ............. ...... ... . . . .... . . ....... .... . The symbol for bandwidth is typically BW in communications work.... ... ... jf j jF j jf j p 2 T t1 T1=2 jF j p 2 t B !1 t2 exp(¡®t22 ) 1 =p 1 2 r ln 2 t2 = 2® r 2 ln 2 = t2 ¡ t1 = 2t2 = ® !2 exp(¡!22 =4®) 1 =p 1 2 !2 = p 2® ln 2 B1=2 = !2 ¡ !1 = 2!2 = The \BT product" B1=2 T1=2 = 4 ln 2 is independent of ®.. .. . .... .. ... .. . ... ........ .. .... .... .. ... .. . .... . ........ .. .. This will not be true in general. .. ....... . .... . .. ..... . ...... .. ...... .... .. . ... ." This measure of \signal duration" applies equally well in the frequency domain... ... .. ...... ... ...... . ..... ........2 )j 1 =p : jfmax j 2 When the signal magnitude is given or graphed in units of decibels (dB). . .. .... ..... . ............... .... ... .... .......... .. ..... .. .. but a simple B1=2 seems ¯ne. . . ...... ..... max ....... ..... . ......... ..... .... ..... .. . . . . .. ..... where the term bandwidth is commonly used instead of pulse width. . .. .. .. . ....... ... .. . . ...... .... ........... .... ......... ... ..... . .... .. ..... ... ... ...... . .. ... ... .. .. ... ...... . . . 71 p 8® ln 2 ! ... ...... .. 1=2 . . ... ...... . .. .. . ....... ..........2 )j2 1 = 2 jfmax j 2 or jf (t1.... .......... . .... ... . ... 1=2 ....... . . .............. ..... . .. ... ............ r ¼ F (!) = exp(¡! 2 =4®) f (t) = exp(¡®t2 ) ® ........ .. ...... .. . .. .. . .... max .. . . .. .. . ...... ............ .. . . ........... ...... .. ... ... . ...... ... ............... ... .... .. . . .. . ..... .. . ........... . . ....... . ..... .. .... . .......... ..... .. ... ... ... ......

... . .. . . . . . . ... ....... .... ..... .... . .. . . . . ..... . .4 0. ... .... .. .. .. . .. . . . .. ... . . . ...Example: The sinc function. ... ....... .. .. ..... . ... .. . .. ... ... . . ....... . . .. ... .... .. . . ... ...... .. . .. .. .... . .. . . ....... ...... . .... . . . . .. . ... . ... . ......... . ... .. . . . ¡30 ¡10 sin(x1 ) 1 =p x1 2 ¡8 ¡8 =) ¡6 x1 = ¡4 ¡2 p 2 sin(x1 ) 0 x x1 =) 2 4 6 8 10 x1 = 1:391557378251510 If f (t) = ¦(t=T ) is the standard rectangular pulse of pulse width T . . .. . . .. . ... . . .... .. ... . ... . . ..... .... . . .. .... .. .. . ........ . .. .. . .. . . . .... ... .. . . .. .. . .. . ............ ......... . Examine the two graphs of j sinc(x)j = j sin(x)=xj.. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . .. . . .. ... ... . .. . . .... .......... . .. . . . .. ... . .... .. ... . ... .. .... . .. .. . . . ... . .. ... . . . . .... ... ..... . ..... . .. ..... .. .... . .. ... ... .. . .. . . .. ... . . . .. . .. . . ... .. .... ..... . . . ........ . . .. . . .. .... . ...... .... .. ... .. . . .... . . . . .. . .. .. ........ .... . ... . ....... . . . . .. ... . .8 p 1= 2 0. . .. . . .. . ..... .0 0... .. ... . ... .. .. .. .. .. ... . .. . .. .. . . .. ... ... .... ... .. .. . ... . . .. .. ... . ..... ... . ... ..... . .. . .. . .. . . ... ... ..... . .. ... ..... .... ... . ... ..... .. . .... ... . ... ... . ... ... .. .... .. .. . .. we see that the half-power bandwidth is B1=2 = 2!1 ¼ 2 £ 2 £ 1:39 5:56 ¼ : T T 72 ... . . .. ... . . . . .. . .... . ... .. . .. ..... ... ... ... .. ..... . ... ... . .. ... 1. . ... ... . .... . . .. .. . . ........ . . .. . ..... .... .. . ... . .. .. . . ......... ...... . . .... .... .. . . .... .. ...... .. . ... ...... ... . .... . . .......... ....... . .. . .. . . ........... ... ... . . . . ... ...... ... ... ......... .... . ... .... . ..... .. . ..... . .. . . ... ... .. .... . .. .. .. . .. . .. . ... . . . .... .... ... ........ . ... .... . ... . . . .. . . ...... . .. . . ..... . ... .... ... ...... ... .......... .... .... .. .. . ... ...... ..... .... .... . ... ... .. ..... .. ... ..... .. .. . ... . .. . .. ... . ... . .. .... .. ... . . . . . ... .. ... . . ... then since the spectrum is F (!) = T sinc(!T =2)...... .. . .. . . . .... .... . .. . . . .. . .. . .. ......... .. . ........... .. ... . . . .... . . ... . .. ..... ...... . . ... .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .... . .. .. . . . ........ .......... .. .. .. ..... ... .. .. . .. .. ....... . .. . . . . .. . ..... ... . ..... . . . . ... ... ... . ... .. . ... .. .. The abscissa is x... . .. ... ... .. .. ... .. . . .......... .. .... ....... .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . ... .. ......2 .. . ..... . . ... .. . ........ .... ... .. ... .. .. ........ .. ... . the one on the top using a linear ordinate scale and the one on the bottom using a logarithmic (dB) ordinate scale.... ..... ... .. . . . . .... ......... . .. ... .. . .. .. . .. ..... .. . . . . . .. ...... .... .... ............. . .. . .. .. .. ... . .. ...6 jsinc(x)j 0. ... .. .. . which can serve as a scaled frequency ! for the spectrum of a time-domain rectangular pulse.. .. .. ... ... .. . . .. ... . .. ....... . . .. .... ....... .... . . . .. . ... . . . .. . .. .0 ¡10 0 ¡3 ¡5 ¡10 jsinc(x)j (dB) ¡15 ¡20 ¡25 ¡6 ¡4 ¡2 0 x x1 2 4 6 8 10 ........... .. .. . . .. .. . . ........ . ... . ..... .. ... ... . ........ .. ..... .. . . ..... . .. 0. . . . ..... . . ... . . . .. .. . . .. ....... ... . .. . .. . . ... ... . . .. .. .. ... . ... . .. ... . . ... .... .. . . .. .. . ... . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . ... ... .... .. .. .. . .. ... .. . .... .... . . . . . . .... . ... . . . . ... . ....... ... . .... . . . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. ... . ........ .... ... .... .. ... . . . ... . . ............ . .. .. .. ..... . . ... .... .

2. and also jg(t)j and jG(!)j. use the Gaussian pulse. Find the pulse width. If the signal is normalized to have unit energy Z1 ¡1 jf (t)j2 dt = 1 then the (square of) pulse width is Dt2 = Z1 ¡1 t2 jf (t)j2 dt: In other words. Use at least two values for the constant ®.Homework 1. and BT product of these two signals: f (t) = exp(¡®jtj) and g(t) = exp(¡®t)u(t): Graph jf (t)j and its amplitude spectrum jF (!)j. simply take Dt as de¯ned here. bandwidth. to be yet another measure of a signal's pulse width. Compare the half-power pulse width T1=2 described above with the (statistical class) of pulse width Dt that is used in the mathematical analysis of the Uncertainty Principle that appears on page 74. For a speci¯c signal. 73 .

Then Dt D! ¸ r ¼ : 2 prf: Equality holds in Schwarz's inequality ¯2 ¯ b ¯Z ¯ Zb Zb ¯ ¯ ¯ g1 g2 dt¯ · jg1 j2 dt jg2 j2 dt ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ a a a only if g2 (t) = kg1 (t). respectively. then it is reasonable to de¯ne the t and !-domain durations by Z1 Z1 Dt2 = t2 jf (t)j2 dt and D!2 = ! 2 jF (!)j2 d!: ¡1 ¡1 Our so-called \uncertainty principle" states: If lim t!§1 p jtjf (t) = 0. assume that the signals under consideration are normalized to have unit energy: Z1 Z1 1 jf (t)j2 dt = jF (!)j2 d! = 1: 2¼ ¡1 ¡1 If we further assume that both f (t) and its Fourier transform F (!) are centered about t = 0 and ! = 0. Let g1 (t) = tf (t) and g2 (t) = f 0 (t): ¯ 1 ¯2 ¯Z ¯ ¯2 Z1 Z1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ df (t) df (t) 2 ¯ ¯ ¯ · ¯ tf (t) dt jtf (t)j dt ¯ ¯ dt ¯ dt: ¯ dt ¯ ¯ ¡1 ¡1 ¡1 Integrate by parts Z1 ¡1 ¯1 Z1 df tf 2 (t) ¯¯ 1 1 tf dt = ¡ jf j2 dt = ¡ : ¯ dt 2 2 2 ¡1 | {z ¡1} | {z } =0 by above =1 by above From the Fourier transform pair f 0 (t) () j!F (!) and Parseval's theorem. Z1 ¯ ¯2 Z1 ¯ df ¯ 1 ¯ ¯ dt = j!F (!)j2 d! ¯ dt ¯ 2¼ ¡1 ¡1 and so Schwarz's inequality gives 1 · 4 Z1 ¡1 1 jtf (t)j2 dt 2¼ 74 Z1 ¡1 j!F (!)j2 d! .Uncertainty Principle for the Fourier Integral To simplify our notation.

or ¼ · Dt2 D!2 : 2 ¥ Equality holds if df (t) = ktf (t): dt The solution of this di®erential equation is f (t) = Cekt 2 =2 : Let k = ¡2®. this is the inescapable Gaussian function f (t) = μ 2® ¼ ¶1=4 ¡®t2 e () F (!) = μ 2® ¼ 75 ¶1=4 r ¼ ¡!2 =4® = e ® μ 2¼ ® ¶1=4 e¡! 2 =4® : .

Consider the cosine integral. Then ¯ 1 ¯ ¯Z ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ f (x) cos ¸x dx¯¯ < 4² (¸ > ¸0 ): ¯ ¯ ¯ ¡1 This proves the theorem for the cosine integral. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¡X ¯Z ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯<² f (x) cos ¸x dx ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¡1 X for all values of ¸. ¡X and (for a ¯xed X) we can choose ¸0 so large that the modulus of this is less than ² for ¸ > ¸0 .Theorem (Riemann-Lebesgue Lemma). such that ZX jf (x) ¡ Á(x)j dx < ²: ¡X Then ¯ ¯ X ¯Z ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ff (x) ¡ Á(x)g cos ¸x dx¯ < ² ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¡X for all values of ¸. Then we can choose X so large that ¡X Z1 Z jf (x)j dx < ². That is. Let f (x) 2 L1 (¡1. Next. a similar proof applies to the sine integral. we can de¯ne a function Á(x). X). Finally ZX ¡X Á(X) sin ¸X Á(¡X) sin ¸X 1 Á(x) cos ¸x dx = + ¡ ¸ ¸ ¸ ZX Á0 (x) sin ¸x dx. ¡1 tend to zero as ¸ ! 1. jf (x)j dx < ²: ¡1 X Hence ¯ ¯ 1 ¯Z ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ f (x) cos ¸x dx¯ < ². Let ² be a given positive number. f (x) is absolutely integrable Z1 jf (x)j dx < 1: ¡1 Then the integrals Z1 Z1 f (x) cos ¸x dx. Proof. ¥ 76 . absolutely continuous in the interval (¡X. 1). ¡1 f (x) sin ¸x dx.

1937. Fourier Transforms. lim Z1 !!§1 ¡1 e¡j!t [f (t) ¡ f (t ¡ ¼=!)] dt: Z1 jf (t) ¡ f (t ¡ ¼=!)j dt: (3) jf (t) ¡ f (t ¡ ¼=!)j dt = 0 (4) ¡1 by the continuity-in-the-mean theorem.R. Goldberg. Suppose 1 · p < 1. The function f on (¡1. from R. Cambridge University Press. (1) ¡1 then ¡F (!) = Z1 e¡j![t+(¼=!)] f (t) dt = ¡1 Z1 ¡1 e¡j!t f (t ¡ ¼=!) dt: (2) Subtracting (2) from (1) we obtain 2F (!) = Z1 ¡1 Hence 2jF (!)j · But since f 2 L1 . Theorem (Riemann-Lebesgue). The theorem follows from (3) and (4). If f 2 Lp then kf kp is de¯ned to be 0 ¡1 @ Z1 ¡1 11=p jf (x)jp dxA : The symbol kf kp is read as the Lp norm of f .C. Since Z1 F (!) = e¡j!t f (t) dt = 0: e¡j!t f (t) dt. Perhaps you will prefer this one. Titchmarsh in Introduction to the Theory of Fourier Integrals. Definition (the Class Lp ). 1962. If f 2 L1 then Z1 lim F (!) = lim !!§1 !!§1 ¡1 Proof. 1) is said R1 to be of class Lp (written f 2 Lp ) if jf (x)jp dx < 1.The above is the working-class proof of the Riemann-Lebesgue lemma. ¥ 77 . as given by E.

Examine the high frequency limiting behavior (! ! §1) of the spectra of these signal pairs and interpret in terms of the Riemann-Lebesgue Lemma: F u(t) () 1 + ¼±(!) j! F ¦(t=T ) () T sinc(!T =2) ¼ F sinc(¯t) () ¦(!=2¯) ¯ 1 F e¡®t u(t) () ® + j! F ±(t) () 1 1 F ¼ () sgn(!) t j 78 . PROOF: Integrate by parts F (!) = Z1 ¡1 ¡j!t f (t)e ¯1 Z1 f (t)e¡j!t ¯¯ 1 dt = + f 0 (t)e¡j!t dt ¯ ¡j! j! t=¡1 ¡1 If f (§1) is ¯nite. The integral is the Fourier transform of the derivative of f (t) Z1 ¡1 f 0 (t)e¡j!t dt = F [f 0 (t)] and this Fourier integral exists (has ¯nite magnitude jF [f 0 (t)] j < 1) if the derivative is absolutely integrable Z1 jf 0 (t)j dt · A < 1: ¡1 If jF [f 0 (t)] j < 1. then the boundary terms go to zero as ! ! §1.Riemann-Lebesgue Lemma If f 0 (t) is absolutely integrable. then the integral term F [f 0 (t)] ¡¡¡¡¡! 0: j! !!§1 Exercise. then F (!) ! 0 as ! ! §1.

x!0¡ x!0 then it is appropriate to break the integral above at x = 0 so that fe(t) = lim Z0 −!1 ¡1 = lim Z0 −!1 ¡1 Z1 sin −x f (x + t) dx + lim −!1 ¼x Z1 f (x + t) sin −x dx ¼x 0 f (x + t) ¡ f (t¡ ) sin −x dx + lim f (t¡ ) −!1 ¼x −!1 sin −x dx ¼x ¡1 f (x + t) ¡ f (t+ ) sin −x dx + lim f (t+ ) −!1 ¼x + lim Z0 0 Z1 0 79 sin −x dx ¼x .Convergence of the Fourier Integral Representation F (!) = F[f (t)] = Z1 ¡j!t f (t)e F () dt ¡1 f (t) = F ¡1 1 [F (!)] = 2¼ Z1 F (!)ej!t d! ¡1 Assume f 0 (t) is absolutely integrable so that the Riemann-Lebesgue lemma guarantees lim F (!) = 0: !!1 Denote the inverse Fourier transform of the Fourier transform as 1 fe(t) = lim −!1 2¼ = lim Z− Z1 f (¿ )e¡j!¿ d¿ ej!t d! ¡− ¡1 Z1 −!1 ¡1 Z1 Z− 1 f (¿ ) 2¼ ¡− sin[−(¿ ¡ t)] d¿ ¼(¿ ¡ t) = lim f (¿ ) = lim f (x + t) −!1 ¡1 Z1 −!1 ¡1 ej!(t¡¿ ) d! d¿ sin −x dx: ¼x If f is continuous at t. then clearly fe(t) = f (t) if we accept the Dirac-delta representation sin −x = ±(x): −!1 ¼x lim If f su®ers a jump discontinuity at t. in that lim f (t + x) = f (t¡ ) 6 = f (t+ ) = lim+ f (t + x).

and is well-behaved everywhere else by our initial assumption. u ¡1 then for − > 0 we have Z0 ¡1 sin −x dx = ¼x Z1 sin −x dx = 12 : ¼x 0 Therefore. then each one can be handled in a similar fashion. the ¯rst term on the right-hand side of the above integral vanishes as − ! 1. From the famous integral Z1 sin u du = ¼ u ¡1 and its variation Z1 sin ¯u du = ¼ sgn ¯.) By the Riemann-Lebesgue lemma. The same argument applies to the function f (x + t) ¡ f (t+ ) ¼x and its Fourier integral.The function f (x + t) ¡ f (t¡ ) ¼x is continuous at x = 0¡ . (We are assuming that f is continuous everywhere except at the particular t of interest. we have shown F ¡1 fF [f (t)]g = fe(t) = 80 1 2 £ ¡ ¤ f (t ) + f (t+ ) : . If f actually has a ¯nite number of such jump discontinuities.

. but as we have seen repeatedly this semester.. Electrical engineers work so much in the frequency domain that we sometimes loose touch with the original time domain! For an arbitrary input signal x(t). the nontrivial convolution operator has been replaced by a simple multiplication! Besides algebraic simplicity.... ...... ....................................... .... ....... the time-domain response y(t) now requires an inverse Fourier transform (4) y(t) = F ¡1 fX(!)H(!)g: However.. ............... ............... ..........................) Note the use of !0 to denote some particular frequency.......... the transfer function H(!) immediately gives the response of a LTI system to a time-harmonic signal....................System Transfer Function x(t) ........ time-invariant (LTI) system is the convolution of the input signal with the system impulse response y(t) = x(t) ~ h(t): (1) The direct Fourier transform of this equation is Y (!) = X(!)H(!) (2) which exhibits the important role of the system transfer function Ffh(t)g = H(!): (3) By transforming to the frequency domain...... ... ...... The response of our system to the excitation (5) is y(t) = h(t) ~ x(t) = = ej!0 t Z1 Z1 ¡1 h(¿ )x(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ = Z1 ¡1 h(¿ )e¡j!0 ¿ d¿ = ej!0 t H(!0 ): ¡1 81 h(¿ )ej!0 (t¡¿ ) d¿ (6) ... to avoid confusion with the Fourier transform frequency variable plain !.. . . ........ h(t) y(t) The zero-state response (in the time domain) of our linear.. ............................. ................ ...... .... The simplest time-harmonic input signal is the complex exponential form (5) x(t) = ej!0 t : (The only other choice would be a real-valued cosine or sine....... .......... ... ...................... .... And in deriving important concepts and principles................. . the mathematics of signal analysis usually (always?) is much simpler in terms of the complex exponential form...... ....... we always take the simpler path....... working in the frequency domain also gives us a whole another conceptual view of the input/output dynamics of our systems.. ..

. ................. ........................ evaluated (of course) at the excitation frequency............. .............. .................. The amplitude and phase are apparent in the polar representation H(!) = jH(!)jej£(!) : (7) Note that if the system impulse response h(t) is a real-valued function of time........ .......... ........... ... .. . ........ .. . ... ..... ............. ........... we call AejÁ the complex phasor.. .......... then we can recover the separate responses to the real and imaginary parts of a complex input by inspection: x(t) = xr (t) + jxi (t) ............... ..... ...................... ..................... ... Specialize the above result to the case where x(t) = sin(!0 t): F Exercise 3.................................. . 82 . .. y(t) = xr (t) ~ h(t) + jxi (t) ~ h(t) Refx(t)g = xr (t) ............ ... Hint: write x(t) = RefAejÁ ej!0 t g.... ..... In AC circuit analysis..... . .... ..... What is the form of the response? Think about the linearity of the system... ..... ................................... ................. ....................... h(t) real yr (t) = Refy(t)g Imfx(t)g = xi (t) ............................ . . ......................... .................... ..... Now consider the periodic excitation 1 X x(t) = cn ejn!0 t n=¡1 applied to a LTI system having arbitrary (not necessarily real) impulse response h(t)..... ...................................... Only the amplitude and phase of the response have been modi¯ed by the amplitude and phase of the system transfer function....................... F Exercise 2... . ............ ......................... .............. ..... ....... ............... .. .................... ... .... ... ..... ..... ....... ......... Show that the time-harmonic response of a real LTI system to a cosine excitation x(t) = A cos(!0 t + Á) of arbitrary amplitude A and phase Á is y(t) = AjH(!0 )j cos[!0 t + Á + £(!0 )] where the amplitude and phase of the transfer function are de¯ned in (7).......... ........ yi (t) = Imfy(t)g h(t) h(t) real F Exercise 1.......... . .......... ...... The transfer function is the generic H(!)... ........... ... ..... .. . ............ ...... ..... ............. ............................................................... . .............Observe that the response (steady-state since the excitation has been on forever) of a LTI system to a time-harmonic signal is a time-harmonic signal of the same frequency as the excitation.. .... ........... ................... ................. ................................... .......

... .......... ... ........ ............................ ..... .. ................ .. ............. . . H(! )X(! )ej!1 t ................ .......... .... ........................ . ....... . ............... .. ......... .. ........................ ..... ....................... ............ X(!2 )e ...... .. ....................... . ...... j!2 t j!2 t ......... n n ......... ..... .. .. ..... .... ......................... ................... ... . ...... ... . ........ . ........ X(!n )e H(! )X(! )e ...... ..... . .. ... .. .... .. .......... ... ........ ......... .......... ...... ...... . .. ....... . ...................... ............... ............... ....... ............. .................. ......... ... ......... ....... ..................... ............. ..... ....... .. .... . ...... ............. .......... ........... ...... . .. .......... .... ................... ..... ............. j!n t ... ............... .... H(!2 )X(!2 )e ....................... ............ ..... . .... ... .. .... 1 1 ..... .......... . ............. ... ................... ...... H(!) 1 2¼ Z1 H(!)X(!)ej!t d! = y(t) ¡1 ............ .... ......................... .. ..... ........ ........... ........... .... ....... ... j!n t . .. ........ ...... . ......... ............ .......... ........................... ................. ......... X(!1 )ej!1 t H(!) H(!) x(t) = P n X(!n )e H(!) § H(!) H(!) 83 P n H(!n )X(!n )ej!n t = y(t) ......... ........ ..... .............. ........ ... ........... ................... ......................... ........ ... .......... ........ ... ....... ... .......Superposition Interpretation of System Transfer Function x(t) = 1 2¼ Z1 j!t X(!)e ¡1 d! . ..... . ................ ........... . .. .. ................................... . ...... ........ ... . . ...... ... .......... . .......... .......... ......... .. ... ...... ... ................. ........................... ......... ..... .... .... j!n t ........ ................................ . .... ...... . ............ ...................................... .. ....... . ....... ... ..... . .. ..... ......... ................... ..... ........................ ................................. ... ............................ ......... .... ............. .......... ... .................. . ..... ... . ...................... ......... .............. .. ............. ........

...... .... .. ........... ........ .............. ... Fortunately. .. ...........Transfer Function for Linear Electric Circuits Example...... . ... ..... ............. the Fourier transform allows us to circumvent the time-domain di®erential equations and work with purely algebraic equations.. ........... F Exercise 4............ ... .................... ............ We ¯rst found the step response s(t) and then di®erentiated to get h(t) = s0 (t)........ .......... ................ ... .................. .. .... ............... + ... .. ......................... i(t) vg (t) ² R + ¡ + v (t) L ² ¡ Kirchho®'s voltage law is vg (t) = Ri(t) + L di(t) dt (9) and the direct Fourier transform of this is Vg (!) = [R + j!L]I(!): (10) Note the natural occurrence of the familiar complex impedance. . ................ ........................... .. .......... .... . . ........ ...... L .... . .. .............. .... .... ........ ....... ...... ... ........ ...... .... ................. ....... . no one memorizes such speci¯cs) that the impulse response of the given RL circuit is μ ¶ R R h(t) = ±(t) ¡ exp ¡ t u(t): (8) L L Most of us would agree that the correct derivation of this time-domain result is a nontrivial exercise.... ...... ............. .. ..... .......................... ............ ...... ......... ... ......... ..................... .................... .......... ........ 84 ..................... Our transfer function is Y (!) j!L j!L=R j!=!b H(!) = = = = (12) X(!) R + j!L 1 + j!L=R 1 + j!=!b where the constant !b = R=L (s¡1 ) is called the break frequency or half-power frequency or maybe even cut-o® frequency of this simple high-pass ¯lter...... .... . ....... .......................... . ..................................... ..... ............. ...................... ....... .. ..... ................. . ............ .......... .. ........... ² R x(t) ¡ + y(t) L ² ¡ Recall (look back in your notes..................... At least this helps my circuit analysis................. ....................................................... Verify that the Fourier transform of impulse response (8) gives transfer function (12).. ................ .............. ......... .......... .......... Temporarily set the input x(t) = vg (t) and the output y(t) = vL (t) for obvious dimensional consistency and to use signal labels for voltages that look like voltages............................... ... ................... ..... The ratio of output to input voltage spectra VL (!) j!L ZL = = (11) Vg (!) R + j!L ZR + ZL could have been written by inspection as a simple voltage divider........

