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Lake Asbury Junior High School

Science Project Packet Appendices

Appendix A: Fields of Science/ Science Fair Categories …………………..2-3 Appendix B: Selecting a Project Topic/Question/Problem………………… 4-5 Appendix C: Experimental Design …………………………………………….. 6 Appendix D: Setting up a controlled experiment …………………………… 7 Appendix E: County Approval Forms …………………………………………. 8

Appendix A: Fields of Science/ Science Fair Categories
AEROSPACE SCIENCE is the study and investigation of the earth's atmosphere and outer space. It includes the design, building, and operation of aircraft. Some topics that fall within this division are the operation of rockets, guided missiles, anything related to space travel, and the operation, and/or construction of satellites and airplanes. ASTRONOMY is the science of the universe, including the planets and their moons, comets and meteors, the stars and galaxies. BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE* is the science that studies how humans and other animals act by means of observable responses. Some topics that fall within this division are the effect of stimuli on organisms and their responses, learning, motivation, emotion, perception, thinking, individuality and personality. BIOCHEMISTRY* is the branch of chemistry relating to the processes and physical properties of living organisms. This could include the reactions of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, enzymes, blood, urine, vitamins, hormones, poisons, and drugs. As well as the how these things are absorbed, digested, and used by organisms. BOTANY is the study of plant structures and their functions, plant reproduction, growth, classification and disease. CELLULAR & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY* is the study of the organization and function of the individual cell. Molecular biology is the study of the interactions between the systems of a cell, including the making and controlling of proteins, DNA and RNA. CHEMISTRY is the study of the structure and properties of substances. How substances are made and how they undergo chemical and/or physical changes under various conditions. COMPUTER SCIENCE is the study and making of computer hardware, software, Internet networking and communications, simulations/virtual reality or computational science (including data structures, encryption, coding, and information theory). CONSUMER SCIENCE* is the study of comparisons and evaluations of manufactured or commercial products. Topics included in this category are taste tests, color preferences, quality control, and how well a product works. EARTH SCIENCE is the science of the origin, structure, makeup and other physical features of the earth. Some topics that fall within this division are geology (earth composition, rock formation, fossils, minerals, and fossil fuel); geography (landforms, soils, classification of streams, erosion, and sedimentation); oceanography (ocean waves, ocean currents, composition of ocean water and coastal zone management); seismology (study of earthquakes); and meteorology (study of weather). ELECTRONICS is the branch of engineering and technology that consists of making things such as radios, television sets, and computers. Experiments involving circuits for communication such as radio, radar, laser, television, and electricity; electric motors; solar cells and amplifiers would be in this category. ENGINEERING is the design, construction, and operation of roads, bridges, harbors, buildings, and machinery, lighting, heating, and communication systems. Stress testing of building materials and strength of building materials would be considered engineering projects. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE is the study of the protection and care of natural resources. Topics included in this category are solar energy and its uses, water purification and usage, pollution control, soil chemistry, and insecticides. HEALTH SCIENCE* is the study of the human body and good health practices. Projects dealing with diet, care of the teeth, care of the eyes, and hygiene would be placed in this category. MATERIALS SCIENCE is a branch of engineering that is the study of materials and how they can be changed and made to meet the needs of modern technology.

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MATHEMATICS is the science of measurement, arithmetic (use of numbers, symbols, and numerical systems); algebra (probability, theory of equations, progressions, and combinations); geometry (study of geometric figures, similar figures, and scale drawings); calculus; trigonometry, statistics and graphing. MICROBIOLOGY* is the branch of biology concerned with the study of microorganisms. This would include the study of bacteria, viruses, yeasts, fungi, and protozoa, and even studies involving cells or tissues. PHYSICS is the science that deals with the laws concerning motion, matter, and energy. Topics found in the category of physics are force and pressure, gravity, Newton's Laws, relativity, kinetic theory, motion forces, work, energy, sound, light, and magnetism. ZOOLOGY and or Animal Science* is the science that deals with the study of animals. This could include the study the structures of animals, the functions of those structures, reproduction and heredity. *projects in these fields of science require special supervision and guidelines and have certain restrictions. The classroom teacher may choose to limit the number of projects allowed from these fields.

For a complete list of ISEF Categories and Subcategories refer to the following link: http://www.societyforscience.org/isef/project_categories

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Appendix B: Selecting a Project Topic/Question/Problem Worksheet 1: The Four Question Strategy “Brainstorming”
This worksheet is meant to guide you through the project selection process. It was developed from a four question strategy called Rooting into Inquiry, which is designed to aid students in creating an original and meaningful science fair experiment. Refer to the scenario and example worksheets provided to complete your own.