. ..... ....... ...... . . ......... . ............ ... ..... .............. .. Frequency behavior of single-pole high-pass ¯lter.... ...... ..... ... . ... ... . ...... ............. ... 1..... ... .............. .... .... ...... .. .... ............ ..... ....... .. ......... .... Fig......... ...... ... ............ .. ......... ....................... ..... . ... ............. ... ... .......... ......... . ........... .. . 10¡2 10¡1 100 !=!b 101 (b) Phase response... . ... . .. ........... ¼=2 3¼=8 arg H ¼=4 ¼=8 0 .... ........ . ... ..... . .. ..... ................... ..... . ............0 ¡5 ¡10 ¡15 jHj (dB) ¡20 ¡25 ¡30 ¡35 ....... . .... . . ....... .......... . .... . ...... .... . ... ......... ............. ........ . . ..... ...... . . .. 85 102 .. ............. .. .. .... ....... . . ........... ................ .. ..... ... . .. ........ ..... ... ¡40 10¡2 10¡1 100 !=!b 101 102 (a) Magnitude response..... . .... . .. ..... ... ............ ..... ..... . ........... .. ........ ........... ....... . . ..... .......... ... ... .... ....... .................... .... .......... . ..... . . . ........... ........ .. . . ..... ... ......... ...

National Bureau of Standards. 231{232. Abramowitz and I. y(t) ¼ F Exercise 5. too! 86 . Find its transfer function and show that this low-pass ¯lter acts as an integrator when it is having its greatest e®ect on the input signal. pp.The magnitude and phase response of the transfer function (12) j!=!b (13) 1 + j!=!b are graphed versus a logarithmic and normalized frequency abscissa in Fig. Homework Problem: Rectangular Pulse Response of Ideal Low-Pass Filter.A. Consider an ideal low-pass ¯lter of bandwidth B and subsequent transfer function ³ ! ´ H(!) = ¦ : 2B Find the transient response y(t) of this ¯lter to a rectangular pulse of pulse-width T x(t) = ¦(t=T ): Graphical results simplify with normalized time t=T as the independent variable. We also use a logarithmic (unnatural or base 10) scale to express the magnitude in decibels according to jHj (dB) = 20 log10 jHj: (14) H(!) = Note that the low and high frequency approximations 8 j!=!b . MATLAB has it built-in. ! À !b clearly show that this ¯lter passes the high frequencies unscathed.1. In the low frequency regime (! ¿ !b ) where this ¯lter has the greatest e®ect between the input and output. (\Big Red"or \Citizen's Handbook"). for various values of the dimensionless parameter BT . Stegun. the sine integral7 Zu sin » Si(u) = d» Si(¡u) = ¡ Si(u) Si(1) = ¼=2: » 0 7 M. ! ¿ !b > > < j!=!b j H(!) = = (15) . the frequency-domain relationship is j!X(!) Y (!) ¼ : (16) !b Inverse Fourier transformation of (16) to the time domain gives 1 dx(t) (17) !b dt so we see that a high-pass ¯lter acts as a di®erentiator when it is having its biggest e®ect on the input. This problem is most readily solved in terms of a special function. 1. Handbook of Mathematical Functions. 1970. Table 5. ! = !b 1 + j!=!b > 1+j > : 1. Consider the simple circuit having the positions of R and L reversed relative to the circuit above.

2¼ = 1 = 2¼ = 1 2¼ ¡1 Z1 ¡1 Z1 ¡1 ¡1 Z1 F (!) ¡1 ¡1 1 F ¤ (−)±(− ¡ !) d− d! = 2¼ Z1 F (!)F ¤ (!) d! ¡1 jF (!)j2 d! F Exercise 6. ¯rst!) 87 . Find a simple evaluation for the integrals Z1 sin x dx x ¡1 Z1 · sin x x ¸2 dx: ¡1 We met the ¯rst one back on page 54. The similarity (more than similar! ) in the numerical values strikes me as a strange coincidence. Derive the generalized Parseval theorem Z1 f (t)g ¤ (t) dt = ¡1 F Exercise 7.Parseval's Theorem for the Fourier Integral The energy associated with the signal f (t) is E= Z1 ¡1 jf (t)j2 dt = Z1 ¡1 Z1 f (t)f ¤ (t) dt 2 32 Z1 Z1 3¤ 1 4 1 F (!)ej!t d! 5 4 F (−)ej−t d−5 dt 2¼ 2¼ ¡1 ¡1 ¡1 2 32 3 1 1 Z Z Z1 1 4 1 = F (!)ej!t d! 5 4 F ¤ (−)e¡j−t d−5 dt 2¼ 2¼ ¡1 ¡1 ¡1 8 9 1 1 1 Z Z Z < = 1 1 = F (!) F ¤ (−) ej(!¡−)t dt d− d! : 2¼ . What do you think? (You'll need the answers.

so that every di®erential and integral operation results in a factor of 2¼ or (2¼)¡1 ? Seriously. or do you turn them loose as pesky irritants inside the arguments of the complex exponentials. and our usual Fourier transform pair Z1 Z1 1 F ¡j!t X(!) = x(t)e dt () x(t) = X(!)ej!t d! 2¼ ¡1 becomes X(f ) = Z1 ¡1 ¡1 x(t)e¡j2¼f t dt F () x(t) = Z1 ¡1 X(f )ej2¼f t df: This form has the advantage that both variables t and f appear symmetrically without any multiplying factors outside the integrals. do you place them as harmless scaling factors outside the integrals.Other Conventions for the Fourier Transform Pair Note that our forward Fourier transform could be scaled by any constant K as long as we divide by K in performing the inverse: Z1 Z1 1 F ¡j!t F (!) = K f (t)e dt () f (t) = F (!)ej!t d!: 2¼K ¡1 ¡1 p The common choice K = 1= 2¼ gives a pleasingly symmetric pair Z1 Z1 1 1 F ¡j!t F (!) = p f (t)e dt () f (t) = p F (!)ej!t d!: 2¼ 2¼ ¡1 ¡1 One-sided (unilateral) trigonometric forms Fc (!) = Z1 Fs (!) = 0 Z1 f (t) cos(!t) dt f (t) sin(!t) dt F () F () 2 f (t) = ¼ f (t) = 2 ¼ 0 Z1 Fc (!) cos(!t) d! 0 Z1 Fs (!) sin(!t) d! 0 Note that the sine transform is a natural choice if f (0) = 0. the world is divided and you will inevitably need to translate between the two forms. ! rules! 88 . but not in our course. Its disadvantage (to me) is the appearance of a 2¼ in every kernel function exp(§j2¼f t). The use of frequency f (Hz=cycle/s) instead of ! (1/s) Introduce the frequency f (Hz) such that ! = 2¼f . Its supporters are often experimentalists. because of their natural preference to measure frequency f in (Hz). at least for now. The use of f can also pave the way for a slightly smoother transition to the discrete-time world. the Fourier transform pair has to have 2¼'s somewhere: The question is. where. as opposed to the natural frequency !. Either way you look at it. while the cosine transform ¯ts the case when f 0 (0) = 0.

F (0) = Z1 f (t) dt is the integral of f (t). ¡1 89 .) What is the physical (geometric) signi¯cance of F (0)? Z1 F (!) = f (t)e¡j!t dt ¡1 ************************** SOLUTION ************************** F (!) = Z1 ¡1 f (t) cos(!t) dt ¡ j Z1 ¡1 f (t) sin(!t) dt = Fr (!) ¡ jFi (!) If f (t) = f (¡t) is even. III Take-Home: due next class. then Fi (!) = 0 and Fr (!) = 2 Z1 f (t) cos(!t) dt = Fr (¡!): 0 That is. what can you deduce about the symmetry (even/odd parity) of F (!)? Is F (!) pure real. Wednesday October 31 12:00 noon Consider a real-valued function f (t) that possesses a de¯nite Fourier transform F (!).ECE 370 QUIZ 7 9 October 1940 Name IgÄ or Reiruμ of.) If f (t) = f (¡t) is even. pure imaginary. pure imaginary. or arbitrarily complex? 2. the spectrum of an odd. real signal is pure imaginary and is an odd function of !. or arbitrarily complex? 3. the DC value.) If f (t) = ¡f (¡t) is odd. then Fr (!) = 0 and Fi (!) = 2 Z1 f (t) sin(!t) dt = ¡Fi (¡!): 0 That is. 1. If f (t) = ¡f (¡t) is odd. Assume that f (t) is absolutely integrable so that we are assured of the ¯niteness of F (!) for all frequencies. what can you deduce about the symmetry (even/odd parity) of F (!)? Is F (!) pure real. total area under the curve. the spectrum of an even. real signal is pure real and is an even function of !.

........ . ...................... ............ h (t) h (t) h(t) = h1 (t) ~ h2 (t) H(!) = H1 (!)H2 (!) Linear Dispersionless Filter x(t) .. ........ ...................... h(t) = ±(t ¡ t ) H(!) = e¡j!t0 y(t) = x(t ¡ t0 ) \linear phase" 90 y(t) ....................... ....... ........ ...... . ......... .... ............ ............. .............................. . ........... .... ...................... .. ................... ............................... ....... ..................... ......... ....... .. ................. .... .................. .. ..... ............... .......Cascade of Two LTI Systems x(t) .............. .. .................... ............................... ... . 0 ....... .......................... ........ ........ ............... .... .. ..... .. .... ................. ....... ....... ........... ...... ... . ........... ....... ........................................ ............................................. ................... .............. ...... ..... ............ .......... ....... .......... ............ . ................................... ....................................... 1 2 ............ ............... .................. .........

..... but related.................. This problem is most readily solved in terms of a special function. MATLAB has it built-in............... .............. ............ Similarly.................... National Bureau of Standards............... . Table 5........... ... ....1.. for various values of the dimensionless parameter BT .... too! 91 ................ ........Homework Problem: Rectangular Pulse Response of Ideal Low-Pass Filter..... Consider an ideal low-pass ¯lter of bandwidth B and subsequent transfer function ³ ! ´ : (1) H(!) = ¦ 2B Find the transient response y(t) of this ¯lter to a rectangular pulse of pulse-width T x(t) = ¦(t=T ): (2) Graphical results simplify with normalized time t=T as the independent variable. ............ .... Handbook of Mathematical Functions... 1970.............. the sine integral8 Si(z) = Zz sin » d» » Si(¡z) = ¡ Si(z) Si(1) = ¼=2: (3) 0 x(t) ..... .. the spectrum of the input signal is X(!) = F[x(t)] = T sinc(!T =2): (5) At least three di®erent. 231{232........... ... . approaches to ¯nding the output y(t) are worth considering........ .. Stegun......... .... ... ...... .. sin[B(¿ ¡ t)] 1 d¿ = B(¿ ¡ t) ¼ B(T Z=2¡t) B(¡T =2¡t) sin » d» » (7) Abramowitz and I... Time-Domain Convolution.A............... . ......... .... ......................... (\Big Red"or \Citizen's Handbook"). ..... pp......... .... h(t) y(t) The ¯lter impulse response is h(t) = F ¡1 [H(!)] = B sinc(Bt) ¼ (4) which can be found from your table of Fourier transforms or by direct evaluation of the inverse transform integral. y(t) = x(t) ~ h(t) = Z1 ¡1 B = ¼ T =2 Z ¡T =2 x(¿ )h(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ = sin[B(t ¡ ¿ )] B d¿ = B(t ¡ ¿ ) ¼ T =2 Z h(t ¡ ¿ ) d¿ (6) ¡T =2 T =2 Z ¡T =2 8 M......... .. ..........

ª 1© ª 1© Si[B(T =2 ¡ t)] ¡ Si[¡B(T =2 + t)] = Si[B(t + T =2)] ¡ Si[B(t ¡ T =2)] ¼ ¼ (8) ½ · μ ¶¸ · μ ¶¸¾ 1 t 1 t 1 = Si BT + ¡ Si BT ¡ (9) ¼ T 2 T 2 y(t) = Note that y(t ! 1) = 0. y(t) = F 1 = ¼ ¡1 Z1 1 [X(!)H(!)] = 2¼ ZB j!t X(!)H(!)e ¡1 sin(!T =2) j!t e d! ! ZB ZB T sinc(!T =2)ej!t d! ¡B only the even part of ej!t contributes ¡B 1 = ¼ 1 d! = 2¼ sin(!T =2) 2 cos(!t) d! = ! ¼ ¡B ZB sin(!T =2) cos(!t) d! ! (10) (11) (12) 0 Use the trig identity 2 sin X cos Y = sin(X ¡ Y ) + sin(X + Y ) so that 1 y(t) = ¼ ZB © ª d! : sin[!(T =2 ¡ t)] + sin[!(T =2 + t)] ! (13) 0 Let » = !(T =2 ¨ t) so that ZB d! sin[!(T =2 ¨ t)] = ! 0 B(T Z=2¨t) sin » d» = Si[B(T =2 ¨ t)] » (14) 0 whereupon (13) is ª 1© Si[B(T =2 ¡ t)] + Si[B(T =2 + t)] ¼ 1© = Si[B(t + T =2)] ¡ Si[B(t ¡ T =2)]: ¼ y(t) = 92 (15) . Also note that time appears normalized to the incident pulse width T as in t=T . and that the single (dimensionless!) parameter that characterizes the ¯lter response to the rectangular pulse is the product BT . Frequency-Domain Multiplication.

m for the exponential integral. It doesn't work at all on my computer. 93 . k=find(x»=0). built upon MAPLE. but that's ok since we know that Si(0) = 0 and it is an odd function Si(¡x) = ¡ Si(x). Recognize that our particular input can be written as x(t) = ¦(t=T ) = u(t + T =2) ¡ u(t ¡ T =2) (16) so that the response is y(t) = s(t + T =2) ¡ s(t ¡ T =2) (17) where the step response is Zt Zt ZBt B 1 sin » h(¿ ) d¿ = sinc(B¿ ) d¿ = s(t) = d» ¼ ¼ » ¡1 ¡1 ¡1 2 0 3 Bt Z Z i 1 sin » sin » 5 1 h ¼ 14 1 = d» + d» = + Si(Bt) = + Si(Bt): ¼ » » ¼ 2 2 ¼ ¡1 (18) (19) 0 The linear combination (17) of shifted step responses now yields y(t) = 1© Si[B(t + T =2)] ¡ Si[B(t ¡ T =2)]: ¼ (20) The MATLAB routine sinint. Therefore Si(x) = Si(jxj) sgn(x). and does an extremely slow and ine±cient numerical integration to compute the function Si(x).m calls the symbolic toolbox. f(k)=(pi/2+imag(expint(i*abs(x(k))))). so here is an alternate computation that uses MATLAB's routine expint. a di®erent but related special function. E1 (z) = Z1 e¡t dt t z Si(x) = ¼ + ImfE1 (jx)g 2 The routine for E1 (jx) will not work for (real) values of x · 0.*sign(x(k)).Linear Combination of Step-Responses. function f=sinintRWS(x) % f=sinintRWS(x) sine integral Si(x) for real x f=zeros(size(x)).

. .. ...... .. ..... .... . ...... .... . . ...... ... .... ..... . ..... . ......... ...... ... . ... .... ..... ... ... ............ ... .. . .... ..... .... . ....... ...... ... ... .... ... .. ...... ... .. . ...... ... .0 .... ........ ..... . .... . . . .... . . .. .... .......... ... . .... .. ... ......... . . 94 1... .... . ... . .. ... .5 1.. .. ... .. ... .. dashed curve: BT = 10 solid curve: BT = 50 0. ...... .. ..... .. ... ... . .... ......... . . . . . . ...... ..0 ¡0:2 ¡2:0 ¡1:5 ¡1:0 ¡0:5 0... .. .. . ... .. .. . .... . . .. ..... .. ..5 2.. ... .. . .... .. .....0 t=T Fig. .. ...... . ... ......... .. . .. . ... .. ....... .. . . ... ... ..... ........ . .. .... .. ... . .... .. ............ ... . ....... ... .... ..... .. . ... ... ... . .. .... . . ...... ... ... . . ..... Rectangular pulse response of ideal low-pass ¯lter..... .2 1.. .. . . . .. ..... . ....... .. . .. ..... . . .. ..... ......... ... ..... .. .... ... ... ... .... ..... .. . . .. .......... ... 1. . .. .. .. . .. .... ........ ... .. ......... .. .... .. .... .. . . .. ...... .0 0.... ... .......... .... . .. .. ... ....... ........ . . . ..4 0...... .. . .... .. . ... ........ . . .. ...2 0... ... .... . ...... . ... .. .... ... ..... ... . . ... ......... . . .. .. ..... ... .... . . .. . ..... .. .. .. ........ .... .. ..... ..... ..... . .. .... ........ ... .. ....... . . ... ... . .... . .............. ..... ..... . .. ............ . .... .. . .......... ....... . . . . .... .6 y(t) 0....1... . .......... ...........0 .. ... ...... ...... ... . ..... .. ...... . ... ........... ... . .. ....... . ... .. .. .. . .. ... ... . ... .... . ...... ...... ..... .... .. . ... . .. . .. .. . . ............. .. .. . . .. . ..... . ... ........ ..... . ...... .... .... ..... . ..... .8 0... . .... . ....... . .. .. .. ...... ........ .............. ..... .... .

.......... . ..... .... .... ......... .. . ... .. .. . .... ... .... .... ... ..... ... ........... ...... . ..... ............. . . ... .. .. .... ... . ... ............ .......... . ........ ........ ....... ........ .............. ... ...... .... . ... .... . . ............ .... . ...... ...... ..... . . ..... ....... .. . ........... ........... ... .... ....... ... .. .......... .... ....... ........ ....... ... . .... ......... .... ...... . ...... . ... . . .... ....... ... . ..... .... ........... ..... ... ................. ......... ......... ..... .. ....... ............ .... .. ..... .......... B = 20 95 t ........... ...... . ... ...... . .. .................. . ... . . .... ......... .. .. . .... 0 ............... . ... ..... ... .. ........ . .. .... . ......... ............. .. ........... . .. ..... .. .. .. ....... ......... .... . .................. .. . .... . . ..... ...... .. ........ .. ...... ..................... .... .. .... .. ...... ........... ........ ..... .......... ....... . .... .. .... ..... ... ....... .... .. .. . ... ......... . ...... . ... .. . .... . .... ............. . ..... ...... .. ... ..... .. ... ... ........ .. . .. .. .... .. ... ......... . . . . . . ........ . .......... ... .... ... ....... . . . .. .... .... .............. . .... ... .... .......... .. . ..... ......... .... . . .... .. ........ . ... .... .......... . ......... ..... ...... ................. .. . . .... . ..... .... . . . . . ........ ... . ......... ... .... . ............... .. ..... . . . .......... . . ... .... . .. . . .... .. ................. ....... . ......... ...... .. . .............. ........ .......... ......... .. .. ...... ....... ..... .. . .. ... .. .... .. .. . . .. ....... ... .... .. ......... . .......... . .. .. ..... .. .. .. ..... ...... ... .. . ...... . .... ... ....... . . . ............ . .......... . ........ . ..... .. ........ . ......... . .. ........ ... ...... f (t) B sinc 2¼ e μ F (!) Bt 2 ¶ ¦ ³!´ B F (! ¡ ! ) f (t) ¤ £ B sinc(Bt=2) ej!0 t + e¡j!0 t 2¼ B = sinc(Bt=2) cos(!0 t) ¼ h(t) = h(t) ...... .. .. . ..... . . ...... .... .. . . . ... . . ......... B B ¡!0 !0 0 H(!) = ¦ μ ! ¡ !0 B ¶ +¦ μ ! + !0 B ! ¶ . .. .... .. ............... .... ..... ......... ....... .... ... .. ...... ..... ... .. .... .. . ...... .... .. 0 .... .... ........ .... .. .. ....... .. ...... . ... ... ... ...... .. ................ .......... ... . . ........ .. ... . . ... ... .. ...... . ....... . .... ....... . . ... ... .. ...... . . .... .. .... . ... ............. ... .. ... ..... .... .......... .... .. .. ......... .......... .. . .... . . ... ..... ... . ...... . ..... .......................... .. ... ...... . .... .. .. .. .... .... .. ...... ....... .. ...... ..... ..... .. ..... ...... .... ... . . ... ............. ........... ......... . . ... . . ............. .... .. . .. ........ ...... . .. ............... .. . .. .. ...... ... ...... . ........... .. ......... .... ........ ... ........ ... ......... ... ... .. ............... . ...... .. ... .. ..... ....... . .... ........... .. .. ..... ........ ..... ............ ... ........ ... . .... ....... ......... . .............. ....... .... .......... . ........ . . ..... ......... ... ... . . ... ......... . ...... ....... . . .. .... .. ... . ... .... ....... . .... ...... ... ..... .... .. . .. ......... ..... ..... ... . .. . ...... . . ... . ................. .. .... .. .. ...... .... ......... . .. ...... ! = 100... . ........ . .... .. ... . .. ......... . ..... .......... . .... ... . . . ... ....... ..... . ...... . . . ... . ... ............... .. . .. . ...... ... ........... .... . ....... .. .. .. ..... . ...... . ... ...... .. ......... ....... ... .. . ... ... ... . .... ... .. ... .. .. ..... .............. .. . .. ..... . ........ .Ideal Band-Pass Filter H(!) . .............. .... ........ .... .. ....... ..... .. ..... . ..... ... . ......... ..... ... . . ....... . ........... ......... .... ... . .... . .... ... .... .. ........ . .. ............. ............ .. . . . ................ .. . .... . ............... . . ............. ... .. ... ... .. . ... ...... . ... .... ......... j!0 t . .... .. . . .. .. .. . ..... ......... ...... . ...... ..... ........ . ... .. ...... ..... .... ........................... .. . . ... . .. ........... . ............. . ....... .. .... . . .. ... .. .. ..... . ..... ...... . .... . . ......... . .... . . . ....... ..... ... . ..... ......... .. ...... .. ..... . ....... . . ..... .. .. ...... . ....... ... ............ ..... .. .

............... .......... ............. that is vo (t) = Ri(t).... .............. ... .. .... . ........ .. .......... ..... .... .... ......................... . ................... .. ........ i o ................... ... ...... + ² L i(t) + C v (t) v (t) R ¡ ² ¡ (1) Solve for vo (t) by representing the time-domain signals in terms of their Fourier transforms....................... . .... ......... ................... .. ... ..... ... . .Complex Phasors for Time-Harmonic Circuit Analysis. ........... and is therefore the motivation for.. .......................... .... ................... ...... ................................. ................ ......... . ..... .. ................ ....... . ............. ...... ...... .......... .... Recall that the time-harmonic signal i(t) is represented in terms of the complex phasor I via i(t) = RefIe+j!t g: The Fourier transform of the input or generator voltage is ½ ¾ ¤ Vp £ j(!0 t+Á) ¡j(!0 t+Á) Vi (!) = F[vi (t)] = F[Vp cos(!0 t + Á)] = F +e e 2 ¤ Vp £ = 2¼ejÁ ±(! ¡ !0 ) + 2¼e¡jÁ ±(! ¡ !0 ) : 2 The Fourier transform of the entire (KVL) equation above (both the LHS and RHS) is · ¸ £ ¤ 1 I(!) j!LI(!) + + ¼I(0)±(!) + RI(!) = ¼Vp ejÁ ±(! ¡ !0 ) + e¡jÁ ±(! + !0 ) : C j! Physically argue that I(0) = 0 here................. .. ........................... ... . the (simple and compact!) complex phasor analysis of time-harmonic circuits such as this one.... ... . ........ that is ¯nd vo (t) if vi (t) = Vp cos(!0 t + Á).... ........... .................... ............. . ...... . ... ........ .. ......... ..... .................. ..... .. since we expect zero steady-state DC current through the capacitor.................. ......... .. ..... . The time-domain integro-di®erential equation (Kirchho®'s voltage law) that is appropriate for this network is Zt di(t) 1 L + i(¿ ) d¿ + Ri(t) = vi (t) dt C ¡1 and the output voltage is simply a scaled version of the mesh current. .... ... ............ ....... . whereupon μ ¶ £ ¤ 1 R + j!L + I(!) = ¼Vp ejÁ ±(! ¡ !0 ) + e¡jÁ ±(! + !0 ) : j!C | {z } Z(!) 96 ... ............. ... (2) Show that the Fourier transform analysis is equivalent to.. ... ...................... .. Consider the sinusoidalsteady-state response of the given RLC circuit. ........ . .. ................. .......... ........ ............ ................................

c.Now solve this algebraic equation for the unknown spectrum ejÁ ±(! ¡ !0 ) + e¡jÁ ±(! + !0 ) : I(!) = ¼Vp Z(!) Fourier inversion proceeds as 1 i(t) = 2¼ Z1 ¡1 2 I(!)ej!t d! Z1 Z1 3 Vp 4 jÁ ±(! ¡ !0 ) j!t ±(! + !0 ) j!t 5 e e d! + e¡jÁ e d! 2 Z(!) Z(!) ¡1 ¡1 · ¸ j!0 t ¡j!0 t e Vp jÁ e = e + e¡jÁ note Z(¡!0 ) = Z ¤ (+!0 ) 2 Z(!0 ) Z(¡!0 ) · ¸ 1 Vp ejÁ j!0 t Vp e¡jÁ ¡j!0 t = e e + ¤ 2 Z(!0 ) Z (!0 ) · ¸ 1 Vp ejÁ j!0 t = e + c. 97 . Vo = RI and vo (t) = Ri(t): It looks like the two steps alluded to in the problem statement are more naturally done together. an expression plus its complex conjugate 2 Z(!0 ) · ¸ £ ¤ Vp ejÁ j!0 t e = Re = Re Iej!0 t Z(!0 ) = where the complex phasor I= Vp ejÁ Vi = Z(!0 ) Z(!0 ) introduced itself! If you still want it.

......................... ................................................ .... .... consider the energy in the output voltage y(t) Z1 jy(t)j2 dt: Ey = ¡1 Again.... ....................... .....Homework Problem on Uncertainty Principle Consider the signal 1 x(t) = p ¦(t=T ) T where T > 0 and the total energy in x(t) is Ex = Z1 ¡1 jx(t)j2 dt = 1: (The multiplying factor T ¡1=2 ensures that Ex is independent of T ... ............................... ........ .... .. ............. ..... .................. . .. ............. ... If T is increased. ............... ............................. .. ............................................................. will the output energy Ey increase.. ................ .... ............................) If x(t) is the input voltage to the given electric circuit....... note that changing T has no e®ect on the total input energy........ decrease.................................. ................ or remain the same? Explain............... with ¯xed values of R and L.................... ....... .................. .... ..... ...... ........................ + ² L x(t) y(t) R ¡ ² 98 + ¡ ......

...... . .... .. . then the spectrum of the the modulated carrier x(t) = a(t) cos(!0 t) (1) X(!) = 12 [A(! ¡ !0 ) + A(! + !0 )]: (2) is An example spectrum is shown in Fig....... .. ..... ... ........ .. . . ....... ..... . ..... ...... . . . . . . ...... . . . .. .............. .. ........ . ... ...................... .............. ..... ...... . jX(!)j . ........ .. .... x(t) y(t) H(!) Fig. .................. . ...... .. . .......... ...... ..... . ...... . .. . . ............ .... .. ..... ......... .... ..... . . ................... . ............ .......... .. ... ...... .. .. .... .... ............... .. .... ........... ..... .... .. .............. ........ .. ¡!0 0 ! !0 Fig....... .. ..... ...... .......... ................... .. ..... ........... .. . System Block Diagram If the modulating signal or envelope of a high frequency sinusoid of frequency !0 is the baseband signal a(t).. .... 2... with the positive and negative frequency contributions written separately as 99 .......... The response of the system is the inverse Fourier transform of X(!)H(!).... .. .. . ............ ..... .............. ...... ......... . ......... 2.... .................. . . . ............ .... . ... . ...... . ....... . . . .. .. .... .. ............ .............. ...... .. ....... ...... ..... ......... .. . .. ....... . ......... ..... ... ........ .. .......... . . . . .. ....... the spectra satisfy X(¡!) = X ¤ (!) and H(¡!) = H ¤ (!).... having bandwidth considerably less than !0 (say 10%)................Approximate Analysis of Dispersion .. ............ .. .... .. ....... .... ...... .... Typical Narrow-Band Spectrum For real signals x(t) and h(t). ....... ..... ....... .... .. ... . .... . .... .. .... ........ .................. ............... 1... . ....... . .. ....

c. baseband or low-pass signal.1 y(t) = 2¼ Z1 1 2¼ Z1 0 0 1 2¼ Z1 Z1 j!t X(!)H(!)e 0 = = = = 1 2¼ 0 Z1 Z0 1 d! + 2¼ X(!)H(!)ej!t d! + X(!)H(!)ej!t d! + 1 2¼ X(!)H(!)ej!t d! ¡1 Z1 1 2¼ X(¡−)H(¡−)e¡j−t d− £ ¤¤ X(−)H(−)ej−t d− 0 X(!)H(!)ej!t d! + c. 100 . and consists of positive frequencies only Z1 1 y+ (t) = [A(! ¡ !0 ) + A(! + !0 )]H(!)ej!t d! 2¼ 0 1 ¼ 2¼ Z1 ¡1 1 A(! ¡ !0 )H(!)ej!t d! = 2¼ Z1 A(−)H(− + !0 )ej(−+!0 )t d− (4) ¡1 where A(−) is the original. Write H(!) = exp[j£(!)]: (5) A Taylor series about !0 of the phase function £(!0 + −) = £(!0 ) + −£0 (!0 ) + 12 −2 £00 (!0 ) + : : : (6) gives the approximate transfer function 0 H(− + !0 ) ¼ ej£(!0 ) ej−£ (!0 ) : (7) An approximation for the pre-envelope (4) is therefore Z1 0 1 j[!0 t+£(!0 )] y+ (t) ¼ e A(−)ej−[£ (!0 )+t] d− 2¼ ¡1 = ej[!0 t+£(!0 )] a[t + £0 (!0 )] (8) and so the ¯nal approximation for the output of the dispersive ¯lter (5) is y(t) ¼ a[t + £0 (!0 )] cos[!0 t + £(!0 )]: (9) The phase delay (of the carrier) is due to £(!0 ) and the group delay (of the envelope) is due to £0 (!0 ). 0 1 2 [y+ (t) ¤ + y+ (t)] (3) The signal y+ (t) is called the pre-envelope of y(t). The phase or argument of the transfer function H(!) in a neighborhood of the carrier frequency !0 is of most interest.

Numerical Example. then £0 (!0 ) = ¡t0 . t0 = 3. The phase function of a length of waveguide transmission line is p £(!) = ¡ ! 2 ¡ !c2 t0 where !c is the cuto® frequency of the guide and t0 = d=c where d is the length and c is the free-space phase velocity. The 4096 point FFT uses ¢! = 0:3. !0 = 30. If !c = 25. If !c = 0. 101 . then (30)(3) £0 (!0 ) = ¡ p = ¡5:43 302 ¡ 252 The following ¯gures are the result of an inverse FFT approximation for the signal 2 x(t) = e¡t cos(!0 t) applied to the input of the above dispersive waveguide section.

... .......... .. t = 3.... ...........0 0...... .. ............. .......... ... ... .......... . .... . ....... ... ..... ....... ..... .......... ... ... .... . . .......... ..... ......... ..... ........ ..... . ... .. ........ ...... ... .. ..... . . .... . .. ........... ..... ...... ... . . .. ..... .. .... . ..... .......... .. ..... . ...... ............. ............. .. .. .... 3. ........ ..... .... .... . ..... ....... . ....... .... ....... ..... ... . .....0 ¡0:5 ¡1:0 . ....... . ..... ...... .... . ........... .... ... ... ........ .. . .. . . .... ......... .. ................ .... ....... ... ... ..... ........... ... .. ....... . ...... .. ..... .... ....... ...... ......... ..... ...... . ... ........ ... .. . ..... .. . .............. ...... .. .. ... .......... . .. .... ....... .......... . .. .... . . .......... .............. .. ... . . ... ........ ..... . .. ............ ...... ....... ................. . . .................. .. .. . ... ..... ............ . ............... ....... ...... .. ...... . .. ... ........ .......... . ... ... ... . ...... . . ........ ..... ..... ...... .. ..... .... . . ...... . .. ....... . ..... ...... . .. .... ........ .. ... ..... ..... .. ..... ........ .. . . ...... . . ....... ............... . .. ... ... .... .... ... ...... .. ....... ..... ... ....... ......... .. ....... .. .. ... ... . .. ..... . .... .. . ..... .. ... ....... ......... ........... ......... ... ...... .... ..... ............. . ..... ........ ... ........ . .. . ..... ..... .......... ..... . . ..... ..... .. .... ...... . .. c 0 0 . .. ............ . ........... . .... ... ............... ..... ........ ...... ... .. .. ...... ... ......... .... ... ....... ............. ............... . ... ........ . .. .. ............ .... ........ ......... . . ........ .... ... ....... .. .. ......... ............ ............ .. .................. ....... .. ... .... ...... ....... . ............ ........... . ......... ........ ... ... .. ....... ... .. ....... ............. ..... ... ...... ................. ....... .... .. . . .. ... ...... .... ...... ...... .. . ...... . . .......... ...... ............ ....... ....... .......... ............. . .. ........ ... ... .... ... . .... .... ... ..... .... . ............. ... ... ............. .... ........ ..... ... ...... ..... ... .. .. .... . . ...... .... ............0 0. ........ . ........... . .... . ........... ... ....... . . . ... .. .......... ........ . ......... .......... ......... ...... ..... ............... .......... ......... ...... ...... ..... . . . ..... .. ....... . ....... . . ........ ... ..... ........ . .............. . .... ...... ......... ..... ....... . . .. .... ..... ............ .. . ... ......... ......5 y(t) 0. . ..... ... . ....... ................ . . ....... ............. ! = 0..... . . . ...... ... ......... . ...... .. .................. . ...... .. .. ........ ..... Dispersive Filter Output 102 8 9 10 .. . .. . . ........ .. ... ..... ! = 30 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t 1.. ...... ..... ... .... . . . . ........... .... . ....... ... .. !0 = 30 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 t Fig... ...... ....... . ........ ......... . . .......... .... ..... ... ............ .............. . ....... .. .......... ...... ....... ....... ....... .... ... . .. .. ..... .... . ......... ........... ....... .. .... ...... .. ... .... .. . ... ... ... ..... .... .... .. ... .... .. ..... .. ..... ........ .... ..... ............... c 0 .... .... ... .. ... .. ........ . ..... .... .... . . .. ....... .. .. . ... .... ... .. . . .... . ... ........ .. .... ..... .. ...0 ¡0:5 ¡1:0 ... .. . ........... . .. .... ....... .. .. ........ ....... ... ........ .. ................ . ....... ... .... ....... ............... .... .... . .. ....... .... ....... ..... .. . ........... ....... .. ..... . .. ............ . ......... ........ .. . .... ... . . ..... .. .... .. .. .... .. . ... ........... .. . .. .... . ..... .. .. . .. ............. ... .. .......... . . . ... . .... ........ .. ..... ......... .. ... ...... . .. .... .. . .. ...... ................ ............ t = 3...... .. ........... .... ... ............ .... .. ........ ..... ......... .. ... .... ......... . ... .. ..... ...... .... ....... ...... ............ .. . .. .1....... ... ............ . .. ....... .. ....... ............. ........... ............ .... ... .. ... .. ....... .. . . .... ... ............. . .. ....... ..... ...... ... ........ . .... .. .. ......... .. ..... ....... ............... ......... .. .. .. .. . . .... . .. ..... ..... ... ......... ... .. . .... ... ... .. . . . .. ............ . . . ... .. .. .. . .. . .... ... ... . .... .... .......... . . .. . ..... . . ...... .... ....... ............ .. ................. . ... ......... .............................. ! = 25.. . ..5 y(t) 0..... .................................... ..... .. ... ... .... . ......... ..... ......... .......... ..... . ......... ........ . ..... ............... .. ... ... .... ............ ..

103 . jxj < 1 0. y) = Z1 A(k) cos(kx)e¡kjyj dk 0 Ã(x. y) = 0 1. y) = ¼ Z1 sin k cos kx ¡kjyj e dk k 0 Z1 sin[k(x + 1)] ¡ sin[k(x ¡ 1)] ¡kjyj e dx k 0 · μ ¶ μ ¶¸ 1 x+1 x¡1 ¡1 ¡1 = tan ¡ tan ¼ jyj jyj = 1 ¼ using G&R 3. y) = μ @2 @2 + 2 @x2 @y boundary conditions Ã(x. 0) = ½ ¶ Ã(x. 0) cos(kx) dx = ¼ 0 Z1 cos(kx) dx = 2 sin k ¼ k 0 2 Ã(x. y) = cos(kx)e¡kjyj Ã(x.941(1). jxj > 1 separate variables Ã(x. y) = X(x)Y (y) X 00 (x) Y 00 (y) + =0 X(x) Y (y) | {z } | {z } =¡k2 =+k2 solution form Ã(x.Fourier Integral Solution of Potential Problem Laplace's equation 2 r Ã(x. 0) = Z1 A(k) cos(kx) dk 0 inverse Fourier transform 2 A(k) = ¼ Z1 2 Ã(x.

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 −3 −2 −1 0 Fig. 1. Equipotentials 104 1 2 3 .

Laplace's equation r2 Ã(x. 105 2 ¼k .J. y) = Z1 B(k) sin(kx)e¡kjyj dk 0 Ã(x. Ablowitz and A. y) = 0 boundary conditions Ã(x. Cambridge.Fourier Integral Solution of Potential Problem M.S. Fokas. Complex Variables.941(1). 0) = Z1 B(k) sin(kx) dk 0 inverse Fourier transform 2 B(k) = ¼ Z1 2 Ã(x. 0) sin(kx) dx = ¼ 0 Z1 sin(kx) dx = 0 a bit tricky! recall ECE 370 and sgn(x) = u(x) ¡ u(¡x) 2 Ã(x. y) = sin(kx)e¡kjyj Ã(x. y) = X(x)Y (y) X 00 (x) Y 00 (y) + =0 X(x) Y (y) | {z } | {z } =¡k2 =+k2 solution form Ã(x. page 60 prob 9. 0) = sgn(x) = §1 (x ? 0) separate variables Ã(x. y) = ¼ Z1 sin kx ¡kjyj e dk k 0 μ ¶ μ ¶ 2 2 x jyj ¡1 ¡1 = tan = 1 ¡ tan ¼ jyj ¼ x using G&R 3. 1997.

we de¯ne 8 > < ¡1. where ¡¼=T < a < b < ¼=T . we see that F[combT (t)] = 2¼ T comb2¼=T (!): ¥ Now we are in a position to derive the Fourier series from the Fourier integral. 106 . (2) (3) n=¡1 periodic in ! with period 2¼=T . The minimum and maximum restrictions cover one period.The Fourier Transform of combT (t) is 2¼ T comb2¼=T (!) Recall our notation F (!) for the Fourier transform F (!) = F[f (t)] = Z1 ¡j!t f (t)e ¡1 F dt () f (t) = F ¡1 1 [F (!)] = 2¼ Z1 F (!)ej!t d!: (1) ¡1 The Fourier transform of Woodward's comb function. Let's integrate F (!) over the range a < ! < b. x = 0 > : +1. or impulse train f (t) = combT (t) = 1 X n=¡1 is therefore F[combT (t)] = 1 X ±(t ¡ nT ) e¡jn!T = F (!) = F (! + 2¼=T ). And recall that we essentially derived the Fourier integral from the \spectral representation of the Dirac-delta" function. We will make use of the discontinuous sum 1 X sin(nx) ¼ ¡ jxj = sgn(x) n 2 n=1 (¡2¼ < x < 2¼) (4) where. We are in excellent shape to now do some real damage. in this context. x < 0 sgn(x) = 0. centered about the origin (! = 0). x > 0 (5) in order to ensure the vanishing of the sum for x = 0. The integral of interest is Zb X 1 a n=¡1 1 Z X b ¡jn!T e d! = b ¡ a + 2 cos(n!T ) d! n=1 a 1 X 2 1 [sin(nbT ) ¡ sin(naT )] T n=1 n ³¼ ´ ³¼ ´ =b¡a+ ¡ jbj sgn(b) ¡ ¡ jaj sgn(a) T T ½ 2¼=T if ¡ ¼=T < a < 0 < b < ¼=T = : 0 if a < b < 0 or 0 < a < b =b¡a+ (6) Therefore.

. ....... ... ..... ............. ....... ..... ...... .......... ...... ............. ..... ............. ... . ........ .. ...... ........ and let's focus our attention on the particular period 0 · t · T .... ... ...... . ... .. .......... ... ...... .. .................. .... ....... ............. it was simply easier to draw one like this... or even real-valued... . .. ....... ................. .. .......... .. . . ................ ::: ¡2T ¡T 0 2¼ comb 2¼ (!) T T F combT (t) T 2T ::: t ::: 4¼ ¡ T 2¼ ¡ T 0 2¼ T ! 4¼ T Fourier Transform of a Periodic Signal f (t) = f (t + T ) ......... .......... ........ ..... ........ .... ..... .. .............. ... ........... . . ........... . ....... ..... .. but since all periods are equivalent we might as well work with the selected one... ........... .... . ¡T 0 T t 2T Consider the arbitrary periodic signal f (t) = f (t + T )...... ... ........... . .. .. ....... .. . ...................... ::: ::: ¡T 0 T t 2T g(t) ................. That is. ... ......... ... ... .......... .. . . .... .......... ...... .... .... .... . . ................... ...... .. ........ .. ........... ...... .................... ... ................ ............................. ....... .. .......... ....... .. ....... ...... ::: ..... ...... ................. ...... ............. ...... ...... ..... (The function f does not have to go to zero at t = nT ....... ............. .... ... .. ..... . ... ................ ..............() ........ ................. .............. ......... ... . ................... ... . ...... ......... ........... ..... ............ ..... ... .. .. ....... ..... ........ ................... .... ...... ... .... ...... ..... ......... ..... .. . .. .. ....... ..... .. .. . ...... .. ...... we write f (t) as the periodic extension of g(t) in the form f (t) = 1 X n=¡1 107 g(t ¡ nT ): (2) . ... ........ ... ...... ....... ............ ...... ......... ......... ...... . ..) Introduce the new aperiodic function g(t).................... .. .. .. . .... . ........... ..... .. .......... t < 0 or t > T: We can easily reproduce the entire periodic signal f (t) by replicating g(t) all up and down the t-axis....... ... .............................. . ... ...... ................. ... ....... .................. also de¯ned for all t according to ½ f (t).. . .. .............. ........ . . .. .......... ...... Any period would work............. .. ... .......... .................... ........ ... ... .... .. ... ... . . ............... And of course the function f does not have to be positive.. .. . .. .. .. . ....... .......... .... ....... .... ........ ....... .. . .... .. ....... . .............. .... .. . . .... ....... . .. ..... . .. .... .. .. ........ ......... ... ... ....... .. ........... .... .. ......... ........ ......... ....... . ............. ..... ...... ..... ............. ....... ... ................................. .... . . ... .............. ..... ........... .... .. ................ ..... ................ ........... . 0 · t · T g(t) = (1) 0.. ..... ........... ................. . ... . ....... ... ............ ... ......... . .... ...... ............ ... .... .... ......... . . .. ........... .... .... .......... ... .............. .............

. .... .. ..... .... ... ... ... .. ....... ... .. .... .. . . . . . ............ . .. . .. . .... . . .. ..... . .. .... .. ......... .... . ... .. .. ... .. .. . ... . . .. ........ . ....... .. . .... . ...... ... ...... .... . .... . ..... ... ....... . .... ........ ..... .. . ... .. . ... ... .. .. .. . . . .......... .. . .... .. . .. . .... .. ... ... ...... ....... . ... . . . .... . .... .. . ... .......... ..... . .. . .. ....... ...... ... .. . . ....... .. .. ........ ..... . ... . . ....... .. . . . . . .... . .. . ..... ...... ... ..... . .... .. . . ...... ..... .. ..... . ..... ........ ...... ...... .. .. ...... .. . .. . . . . 2¼ T 1 2¼ X = G(n!0 )±(! ¡ n!0 ): T n=¡1 (4) The spectrum F (!) of the periodic signal f (t) consists of discrete spectral lines at integer multiples n!0 of the fundamental frequency !0 = 2¼=T . ... ........ . .. ... . .......... .. ....... . ...... .. .. ...... . .... ... . ..... ... ...... . .. .. .. . .. ... ..... .... .. .. ..... . . .. . . .. . . ... .. . .. . . .. ... . ... ..... . . . ...... ... ....... .. ... . . .... ... ...... ... ... . .. .. . .. . . .... ....... ..... .. ... ... .. .... . .................. .. . ... ..... . ........ . . ... .... ..... ... .. . .. ... .. . . . . ....... .. . .. .... .. ......... . . .. .. ..... . . . .... .. .. . .... .. .... .. .... . .. ... .... .. . .... ..... ...... ... ... .. ... . .. .. . . .... ... . .... .. . . . ... ... ...... ... . .... ... ... . . ... .. . ..... .... ... ...... . . .. ...... ... . .. .... . ... ....... .... ..... . .... . .. . ...... . .... .. . . .... ..... . . . ....... Note that negative n are just as important as positive n. .. ...... ... . .. ........ ........ .... ... . .... .. ... ... ... ...... ... . ... .. ¡10 ¡8 ¡6 6 ¡4 ¡2 0 2 108 4 8 10 ! !0 . ... . ....... ..... .... . ... ... .. ..... ...... .. .. .... . .. . .. ..... ..... ...... ... .... ... ....... .... ....... . . ........ .. .. ......... ... .... .... . .. .. .... .. .. . . ...... .. .. ... ............ . . . . ... ... . ... ........... ... .. ........ ...... .. .. ...... . . .... .. .. ... . . .... .. . ........ . . .. . ... . . . . .. The nth multiple is called the nth harmonic... .... ... . . . ........ .... ... .......... . ..... .. ...... ... . ...... .... .... .. .. .... ...... .. .. .. .. ....... . . .... .. . . . .. . .... ..Recognize that (2) can be written as f (t) = g(t) ~ 1 X n=¡1 ±(t ¡ nT ) = g(t) ~ combT (t): (3) The Fourier transform of (3) is 2¼ comb 2¼ (!) T T 1 X 2¼ G(!) = ±(! ¡ n!0 ) T n=¡1 F (!) = G(!) ¢ where !0 ........... . .. . .... . .. .... ..... . . .. . ... ... . . .. ......

applied. F Exercise 8.) You deserve one. (They can split it to ¯t any ¯nancial boundary conditions. In fact. the above derivation starting from the top of three pages back. of course. If none ¯t that description. If you explain it correctly and with some degree of coherence. and your entire audience has not deserted you.The inverse Fourier transform of F (!) should give us our original periodic f (t). It does. Otherwise go back and do any of the homework exercises (including enough of the 16 Fourier transform pairs on page 59) that strike your fancy. buy the survivor(s) a Coke. it gives us a whole new representation for a periodic signal 1 f (t) = 2¼ Z1 ¡1 j!t F (!)e Z1 1 1 X X G(n!0 ) G(n!0 ) jn!0 t d! = ±(! ¡ n!0 )ej!t d! = e T T n=¡1 n=¡1 ¡1 (5) where ¯ G(n!0 ) = G(!)¯!=n!0 = Z1 ¡jn!0 t g(t)e dt = ¡1 ZT ¡jn!0 t g(t)e 0 dt = ZT f (t)e¡jn!0 t dt: (6) 0 We usually call the Fourier coe±cients cn instead of G(n!0 )=T and write the whole package as ZT 1 X 1 jn!0 t f (t) = cn e cn = f (t)e¡jn!0 t dt: (7) T n=¡1 0 Of course any period will work for the integration limits. in detail. since the total integrand is periodic with period T : tZ 0 +T 1 f (t)e¡jn!0 t dt: (8) cn = T t0 You now have the complete and uncluttered derivation of the Fourier series representation of a periodic signal. The two key components are the correspondingly appropriate spectral representations for the aperiodic Dirac-delta function and for its periodic version. 109 . to your total solution. see me for more. All that was required on our part was a reasonable °uency with the Fourier transform properties and a few fundamental signals. Woodward's comb function. starting from the Fourier integral. Find an interested (or at least willing) fellow student or more who are at or above your present level with respect to Fourier analysis. and explain to them. too.

f (t)i = 4 jf (t)j2 dt5 : a When dealing with periodic signals so that the interval of interest is any period t0 · t · t0 + T . f (t)g ¤ (t) dt = 0: a a In any given situation. An important property of a periodic signal is that the integral tZ 0 +T t0 f (t) dt = ZT f (t) dt = 0 T =2 Z f (t) dt = ¡T =2 3T Z =4 f (t) dt = : : : ¡T =4 is independent of the time t0 . so that the integral tZ 0 +T f (t)ejn!0 t dt t0 is also independent of the time t0 . with n!0 the nth harmonic frequency for integer n = 0. let's assume the interval of interest a · t · b is known and ¯xed. so that we can condense the notation on the inner product angle brackets. That is. 2¼=T to be the fundamental frequency of the periodic signal. It will be frequently convenient to de¯ne !0 . : : : . DEFN: Orthogonality. g(t)i¯ . a jf (t)j2 dt = E and the square-root of this necessarily non negative quantity is called the norm of the signal 2 b 31=2 Z p kf (t)k = + hf (t). then the product f (t)ejn!0 t is also periodic with period T . f (t)i . Another useful observation is that if f (t) = f (t + T ). the e®ective or root-mean-square value is 2 t +T 31=2 Z0 1 frms = 4 jf (t)j2 dt5 : T t0 110 . integration over any complete period yields the same result. Two functions (generally complex) are said to be orthogonal on the domain a · t · b if the inner product ¯b Zb ¯ hf (t). F Be sure you can show/verify this important property for yourself. §2.Periodic Signals and Fourier Series The period of a periodic signal is the smallest positive number T such that f (t) = f (t + T ) for all t. §1. The inner product of a signal and itself is sometimes called the energy in the signal Zb hf (t).

m = 1. m = 1. : : : ) t0 When n = 0 the nth cosine is unity. : : : ) t0 tZ 0 +T t0 hcos(n!0 t). : : : ) sin(n!0 t) sin(m!0 t) dt = T ±n. hejn!0 t . cos(m!0 t)iT = tZ 0 +T cos(m!0 t) dt = T ±0. 1. m 6 = n: It is unrelated to the Dirac-delta function ±(t) that is explicitly written as a function of the continuous time variable t. 2. when m = 0. This simple function is a function of two integers m and n and is de¯ned as ½ 1. §1.m t0 tZ 0 +T (n. : : : ) t0 Note that sin(m!0 t) is trivial. m = 0.m (m = 0. : : : ) t0 h1. 2. 2. m = 0. m = n ±m. The operational advantage of introducing this notational convenience will be clear as we progress.Kronecker delta.m 2 (n. cos(m!0 t)iT = hsin(n!0 t). 2. and we have h1. Orthogonality of the Fourier basis. 111 . 1.n = 0. sin(m!0 t)iT = tZ 0 +T sin(m!0 t) dt = 0 (m = 1. sin(m!0 t)iT = ej(n¡m)!0 t dt = T ±n. 2. ejm!0 t iT = tZ 0 +T hcos(n!0 t). You will need to use trig identities to simplify the products in the integrands. §2. F Homework: Verify/derive each of the above orthogonality relations. sin(m!0 t)iT = tZ 0 +T cos(n!0 t) sin(m!0 t) dt = 0 (n.m 2 (n. and therefore not used. : : : ) cos(n!0 t) cos(m!0 t) dt = T ±n.

m c¤m e¡jm!0 t dt {z fe¤ (t) ej(n¡m)!0 t dt } . write the mean square error 1 E = T 2 1 = T tZ 0 +T t0 1 jf (t) ¡ fe(t)j2 dt = T tZ 0 +T £ ¤£ ¤ f (t) ¡ fe(t) f ¤ (t) ¡ fe¤ (t) dt t0 tZ 0 +T t0 £ ¤ jf (t)j2 + jfe(t)j2 ¡ f (t)fe¤ (t) ¡ f ¤ (t)fe(t) dt: We need the following component integrals. the Fourier coe±cients appeared naturally.Derivation of Fourier Coe±cients by Minimizing the Mean Square Error The concept of the Fourier series arose naturally back on page 108 when we wrote a periodic signal as the inverse Fourier integral of its Fourier transform. In doing so. Now let's start over by assuming that the periodic signal f (t) = f (t + T ) can be represented by a Fourier series. One approach to derive the expression for the Fourier coe±cients cn is to ask the question: What values of the cn minimize the mean square error between the original signal f (t) and its proposed Fourier series representation fe(t) ? Firstly. 1 T tZ 0 +T t0 1 jfe(t)j2 dt = T tZ 0 +T t0 1 X cn e n=¡1 | {z fe(t) 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 = cn c¤m T n=¡1 m=¡1 = = n=¡1 1 X cn 1 X jn!0 t m=¡1 cn c¤n n=¡1 112 m=¡1 } | tZ 0 +T t0 c¤m ±n. call it fe(t) = 1 X cn ejn!0 t n=¡1 to temporarily avoid any premature claims that fe(t) = f (t).