Example Scenario: Leslee wants to do a project on plants. She then completed Worksheet 1: The Four Question Strategy “Brainstorming.” See the completed worksheet below

Test subject is the same thing as project topic. It is the general thing you want to do your experiment on.

Write the materials from question #1. Choose only materials that will have an effect on the test subject. Notice Leslee did not choose the shovel or the measuring cups.

If you are having trouble coming up with materials then you can also put in the parts of your test subject. Like in this case roots, leaves, stem, flowers could also have been put in the boxes.

Write a list of all the possible ways that each of the materials can be changed. Use another sheet of paper if needed

Write your answer to question #2 & then write out specifically what and how you would measure it Page 4 of 9

Appendix B: Selecting a Project Topic/Question/Problem Worksheet 2: The Four Question Strategy Creating a Project Question

Feasible means capable of being successfully accomplished

Note: You will have more than three questions if you use all of your answers in #3 and #4 to make questions. Realize that some questions will be better than others and you should pick the three best.

Answering the “Why?” for the last two questions is just as important as the question itself. If you can’t answer the why then you should not consider trying to investigate the problem for your project.

After you come up with a problem question you need to get the approval of both the teacher and your parent to continue. If approval is not given by either your teacher or parent, then you will need to go back and come up with a new question. You may have to work through Worksheet 1 and/or Worksheet 2 multiple times before arriving at and acceptable question. Page 5 of 9

Appendix C: Experimental Design
Worksheet 3 Identifying the Variables, Control, and Constants Use may need to begin your background research before completing this worksheet. Scenario continued After Leslee did some research she decided to pick tomatoes as the plants that she would use in her project. She found out background information on tomato plants which helped her to complete worksheet 2: Experimental Design Diagram. Title: the question you are trying to answer. See worksheet 2 You may find as in this example after beginning your research that your question becomes more specific. Levels of the IV are the testing groups or the experimental groups. Each is treated with a different amount or form of the independent variable. You will need to understand what makes each level of the IV different from one another. In this example Leslee needs to know how clay, sand, and loam are different from each other.

The independent variable is the one factor in the experiment that you are purposely changing.

What affect does the type of soil have on the root growth of a tomato plant?

The control group is not exposed to any change or experimental treatment. In this example it is the group of plants that is grown in regular potting soil with nothing added. The dependent variable is the one quality or measurement about the test subject that you are using to determine if the independent variable had any effect on the test subject. In this example Leslee is measuring the main taproot to see if adding sand, clay or loam will cause a change to the tomato plant

Constants are all the factors in the experiment that must be kept the same so that you can prove that any change in the dependent variable was caused by the independent variable. Page 6 of 9

Appendix D: Setting Up a Controlled Experiment
When conducting your experiment, care must be taken to make sure that the independent variable is actually what causes the change to your test subject. When planning your experiment remember to keep everything the same except for the single variable being tested. Here is an example: Experiment purpose: What affect does the type of soil have on the root growth of a tomato plant? Hypothesis: If tomato plants are grown in soil with sand, clay, and loam then the tomatoes grown in soil with sand will grow the longest roots because the water will drain quickly from the soil and the roots will follow where the water drains. The independent variable is the different soil types. The levels of the Independent variable are sand, clay, and loam. These are the only things that can be changed in the experiment. That means that the following factors must be kept the same or constant:  The age and type of the plants (6 week old plum tomato plants)  The type of pot the plants are in and soil (plastic 6 inch pot with 15 cm3 of X brand potting soil)  The amount of sand, clay, and loam mixed with the soil (15 cm3)  The amount of water, light, and fertilizer (watered 10 ml of water every other day, afternoon sun, 2 ml of liquid fertilizer brand Z every 14 days)  The number of tomato plants in each testing group (five trials x 3 plants in each trial = 15 plants per experimental/testing group for a total of 60 test subjects, i.e. tomato plants)  The time the plants roots are measured and qualitative observations made (plants’ roots are measured after 21 days in the morning between 9:00 am and 10:00 am. Also observed are the number of lateral roots, the color of the roots, the number of root hairs, the location of the roots in the soil, color changes in leaves, texture of leaves and number and color and size of tomatoes on each plant and if the soil felt wet or dry)

Control Group Soil with nothing added Trials 1

Testing Groups/ Experimental Groups Levels of the Independent Variable Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Soil with 15 cm3 sand Soil with 15 cm3 clay Soil with15 cm3 loam

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Clay County Schools Project approval form (to be completed by all students)

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