1 T tZ 0 +T t0 1 T tZ 0 +T f (t)fe(t) dt = ¤ e¤ 1 X 1 cn T n=¡1 1 X f (t)f (t) dt = t0 c¤n n=¡1 1 T tZ 0 +T f ¤ (t)ejn!0 t dt t0 tZ 0 +T f (t)e¡jn!0 t dt t0 Now the mean square error is 1 E = T 2 tZ 0 +T t0 2 jf (t)j dt + 1 X cn c¤n n=¡1 1 X tZ 0 +T 1 X tZ 0 +T 1 ¡ cn T n=¡1 ¡ c¤n n=¡1 1 T f ¤ (t)ejn!0 t dt t0 f (t)e¡jn!0 t dt t0 2 To minimize E with respect to the Fourier coe±cients cn . set to zero the partial derivative with respect to each of the ck (for all integer k) @ 2 1 E = c¤k ¡ @ck T or c¤k 1 = T tZ 0 +T f ¤ (t)ejk!0 t dt = 0 t0 tZ 0 +T f ¤ (t)ejk!0 t dt t0 the conjugate of which gives the required Fourier coe±cient formula 1 ck = T tZ 0 +T f (t)e¡jk!0 t dt t0 where k can now be replaced by n 1 cn = T tZ 0 +T f (t)e¡jn!0 t dt: t0 113 .

2. 0. : : : ) set 1 X cn e n=¡1 c0 + 1 h X c0 + jn!0 t cn e n=1 jn!0 t 1 X ¤ £ = a0 + an cos(n!0 t) + bn sin(n!0 t) n=1 ¡jn!0 t + c¡n e i 1 X £ ¤ = a0 + an cos(n!0 t) + bn sin(n!0 t) n=1 1 h X © ª © ªi cn cos(n!0 t) + j sin(n!0 t) + c¡n cos(n!0 t) ¡ j sin(n!0 t) n=1 1 X = a0 + n=1 ¤ £ an cos(n!0 t) + bn sin(n!0 t) 1 h 1 i X X £ ¤ c0 + (cn +c¡n ) cos(n!0 t)+j(cn ¡c¡n ) sin(n!0 t) = a0 + an cos(n!0 t)+bn sin(n!0 t) n=1 n=1 114 . 1. 2.Fourier Coe±cients by a Direct Inner Product Write 1 X f (t) = cn ejn!0 t n=¡1 and then take the inner product of both sides with ejm!0 t tZ 0 +T 1 X f (t)e¡jm!0 t dt = n=¡1 t0 = 1 X cn tZ 0 +T ej(n¡m)!0 t dt t0 cn T ±n. 1. : : : ) in terms of the complex exponential coe±cients cn (n = : : : . ¡1.m = T cm n=¡1 and therefore cm 1 = T tZ 0 +T f (t)e¡jm!0 t dt: t0 Trigonometric Form of the Fourier Series 1 X ¤ £ f (t) = a0 + an cos(n!0 t) + bn sin(n!0 t) n=1 To ¯nd the trig coe±cients an and bn (n = 0.

: : : ) t0 2 bn = j(cn ¡ c¡n ) = T tZ 0 +T f (t) sin(n!0 t) dt (n = 1. Derive the trig Fourier coe±cients by taking the direct inner product of 1 X £ ¤ f (t) = a0 + an cos(n!0 t) + bn sin(n!0 t) n=1 with each of the trig Fourier basis functions cos(m!0 t). sin(m!0 t). : : : ) t0 F Homework.Therefore 1 a0 = c0 = T tZ 0 +T f (t) dt t0 an = cn + c¡n 2 = T tZ 0 +T f (t) cos(n!0 t) dt (n = 1. 2. 2. and unity. 115 .

Two Standard Notations for the Trigonometric Fourier Series

f (t) = a0 +

1
X
¤
£
an cos(n!0 t) + bn sin(n!0 t)

n=1

1
a0 =
T

tZ
0 +T

f (t) dt

t0

2
an =
T

tZ
0 +T

f (t) cos(n!0 t) dt

(n = 1; 2; : : : )

f (t) sin(n!0 t) dt

(n = 1; 2; : : : )

t0

2
bn =
T

tZ
0 +T
t0

1
¤
a0 X£
f (t) =
+
an cos(n!0 t) + bn sin(n!0 t)
2
n=1

2
an =
T

tZ
0 +T

f (t) cos(n!0 t) dt

(n = 0; 1; 2; : : : )

t0

2
bn =
T

tZ
0 +T

f (t) sin(n!0 t) dt

(n = 1; 2; : : : )

t0

The second form uses the general form for an to also calculate the DC term a0 , avoiding
the need for a separate formula for a0 .
It is silly, but observe that this captures the spirit:
1

¤
| X£
f (t) =
+
an cos(n!0 t) + bn sin(n!0 t)
7 n=1
7
|=
T

tZ
0 +T

f (t) dt

t0

F Homework. In some applications, the Fourier series is written in the form
1
X
f (t) = A0 +
An cos(n!0 t + Án ):
n=1

Find an expression for An and Án in terms of an and bn .
116

Riemann-Lebesgue Lemma - Fourier Coe±cients
f (t) = f (t + T ) =

1
X

cn ejn!0 t ;

!0 = 2¼=T

n=¡1

T cn =

tZ
0 +T

f (t)e¡jn!0 t dt

t0

¯t0 +T
tZ
0 +T
f (t)e¡jn!0 t ¯¯
1
=
+
f 0 (t)e¡jn!0 t dt
¯
¡jn!0 ¯
jn!0
t=t0

t0

by integration-by-parts. The boundary terms are zero by the periodicity of the integrand.
The remaining integral has
¯
¯ t +T
tZ
0 +T
¯
¯ Z0
¯
¯
0
¡jn!
t
0
¯
f (t)e
dt¯¯ ·
jf 0 (t)j dt · K < 1
¯
¯
¯
t0

t0

if f 0 (t) is absolutlely integrable. Therefore
jcn j ·

K
:
2n¼

If f 0 (t) is absolutlely integrable, then cn ! 0 as n ! 1.

Corollary.
If f (k) (t) is absolutely integrable, but f (k+1) (t) is not, then cn = O(n¡k ) as n ! 1.

117

Gibb's Phenomenon - Example Square wave

S5 (t)

1.0

0.5

f (t)

0.0

¡0:5
¡1:0

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0.0

0.5

1.0

t=T
Fourier series of the above square wave is
f (t) =

1
4 X sin[(2k ¡ 1)!0 t]
;
¼
2k ¡ 1

!0 = 2¼=T

k=1

Truncated Fourier series

N
4 X sin[(2k ¡ 1)!0 t]
SN (t) =
¼
2k ¡ 1
k=1

Di®erentiate to ¯nd its extrema
0
SN
(t) =

N
8X
cos[(2k ¡ 1)!0 t]
T
k=1

write
cos[(2k ¡ 1)!0 t] =

sin(2k!0 t) ¡ sin[(2k ¡ 1)!0 t]
2 sin !0 t

All terms cancel except
0
SN
(t) =

4 sin(2N !0 t)
T sin !0 t
118

Here ¢x = ¼=N so a = ¼. 2 SN (t0 ) ¼ ¼ Z¼ sin x 2 dx = Si(¼) ¼ 1:18 x ¼ 0 1:18 ¡ 1 £ 100% ¼ 9% total jump of 2 overshoot is Pointwise Convergence of the Fourier Series The Dirichlet kernel is DN (x) = N X jnx e ¡jN x =e 2N X ejnx = e¡jN x n=0 n=¡N sin[(N + 1=2)x] 1 ¡ ej(2N +1)x = . De¯ne the right and left-hand limits and f (t¡ ) = lim+ f (t ¡ ²): f (t+ ) = lim+ f (t + ²) ²!0 ²!0 With the Fourier coe±cients 1 cn = T T =2 Z f (¿ )e¡j2n¼¿ =T d¿. Consider a periodic function f (t) = f (t + T ) having a single jump discontinuity at the point ¡T =2 < t < T =2.Smallest zero is ¼ 2N !0 h i h i (2k¡1)¼ N sin (2k¡1)¼ N sin X X 2N 2N 4 4 ¼ SN (t0 ) = = (2k¡1)¼ ¼ 2k ¡ 1 ¼ 2N t0 = k=1 Riemann sum Za k=1 2N £ ¤ N X sin 2k¡1 ¢x sin x 2 dx ¼ ¢x 2k¡1 x 2 ¢x k=1 0 where N ¢x = a. ¡T =2 the truncated Fourier series feN (t) = N X n=¡N 119 cn ej2n¼t=T . jx 1¡e sin(x=2) an even function DN (¡x) = DN (x).

· sin x μ (2N + 1) sin ¶ dx ¸ T f x + t ¡¡¡¡! f (t¡ ) (2N + 1)¼ N !1 120 x 2N + 1 ¶ dx .is feN (t) = T =2 Z T =2 Z N 1 X j2n¼(t¡¿ )=T 1 f (¿ ) e d¿ = f (¿ ) DN [2¼(t ¡ ¿ )=T ] d¿ T T n=¡N ¡T =2 Zt = 1 f (¿ ) DN [2¼(¿ ¡ t)=T ] d¿ + T ¡T =2 | Zt I¡ = ¡T =2 {z } I¡ T =2 Z 1 f (¿ ) DN [2¼(¿ ¡ t)=T ] d¿ T t {z } | I+ 1 [f (¿ ) ¡ f (t¡ )] DN [2¼(¿ ¡ t)=T ] d¿ + f (t¡ ) T ¡T =2 Zt 1 DN [2¼(¿ ¡ t)=T ] d¿ T ¡T =2 Introduce the change-of-integration variable x= such that 2¼ (N + 1=2)(¿ ¡ t) T 1 DN [2¼(¿ ¡ t)=T ] d¿ = T sin x dx ¶ x (2N + 1)¼ sin 2N + 1 μ ¿ = ¡T =2 =) x = ¡(2N + 1)¼(1=2 + t=T ) = ¡X ¿ = t =) x = 0 T ¿ ¡t= (2N + 1)¼ 1 I¡ = ¼ Z0 ½ · f ¡X f (t¡ ) + ¼ Z0 ¡X ¾ ¸ T ¡ x + t ¡ f (t ) (2N + 1)¼ sin x μ (2N + 1) sin x 2N + 1 Since ¡X < x < 0 . as N ! 1.

so that the ¯rst integral above vanishes. The denominator becomes (2N + 1) sin μ x 2N + 1 ¶ ¡¡¡¡! x N !1 and with X ! 1. and therefore demonstrate that N X cn ej2n¼t=T ¡¡¡¡! f (t): N !1 n=¡N 121 . the second integral gives f (t¡ ) I¡ ¡¡¡¡! ¼ N !1 Z0 sin x f (t¡ ) dx = : x 2 ¡1 The same philosophy yields f (t+ ) I+ ¡¡¡¡! ¼ N !1 so that N X j2n¼t=T cn e n=¡N Z1 sin x f (t+ ) dx = x 2 0 f (t+ ) + f (t¡ ) ¡¡¡¡! : 2 N !1 ¥ F Homework Consider the simpler case where f (t) is continuous everywhere.

....... ...... ........... .... ... .. .... ....... ... ....... . ........ ...... .. ....... . .. . . 2 n=1 then let N a0 X fN (t) = + an cos(n!0 t): 2 n=1 Pick several N to demonstrate (pictorially) the convergence of this Fourier series.......... . ........ ... ... ...... ............... ....... . ........ .. if 1 a0 X f (t) = + an cos(n!0 t). ............ ..... . ......... ... .. . . .... ..... ..........) Find a Fourier series representation of the signal f (t).... ......... ............ ... ........ .... ........ ........ .............. ... . .......ECE 370 16 January 1978 QUIZ 3 NAME Take Home ....... 1 ::: ::: ¡T ¡T =2 T =2 0 T t 3T =2 1. . ........... and the DC or average value is a0 1 = 2 T ZT f (t) dt = 1 ... .. . ........ ...... ... ........ ........... ... .... .................. .. ... . .. . ...... . . .......) Use MATLAB to graph the N th partial sum of this Fourier series.. ......... ... ......... .... .. .... . . . .. .. ............... ... ..... .... ... .... ................. . .... .. .. 2.. ... . . .... ... ... ........ For example...... .... : : : ) are 2 an = T tZ 0 +T t0 2 f (t) cos(n!0 t) dt = T T =2 Z 2 f (t) cos(n!0 t) dt = ¢ 2 T T =2 Z f (t) cos(n!0 t) dt (2) 0 ¡T =2 122 . ...... ... ................ .. .... ................ ......... .. ...... ....... ........ The cosine coe±cients (for n = 1.. .. .... ..... . ... . . .. . . ............. .... .. ... ....... ...... ... ................ ... ..... There are no sines (bn ´ 0) in this even function.Due Wednesday January 18 f (t) .. ... 2 (1) 0 as the graph shows (perhaps after a little thought)...... ...... . 2................. .... . .

The last integral above requires an expression for f (t) in the range 0 · t · T =2. Required now is 2 an = ¢ 2 T T =2 Z 2t 8 cos(n!0 t) dt = 2 T T T =2 Z t cos(n!0 t) dt: 0 (3) 0 In terms of di®erent variables. we need the integral I= Zd x cos(®x) dx: (4) 0 It is perfectly acceptable to use a table of integrals (perhaps in your calculus book.by the even symmetry of the product of f (¡t) = f (t) and the nth cosine. But here are two di®erent techniques to evaluate it. ® ®2 123 (6) . so that we can write I= Zd d x cos(®x) dx = d® 0 Zd sin(®x) dx = d 1 ¡ cos(®d) d® ® 0 d sin(®d) 1 ¡ cos(®d) = : ¡ ® ®2 (5) The second method is integration by parts: d(uv) = u dv + v du =) Zb a The choice u=x dv = cos(®x) dx =) ¯b Zb ¯ u dv = uv ¯ ¡ v du: a a du = dx 1 v = sin(®x) ® gives I= Zd 0 Zd ¯d x 1 ¯ x cos(®x) dx = sin(®x)¯ ¡ sin(®x) dx ® ® x=0 0 ¯d d 1 ¯ = sin(®d) + 2 cos(®x)¯ ® ® x=0 d cos(®d) ¡ 1 = sin(®d) + . The ¯rst method is based on the observation that the parameter ® is independent from the integration variable x. or a table such as the CRC). which is the line of slope 2=T through the origin: f (t) = 2t=T .

note that f (T =2) = 1 and so (9) gives μ ¶2 X 1 2 1 1 cos[(2n ¡ 1)¼] 1= ¡ 2 2 ¼ (2n ¡ 1) n=1 or 1 X 1 ¼2 = : 2 (2n ¡ 1) 8 n=1 Note that the sum over both odd and even integers is 1 1 1 X X X 1 1 1 = + 2 2 n (2n ¡ 1) (2n)2 n=1 n=1 n=1 1 X 1 1 1X 1 = + 2 (2n ¡ 1) 4 n=1 n2 n=1 124 . 2 ¼ n=1 (2n ¡ 1)2 as long as it is perfectly clear that we have de¯ned !0 = 2¼=T . n even: Together with the DC value (1). In fact.::: The sum is reasonably clear (at least to me). This series converges nicely. these an are 1=n2 for all odd n. Note that the values of the trig functions are thus sin(n¼) = 0 and cos(n¼) = (¡1)n . since jan j » n¡2 as n ! 1 (in fact. but it would more commonly be written in the (probably nicer looking) completely equivalent form μ ¶2 X 1 1 1 2 cos[(2n ¡ 1)2¼t=T ]: (9) f (t) = ¡ 2 ¼ n=1 (2n ¡ 1)2 And it would be perfectly acceptable to write it in terms of the fundamental frequency as μ ¶2 X 1 1 2 1 f (t) = ¡ cos[(2n ¡ 1)!0 t]. n odd n an = ¡ 2 =¡ [1 ¡ (¡1) ] = (7) ¼ n2 2 2 : T (n!0 ) (n¼) 0.5. In this case. the entire trigonometric Fourier series for our even.3. periodic function f (t) is μ ¶2 X 1 2 1 1 f (t) = ¡ cos(2n¼t=T ): (8) 2 ¼ n2 n=1.in agreement with the ¯rst result (5). whereupon ®d = n!0 T =2 = n¼ (recall !0 T = 2¼). The needed integral in (3) has upper limit d = T =2 and frequency (the factor multiplying the integration variable t in the argument of the cosine) ® = n!0 . Fourier series representations of known functions are used to sum certain series. The Fourier coe±cients (3) are now 8 μ ¶2 1 2 < n 8 1 ¡ (¡1) 2 ¡ .

or 1 1 X 3X 1 1 = 2 4 n=1 n (2n ¡ 1)2 n=1 = and therefore ¼2 8 1 X 1 ¼2 = : n2 6 n=1 This is the Riemann zeta function 1 X 1 ³(x) = nx n=1 of argument x = 2. 125 .

On the Convergence and Summation of Some Series The basic form to consider is S= 1 X an = a1 + a2 + a3 + : : : n=1 where the indexing can just as easily start at n = 0 1 X an = a0 + a1 + a2 + : : : n=0 and negative indices are also commonly encountered 1 X an = a0 + n=¡1 If the series 1 P n=1 1 X an + n=1 jan j converges. 126 . since ¯1 ¯ 1 ¯X ¯ X ¯ ¯ an ¯ · jan j: ¯ ¯ ¯ n=1 n=1 A convergent series that is not absolutely convergent is called conditionally convergent. This can be shown by using the integral argument (Do it!) on the next page. Here is an important class of series: With p real 1 X 1 np n=1 converges i® p > 1. Any series n=1 that is absolutely convergent is convergent. then we say that 1 X n=1 1 P a¡n : an is absolutely convergent.

. .. ...................... ...... .. ......... ....... .. .. . .... .. .................. .............. ......... ................. ........ .. ............. ..... .... ... ................................... ........ .. ................... . .. ....... ... ........... . ... ....................... .. .......... .......................... ........ ......... .............. ........ ................. .. .... ... ......... ........... ...... ... .... ............ . ........... .... . . . ............... ................ .......... .... . ............ ... ..... ... ....... .. ....... .. ........... ............. ...... .............. ............ ....... .............. ...................... ....... ....... ....... .. ... .............................. . then a related integral can provide error bounds by the following reasoning... .............. .................. ... ...................... ............ .... ..... ................. ............ ....... ..... .. we have both a lower and an upper bound...... .... . ................. so that the error or \tail" sum is Z1 N +1 g(x) dx < 1 X n=N +1 127 g(n) < Z1 N g(x) dx: ............ ...................... ... . ... . ...... ......... ............. ................. ........... .............. . ............................... .. ........... ....... ...................... .. . ..... ............ ...... .. ..... ........... ................. ............................... ....... ........ .... ........... .. ................................................ . ...................................... ...................... . .. .. ......... . .................. .......... ... ....... . ........ .......... ..... ........... ..... . .... ......... .. ... .. ... ...... ..... ........... ..... ..... .................. .. .. . ............ ... ...... .................. ........... ................. .................... ..... .............. . ........ .. .................. ... ................ .... ...................... ..........If all of the terms of the original series are positive (true for exp(z) if z > 0)..... .. 1 . ......... ..... ...... ....... .. g(x) X N N +1 N +2 N +3 g(n) < Z g(x) dx x ::: Therefore........ .. ......... ...... ....... . .......... ... ...... ... ..... ........... . . n=N +1 ......... N ..... n=N +1 ....... .......... .............. ................... ...... ................. . ... .. ... ... N +1 . ............ ... .... .......... ........... ... ... .. .. ... ............... ..... . ... ... ...... .... ... .. . .......... ... ... ........... ... ...... 1 ....... ......... .... ..... ......... ...... 1 .... ..... . ......................... .... ... ........ ... . .. ........ ....... . . ........... ... ...... .......... .. . ................... .................... .. ... ......... ........................ ....... ... ...... ..... ............... .......... .... g(x) X N +1 N +2 N +3 g(n) > Z g(x) dx x ::: ......... .................. . ................... ..... 1 ... .. .. ......... .. ..... ....... .... .... .......... ..... ............... .... . ...... ............ . .... . ... ... .... .......

Suppose that the limit lim ¯¯ n!1 an ¯ 1 P series an . n=1 Weierstrass M-Test for Absolute Convergence.If the series 1 P n=1 jan j converges. and the divergence of the series an n=1 bn . n=1 Suppose there exists an index N such that jan j · bn for all n > N . condition for absolute convergence of the series n=1 n=1 ¯ ¯ ¯ an+1 ¯ ¯ = ® exists for the Ratio (d'Alembert's) Test. then the convergence of the series 1 P an . Let 1 P an and 1 P bn be two n=1 bn for all n > 1 P n=1 exists an index N such that an · 1 P bn implies the convergence of the series n=1 implies the divergence of 1 P n=1 series with nonnegative terms. Let 1 P n=1 an and 1 P bn be series. If there N . since the series 1 X 1 np n=1 is divergent for p = 1=2 but 1 p ¡¡¡! 0: n n!1 Comparison Test. Then a su±cient 1 1 P P an is that the series bn converges. then we must have lim an = 0: The converse is not true. n!1 as we demonstrate by example. 128 . n=1 (1) if ® < 1 then the series 1 P an converges absolutely 1 P an diverges n=1 (2) if ® > 1 then the series n=1 (3) there exist both absolutely convergent and divergent series for which ® = 1.

Acceleration of series convergence by subtracting out the asymptotic form
(Kummer transform):
Consider the series

1
P

f (n) where the large n form of f (n) is

n=1

f (n) ¡¡¡! fasy (n):
n!1

If the original terms f (n) decay so slowly with n as to be numerically disagreeable, but
the asymptotic form can be summed by some alternate method, then write
1
X

f (n) =

n=1

1
X

n=1

[f (n) ¡ fasy (n)] +

1
X

fasy (n):

n=1

The terms of the di®erence f (n) ¡ fasy (n) will approach zero faster than the original f (n),
so that truncation of the di®erence sum can be made at a smaller n to achieve a given
level of accuracy.
Example. One series that can be summed exactly using the Poisson sum formula (on
pages 150-151) is
1
X
1
¼
= coth ¼b:
2
2
n +b
b
n=¡1
We choose an example series where we know the exact value of the sum simply to be able
1
P
to check our result. Let's get this series into the form
f (n), where f (¡n) = f (n) is an
n=1

even function of the summation index,
1
X

1
X
1
1
1
=
2
+ 2
2
2
2
2
n +b
n +b
b
n=¡1
n=1

and therefore
S=

1
X

n=1

n2

¼b coth ¼b ¡ 1
1
=
:
2
+b
2b2

Now let's compare the brute-force summation of S as it stands, with a simple Kummer
transform. Having the exact value of S allows us to gauge our accuracy. The asymptotic
form of the summand f (n) is fasy (n) = n¡2 so that the Kummer transform is
¸ X
1 ·
1
X
1
1
1
S=
¡
+
:
n2 + b 2
n2
n2
n=1
n=1
The asymptotic or \tail" sum is the Riemann zeta function of argument 2 (a well-known,
actually famous sum) that we encountered back on page 124
1
X
1
¼2
³(2) =
=
:
2
n
6
n=1

129

The di®erence terms
1
n2 ¡ (n2 + b2 )
¡b2
1
¡
=
=
= O(n¡4 )
n2 + b2
n2
n2 (n2 + b2 )
n2 (n2 + b2 )
decay much faster than the original terms of O(n¡2 ). The Kummer transform of the
original sum S is now
1
X
1
¼2
S = ¡b2
+
:
2 (n2 + b2 )
n
6
n=1
To do the comparison, label the truncated brute-force sum
S0 (N; b) =

N
X

n=1

n2

1
+ b2

and the truncated Kummer-accelerated sum
SK (N; b) = ¡b

2

N
X

1
¼2
+
:
n2 (n2 + b2 )
6
n=1

With the exact value

¼b coth ¼b ¡ 1
2b2
let's compare the numerical performance of
S(b) =

S0 (N; b)
S(b)

with

SK (N; b)
S(b)

as a function of the truncation index N for one or more values of the parameter b.

N

S0 (N; 10)
S(10)

SK (N; 10)
S(10)

101
102
103
104

0:499726021056655
0:934787298579118
0:993428003029169
0:999342482848786

1:125492496191760
1:000214644029801
1:000000218841745
1:000000000219156

Exercise. Using ³(4) =

1
P

n¡4 = ¼ 4 =90, perform a second Kummer transform on the

n=1

series in the example and compare its convergence to the data above.

130

Homework Problem: Convergence of Fourier Series. Consider the three periodic
functions x(t), y(t), and z(t) as graphed below. Find appropriate Fourier series expansions
for each of the three functions. Study and discuss the convergence of each series, including
graphical display.
For example, say the odd function y(t) is most conveniently represented by the Fourier
sine series
1
X
y(t) =
bn sin(2n¼t=T )
n=1

where the coe±cients bn are known. Truncation of this Fourier series yields the approximation
N
X
bn sin(2n¼t=T ):
yN (t) =
n=1

Compare these truncated series yN (t) with the original function y(t) for several (you decide
which range of values has signi¯cance to your convergence study) values of the ¯nal or
truncation index N . Certainly, the rate of decay of jbn j as n ! 1 is the important
feature.
Note: How are x(t), y(t), and z(t) related? How then are their Fourier series related?
+1

x(t)

.............
.......
..... .....
.... .........
..... .........
.....
.....
.
.....
.....
.....
....
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.....
.....
..
....
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.
.
.
.
.....
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.
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.
... ...
.. ...
...................................................................................................................................................................................................................

¡T =2

T =2

0

t

T

+1

y(t)

.....................
......................................................
.........................................
...
..
...
..
...
..
..
...
...
.
...
...
...
..
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..
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.
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...
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...
..
..
..
..
..
..
...
...
...
...
..
..
..
..
...
..
...
..
.
.
.
.
...................................................
...................................................
......... (+1)
N
......
...

z(t)

¡1

N

......
.........
......
...............
.........
......
......
......
......
.........
.........
......
......
.
.
.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
...
...

H

H (¡1)

131

t

t

the frequency of the un-recti¯ed sine wave is half the frequency of the recti¯ed signal f (t)......... . ....... ................ ..... ...... ......... ..... Equivalently.. . . .... .... ......... ..... .. ..... ¡T 0 t T f (t) = j sin( 12 !0 t)j = j sin(¼t=T )j .... .. .. .... .. . .......... .. . .... . .... .. ...... ...... .. ...... ...... .... ...... ..... ..... ... ....... ........... ....... .. ....... ........ ... ...... ........ . ....... . .... .... .. ............... .. .... .... ....... .. .. ...... . . .... .... ... .......... .. .. .... ...... .......... ... .. .. .. ...... .. .... . . .. ..... .. .................. ......... ............ ....... . ... ........... ... .... . The DC or average value of f (t) is a0 1 = 2 T ZT 1 f (t) dt = T 0 ZT 0 ¯ ³! ´ ³ ! ´¯0 2 ¯ 0 0 sin t dt = cos t ¯ 2 !0 T 2 ¯ t=T = 2 2 [1 ¡ cos ¼] = : (2) 2¼ ¼ For n = 1...... .. . .. ........... .. .... ... . . .. ...... .. ........... .... ........... ..................... . ... .. .. .. ...... .. . ... . ..... ..... .................... ... ........... . . .... ..... in terms of its period T ...... .. ..... ... ........ . .. ........... . ... . .... .. ... Note that the period of the sine wave prior to recti¯cation is 2T ... .... ..... . .. 2.......... .. ............. . .. .... ......... ........ .... ...... ¡T 0 t T The even function f (t) = f (¡t) is expanded in a Fourier series 1 a0 X f (t) = + an cos(n!0 t) 2 n=1 (1) where its fundamental frequency is !0 = 2¼=T .. ..... ... ... . . ... . .. ......... .... .. . ... . ............ ....... .. ...... : : : 2 an = T tZ 0 +T t0 2 f (t) cos(n!0 t) dt = ¢ 2 T T =2 Z ³! ´ 0 sin t cos(n!0 t) dt 2 0 132 (3) . . ... ... .... .... .. .. ... . ... ...... . ................... .. ............ ....... . . . .... ..... ... . ...... ...... ... . ... .......Fourier Series of Full-Wave Recti¯ed Sine Wave sin( 12 !0 t) = sin(¼t=T ) .. . ...... . ... ..... . . .... ... . ...... .

since

¯ ³ ! ´¯
³! ´
¯
¯
0
0
t ¯ = sin
t
f (t) = ¯sin
2
2
Use of the trig identity

for 0 · t · T =2:

(4)

2 sin A cos B = sin(A ¡ B) + sin(A + B)
yields
2
an =
T

T =2½
¾
Z
£
¤
£
¤
1
1
sin (n + 2 )!0 t ¡ sin (n ¡ 2 )!0 t dt:

(5)

0

Let's economize the algebra and do both forms at once by considering
¯0
T =2
Z
¯
£
¤
£
¤
2
2
1
¯
1
1
sin (n § 2 )!0 t dt =
cos (n § 2 )!0 t ¯
1
¯
T
T (n § 2 )!0
t=T =2
0
¤
¤
£
£
1
1 ¡ cos (n § 2 )!0 T =2
1 ¡ cos (n § 12 )¼
1
=
=
=
:
1
1
(n § 2 )!0 T =2
(n § 2 )¼
(n § 12 )¼ (6)
Insertion of (6) into (5) gives
·
¸
1
1
1
1 (n ¡ 12 ) ¡ (n + 12 )
1
an =
¡
=

:
1
1
1
1
¼ n+ 2
¼ (n + 2 )(n ¡ 2 )
n¡ 2
¼(n2 ¡ 14 )

(7)

Together with the DC term (2), the full Fourier series for f (t) is now
1
2
1X
1
f (t) = ¡
2
¼ ¼ n=1 n ¡

1
4

cos(2n¼t=T );

(8)

and its truncated version (N th partial sum) is
fN (t) =

N
1X
1
2
¡
¼ ¼ n=1 n2 ¡

1
4

cos(2n¼t=T ):

(9)

solid curve: N = 3
dashed curve: N = 20

.........
.............. ......................
........
........
........
........
.......
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.....
.
.
.
.
.
.....
..
.
.
.......
...
.
......
.
......
....
.....
.......
.
.
.
......
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......
....
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.
.....
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..
......
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.
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....
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....
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...
...
...
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.....
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......
.....
..... ............
...................
..............
. ..
.. .
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.
.

0

1
133

t=T

Parseval's Theorem for the Fourier Series
Consider a periodic signal f (t) = f (t + T ) and its Fourier series representation
f (t) =

1
X

cn ejn!0 t

(!0 = 2¼=T ):

n=¡1

The average power (per period) \in" or \of" f (t) is

Pav

1
=
T

tZ
0 +T
t0

1
=
T

tZ
0 +T

jf (t)j2 dt
1
f (t)f ¤ (t) dt =
T

t0

=

1
X

n=¡1

=

1
X

n=¡1

tZ
0 +T

cn

m=¡1

c¤m

1
T

tZ
0 +T

jn!0 t

cn e

n=¡1

t0
1
X

1
X

j(n¡m)!0 t

e

1
X

c¤m e¡jm!0 t dt

m=¡1

dt =

1
X

n=¡1

t0

cn

1
X

m=¡1

c¤m ±mn

=

1
X

cn c¤n

n=¡1

jcn j2

F Homework: Find the comparable expression in terms of the trigonometric Fourier
series coe±cients.

134

Homework Problem: Power Supply Performance.
sin( 12 !0 t) = sin(¼t=T )

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¡T

0

t

T

x(t) = j sin( 12 !0 t)j = j sin(¼t=T )j

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¡T

0

x(t) =

1
2
1X
1
¡
¼ ¼ n=1 n2 ¡

t

T

1
4

cos(2n¼t=T )

Consider a real power supply, consisting of a full-wave recti¯er followed by a simple lowpass ¯lter. Find an expression for, and graph, the time-domain output y(t) of the power
supply for several values of the important parameter !b =!0 . De¯ne the percent ripple as
the ratio of average power in the unwanted harmonics to the desired DC power. Graph
percent ripple versus !b =!0 . Recall Parseval's theorem for Fourier series.

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²

R

x(t)
¡

y(t)

C

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²

135

+

¡

Also note that H(0) = 1 is real. Recall that !0 . the above expression is y(t) = 1 1X 2 1 ¡ ¼ ¼ n=1 n2 ¡ 1 4 £ ¤ 1 p cos n!0 t ¡ tan¡1 (n!0 =!b ) : 1 + (n!0 =!b )2 Note that the single (dimensionless!) numerical parameter required to characterize the complete power supply output is !0 =!b . 2¼=T is the fundamental frequency of the recti¯ed sine. we have μ ¶ 1 t 1 2 1X y = ¡ T ¼ ¼ n=1 n2 ¡ 1 4 · ¸ 1 t ¡1 p cos 2n¼ ¡ tan (n!0 =!b ) : T 1 + (n!0 =!b )2 The form of the Fourier series for y(t) is.Solution. since the ¯lter is an actual. instead of a0 =2. With the ¯lter input written as the particular Fourier series x(t) = 1 X an cos(n!0 t). that is. which is twice the frequency of the pure sine wave that is the initial input to the full-wave recti¯er. physical electric circuit. Time t is always multiplied by !0 = 2¼=T . The transfer function of the low-pass ¯lter is 1 1 1 j!C H(!) = = = 1 1 + j!RC 1 + j!=!b R+ j!C with !b . with An = an jH(n!0 )j and Án = £(n!0 ). £(0) = 0. Speci¯cally. so that in terms of normalized time t=T . 1 : RC In polar form H(!) = jH(!)jej£(!) the magnitude of H(!) is 1 1 + (!=!b )2 jH(!)j = p and the phase of H(!) is £(!) = ¡ tan¡1 (!=!b ): Note that the ¯lter impulse response is necessarily real. y(t) = 1 X An cos(n!0 t + Án ) n=0 136 (1) . n=0 the response of the ¯lter is y(t) = 1 X n=0 an jH(n!0 )j cos[n!0 t + £(n!0 )]: Note that the DC term is now called a0 .

2. the total average power in the signal y(t) is Ptot = jA0 j2 + 1 1X jAn j2 . : : : ) 1 ±nm 2 (n. The DC (n = 0) term is our desired power supply output. total power output or 1 P 1 jAn j2 2 n=1 r= £ 100%: (2) 1 P 1 2 2 jA0 j + 2 jAn j n=1 137 . m = 1. 2. : : : ): t0 Therefore.and the total average power in the output y(t) is Ptot 1 = T tZ 0 +T t0 1 = T jy(t)j2 dt tZ 0 +T " 1 X n=0 t0 1 1 X X = An cos(n!0 t + Án ) #" Am cos(m!0 t + Ám ) #¤ dt m=0 An A¤m n=0 m=0 1 X 1 T tZ 0 +T cos(n!0 t + Án ) cos(m!0 t + Ám ) dt: t0 The DC terms (n = 0 and/or m = 0) are a little di®erent. while all of the higher harmonics (n = 1. 2 n=1 which is the form of Parseval's theorem that applies for our particular representation of y(t). one de¯nition of percent ripple is unwanted power in the ripples £ 100% r. The inner products of interest are: 1 T tZ 0 +T t0 1 T tZ 0 +T t0 1 T tZ 0 +T 1 ¢ 1 dt = 1 (n = m = 0) 1 ¢ cos(m!0 t + Ám ) dt = 0 cos(n!0 t + Án ) cos(m!0 t + Ám ) dt = (n = 0. Recall or note that Á0 ´ 0. but I included them in the series (starting at n = 0 instead of starting at n = 1) for notational convenience. 2. m = 1." Therefore. : : : ) give rise to the unwanted \ripple.

. ... ..... . .. . ...... ...... . ........ .. ........... . .. .. . .. .. ............. .. ........... ....... . .2 0.4 0.... .. ......... .. .... .......... ... ....... ........ ... ............... .. .......... ... . ....... .... .. ..... ....... . .......0 .. ... .. . ..... . .. .... ...... .. ................. .. ......... . ..... ...... . . .. . .......... ..2 !i =!b = 0:1. ..... .. ..... but for a very poor power supply I suppose some marketing/sales people would prefer to use (2)..... . . ... ... ...... .... .. .. .. . . . ........ . ... . ... . ...... .............. . . .6 y(t) 0........ . ... . ............. .......... ............ ...... ......... .... ... .... . ....... ... ......... .... . . ...... ..... . .... . ... . .. .. ................. .... . .......... . ............. . . . .. .......... . . . .. . ......... . ...... . . ... ...... . . . 0.. .. . . .. . ... . ...... .. .. ......... .... . ..... ........ . .. ...... 1.... .... .. ... ..50 0. .00 0. ... ........ ........8 1 10 0.. . ...... .. ...... ..... .... . . ... . ... .. .. . ... . . .... .. . . ... . .......... . . . ..... . ......... 0 1 2 3 4 !i =!b = freq of unrecti¯ed sine/¯lter break 138 5 ... ... ........ .... ..... ... . The second form might be greater than 100%! 1.. the problem statement evidently de¯ned percent ripple as 1 2 r= 1 P n=1 jAn j2 jA0 j2 £ 100%: These two r expressions will be nearly identical when the majority of the output power is in the DC component.. .. ...... .. . . .. .. .. ....... ... ....... .. . .... .... .. . . ...... . ................. .. .... ... .......... . .25 0...... . . .0 ¡0:2 input frequency of unrecti¯ed sine is !i = !0 =2 ¡0:75 ¡0:50 ¡0:25 0...75 t=T 20 18 16 14 12 r (%) 10 8 6 4 2 0 ........ .. ..... ....... ....... ..... . . ........... . .. .... ... ... ....... . .. ... ......... .. .... .. ................ ....... ....... . .. .. . .. ... ........ . ........... ......However... ..... ........ ....... ... .. . .. . . .... . . ....... . ... . ... .. . ....... ... ... .... .... . ....... . .... ................. .... ........ ... ... . . ... ................... ...... ...

..... ....... .....Periodic Excitation of a Simple GLC Electric Circuit v(t) ² ² ig (t) ...... ... ....... ................ .... . Plus di®erentiating exp(jn!0 t) is much cleaner than di®erentiating cos(n!0 t) and sin(n!0 t)............ ...... ................ ........ .............. .......... . .. ........... . ....... and the prime on the generator current denotes di®erentiation with respect to its argument........ . .... .... ....... ... . ...... . .... ..... G C ² L ² If the source signal ig (t) = ig (t + T ) is a periodic signal. ..... . .. ..... ...... The periodic voltage signal is written as a Fourier series 1 X v(t) = °n ejn!0 t (4) n=¡1 139 ........ ....... .. ......... all three branch currents) will also be periodic with the same fundamental frequency !0 = 2¼=T of the excitation.. .... ........ ........ Kirchho®'s current law supplies the equation-of-motion for the unknown voltage signal v(t) in our circuit Zt 1 dv(t) + v(¿ ) d¿ = ig (t): (2) Gv(t) + C dt L ¡1 This integrodi®erential equation is converted to a pure di®erential equation by di®erentiating once to eliminate the integral operator in the inductive current C d2 v(t) dv(t) 1 +G + v(t) = i0g (t): 2 dt dt L (3) The order of the terms was rearranged to put the di®erential equation in standard form.... ................. .................... . . ... ...... ......... ... .. . ............. ...... .. . ..... ... ..... . .... ..................... .. ....... ... ................. ......... ... ... ..... . .......... .... . . .. ............. ... which is our independent variable t.... ......... ...... ... . ..... . ..... . ...... . ...... ........ ...... .. . . .. ... .. .......... ........ then we can ¯nd its Fourier series representation ig (t) = 1 X cn ejn!0 t : (1) n=¡1 Here is a case where it is more convenient and natural to use the complex exponential form of the Fourier series: The trigonometric form would su±ce in principle. then the steady-state solution for all of the linear signals (common voltage v(t). .. .......... ... ........ ... ... ....... .. ..... .... .. .... ... .... ...... .......... ........ ...... ........ ..... ........... . but carrying around two sets of coe±cients an and bn is more awkward............. ... .. ........ .. ......... ..... ........................... . ... .. If we know the waveform ig (t).......... ......... ... ....... ......... . ..... ........................ .... ................ ............... ..... .... ......... ....

If f (t) is a real function of time. as much as possible. so far. and the Fourier coe±cients cn de¯ned in (1) are in (A). show that the coe±cients cn in its complex exponential Fourier series 1 X cn ejn!0 t f (t) = n=¡1 must satisfy the requirement cn = c¤¡n . (The terms with negative indices behave similarly. ¡1 3. 140 . show that the expression (8) is also real. All three terms in the denominator are dimensionless (check for yourself). that is as n ! +1. which are (H/s) or (−). If the lossy element is removed from the circuit (G p = 0 or G = R = 1). as required. Graph the signal v(t) when the current source is a square wave. Show the e®ect of varying the circuit element values. 6. Give a physical explanation for the absence (zero value) of the n = 0 term in the voltage. 7. 2. to simplify the results. the corresponding coe±cients are equal ¸ · 1 2 = (jn!0 )cn : °n (jn!0 ) C + (jn!0 )G + (6) L Therefore the °n are given explicitly in terms of the known cn jn!0 jn!0 L °n = cn . One way to see this is to examine f ¤ (t) = f (t).) Interpret this high frequency approximation in terms of the circuit. Use normalized parameters. what is the physical signi¯cance of a harmonic having n!0 = 1= LC ? 4. say of amplitude §I0 . Problems 1. If ig (t) is a real-valued source current. cn = 1 1 ¡ (n!0 )2 LC + jn!0 LG (jn!0 )2 C + (jn!0 )G + L and our particular solution (4) for the voltage is v(t) = 1 X jn!0 L cn ejn!0 t : 2 1 ¡ (n!0 ) LC + jn!0 LG n=¡1 (7) (8) Note that the (SI or mksC) units of the numerator are those of !0 L.where the Fourier coe±cients °n are unknown. 5. Insertion of both series (1) and (4) into the di®erential equation (3) gives · ¸ 1 1 X X 1 jn!0 t 2 °n (jn!0 ) C + (jn!0 )G + e = (jn!0 )cn ejn!0 t : (5) L n=¡1 n=¡1 Since the above two Fourier series in (5) are equal for all t and they are written in terms of the same Fourier basis functions exp(jn!0 t). The units of the °n are therefore (V). Find an expression for the average power dissipated as heat in this circuit. Write down an approximation for the higher-order terms in the series for v(t).

.. .. .. .. ....... ...... ............. ...... ....... .. . ....... ........... ² C y (t) x(t) ¡ ¡ a .. . ...................... ..... ... ............. ...... .. ..... ... .. ..... .................. .......... ... ..... ........ ..... .................. .. ............. .................. .... ... . .............. . .......... ...... ........................... ..... x(t) A ..... .. .Simple Low-Pass and Hi-Pass Filter Response to a Periodic Input Problem: Find expressions for and graph the signals ya (t) and yb (t) for several values of the important (nondimensional) parameters that appear naturally. . .. ............ .... . . . ....... .... ............ . .......... ....... ..... ......... ....... .. .... ......... ........... ........ .................. ................... ... . .... .............. .. ........ . ..... .............. . .............. . ............ .. .... . .. . .. ....... ............. ......... ......... .. ........... ................. ...... ... ..... ............ ................ .... . .... ............. . .................... ........ ............ .... .... ........ ........ ...... ........ .... ......... ........ ...... ................................................... ........ ... ........ ............ ...... . ... ......... .. .. ........ ...... . ... . ........ ............ .. ......... ...... ..... ....... .... ..... ....... ............. .. . .. .... ..................... . ... ....... ... . ... . . ¡T 0 ¡A=2 x e(t) = ¡e x(¡t) x e(t) = T =2 Z 2 bn = T ¡T =2 4A = T 1 X x e(t) = A bn sin(n!0 t) 2T T μ 1 t ¡ T 2 ¶ (0 < t < T =2) (!0 ....... .... .. .. .................... ..... ..... ................ ........... . .... ....................... . .... .. .......... ........................... . ....... .. .......... ....... ......... . . . ................ .. ..... .... ....... .. ....................... ........ .. ..... .................. .... ....... ........ ........ . .... ... ......... ..... ........ . ... ......... ........... ..... ..... ... .......... ..... ..... . ...................... . . ........ ... .............. ......... . .. . ........... .... ........... .. . .......... ... ........... ...... ..... ..... ............ ...... ......... so that its Fourier series is most logically written in the trigonometric form with only sine functions.. ....... .. ................ ...... ..... .. ............. .... .................. ..... .................................. ... . .. . . ...... . .................. . ................. ................. .. .... ... ........... but the even part is simply A=2....................... x e(t) = x(t) ¡ A=2 A=2 ...... .... ... ................ ............................... 2¼=T ) n=1 4 x e(t) sin(n!0 t) dt = T T =2μ Z t 1 ¡ T 2 ¶ sin(n!0 t) dt 0 141 T =2 Z x e(t) sin(n!0 t) dt 0 t ..... . ...... ....... ... ..... . .. . ....... ......................... ...... ........ ¡T + 0 ..... . ...... ..... ........... ... .......... .. . ................... ......... ........... ................. ..... ...... .. ... ....... ............ ...... ..... . ... The graph of x e(t) = x(t) ¡A=2 is clearly an antisymmetric (odd) function.. ... ... ............... ... .. .... ... ..................... . .......... ........... ........ . . .......... ................................... .... ....... .............. ...... ........ ....... ... .. ..... ² R x(t) ¡ C + . ........ ..... . .. .. ........... ... ..... ... ......... . .. ........ .. .. ........................ .... ........ . ........................ ................................ .. ... .................... ² 2T T + t + yb (t) R ² ¡ Note that the excitation x(t) has both even and odd parts......... .. . ....... ..... .............................. .... ...................................................................

T =2 ¯0 Z cos(n!0 t) ¯¯ 1 ¡ cos(n!0 T =2) 1 ¡ cos(n¼) 1 ¡ (¡1)n sin(n!0 t) dt = = = = n!0 ¯t=T =2 n!0 n!0 n!0 0 8 < 2 n odd n!0 = (but this form is not as useful as it might appear) : 0 n even Z Z u dv = uv¡ v du u=t du = dt dv = sin(n!0 t) dt v=¡ cos(n!0 t) n!0 T =2 T =2 ¯0 Z Z t cos(n!0 t) ¯¯ 1 t sin(n!0 t) dt = + cos(n!0 t) dt ¯ n!0 n!0 t=T =2 0 0 ¯T =2 sin(n!0 t) ¯¯ T sin(n¼) T =¡ cos(n!0 T =2) + = ¡ cos(n¼) + 2n!0 (n!0 )2 ¯t=0 2n!0 (n!0 )2 ¡T (¡1)n = 2n!0 Now go back and assemble the required Fourier coe±cient · ¸ 4A ¡(¡1)n 1 ¡ (¡1)n ¡A ¡4A = : bn = ¡ = T 2n!0 2n!0 2n!0 T n¼ The Fourier series representation of the input signal is therefore 1 A A X sin(n!0 t) : x(t) = ¡ 2 ¼ n=1 n The transfer functions of our two ¯lters. are 1 1 j!C Ha (!) = = = jHa (!)jej£a (!) 1 1 + j!RC R+ j!C Hb (!) = R 1 R+ j!C = j!RC = jHb (!)jej£b (!) : 1 + j!RC Let's not write out the polar representations explicitly: MATLAB will compute those for us. from a simple frequency domain voltage divider. assume the magnitude function jHa (!)j and £a (!) are known (they are!). That is. Note that Ha (0) = 1 and Hb (0) = 0. 142 . and obviously the same for the b circuit.

Recall that !0 = 2¼=T is the fundamental frequency of the periodic excitation. we can numerically evaluate the series for ya (t) (because its series converges faster). the terms in the series for the low-pass ¯lter output ya (t) vary like n¡2 while the higher-order terms in the high-pass ¯lter output yb (t) vary like n¡1 . Therefore. the important nondimensional parameter of our problem is !0 =!b = !0 RC. and then avoid computing the poorly convergent series for yb (t) simply by using the known relationship yb (t) = x(t) ¡ ya (t): 143 .The Fourier series for the two output signals are therefore 1 £ ¤ A A X jHa (n!0 )j sin n!0 t + £a (n!0 ) ya (t) = ¡ 2 ¼ n=1 n 1 ¤ £ A X jHb (n!0 )j yb (t) = ¡ sin n!0 t + £b (n!0 ) ¼ n=1 n Let's use normalized time t=T and normalize by the amplitude A of the input to write 1 £ ¤ 1 1 X jHa (n!0 )j ya (t=T ) = ¡ sin 2n¼t=T + £a (n!0 ) A 2 ¼ n=1 n 1 £ ¤ yb (t=T ) 1 X jHb (n!0 )j =¡ sin 2n¼t=T + £b (n!0 ) A ¼ n=1 n We need Ha (n!0 ) = 1 !b 1 = ¡¡¡! 1 + jn!0 RC 1 + jn!0 =!b n!1 jn!0 Hb (n!0 ) = jn!0 RC jn!0 =!b = ¡¡¡! 1 1 + jn!0 RC 1 + jn!0 =!b n!1 where !b . As n ! 1. Therefore. 1 RC is the break frequency (or cut-o® frequency or half-power frequency) of (both of) the ¯lters. the numerical convergence of the signal ya (t) is much faster. That is. Note that the outputs ya (t) and yb (t) are intimately related since Ha (!) + Hb (!) = 1 =) ya (t) + yb (t) = x(t): Therefore. truncation of the ya (t) series at some ¯nite value of n will give a much better approximation for the in¯nite series than will the same truncation of the series for yb (t).

...... ... .. .... . . ..... . .. ....... ..... . .... ......... .... . . . .. . ... . . ... ... . . ...... . ... .. .. ..... . . . ....... . .. .. .... . ...... ........ .. .. .. .... . . .. . . ..... .. .. .. .... ..... ..... . .. ... ... . . .. . .... . .. .. .. ....... . . .. . ....... ... . .... .... .. ... .... ..... . . . . ... . .. ........ ....... . .... . . . . ... ....... . . ... ... .......... . .. . ... .. . . .. .... ..... . .. .. .. .......... ........ ... .. ... . .. .. . . ... . . ..... ... ... . .... . . . ... . ... . ....... ... .... .. .... .... .... . . ...... ...... .... ............ . .... .. ... . . ... .... . . .. .... .. ... .... . .... ... .......... .... .. ..... . ... . . .... .. .... ..... . . .... . ... . . . . .... . ........... .. .... . .... . . .. . ...... . . .... .. . .. . . . . . . .. .... . .... ... . ... . . . .. . ....... . ..... ... . . .. ...... .. ....... . .... ........ ... . ... ... . .... . ..... . . . .. ... ....... . .... . .. ..... ..... . . .......... ... ........ ... .. .. . .......... . .. ..... .. . ... .. . . .... ..... . .. . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . .. . ... ....... . ..... ...... ..... .. .. . .. . .. . ..... . ..... ... ...... . ...... . ... ...... . ............ . ... . .. ... ... . . ................ . .... . ... . .......... .. ... .. . .. .. . . .. .... . ... .. .... . ...... .. .. ..... ....... ... .. . .. ... . ... ..... . . . . . . . ....... .. .... . . . ..... .... ... ............ ... . .... .. ...... ....... ... . .. .. .. . . . .... ..... ... ... . ................ .. ...... ..... . ... ... ..... .. . . . ... . ...... a . ..!0 =!b = 0:1 y (t) .... b ..... . . . . . . .... . . . .. . . . ... . . .. ... . . ... ........... .. . .. .. . .......... ... .. . ..... .............. . . ..... ... . . .. .. . . . ... .. .. . .... ... . . ... ............. .... ... ... .. .. ... .. ... .. . . ...... ......... ... .... ...... .. ... ...... ... .... ........ ....... .. .. . .... . . ... .. ...... .......... ....... . ... ..... ...... ..... . .. .. ..... .. . .... . ..... .. .. .. .. ....... ... ... ... .. . ..... .. . . . ...... ... ... ........ .. . . .. ... .. . .... . .. ... .... . ... .... . . .... ......... ... . ... .. .. ... ...... .. .. .. ........ . . .. . . . . . .... ... ...... . . ... ........ ..... . . .. ...... ... ..... ...... ... .. . . . .. ....... .. .. . ... .. .. ... .. ........ ... .... . .. . ... .. . ..... . . ......... . . ... . .. ..... .. ..... ... .. .. . . .. ... ... . . . .. .. . . . .... .. 144 t=T .. . . . .. . .. . . . . .... .... ... .. .. ........ ..... . .. ......... ... . .... ............. . . . .. . . . . ... ..... . ... .. .. . . ... . . .... . .. ... . .. .. . ... . . .. . ............ .... .. . .. . . .. . ... .. ...... . .... .. . . .... ... ........ ............. . .... ........ .... . ... . .. . .... .... .. .. .. ..... .. . .. .... .. . .. . .. .... . . .. . . . ... . . ... .......... . ............ .. . . . ..... . .......... ... .. ..... .... . ... .... ..... ..... ..... .. . ... . .. ..... .... .. ... ... .... . ........ ..... ... ...... ...... . . ... . .. ... .... . ... .. .. .. .... . .. . .... .......... ...... ..... . .. ........ ... .... ...... . .. ... ... ... ... . .... . .... .. .. . .. .... . ....... . . .... . .. . .... .. .... .... ... . . ... .. .. . . . .. . .. . . .. .. . .......... .... . .......... ....... .. .. . ..... . .......... ..... ... . ... .. ... . . . ...... . ... . . . ...... ....... .. ...... .. ... .... .... ..... .. .... ... .... .. .. ....... ... ...... .... .. .. t=T y (t) . ... . .... ... .... . ... .......... .. .... .... ... .... .. .. .. . ...... .. .. ........ ... ... . ... .. . . . ... .... .. . . ... . .. .

....... ....... ....... . . . ............ .. ..... . . . .... ........... . . . .... .. . ........... .. .. .... ..... .. .......... .... ...... . ... ... ... .. .... . ............... ..... . ......... ...... . . .. . .... .. ...... ...... . . ..... ...... . . .. .......... .. .. .. . ....... ... ....... .... .. ... .... . ..... . ....... .... .... . .. .. . . .... ....... .. ..... b ....... .. . ..... ......... ... .. .... ........ .. ... .. .... ..... . . .. ....... .. ...... ... ... . . . ... . . .... ........... .. . .. ............... .... .... ... . .. . ...... ....... ... ......... ... ... ..... .. ... .. . ....... . .... ....... .. . . . ....... ..... t=T y (t) ... . . ..... . . .... . ........ . .. .......... .. .... .. ............ . .... . .. . .. . . ... .. . .. . . . ...... ..... ... . .. .. .. .. .... ... .. . .. ............... ... . . ....... . ... ... ..... ... .... .... .... ... . . . ...... . . .. ..... ... ....... ... . . ... ....... ... ....... ..... .. .... .. .... ... ... .. . . ............ ...... ...... . ........ ... .... .. . . .... ........ . ..... .. . ..... .... .... ... .... ........................ . ..... ... .... .. .. ... ......... . . ... . ........ .... ..... ........ ...... ..... .... . ....... ...... ..... ... . ...... . . .. .. ......... ..... ... .. . ......... .. ..... ...... . . . ... . ...... ... .. ............. ....... ....... .. . ...... .. .. .. ... ..... ....... .. .... .... ..... . .. . .............. . . . .. ... .... ....... ..... ... . . ..... .. . . .. ... . .. .. .. .. .. ... . ..... .... .......!0 =!b = 1 y (t) . ....... . .. ..... .. .. .. ... . . ... . .. .. .... . .. . . ....... ...... . ....... ... .. ..... .. .. ........ .. .. . ... ...... .. .. ......... . .... .. .. . .. .... .. . .... ..... ... ... .... .... .... . ... . .. . . .... ... . . ..... ... .. ..... . .... . ...... .. ... ...... ... ..... ... ... ...... . ... ... ... .. . ..... ........ ...... ......... . ..... .... ... ... ... .... ......... .... ..... .... . .. ... .............. ..... ..... .... .. .......... . . .. ... ... ... ... .. .. .. .... .... ... ..... . ..... . ...... .. .. .... . ...... ... ... .. . . .. ..... ... .. ..... ... ... ... ... . .. . ........ ..... ........ ... .. .. . .. ... . . . . ....... . . . .......... .... .. ... .............. .. . .... ........ . . . .......... . ... .. .. . . . .. .. .... .... ...... .. ... . .. . . ........ . . . . ... ............ .... . . . .... .. a ... .. . .. . .... . .... ... ......... . ......... .. . . ..... . ... .. .... ..... ... .. ....... ... ......... ... . . ... . . ..... ............ . . .. .. .... ... .. . ... .. ....... ..... . ....... ........ . .. .... .... ..... .. . ..... . .. .. ..... ... .. . .... ....... .... .. ..... .......... .. . ... .. ..... ........ .. ............. . ...... .. .. . . ... . .. . . .. ... ......... .. ....... .. ... . . ... .. .... .... .. ..... .. ... . .. ..... .. .. .. . ... .. .... . . ... . .... . .. .. . . .... .. .... .. . . . . .. 145 t=T .. .. .. .... .. .. .... .. . ... ............ ... .... .. . . ... . . . ....... . .. . ..... ... .... . ... . ..... . . . .... ......... .. . . . ... .. ............ .............. ......... ... . ... . . ......... ..... . .. . . .. .. . ............ ......... ....... . ... ... .. .. . . ..... ..... . .. . ....... . .. .... ...

.. .. .... ... ....... .... .... ....... ......... ........... ... .... .. .. ..... . .. ... . .. . ....... ......... .. . .. . .. .. ... 146 t=T .. ...... ... ... ... .. ........ b ................. . ... . ... . . .. ........ ........ ....... .. .... .......... . . . . ... .... . ...... . ...... . .. . . ... ... ....... . .............. .. ....... . . .. ... .. ...... . .. ..... .. . . . .. ..... . . ....... ........ ... ....... . ... ........... .. . ... .. . . ... .. ... ...... ..... ..... . .. .. ...... .... ..... ... . .. ..... .. . .. . ... .... . ....... ........... .. ... ... . ... ................. .... ... .......... . .... .......... . . ....... . ... ... . .. .... .. . . .. . ... . ... .... ...... .. .. ...... .. ... ..... ... .. .... .... .. ........ ... ... ......... ... . ...... .. ....... . . . ....... ................. ............. . ....... .. . . . ... ..... ... ... ..... .. .... .. ....... ..... ...... . .. .... .. ..... .. ...... . . .. .... ........ ...... .. ... ..... . ........ .... . ..... . ... ...... . .......... . . .. ..... ...... . ... ... .. . . .. . .... .. .. . .... . .. . ...................... . .. ............. .... ........ . ... . . ........ ... . ... . .. .... ....... .. .. . ....... .. . .. ... . . . . .. .... . ....... . .......... .... ... ....... ..... ...... . .... .......... ...... .. ... ... . .. ...... ....... ................ ... . .. .. ...... ..... ... ...... .. .......... . . .... .... ....... .. ...... .. .. . ........ ... ..... . .. ... . .. .. ...... . ... . ... ... . .... ...... ... .... . ...... .......... ...... . ....... . .... .. . .......... ... .... .. ........ . ....... . . ... ....... ... ... .... ....... ... .. ... ....... . . .... ..... ... .............. .... . ..... .... ... . ......... . ... . .. . . .... .... ................. .. . .......... .. ... ....... .. . ... .... ...... . .. ............. .. . .... ...!0 =!b = 10 y (t) .... .. .. .. .. ...... ........ ...... ... . .... ... .......... .... ... ................. .. . ..... . ......... .. .... .... . .. . . .... t=T y (t) .. . .. ... ... .. .. . ... . .. . ....... . .. ... . ... .. . .. ...... . .... . .. .. ... ..... .. ........ ... ... ... ..... .. ...... .... . ......... .. ....... . .. . ..... ............ ............ ... . . ................ . .... . .. ..... ... . ..... .. . .. .. ... ..... .... .. ... .... .. . . . .... ..... .. ............ .. ....... .. ........ . ....... ....... . ... . .. ... . ... ....... . .. ..... .. ... ... ......... .. ..... .... .... ..... . .. .. ....... ... . . .. .. ............ .. . ...... . .. .. .. ...... ... .. . .. ... ... .......... . ................... ...... .. .. . ... .. . .. ...... . .... . . ... ... ... ..... .. ...... . .. .. ...... .. .... . . .. ... ... .. . .. .. .. ..... .. ......... .... ............ .. ........ . . . . . ... .. . a . ... .. .... .. ... .... .... . ... .... ............ ... ... .......... . . .... . . .... . . .... .. .. ........ .......... . . .. .. . .. ...... ..... ...... ... ... .. ..... .... . ... . . . . ... .......... .............. . .. . ... ......... .. ........... . . . ... . . ...... .. .... ........... ... . ........ ...... ...... . ..... .. .... . . . ..... . .. ... ....

. .. . ............ ... . ...... ..... ....... ... . ..... .. ..... . ........... . ... .... ..... ............... .. . ... . ... . .. . ......... . . ... ......... ...... ..... .... ....... ... ........ . . .......... .. t0 ) .... Snapshot of string displacement at time t = t0 .. ........ t) = y(a........ .... . .. .. .. ...... ....... ........ .... .... ............. .. .. And since the early 1950's..... ... . ....... Free-body diagram of elemental string length. ....... .......... .. ... . ............... . 147 T .... .. .. ... .......... . ..... t) = 0 (1) are the boundary conditions imposed on our unknown function y(x... .... ... .......... . .... ..... The string is ¯xed at each end.. ... ..... . .... .. .. . ..... .... . ...... ... ....... . . ... ............... .. .... ................ ...... . .. . ....... . .... . . . .. . .... . ....... ...The Vibrating String This is one of the most celebrated problems of mathematical physics.... .. . 1.... .. . ... . .... . . of total length a................ ............. ..... Let's see what our Fourier analysis can tell us about this simple and important wave equation.......... . .. ....... . . .... . ....... . .... . ........ ...... ........ .......... .. .. .. .... ... . .... x x + ¢x Fig. .. . ..... the unchallenged lead instrument in the sound track of Western culture has been constructed around a set of six such steel strings.. 0 ...... .. .. .... ....... ... . . ........ .. .. ...... . .. ............. ..... .... ...... ... ........ .. . ..... .. ...... .. . . ........ .............. ...... .... .......... ..... .. y(x..... ... . .... .... ............. . ... ... ... ..... .... . . . .... . ..... .... ........ .............. ......... .... ..... .. . . ....... .. .. ..... .. .. ... .... ... . ..... .. μ T .... t)..... ...... x a 0 Fig. ... .. ......... .. .......... ....... .. ...... .. .. .. . . hence y(0.... 2. ... ......... ........ .......... ....... . ....... ... . .... ........ .... .. ........ ...... . 1 shows the pro¯le (at some particular time t0 ) of the vertical de°ection of a string. . ...... . . .. . for all t.. .. ..... μ .. .... . .... ........ ....... ........... Fig.. ... . .......... ....... . .. about its equilibrium position y = 0. .. . ..... . ...... . . .. .

.... .................. . ....... ............. t) = 0 @x2 c @t (5) p T =½ will be the wave speed in (m/s). ........ . ...... . .... according to Newton's second law..... . . must be T sin μ0 ¡ T sin μ = ½ ¢x @2y @t2 (2) where ½ is the lineal mass density (kg/m) of the string..... t): ¢x T @t2 (4) In the limit as ¢x ! 0.. ....... ........... Á(x) .. ... .................... ............. . ............. ..... For small displacements about equilibrium sin μ0 ¼ tan μ0 = @ y(x + ¢x) @x and sin μ ¼ tan μ = @ y(x) @x (3) resulting in @ @ y(x + ¢x.... 3) (initially at rest) (6) (7) and releasing it. ....... ...... 0) = Á(x) @ y(x....... ..... . ... ...... .. ...... ............... then the sum of the forces in the y-direction.......... ... ... t) into a Fourier series in x.. ... We can solve our partial di®erential equation (5) by expanding y(x... . . t) ½ @2 @x @x = y(x........ x a 0 Fig......... 0) = 0 @t (one possibility shown in Fig..... .. ........ . ........ .... ..........Consider the free-body diagram (Fig. 2) of a di®erential length of string... which is equivalent to periodically extending the function y(x) beyond our original physical domain 0 · x · a................... ..... .. . ...... . If the entire string is subject to a tensile force T (N).... ...... .. 3......... we have the wave equation · where c = ¸ 1 @2 @2 ¡ 2 2 y(x....... Let's excite our string by holding it in the initial rest position y(x...... t) ¡ y(x.......... .... Since y vanishes at the end points x = 0 148 . . . ... Initial displacement of string.

that is · 2 ³ n¼c ´2 ¸ d + (12) Bn (t) = 0: dt2 a The solution of this homogeneous di®erential equation is a linear combination of ½ cos sin ¾μ n¼ct a ¶ : We select the cosine (discard the sine) in accordance with the initial condition (7). Now we have Bn (t) = ¯n cos(n¼ct=a) in terms of (unknown) constants ¯n . according to the initial condition (6). write it as 1 X Á(x) = bn sin(n¼x=a) (9) n=1 where the bn are known.and x = a. So the form of our sought-after solution is 1 X y(x. in principle and in reality. t) = 1 X bn cos(n¼ct=a) sin(n¼x=a): n=1 149 (14) . we can use a sine series. t) = 1 X ¯n cos(n¼ct=a) sin(n¼x=a): (13) n=1 Evaluation at t = 0. which is the odd periodic extension of period 2a. and so y(x. since we know the initial displacement Á(x): Za 2 Á(x) sin(n¼x=a) dx: (10) bn = a 0 Insertion of our solution form (8) into the wave equation (5) yields ¸ 1 · ³ X 1 d2 n¼ ´2 ¡ 2 2 Bn (t) sin(n¼x=a) = 0: ¡ a c dt n=1 (11) This is itself a Fourier series representation of zero. provides ¯n = bn . We need the appropriate Fourier series representation of our initial displacement (6). (8) n=1 where the functions Bn (t) (Fourier coe±cients for the x-expansion) are unknown at this point. which gives y(x. so each coe±cient must be zero. t) = Bn (t) sin(n¼x=a).

.. .... .. ...) Verify that (16) satis¯es the initial conditions (6) and (7)..... ... . . . ........ and the homogeneous boundary conditions (1).. y(x......... ... . .. ... .. 2... ... .... .....The physical interpretation of our solution(!) (this is it!!!) is much clearer upon rewriting it (via a trig identity) as 1 i h n¼ io 1 X n h n¼ bn sin (x ¡ ct) + sin (x + ct) y(x. .. ... . ... .... (16) is a solution...... 3.... .. .. ... .... ... . ........ .. . ¯nally.. .. . . ....... . ... . ... .... .... . ... . .. ...... . ... ¡a a 0 2a x Fig. .. ....... . .. . .. .. . ...... . . . ....... ... .. . ...... . . .. . . .. . .. .... . ... .. ....... ... . .. ...... ....... ....... ...... ........... . .. ...... ...... . . ....... 4.. Also note ~ ¨ ct) is a wave propagating with speed c in the §x-direction... ... ... . .... .. ................. ... ... . with speed c? 150 .. ... ... ........ ..... . Such forms are called the d'Alembert solution.. ..... .. .... ... that Á(x ~ Á(x) .... . ... ... ... ... .... .. . ... t) = i 1 h~ ~ + ct) Á(x ¡ ct) + Á(x 2 (15) (16) ~ means the odd periodic extension (Fig... .... . .. . . ... . . t) = 2 n=1 a a or.. .... ....... Certainly......... ... .. then...... ... .... .. ...... ... ...... ... ... . Problems 1.... ... ..... . ..... Odd periodic extension of initial displacement of string..... ............... . . ....... . .... .... .. . 4) of the initial displacement Á(x) as where Á(¢) given in the sine series (9): ~ Á(x) = 1 X n=¡1 Á(x ¡ 2na) ¡ 1 X n=¡1 Á[¡x ¡ (2n + 1)a]: (17) In (17) we are taking Á(») to be zero outside of the original domain 0 · » · a. .............. .. . ... . .. . . . .) Why do we say that f (x + ct) and g(x ¡ ct) are propagating in the ¨x-directions... ... . .. ........ . .. . ..... . .... . .) Verify that any functions f (x + ct) and g(x ¡ ct) satisfy the wave equation (5).. .. ... . .. .... ........ ............ respectively.

Poisson Sum Formula Let f (t) be any function that is Fourier transformable. Sum the slowly converging series 1 X n=¡1 n2 1 ¼ = coth ¼b: 2 +b b 151 . Then its periodic extension can be represented by a Fourier series: 1 X g(t) = f (t + nT ) = n=¡1 1 X ck ej2k¼t=T k=¡1 with Fourier coe±cients 1 ck = T ZT g(t)e¡j2k¼t=T dt 0 1 Z 1 X = f (t + nT )e¡j2k¼t=T dt T n=¡1 T 0 with ¿ = t + nT (n+1)T Z 1 1 X = T n=¡1 1 = T Z1 f (¿ )e¡j2k¼¿ =T ej2kn¼ d¿ nT ¡j2k¼¿ =T f (¿ )e 1 d¿ = F T μ 2k¼ T ¶ : ¡1 The resulting Poisson sum formula μ ¶ 1 1 X 2k¼ f (t + nT ) = F ej2k¼t=T T T n=¡1 1 X k=¡1 is often written in the common form. with t = 0 and T = 1 such that 1 X f (n) = n=¡1 1 X F (2k¼): k=¡1 F Homework.

coth z = so that 1 z z3 + ¡ + ::: z 3 45 · ¸ ¼ ¼b (¼b)3 1 ¼2 ¼ 1 coth(¼b) ¡¡¡! + ¡ +::: = 2 + + O(b2 ): b b ¼b 3 45 b 3 b!0 How can you see the behavior of the sum for very large b.67 of Big Red shows that. that is for b ! 1 ? 152 . for jzj < ¼. If jbj ¿ 1.5. Recall that the Fourier transform of g(t) = exp(¡®jtj) with ® > 0 is G(!) = Z0 e(®¡j!)t dt + ¡1 Z1 e¡(®+j!)t dt = 0 1 2® 1 + = 2 : ® ¡ j! ® + j! ® + !2 Duality says that the Fourier transform pair F g(t) () G(!) F G(t) () 2¼g(¡!): also gives so that the Fourier transform of f (t) = is F (!) = t2 1 + ®2 ¼ ¡®j!j e : ® We will also use the geometric series 1 X zk = k=1 The Poisson sum formula 1 X z 1¡z f (n) = n=¡1 (jzj < 1): 1 X F (2k¼) k=¡1 therefore gives (assume b > 0 and note that the desired sum is even in b) " # · ¸ 1 1 1 X X 1 ¼ X ¡2jkj¼b ¼ 2e¡2¼b ¼ ¡2¼bk 1+ = e = 1+2 e = 2 + b2 n b b b 1 ¡ e¡2¼b n=¡1 k=¡1 = k=1 ¡2¼b ¡¼b ¼b ¼1+e ¼e +e ¼ = = coth(¼b): ¡2¼b ¼b ¡¼b b 1¡e b e ¡e b ~ It is interesting to look at the limiting case of very small b. then 1 X 1 X 1 1 1 1 1 ¼2 : ¡¡¡! +2 = 2 + 2³(2) = 2 + n2 + b2 b!0 b2 n2 b b 3 n=¡1 n=1 Formula 4.Solution.

. ......... ...... ... ... .. ¡1.. .. ...................... ...... .............. 1.................. all we have is a table (list) of numbers x(nT )... ..... .... ...... . 2...................... ... 3..... . But a useful representation of the sampled signal xs (t) in continuous-time notation is 1 X xs (t) = x(t) combT (t) = x(nT )±(t ¡ nT ): (2) !s = n=¡1 From our table of Fourier transform properties we need £ ¤ 1 F (!) ~ G(!): F f (t)g(t) = 2¼ (3) The easiest way to get this is to take the inverse Fourier transform of the frequency-domain convolution Z1 Z1 £ ¤ 1 ¡1 F F (−)G(! ¡ −) d− ej!t d! F (!) ~ G(!) = 2¼ ¡1 ¡1 = Z1 1 F (−) 2¼ ¡1 Z1 ¡1 G(! ¡ −)ej!t d! d−: The inner integral (in !) is 1 2¼ Z1 ¡1 1 G(! ¡ −)ej!t d! = 2¼ Z1 G(¸)ej(¸+−)t d¸ = ej−t g(t) ¡1 and therefore £ ¤ F ¡1 F (!) ~ G(!) = g(t) Z1 F (−)ej−t d− = 2¼f (t)g(t) ¡1 which is identical to (3)............. ......... ............... ............ . ......... . ............. ...... ... .... ........ ¡2. Once x(t) has been sampled.... ................. ..... ....... ..Sampling and Reconstruction .. : : : ) so that the sampling frequency is 2¼ (1) T in terms of the sampling period or interval T ...................... . .............. . x (t) x(t)........ . ..... .... ............................. ... ...... ........ 0...... ... .... . ....... .............. ......... ........ h(t) y(t) combT (t) Consider a continuous-time (analog) signal x(t) that is uniformly sampled at the times tn = nT (n = : : : .......... . . s . . .. ..... Typeset by AMS-TEX 153 .. ....... . . .....

........ .. ... . .... ......... ........................ ............ . .... .... ......... . ...... .... . .. ... ...... .. .. ... ........... .... ... ..... . ¡2!s ¡!s ¡!s =2 0 !s =2 !s ! !s ! 2!s The middle curve shows Xs (!) for the case !s > 2!h and the bottom curve is for !s < 2!h ... ... .... ... ....... then X(!) = 0 for j!j > !h : (6) This means that the spectrum of x(t) has a highest frequency !h ............. ....... .... ......... . ......... .... ... . ........ ... .. ...... ........... ... ...... ... ...... ....................... ..... ......... .. .................. ...... ............ X(!) ..... ............ ....... ... ..... . ....... ................... ... ............... ................... ......... ..... . . ...... . .... ..... ...... ......... ..... . . ... .. ... ........ ....... ... .... . .... .... . .......... . ........ .. ..... . ....... .. .............. ..... ............ ... .. .. . .......... ... ... .............. ..... .... . .............. .............. ....... ......... .. . .. .... . ... . .. . .... .. ....... .. ..... .............. ....... ............ ............ .......... . .... .. .............. .... ..... .... ...... .... ...... ..... ............. .. ................. ......... ....... ...... ..... . .. .. .. .......... ....... .. .. .......... ...... If we pass xs (t) through an ideal low-pass ¯lter having transfer function H(!) = T ¦ 154 μ ! !s ¶ ..... ..... . . . .... ............. . ..... ...... .... .... . ... ... . ..... ... .. ........... ...... .. ....... .. ..... ....... .. ......... .. .. .. ... ....... .. ..... ..... ...... ..... ........ .. .. ....... ............ . . ........ ..... . .. .......... .... .......... ¡!h ! !h 0 Xs (!) when !s =2 > !h .......... . An example low-pass spectrum appears in the ¯rst row of the ¯gure below................ ....... ... . ............ ....... . . .... ... ... . .. ......... ... ... .. ... ....................... .......... ........... .. .. ........... ........ .. .. .. ... . .. ..... ... ....... ..... ...The Fourier fransform of the time-domain comb function is £ ¤ 2¼ comb 2¼ (!) F combT (t) = T T (4) and thus the spectrum of the sampled signal xs (t) is Xs (!) = 1 X 1 1 2¼ ±(! ¡ k!s ) X(!) ~ comb 2¼ (!) = X(!) ~ 2¼ T T T k=¡1 = 1 T 1 X k=¡1 X(! ¡ k!s ): (5) If x(t) is a \low-pass" signal... ... .. ....... ...... ........ .......... . ..... . .. .... .. ... . ..... ........... ........... .. ................... .... .. ........ ......... .. ........ .. ........ ... ..... ............... ................... . ...... . ... ............ ..... ................ ..... . .......... .. ........ ........... ..... .. . .. .. . . .... ........ ........ ... . ..... . .... ..... .......... .... . .. ..... .. .... .... .. .... ............. ... ... .... .... . . ............ ..... .. . . ........ .... . ........................ ... ..... .. .......... ........ . .... ........ . .... . .. ... .. .. . ..................... . ........ .. . .... . . ...... ...... ........ ... . .. ... . . .... . ......... ......... .... . .. ................ .. ... .. ..................... . . ........................ ... ... .. . . ...... ...... . ........ .... ................................ ... ........ ...... .... .......... . ...... . ....... ............ ........ .. .. .. .. .... .. .. ......... ........... .... . . . ... ........ . ... ..................... ..... ......... . .. ... . ... ... ........ ........ ...... . .. ..... ........ .... ............ ..... (7) .... .... . ... . . . ........... ............. ..... . ............. ............ .. ..... ¡!s Xs (!) when !s =2 < !h 0 ¡!s =2 !s =2 . .......... .... . .. .................

ignoring both Nyquist and Shannon). (10) and this ideal low-pass ¯lter is also called the sinc interpolation ¯lter. Therefore. If the low-pass signal x(t) having spectrum X(!) = 0 for j!j > !h is sampled uniformly at the rate !s > 2!h (the Nyquist rate). as shown in the bottom curve of the previous ¯gure. If we sample at too low a frequency. Independent of x(t) being a low-pass signal or not. the output of the ¯lter in response to the sampled signal (2) is always y(t) = xs (t) ~ h(t) = 1 X n=¡1 x(nT )±(t ¡ nT ) ~ h(t) = · μ ¶¸ t = x(nT ) sinc ¼ ¡n : T n=¡1 1 X n=¡1 x(nT )h(t ¡ nT ) 1 X (11) If k is an integer. and for an arbitrary sampling frequency (that is. we see that at the sample times t = mT . k = 60 (12) in terms of the Kronecker-delta. y(t) = x(t) and we have exactly recovered the low-pass signal x(t) from its sample values! The minimum sampling frequency is called the Nyquist rate or Nyquist frequency 2!h . 0. Now let's examine the output y(t) in the time-domain to get another perspective. observe that sin(k¼) sinc(k¼) = = k¼ ½ 1. for all !. Y (!) = X(!) if !s > 2!h : (8) In this case. the output is always equal to the input in that y(mT ) = 1 X n=¡1 x(nT ) sinc [¼ (m ¡ n)] = 155 1 X n=¡1 x(nT )±mn = x(mT ): (13) . k = 0 = ±k0 .then we see that. The impulse response of the ideal reconstruction ¯lter is ¤ £ h(t) = F ¡1 T ¦(!=!s ) = sinc(!s t=2) = sinc(¼t=T ). The error or distortion that results from the overlap in the adjacent shifted transforms X(! ¡ k!s ) is called aliasing. The frequency domain renders this derivation clear and simple. then x(t) is exactly recoverable by passing the sampled signal through the ideal reconstruction ¯lter having transfer function H(!) = T ¦(!=!s ). The whole concept is usually called: Shannon's sampling theorem. then Y (!) 6 = X(!) if !s < 2!h (9) and of course then y(t) 6 = x(t).

... ..... .. ....... ............. .... . . . . . ... . .. .. .. .... . ... . . . . .. . ... . ... ... 1. ... . . . . .... . ...... . ....... ... .... . ..... .... ... .. . .. . ... . ...... .. ... . . .. ...... .. .... ..... .... . . ... . ... ..... ............. .. .. .... .. .... ...... . .. . .. . . . .. . .. .. . . .. . ... . .. .... .... .... .. . .. ... 3.. ..... .. . .... . .. . .... . . . . . .. . .... ... . . . . .. . .. .. ..... ... .... . . ...... . ......... ... ............. .. .. . .. .... ....... . .. .. .... .. ... ..... .... . . ... ... . . ..... ...... .... ... .... . .. . .. .. .. . . ... . ...... . . .. . .. . ... . .. .... . ... .. . ..... ... . .... . .. .. . ...... ... .... ..... . .. . .. ... . . .. .Dissection of the Time-Domain Output of the sinc Interpolation Filter: Consider a small number (four) of samples x[n] = x(nT ) for n = 0...... .... .... .. ¡2. . ... . ... . . .. . ...... . .... ... . .... ....... ......... ..... .. . .......... . .. . ........ . . then the output (11) of the sinc interpolation ¯lter is ¶ · μ ¶¸ μ t t + x[1] sinc ¼ ¡1 y(t) = x[0] sinc ¼ T T · μ ¶¸ · μ ¶¸ t t + x[2] sinc ¼ ¡ 2 + x[3] sinc ¼ ¡3 : T T Each of these individual terms are graphed below for the example data x[0] = 0:5 x[1] = 1:0 x[2] = 0:8 x[3] = 0:6 along with the sum of all four terms. .. . .... . . ... . . ..... .. .. ........ . ... ..... .... . ... .. .. .. .... . .. .. .. .. . .... .. .. .. ..2 0. .. ... .. ..... . ... ... . .. . . . ........ ... .. .. ... ..... .. ... . ......... . .. . .. .. .. . ...... . . ..... ..... ... .... ... ... ..... .. .... ... .. .. . ..... .. . .... . .. Do you see which curve is which? 1. . .. . ...... ... .... .. .. ..... ... ....... .. ... .. . ....... .. .... .... ........ .......... . .. .... .... .... ... . ... ... . ... ..... . . . .. ... . . . ..... ... . . ..... ..... .......... ... .. . . ........ . .. . . ... ..... . .. . ... ... .. . . .. . . .. . ...... . . . ... ..... . ....0 ¡0:2 ¡0:4 ¡2 ¡1 0 1 2 t=T 156 3 4 5 . ... .. ...... . ... .... .. . . ...... . . .. . .. . ... ... ....... .... .. ... ........... . .... ... . ...... ..... . .... . . . . . .. ... . . .... . ... .. .... .. .......... . . . .... . ... . . . . . . ...... . .. ... ... .. . ........ .... ..... . .... . ... . .... .. . ..... ..... .. ... . .4 0...... ....... ... ..... . ... .. . .. ... . . .. . ... . ... . . .... . ...... ...... .... . .. .. . .. ...... .. . : : : ) of the x[n] are zero (or absent)..... .. . .... .... ....... . ... ....... ... . 2.. . .. .. .... . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . .. .. ... . ..... ............. . ... ... ....... . . .. ... ... . ... . .... . . . . If all other (n = 4... .. .. ........ . ... . . .. . .. . . ..... . .. .. ... ... . .............. ² ² ² 0. ... . ... . . . ..... . .. .. .. ..... .6 ² . ... . . ..... . .... . .. . .. .. . ... . ... .. . .. . . .. . . . . ..... . . ...... . ..... . .. . . .. .. .. .. ... .... .... .... .. ........ . ... .... ...... . ..8 0.. .. . ..0 0. .... .. ... ... ... ..... ...... ... ... . . .. . .... ..... .. .... ........ . .. ... .. . . .. .... . .... ..... . . .. . .... . . . .. ... ... .. ..... .. . .. . . ... ...... ..... .. ....... . .... ... .. . ... .... ... . ... . .. .... . . . ...... . .. ...... . .......... ..... . .. .. . . . . ..... ... .. . .. . .. . ... . ... .... ... .. . .. .... . ...... . .. ..... ...... . . . ..... . . . .... .... .... ... .... .. .. .. .. . . : : : and n = ¡1.. . . . .. ... . . ... ..... ... 5. ..... ..... .... . .. .... ... . . . ..... .. .... . . . .. .. .. . .. .... .... . ....... .. .. . . ..... . .. . . . ....... ..... .. . .... . ........ . . .. . . ... .. .. . ... ... .. .. ...... .... ... . ... ... ... . . . . .. .... .... . . ...... ......... .. ...... ..... .. .... ..

...... (also called unit impulse sequence) ±[n] ²...... §3............ ............... .......... ¡1.. : : : u[n] . 2. ½ 0.............. ::: ² ¡3 ² ¡2 ² ¡1 ::: n Unlike u(t) that is not well-de¯ned at t = 0... 0......... For starters. .. ... Note. di®erent names are used.... as in x[n] = x(nT ) n = : : : . .. ........... n = 0 0 1 2 3 4 Unlike the continuous-time Dirac-delta function ±(t) that is illegal at t = 0................... ¡2... .. ......................... .. .... ¡2..................... ... the unit-step sequence clearly takes on the value u[0] = 1.....................² ...... Our sequence x[n] is simply a list or table of ordered numbers... but be aware that their behavior is often (usually? always?) quite di®erent... n = §1.. Sometimes the discrete-time version of a common signal... ¡3 ¡2 ¡1 1........... .. : : : u[n] ²................ In other cases........................ ...... it is a function of the integers n... 0.... ±[n] = u[n] ¡ u[n ¡ 1] u[n] = n X k=¡1 157 ±[k] .................... : : : ........... SYSTEMS.. ::: ::: ..² ......² ...................... ....DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS..... ½ .... the independent time variable is simply the integers n. I suppose the Heaviside unit-step sequence is a better name that draws attention to its di®erence with the continuous-time signal u(t).... ...... .......... Usually we are not concerned with any underlying sample period T that was used to obtain our sequence from some original x(t)............ .... ...... Heaviside unit-step sequence.. §2.... the discretetime Kronecker-delta sequence clearly takes on the value ±[0] = 1.. : : : The discrete-time signal x[n] is also called a sequence....... Note that the sequence x[n] can take on real or complex values.... ....... goes by the same name and similar symbol as its continuous-time counterpart.. .......... ........² ........... The continuous-time calculus operators of di®erentiation and integration have analogous operators of di®erencing and accumulation in discrete-time..... Once we're in the discrete-time world. .. n ±[n] . . Many of our familiar continuous-time signals have discrete-time analogues or cousins........ ....... ..... ² ² ² ² 0 1 2 3 4 ... .... ..... . 1....... ............ ... The Kronecker-delta possesses the sampling property x[n] = 1 X k=¡1 x[k]±[k ¡ n]: Relationship... . 1... 3........ 2. however that u[0:5] is complete notational nonsense........ .........² . n = 0.... . .............. for example the Heaviside unit-step function u[n]........ . there is no such thing as continuity in discrete-time..... n = ¡1......² .......... AND TRANSFORMS A common source for a discrete-time signal is to uniformly sample a continuous-time signal........ ........ ...... 1.. ...² ..... ............... Kronecker delta sequence... ..

Consider the discretetime sequence x[n] = ej−n where the frequency − is any real number: Take it to be positive for starters. since ejn(−+2¼) = e2n¼j ejn− = ejn− : Therefore. then x[n + N ] = x[n] which requires that −N = 2k¼ where k is any integer. since e2¼j = 1. and the lowest frequency is − = 0 (which is identical with − = 2¼). This only happens if −= k 2¼ = a rational multiple of 2¼: N However. recall that for any positive real number ! (called the frequency). since x(t + T ) = ej!(t+T ) = ej!T ej!t = ej!t = x(t) whenever !T = 2¼.Complex exponential. 158 . we only have to consider frequencies − in the primary range ¡¼ < − · ¼. for example. The discrete-time complex exponential is substantially di®erent. the continuous-time complex exponential x(t) = ej!t is always periodic in time t with period T = 2¼=!. First. the discrete-time complex exponential is a periodic function of the frequency variable −. ¡¼). in discrete-time work. Is x[n] periodic in the independent time variable n ? Let's denote its candidate period by the speci¯c integer N . The highest frequency possible is − = ¼ (or equivalently. and examine x[n + N ] = ej−(n+N ) = ej−N ej−n : If x[n] is periodic with the period N .

.... .. ........ a = ¡1=2.. ... .. ............ Write an expression... ....... .... ............. .. ... .. ..... . ........ ... .. . . . N ¡1 ² ² x[n] 1.. .... ...... ......... ...... ..... Look at the following speci¯c cases: a = 1=2..... . . ............. .. . ....... too. .......... ..... .. Exercises..... .. ... we have a discrete-time initial value problem..... The inverse Z-transform gets our solution back to the time [n] domain.. ................... .. .. ..... for the given sequence x[n]. .......... .. ....... ........... ..... ... that describes the relationship between the input x[n] and the output y[n].... .. ............ ..... ...................... .. ............. ..... . ... .... . ...... ... .... . ......... . .. .. . .............. ....... ......... .............. ... ................. and it......... ....... .. .... ................... ... . ............... .. ..... .... .. ...... ... . .......... .. . ..... ... ...... .... . . ................... .............. .......... ...N ²... ...... . .... a = 2........... .. ............. ...... . ........... ... .............. ............ ... ..... . .. . 159 .. .... .......... ... N .. . .... ........ .... ........... ...... ......... Di®erence equations can sometimes be solved recursively: y[n] = ¡ c2 b0 b1 c1 y[n ¡ 1] ¡ y[n ¡ 2] + x[n] + x[n ¡ 1]: c0 c0 c0 c0 The discrete-time version of the Laplace transform (or Fourier transform) is called the Z-transform. ... .. ..... ..... ............ ........ ......... . . ....... ....... provides an attractive path to solve discrete-time di®erence equations by converting them into purely algebraic equations in the transform (z) domain.... ....... . .................. .. ..... ... ......... ... .. ....... y[n] The equation-of-motion. ......... .......... ..... ... ..... ...... ... .......... constant-coe±cient di®erence equation is c0 y[n] + c1 y[n ¡ 1] + c2 y[n ¡ 2] = b0 x[n] + b1 x[n ¡ 1]: When accompanied by two (the di®erence equation is second order) initial conditions of the form y[¡1] = y¡1 and y[¡2] = y¡2 ... .. . ..... .... . .... ......... and u[¢]..... ... a = rej− where r = 1=2 and − = 1 Discrete-Time Systems x[n] .. . 3² 2² 1² ::: ² ¡3 ² ¡2 ² ¡1 ² 0 1 2 3 : : : N ¡1 N ² N +1 ::: ² n 2... ........ .... ......... .. . ....... An example of a second-order.... . ....... . .. ..... in terms of n... .. . ........... . ... ..... ..... Classical solution techniques are analogous to the classical methods used to solve ordinary di®erential equations in continuous-time.......... Graph the exponential (or geometric) sequence x[n] = an u[n]... .................. ........... .. . for a discrete-time system is often a di®erence equation.... . . .. . ...

... ...................... ... the 160 .............. Using the sampling property of the Kronecker-delta sequence........ ........ then the system is time-invariant.......... .................... ............. x[n] x[n ¡ n0 ] ............ y[n] = T fx[n]g Assume that the zero-state response sequence y[n] to the exciting sequence x[n] is given by the operator or system transformation rule y[n] = T fx[n]g.......... ............... ..... ............. .. y[n] = T fx[n]g y[n ¡ n0 ] = T fx[n ¡ n0 ]g Input/Output relationship.... . ..... . ....... . ...... .... .............. so that the T operator can be moved inside the summation in ( 1 ) 1 X X y[n] = T fx[n]g = T x[k]±[n ¡ k] = x[k]T f±[n ¡ k]g: k=¡1 k=¡1 The response to a Kronecker-delta or unit impulse sequence is the system impulse response h[n] = T f±[n]g........ ... Given that the zero-state response to the input sequence x[n] is y[n].. If the operator T satis¯es the superposition property T fc1 x1 [n] + c2 x2 [n]g = c1 T fx1 [n]g + c2 T fx2 [n]g for any values of the constants c1 and c2 and for arbitrary sequences x1 [n] and x2 [n]............ ........ .......................... .... if the response to the delayed input x[n ¡ n0 ] is the delayed response y[n ¡ n0 ]..................................................... .... .. ...... write the input sequence as x[n] = 1 X k=¡1 x[k]±[n ¡ k]: The system operator T operates only on functions of the running time variable n................ ................... ........ .......... ........ . ................ . .................... .................. .............................. ....... ............ .. .................................... ..... ..... treating all other variables as constants....................... By the (assumed or de¯ned) time-invariance of the linear system... . ............ ... ............................ ............................... ................. ....... ...... ........................ ....... ....... .................. then the discrete-time system is linear...... ........... .....Linear Time-Invariant Discrete-Time Systems x[n] .. ..... .... .............. ........... .................................. ... .... .... ........ .................... .................... .... ...... ...... ........ ........ .......................... .... ................ ...........

.............. .. .... ... ..... .... ... .................. ........... . ................... ..................... ..................... ... ® ®f [n] . .......... .... ....... ...... ............. ........................................response due to a delayed unit impulse ±[n ¡ k] is the delayed h[n ¡ k] = T f±[n ¡ k]g... ........ ........... ... ..................................... . ...................... .... Let's look at one particular discrete-time system in detail and study its input/output dynamics from several perspectives...... .......... .... . ...... . ........... ... f [n] .. P f [n] + g[n] g[n] ampli¯er/attenuator unit delay f [n] .. .......... summer f [n] .. . .. ....... . ....... .. ...... z ¡1 ...... ........... ........ ............. ..................... One common way to specify a discrete-time system is via a system block diagram.................................. .............. .. The reason that the unit delay is represented by the symbol z ¡1 will be clear when we study the Z-transform... ......... ........... ..... ............... .. x[n] ......... ........................ h[n] y[n] = x[n] ~ h[n] Example of a LTI Discrete-Time System. We need to ¯rst introduce several basic components of such system block diagrams.. ... ...... and therefore the zero-state response is y[n] = 1 X k=¡1 x[k]h[n ¡ k] = x[n] ~ h[n]: This is the discrete-time convolution sum between the two signals x[n] and h[n].................................. .... ....... ...... ............. ...f [n ¡ 1] ... ... .. ....................... 161 ... .......... ..... ...... ................. .. ........................ ................................................. .. .... ..

. ... .......... .... .......... .. .......... . ......... .. ... . ........... .. .. . . . ........ ... .. ..... .... ...... ............. ... .......... ........... ... .. ............ ..... . . ... Sometimes di®erence equations can be solved recursively... The impulse response h[n] is the response y[n] to the input sequence x[n] = ±[n]...... .................. .. . .... .. .... ....... .... .... ...... . .. . ........ .. ... ...... ........... ... ... .. ... ... ....... ................. .. .. . ....... .. .. ... . ....... ....... . .... ... .. ...... ¡1 ... .. .... ........ ...... . . ...... ........ .... .. . . .. .. ......... ....... .. . ....... .......... P ² ® y[n] z The output of the summer is y[n] = x[n] + ®y[n ¡ 1] and so the discrete-time system depicted by the block diagram above is governed by an equation-of-motion that is a linear.. ................. .. ....... ... .. constant coe±cient.. ...x[n] .. ..... . . .... .. ..... ... . ... ....... ....................... ..... ..... . . .... the unit step response is s[n] = u[n] ~ h[n] = 1 X k=¡1 h[k]u[n ¡ k] = n X k=¡1 h[k] = n X k=¡1 n+1 = 1¡® 1¡® u[n]: The required ¯nite geometric series is detailed two pages ahead........ ... .. ....... . . ........... ......... . ..... . For example.. ......... ...... ....... . ................. . .... . ...... ..... ........ . and this is one h[n] = ®h[n ¡ 1] + ±[n] h[¡1] = 0 h[0] = ®h[¡1] + 1 = 1 h[1] = ®h[0] + 0 = ® h[2] = ®h[1] = ®2 h[3] = ®h[2] = ®3 . ... .. . its initial condition is h[¡1] = 0. . ....... . ....... .. .. ..... ...... .. ...... ¯rst-order di®erence equation..... .. ......... .. ... ..... .... ... .. . .. .. . .... . .......... .. ... 162 k ® u[k] = n X k=0 ®k . ... .. .... ....... . . ... ...... and being a zero-state response... . . .. ....... . . . . .......... h[n] = ®n u[n] With the unit impulse response h[n] in hand..... ......... ... .... ........ . . the zero-state response due to any input sequence is readily computed via the convolution sum.

.... . ... ..... ... .... .. .. 163 . ....... ........ .. .... ........... ........ ..... .... ... .. .... .. ...... ........... so to speak....... ....... ....... . .. n=¡1 n=¡1 . .... . .... .. .. . ......... ... .. . .. . ......... ... ... ..... ....... ......... . . ........ .... .. ... ... .. . ..... ... .. ... .. ......... .... ... .. and write a sampled (discretized) continuous-time signal as . . .. . .. . .. ......... ....... .. .... ... . ...... ..... .. ....... .. .. . ..... ......... ... ...... ... ............. ....... ......... ....... ...... .. ...... .................. ... ...... ...... ....................... . .... . ... .... . .... .. . ... ...... . .. .... ..... . .. . ...... . ...... .. ..... ... . ..... ......... ... . we need to represent our sequence x[n] in continuous-time notation: Take a step backwards. . ........... ............ .. .. ..... The Laplace-transform of the discretized signal xd (t) is therefore Xd (s) = 1 X n=¡1 x[n] Z1 ¡1 ¡st ±(t ¡ nT )e dt = 1 X x[n]e¡nsT : n=¡1 Introduce the transformed variable z = esT so that the above Laplace-transform is now called the Z-transform Zfx[n]g = X(z) = 1 X x[n]z ¡n : n=¡1 The Z-transform converts a function of the integers n (a sequence) to a function of a complex variable z.......... .. ............ ........ ....... ... . . .. . ........ ... ............ . ....... ........ .. . ................ ..... ..... ....... .The Z-Transform In order to derive the Z-transform from the Laplace transform..... ...... ..... .. . ... ...... ...... ............ .... . . 1 1 . .. . . .... ............ ...... . .. .. ....... .. . ........ .. .. . ......... ........ . ... ........ ... .. . . . .. ... ............. . .. .. ............... .. . ........... ..... . ... .......... . ........... ........... ................. . ..... ..... .. . .... ......... ...... . ... ² x (t) = x(t) comb (t) = X x(nT )±(t ¡ nT ) = X x[n]±(t ¡ nT ): ² ² T ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² t The bilateral Laplace transform of a continuous-time signal f (t) is de¯ned as the integral Lff (t)g = F (s) = Z1 f (t)e¡st dt ¡1 where s = ¾ +j! is a complex frequency variable............. ......... . .. d T .. .......... .. . .... ............. .. .. .. ....................... .. . . ... . .. ........... ... ........ ..... . .. ..... .. . ..... .... .............. .......... ................. . .. ... . ....... .. .

Similarly. since it is simply the sum of a ¯nite number of terms. 164 . Z-transform example: causal exponential sequence. Then the Z-transform of x[n] is X(z) = 1 ³ ´n X a n=0 z = 1 z a = z¡a 1¡ z (jzj > jaj): The region-of-convergence in the complex z-plane for X(z) to be a valid transform of x[n] is the exterior of the circle of radius jzj = jaj. the expression for the in¯nite geometric series 1 X an = n=0 1 1¡a (jaj < 1) explicitly displays its region-of-convergence jaj < 1. which is the limit as a ! 1 of the above result. Firstly.Geometric series. consider the ¯nite geometric series N X S= an n=0 where a is an arbitrary complex number. Consider the sequence x[n] = an u[n] where a is an arbitrary complex number. we have S = N + 1. We can obtain a closed-form expression for the sum S by this neat trick: S = 1+a + a2 + a3 + ¢ ¢ ¢ + aN ¡1 + aN a + a2 + a3 + ¢ ¢ ¢ + aN ¡1 + aN + aN +1 aS = S ¡ aS = 1¡aN +1 N +1 S(1 ¡ a) = 1 ¡ a =) S= N X an = n=0 1 ¡ aN +1 1¡a Note that when a = 1. There is no question about the convergence of this series.

Fibonacci Sequence . 21. 1. ¡1. 34. 8. Zff [n]g = F (z) = Zff [n ¡ 1]g = f [¡1] + z ¡1 F (z). 3.Di®erence Equation and Z-Transform f [n] = f [n ¡ 1] + f [n ¡ 2] initial conditions: f [¡2] = 0. 0. 1 X f [¡1] = 1 f [n]z ¡n n=0 Zff [n ¡ 2]g = f [¡2] + z ¡1 f [¡1] + z ¡2 F (z) F (z) = 1 + z ¡1 F (z) + z ¡1 + z ¡2 F (z) F (z) = z(z + 1) 1 + z ¡1 = 2 ¡1 ¡2 1¡z ¡z z ¡z¡1 F (z) z+1 z+1 = 2 =³ p ´³ p ´ z z ¡z¡1 z ¡ 1+2 5 z ¡ 1¡2 5 ³ ´ ³ ´ 1 1 p3 p3 1 + 1 ¡ 2 2 5 5 p p = + via partial fraction expansion z ¡ 1+2 5 z ¡ 1¡2 5 1 f [n] = 2 p !n p !n μ μ ¶Ã ¶Ã 3 1 3 1+ 5 1¡ 5 1+ p 1¡ p + 2 2 2 5 5 for n = ¡2. 2. 144. 2. 1. : : : 165 . 89. 13. 1. 5. : : : p f [n + 1] 1+ 5 ¡¡¡! n!1 f [n] 2 f = 0. 55.

Zff [n ¡ n0 ]g = 1 X n=¡1 ¡n0 =z f [n ¡ n0 ]z ¡n = 1 X f [m]z ¡(m+n0 ) = z ¡n0 m=¡1 1 X f [m]z ¡m m=¡1 F (z) System Transfer Function. y[n] = x[n] ~ h[n] Z () H(z) = Y (z) = X(z)H(z) Y (z) X(z) Recall the system block diagram for the example four pages back. The Z-transform of the governing di®erence equation y[n] ¡ ®y[n ¡ 1] = x[n] is (1 ¡ ®z ¡1 )Y (z) = X(z) and therefore the system transfer function is Zfh[n]g = H(z) = 1 z = : 1 ¡ ®z ¡1 z¡® 166 .Convolution Theorem of the Z-Transform Zff [n] ~ g[n]g = = ( 1 X n=¡1 1 X 1 X k=¡1 f [k] " f [k] " k=¡1 (let m = n ¡ k) = = 1 X k=¡1 1 X ) f [k]z f [k]g[n ¡ k] z ¡n 1 X n=¡1 1 X g[n ¡ k]z ¡n # g[m]z ¡(m+k) m=¡1 1 X ¡k # g[m]z ¡m m=¡1 k=¡1 = F (z)G(z) Z-Transform of a Delayed Sequence.

1. 2. 1. Its DTFT is j− X(e ) = N ¡1 X x[n]e¡jn− : n=0 If we now sample the DTFT at N values of − −k = 2k¼ N (k = 0. if we restrict z to lie on the unit-circle (jzj = r = 1). we have j−k X(e )= N ¡1 X x[n]e¡j2nk¼=N : n=0 167 . 2. Consider a ¯nite or partial sequence x[n]. Observe that the DTFT is essentially a Fourier series representation of the periodic function X(ej− ). then we have the discrete-time Fourier transform 1 ¯ X ¯ j− = X(e ) = x[n]e¡jn− : X(z)¯ jzj=1 n=¡1 The discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT) is a mapping from a function of the integers n to a periodic function of the continuous real variable −. with period 2¼. the inverse DTFT is simply obtained by applying the operator Z¼ 1 d− ejm− 2¼ ¡¼ to the DTFT above 1 2¼ Z¼ j− jm− X(e )e ¡¼ Z¼ 1 d− = x[n] ej(m¡n)− d− = x[m]: 2¼ n=¡1 ¡¼ | {z } 1 X ±mn The discrete-time Fourier transform pair is therefore j− DTFTfx[n]g = X(e ) = 1 X x[n]e¡jn− n=¡1 ¡1 DTFT 1 fX(e )g = x[n] = 2¼ j− Z¼ X(ej− )ejn− d−: ¡¼ Discrete Fourier Transform. : : : . N ¡ 1.Discrete-Time Fourier Transform. With z written in polar form as z = rej− . : : : . where x[n] are the Fourier coe±cients! Therefore. N ¡ 1) that are uniformly distributed around the unit circle. where our attention is centered on the indices n = 0.

N ¡ 1) (n = 0. 1. But each of the sets of N numbers. 1. Observe that the sum is a ¯nite geometric series (page 163): The result follows at once. each with period N . N ¡ 1) to the DFT above gives N ¡1 N ¡1 N ¡1 X 1 X 1 X j2(m¡n)k=N j2mk¼=N X[k]e = x[n] e = x[m]: N N n=0 k=0 k=0 | {z } ±mn Hence. N ¡ 1): n=0 The inverse DFT is most easily derived by ¯rst looking at the comparable discrete-time spectral representation of the Kronecker-delta sequence ±[n] = N ¡1 1 X §j2nk¼=N e : N k=0 The truth of this last equation can be established in a number of ways. To see this. the DFT transform pair is DFTfx[n]g = X[k] = N ¡1 X x[n]e¡j2nk¼=N n=0 ¡1 DFT N ¡1 1 X fX[k]g = x[n] = X[k]ej2nk¼=N N k=0 (k = 0. N ¡ 1): The DFT (FFT is the fast algorithm that e±ciently computes the DFT) is therefore a transformation that converts N numbers into N other numbers. Rather than write it as the cumbersome X(ej−k ). 2. 2. : : : .This is a mapping from a function x[n] of the integers n = 0. 2. x[n] and X[k]. : : : . : : : . observe that x[n + N ] = N ¡1 N ¡1 1 X 1 X X[k]ej2(n+N )k¼=N = X[k]ej2nk¼=N ei2k¼ N N k=0 = 1 N N ¡1 X k=0 X[k]ej2nk¼=N = x[n] k=0 168 . we focus our attention on the discrete frequency parameter k and write it as the discrete Fourier transform or DFT X[k] = N ¡1 X x[n]e¡j2nk¼=N (k = 0. application of the operator N ¡1 1 X j2mk¼=N e N k=0 (m = 0. 1. : : : . N ¡1. : : : . 2. N ¡ 1 to another function of the same integers k = 0. 2. : : : . Therefore. 1. 1. are a single period of periodic sequences. 1. 2.

1.A. ¯nd its DFT X[k]. : : : . 1.4 of Big Red: M. 169 . Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas. Recall from page 165 that the Z-domain transfer function of the system having block diagram on page 161 is 1 : H(z) = 1 ¡ ®z ¡1 Graph the magnitude and phase response H(ej− ) as a function of − for these values of the constant ®: (a) ® = 1 and ® = ¡1 (graph on the same axes) (b) ® = 1=2 and ® = ¡1=2 (also graph on common axes) Graph 20 log10 fjH(j−)jg (dB) for the magnitude characteristic. 2. rectangular pulse sequence x[n] = u[n] ¡ u[n ¡ N ]. Abramowitz and I. 1. Explain the frequency behavior with respect to the sign of ®. 3. Stegun. Find the Z-transform and its region-of-convergence for the ¯nite. : : : . National Bureau of Standards (also reprinted by Dover). N ¡ 1). N ¡ 1). where N > 0. 2.and X[k + N ] = N ¡1 X x[n]e N ¡1 X x[n]e¡j2nk¼=N = X[k]: ¡j2(k+N )n¼=N = n=0 = N ¡1 X x[n]e¡j2nk¼=N e¡j2n¼ n=0 n=0 Exercises. : : : . 20. Given the sequence x[n] = ±[n] (n = 0. Compare with Table 9. The Bessel function of order n and argument t is de¯ned as the integral 1 Jn (t) = 2¼ Z2¼ ej(nÁ¡t sin Á) dÁ: 0 Approximate this integral using the DFT. Graphs. 1. 5. 4. 2. and Mathematical Tables. Given the sequence x[n] = 1 (n = 0. 2. Use the fft algorithm in MATLAB to generate values of Jn (1) and Jn (50) for n = 0. ¯nd its DFT X[k].

.... . ....... . ........ ... ..... .............. . ... ........................... ... .......... .... ........... .......... ... ...... . ...... ..................... . ... ......... ..... . N ¡ 1 where x[n + N ] = x[n]............ . .. .... .............. . ........... . ............ ...... ... ...... .... N=2 f ((n ¡ N )¢t)...... . ... ............ ...... ...... .... .... ........ ..... . .... .... ............. ............DFT APPROXIMATION OF THE CONTINUOUS-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM F (!) = Z1 ¡j!t f (t)e ¡1 dt ¼ 1 X N=2 ¡j!n ¢t f (n ¢t)e n=¡1 ¢t ¼ ¢t X f (n ¢t)e¡jn! ¢t .... ... ..... .. . .............. ... ...... .... .... ....... ...... ....... ............... .......... ........ ........... ... . . ......... ........... . . ...... . ... The approximate Fourier transform above is now F μ k2¼ N ¢t ¶ ¼ ¢t N ¡1 X n=0 x[n]e¡j2¼nk=N ¼ ¢t X[k] in terms of the DFT X[k] of the sequence x[n].. .. ... . employ the periodicity of X[k] = X[k + N ]............ .......... ...... ............. .. ...... ... . ... ..................... . .... .... . . .. . ...... . . ..... . ... ......... ..... ........... ....... ...... . ....... . : : : ...... .. ..... ........... ... ......... ..................... ......... . . .... ......... .... ... 170 ¢t .. .... . .......... ......... ............. . . .. 1....... ...... ............... .................. . . .............. ............. . ...... .... ............... ..... ..... .... ...... Also note that exp(¡j2¼nk=N ) is periodic in both n and k with period N ...... .............. ........ . . . . .. ..... ........ .. ....... ............. .. .... Evaluation at speci¯c frequencies gives F μ k2¼ N ¢t ¶ N=2 ¼ ¢t X f (n ¢t)e¡j2¼nk=N : n=¡N=2+1 De¯ne the periodic sequence x[n] = ½ f (n ¢t)............. ..... ....... ........ .......... ............ ............................. ........ .. .... . n = 0............ . .......... .................... . ... .............. ........... ................. n=¡N=2+1 subject to appropriate restrictions. ................ .... ...... .... ...... .................... .......................... ........ ... ......... ....... ... ......... . ..... .... . ...... ........ . ...... ...... ........ ......... ...... ............ . ... ................... .. . . ....... .. .. ... ........ .......................... .... .... .... ..... .............. ..... Also note that the range of available frequencies is ¼ ¡ ¢t μ ¶ 2 ¼ 1¡ ·!· : N ¢t ........ ........... ..... .... .... .. ........ .. ............ . ...... . .. ............. . . .. ........................ : : : ... .. ..... . ..... . ... ... ...... . .. . .. .................. ...... . n = N=2 + 1.... ... .......... .... .. .. ........ ............. .... .............. ..... ....................... . . .... .................. ....... ........... . ... ... .. ... ........................ ... . . ...... . ........ ......... ..... t .......... .... .. . ...... ...... .. ... If F (!k ) is desired for negative k...................... .. ...... ... ....

..................... ....... ... .... ................... ..... ... ....... ........... . .......................... ........ ............ ........ . ................................. ...................................Numerical Example of Using the FFT to Evaluate the Fourier Integral: Time-Domain Response of an RC Filter to a Gaussian Pulse ..................................... ² + + C x(t) y(t) R ¡ ² F y(t) = x(t) ~ h(t) () ¡ Y (!) = X(!)H(!) (1) The time-domain input to the simple RC ¯lter is a Gaussian pulse 2 x(t) = e¡®t (2) r (3) having spectrum X(!) = ¼ ¡!2 =4® : e ® The circuit transfer function is H(!) = Y (!) = X(!) R 1 R+ j!C j!RC j!=!b = 1 + j!RC 1 + j!=!b = (4) where the ¯lter break frequency is de¯ned to be !b = 1 : RC (5) The time-domain response is the inverse Fourier transform 1 y(t) = 2¼ Z1 j!t H(!)X(!)e 1 d! = 2¼ ¡1 Z1 ¡1 j!=!b 1 + j!=!b r ¼ ¡!2 =4® j!t e e d!: ® (6) Let ® = ¿ ¡2 so that (6) becomes a little clearer 1 y(t) = p 2 ¼ Z1 ¡1 j!¿ · ¸ ¤ £ 1 t !b ¿ 2 ¿ d!: exp ¡ 4 (!¿ ) exp j!¿ j!¿ ¿ 1+ !b ¿ 171 (7) ..................... ......................................... . . ...................... ... ... ........ ..... .... ..... ................... ......... ............... ... .... .................. .................. ..... .... .. ...... ........................ .... ......... ................................. ........ .....

N=2) N ¢z μ ¶ N=2 X 2 2¼k ¢z ¼ p x e¡(n¢z) =4 ej2¼nk=N N ¢z 2 ¼ vk = n=¡N=2+1 x[k] = N ¢z p FFT¡1 fX[n]g 2 ¼ with 2 x[n] = e¡(n¢z) 172 =4 : e ¢z .Now introduce the normalized variables z = !¿. zb = !b ¿. the output approaches the input 1 y(v) ¡¡¡! p zb !0 2 ¼ 1 x(v) = p 2 ¼ Let Z1 ¡z 2 =4 jzv e e ¡1 Z1 e¡z 2 =4 jzv e dz = x(v): (12) ¡1 1 dz ¼ p 2 ¼ N=2 X 2 e¡(n¢z) =4 jn¢z v n=¡N=2+1 2¼k (k = ¡N=2 + 1. v= t ¿ (8) so that the circuit input and output signals are x(v) = e¡v 2 1 y(v) = p 2 ¼ (9) Z1 ¡1 jz=zb ¡z2 =4 jzv e e dz: 1 + jz=zb (10) Normalized time is v = t=¿ and the single parameter requiring a numerical value is zb = !b ¿ = ¿ 1 =p : RC ®RC (11) This parameter is essentially the ratio of the input \pulse width" to the circuit timeconstant. Note that as the cut-o® frequency of the high-pass ¯lter approaces zero. : : : .

........... . ...... ... .. . ..... . ... . ... .... .... . ..... ............. ... . ... ...... . .. ...... . .... ....... Response of RC High-Pass Filter to a Gaussian Pulse x(t) = exp[¡(t=¿ )2 ] Cases: ¿ =RC = 0:1. .. .. ........... . . ... .... ..... ... ... .. ..............75 0... .. . ..... .. .. . . . ... .. .... . ...00 ¡0:25 ¡0:50 0:1 1 ¿ =RC = 10 ¡4 ¡3 ¡2 ¡1 0 1 2 3 4 t=¿ Fig... ........... . . . . ...... . . ..... . .......... ..... .. ... ........... .. ... ... . . x(t) 0. ... ...... ..... . ...... . ....... . . ..... ..... ... . ... ..... ... ......... ........ . ... .. ..... .. . .. . .. . .. .................... ..... ... ............. .... .. ......... . . .. . . .... ... ...... .. . . .. .... .. . .. ........... . .. 1.. ....... ....... . ........ . . ... ... ... . .. . .. .. .......... .. . . ... .. ..... .. ..... ... .. .................. .. ... .. ... .. .... ... .... .. . ........... . . ..... ... ..00 .. ... .... . . . . .... ... . ... .. ... . . . .. .. .1.. ..... . ......... .... .. .. ... ..... .. . .. ... ...... ....................... ..... .. ...... .... .. . . . ..... .... ..... . ..... .. .. . .. . ... ...... ... .... . ......... . ...... .. .. ..... .... ... . ..... . ....... . . ... .50 y(t) 0... . ... ................ ..... ..... .. . .. .. .... . ... ... ...... ........ . ... ........ ... ..... ... .. ..... . .. ... . ... . ........ . ....... .. .... .... ........... ... .... ... ................ . . ................ ....... . ........ ......... ..25 0.. .... .. 10 173 .. ............. ... . .. .. . ... ... ... .. ...... .... ..... .. . .. ..... .... ... 1... ..... ...... ... ... .. . ..... ..... ..... .. . .......... .. . . .. . .. .... . .. ...... ... .. ...... ..... . . .. .. ... .... .. .. ...... . . . .

.................. > > > 2t > > < .... that is X[k + N ] = X[k] let x[n] = f (n¢t) for n = 0.... ..... ........ . 2..................................................... . . ............... .............. ............ ....... ......... ..... ................. .................. ...... ............................ .. ................................. ........................... .. ........... .... ..... ......................... N ¡ 1 μ ¶ o 2¼k j¢t n Fs ¼ X[k] ¡ X[N ¡ k] N ¢t 2 hopefully good for k < N=2 or slightly less 174 .. .... ......... > ............. ................. ..... ........ ... 1........... 1... ..... ........ .................... ......... .. ........................ > T ................... ........... ............ .. .............. .... ....... .. .................... ...... .................. 2.... ... .. : : : ....... .... 0......................... .................. ...... ................ ........ ..... f (t) t<0 0 · t < T =2 .... : .............. ...... ......Example: DFT Approximation of a Fourier Sine Integral 8 0............................. ... ............. T f (t) = 2 > > > (T ¡ t).... N ¡ 1) both sequences are periodic with period N . ................ ..... .............. ................... .... . ............ ... 1 T =2 0 T =2 · t < T t¸T t N ¢t T exact Fourier sine transform for comparison (never start with one you don't know!) Fs (!) = Z1 ¤ 2T £ 2 sin(!T =2) ¡ sin(!T ) (!T )2 f (t) sin(!t) dt = 0 Fs (!) ¼ Fs μ 2¼k N ¢t ¶ ¼ ¢t N ¡1 X f (n¢t) sin(n!¢t)¢t n=0 N ¡1 X f (n¢t) sin(2¼nk=N ) n=0 N ¡1 £ ¤ j¢t X f (n¢t) e¡j2¼nk=N ¡ ej2¼nk=N = 2 n=0 discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of a sequence x[n] is the sequence X[k] = N ¡1 X x[n]e¡j2¼nk=N n=0 (k = 0..... ................ ... : : : ........ ...... ......

....... . ... ... . .... ... ...... ..4 0....... . . . ... . .. ...6 0...... . . ... ... . ... .. .. ......... .. .. ... ........ .0 .. ....... ... ...... . ....... .... ........ .. ... ...... ....... .. ..... .... .. ...... ........ . .... . ...... .. .... ...... . .. ... ..... .. .... .. ........ . . ... .. ... ...... and N = 1024.... .. .. ...... .. .....2 0... ... ....... ... . . .. ....... ....... .2 1.. ... .... .... ...... ........ .............. .. . . . . ..... .. ...... .. . ................ ... .. .... ....... ... . ... .... . .... ....... ..... . . . .. ...... .. ... ......... ...... .......... ... ......... ... .... . ...0 ¡0:1 1.......... ... .. .... 0 2 4 6 8 10 ! 12 14 16 18 20 ... .... ...... . ... ..... ........ ...... . ...... .. .... ..... ....... .. ...... .......... . .... ... .. . Therefore. . .... .. . .In this particular run. ... . . . ¢t = 0:02... .. .. ...3 Fs (!) 0.. ......... .......1 0....... .. ........ T = 1.0 0. ....... . . .. . 0 2 4 6 8 175 10 ! 12 14 16 18 20 ........... .......... ............. .. . ..... .. ... . . . ... .. ... ... .. 0.. .8 E(!) 0.. ........ . . ........ . ......... ....... In the range 0 < ! < 20 the approximate and exact curves are indistinguishable to the naked eye. ... ... .. ....2 0....... the percentage error Fap (!) ¡ Fex (!) £ 100% E(!) = Fex (!) is also graphed. .. .. . .. ....4 1....... . .. ..... . .. .. ...... .. ......... .... ... ......4 0... ..... . ..... ....

figure plot(wm. n=0:(N-1).*(t<=(T/2))+(2*(T-t)/T)./Fexactm.Scharstein % Practice for the Army 3-dim slotted cylinder problem % and a good example for ECE 370.% DFTsineFT. % % Original f(t) is causal. %plot(t. and an isosoles triangular waveform of total % pulse width T.' Fexactm.02. wm=w(1:N/4).real(Fsm)) axis([0 20 -0. t=n*dt. T=1./(w*T). x=(2*t/T). XX=fliplr(Y).'] figure plot(wm. % Fexact has a divide by zero at w=0.^2.dt=0. % look at the first N/4 data points m=1:N/4.error) axis([0 20 0 2]) 176 . N=1024. Y=[X(2:end) X(1)]. Fsm=Fs(1:N/4).m DFT for a sine Fourier Transform % 9 November 2008 R.*(((T/2)<t)&(t<=T))+0*(t>T). but so what! Fexact=2*T*(2*sin(w*T/2)-sin(w*T)).Fexactm. [m' wm' Fsm.' XX. Fexactm=[0 Fexact(2:N/4)].'] Fs=(i*dt/2)*(X-XX).W.5]) error=100*(Fsm-Fexactm).x) X=fft(x). %[n' X.wm. w=2*pi*n/(N*dt).1 0.

..... ................................. ................. ....... ... ........ 1 LC simpli¯es the mathematics by clarifying the physically-important combinations of the original R..... .... .......................... ... ........... ....... ..... ............................. ... . ..... .. . ... . ..... ........ . .. ........... ... ........ .. ............ ..... ....... .. ........... . .... .......... .... . ... ..................................... .... ..... .. ................. .... clean statement of the pertinent initial value problem is now di(t) d2 i(t) + 2® + !02 i(t) = 0 2 dt dt with initial conditions i(0) = 0 and i0 (0) = V0 =L.......... . ..... .................. . . ............... . ... ... ...... ... ............... . . where the introduction of ®... ........... .. .......... ...... ...... . ... ...... ............ ......... . ........... A nice. .. ....... .. ..Discrete-Time Approximation for the Step Response of an Underdamped RLC Series Circuit R V0 u(t) L ......... . ..... . ............... .. + ¡ C i(t) + vC (t) ¡ Exact continuous-time solution for veri¯cation: Kirchho® voltage law gives the equation of motion as the integro-di®erential equation di(t) 1 L + Ri(t) + dt C Zt i(¿ ) d¿ = V0 u(t): ¡1 The inductor forces the initial condition i(0) = 0... ..... and C circuit values. .............. ..... ..... . .. .......... .... ... The exact solution to this well-posed initial value problem is V0 ¡®t i(t) = e sin ¯t ¯L where q ¯ .. ... For t > 0 application of L¡1 d=dt to eliminate the integral yields the homogeneous second-order di®erential equation d2 i(t) R di(t) 1 + i(t) = 0 + dt2 L dt LC (t > 0) A second initial condition i0 (0) = V0 =L comes from the ¯rst integro-di®erential equation evaluated at t = 0+ with the capacitor initially uncharged. .. .......... ....... ........... ................. .. .. ................ ..... .. .... .. ............ ...... . .. ..... R 2L and !02 ........ . ........ ...... ........ ........ .. .. 177 ...... . .. ... !02 ¡ ®2 : p This form is most natural for the subject underdamped case where R < 2 L=C......... .. .. ............... L... .. ...........................

178 . : : : according to i[n] = 2(1 + ®T ) 1 i[n ¡ 1] ¡ i[n ¡ 2]: 2 1 + 2®T + (!0 T ) 1 + 2®T + (!0 T )2 Numerical Results: The circuit values R = 200 (−) L = 20 (H) C = 40 (¹F) give ® = 5 (s¡1 ) and ¯ = 35 (s¡1 ): The MATLAB code discreteRLC. lim =) =) : ¢t!0 dt ¢t T T A successive application of this gives the second-derivative d df (t) =) dt dt f [n] ¡ f [n ¡ 1] f [n ¡ 1] ¡ f [n ¡ 2] ¡ f [n] ¡ 2f [n ¡ 1] + f [n ¡ 2] T T = : T T2 The discretized forms of the initial conditions i(0) = 0 and i0 (0) = V0 =L are thus i[0] = 0 i[¡1] = ¡V0 T =L: and The di®erence equation that approximates the continuous-time di®erential equation is similarly ª © 1 + 2®T + (!0 T )2 i[n] ¡ 2(1 + ®T )i[n ¡ 1] + i[n ¡ 2] = 0: Using the two initial conditions at n = ¡1 and n = 0.Discrete-time approximation: The discretization of the derivative derives from the de¯ning limit as f (nT ) ¡ f ((n ¡ 1)T ) f [n] ¡ f [n ¡ 1] df (t) f (t) ¡ f (t ¡ ¢t) . a recursive solution can be constructed for n = 1.m compares the normalized exact solution ¯L i(t) = e¡®t sin ¯t V0 to the recursive solution of the discrete-time problem. 2.

...... ... ... ........ .. ................ .. ..... . .................. ..... . . ...... ... . .. .. .. . ........... . .... ........ .. ... ..... ..... . .... ......................0 solid curve: exact solution dashed curve: sampling period T = 0:010 (s) 0................... .. ..... 0... .0 ¡0:5 ... ....... ....... .. .. .. ... ..... ... ....... ........ ..... .......3 0.......... ... .. . ........ ...... . ...... . ......1 0.... . ... . ... ............ ......... ............. ..........5 0...... . .................. .. ... . ............ ............ ....... 0.............. .. .. ...... ..... ... ..... ..... ........... ..... ... ... .. . .......... ... .......... ...... . ... . . .......... ...4 0. ....... . ........... . ........... . . .. .. .......... .......... .. .. ...... ... ....... ....... .. ..... . .... .. ... ...5 t (s) Normalized Current 1... .... ... ... . . .... ...4 0.. ........ ..... ...... .. ....... ..... ...... ... .......... . ....... . ... .... . ... ...... .... ....... . ...... ....... . .... ..... ......... ...... .... ..... ........... .. ..... .. .... .. ........... ......... ........ . ... . . .... . ... . ...... ......... ... ........... .... ............... . ...................... . .. .... . ... .. ...... ...... ... ... .. ... .. . ..... ..... . .. .......... .... . . .. . ....... .....0 0................. ..... .... ............ .1 0........... ..... ...........2 0.. .. .. . ..... ..... . ............... . .. ... ........... ........... .. ... . .. . ..... .......3 t (s) 179 0. ....... .. ........ . . ...... . ... .. ....... . .5 0.. .... .. .. .. .... .. .................. ....... .... . . ...... ... .. ..... . ....... .... .... .. ... ...... ....... ..... ............... . .. .. .. ................ ... .. ...... .. .......... ......... . .... .......... .. ... . ....... .... .. .................. ... .............. ... .. ....... . ...... . .... ...................... . . . . .... ...... . ..... . .. ........ ........... .. .. . .. .... . ....... ............ .. ........ ....... .. ..... ... ........... .... ......... ........ ... .... .. . .. ... ........ ........ ....... ... ...... ..... .... ........ . .......... .. ................. . ........ ..... .. ............ . ...........0 0.. . .. ........ ........ .............. ...........2 0.... . ......... ..... .. .. . .. ... .... .......... . ..... . ..... ........ ................ . .. .. .. . ... .0 ¡0:5 .. ........... . ...... .. .. . ..... ...... .... ............ ....... .. . ........ .... . . .. . .. .... ..... .... ....... ... ... . . .......Normalized Current 1... .... . . . ... . . ........... ... .. ..5 .........0 solid curve: exact solution dashed curve: sampling period T = 0:001 (s) 0. ..... ........... . .............. .... ........ . ... . .............. ... . ..... .... .................. ......... .......... ..... .... .............. . ....

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