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A SKETCH OF THE LIFE AND TEACHINGS OF GAUTAMA, THE BUDDHA,
OF THE MIDDLE TEMPLE, BARRISTER-AT-LAW
AUTHOR OF " BUDDHIST BIRTH STORIES," " BUDDHIST SUTTAS," ETC. PROFESSOR OF PALI AND BUDDHIST LITERATIRK IN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON; SECRETARY OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY.
A NEW AND REVISED EDITION. WITH MAP.
PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE GENERAL LITERATURE COMMITTEE.
LONDON SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE,
QI-KEN VICTORIA STREET,
PREFACE TO THE FIFTEENTH THOUSAND.
manual of Buddhism was
written in 1877, the number of European books on the subject was indeed not small, but the number of
accessible authorities or texts by the Buddhists themIt was therefore a selves was very small indeed.
very venturesome undertaking to attempt to give an account of a system on which its European interpreters
differed irreconcilably, at a time
when they could not
be brought to bar before the original authorities. There were two points especially, which to have misunderstood would have meant to have failed in the
the actual facts of the
and the real meaning of his ideal of life, of what in other words was always called, in the European Seventeen years have now elapsed. books, Nirvana. Nearly half the original authorities have since appeared in texts or translations, or both, and ample opportunity has been afforded to scholars to point out any errors The result is very encourthat had been committed. The conclusions arrived at in 1877 have been aging. throughout confirmed by the more recent publications of ancient texts, and have even been adopted and circulated by authors
who have not deemed
adopt is with regard to the division of Buddhist literature (universally accepted when I first wrote) into so-called "Northern" and "Southern" is The misleading. were neither Buddhism. of those books had come respectively from Ceylon and Nepal and the term " Northern Buddhism' was extended to . to refer to the manual in which these conclusions were less for the first time stated. 82. 81. and the original texts only have been used as the authorities to. whether Pali or Sanskrit. The principal cases where the references to the later authorities have been thus retained will be found on pp. where they have since become accessible. The only other change of importance which I have ventured to. notwithstanding the fact there is no such unity as "Northern Buddhism. This nomenclature North rn nor Southern. instead of the Had referred later it ones originally referred to . oldest books. the manual been written now it would doubthave assumed a different form. China. the very different systems prevailing in Tibet. 13. The use of the terms in question had its origin in the fact that our MSS. 56. The European authorities would have been altogether ignored. but were alike composed in the valley of the Ganges. 51.IV PREFACE. and Japan." The use of the . as they enable the reader to see the course of development of Buddhist belief (more especially as regards the ever-growing legendary additions to the life of Buddha). In the present edition the notes have been altered so as to give the older authorities. but in several places has been thought better to retain the references to the later books.
Dialogues of Gautama ought indeed to rank. . and the study of the evolution of ideas in the valley of the Ganges light may be justly expected to throw a welcome on some of the most important problems in the T. But no one is more surprised than himself to fiffrj that a work written originally No difficulties requires now so few alterventures to indulge the hope that it may have contributed somewhat to the interest which is under so many ations. in all our schools of learning. history of our race. In the present edition these loose and misleading expressions. W. have therefore been throughout replaced by more accurate and more useful descriptions. RHYS DAVIDS. " terms " Northern and V leads to mis- " Southern " conceptions so serious that I trust it will disappear from all works on Buddhism written by scholars. these exceptions the little volume remains as it to the important on pp. 4 owing the lists With was. The progress of time has rendered necessary a few verbal changes.PREFACE. work of the Pali Text Society. though rendered so popular by the influence of Burnouf. 18 one is more sensible than its author of its many imperfections. He now chapters increasingly taken in one of the most instructive in the history of human The thought. 21 have required reconstruction. with the Dialogues of Plato . and the alteration of some of the 6. And figures in the statistical tables given on pp.
. 19. 25. . loi . . 120. our oldest authority. the after-doubt. 64 view with his wife. 86 . 69 . THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA (PART II. 36 . return home. his selfmortification. and his disciples desert him. 1 10. 35 . 41 . Karma. birth of his son Rahula. authorities relating to the life of Gautama. 26 . 6 extent of the sources of information. 93. THE ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES OF BUDDHISM . the Ten Fetters. 42 . 108 . subject and limits of this work. . the Sakyas. the four visions. their value. 59 . last days. CHAPTER II. 68 . II estimate of . the Savaka Sannipata. 61 vana. the gift of Jetavana. his names. . 53 . THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA (PART I. Buddhism. 3 of other religions. Rahula admitted to the Order. the temptation. 49. 65 inter63 . the season of was. conversion of Kasyapa. 63 . Buddhism and Brahmanism. INTRODUCTION. 90 . 62 . . the Four Paths. 30. transmigration. 106. sending out the sixty. other accessions to the Order. : CHAPTER The first III. 66. APPENDIX Gautama's wife and relations.). 33 . 45 . 55 .C. discontent of the people. Gautama's . 57 . 109 . the Pitakas. interview with his father. 34. 39 . he abandons his home. chronicle of the ministry. 58. CHAPTER Statistics of . 47 . APPENDIX : List of the Pitakas. 77 . I. 50. 87 Skandhas. his marriage. 83. studies under the Brahmans. the first sermon. 18 size of the Pitakas.. ultimate facts. 70 Dewadatta. 29. CHAPTER The IV. lay disciples. Nirvana. the first converts. his meeting with Upaka. 27 . . the foundation of the Kingdom of Righteousness. he gives up penance. 31 . 8 9. the Four Truths. the attainment of Buddha-hood. 28 .). 99 . reception by his former disciples.TABLE OF CONTENTS. 67. The Aryans in the sixth century B. 43 . Gautama's birth. 22. APPENDIX: Passages in which Nirvana is mentioned. return to Rajagriha. the victory. Buddhism denies the existence of the soul. sermon on Bimbisara's gift of Velufire. 75 . 15.
220. Sanghamitta. 158. Vajrapanl. 148. 169. Buddhism expelled from India. rules of the Order as to food. 240 pilgrims. Chithe Korea and Japan. 201 Avalokitesvara. 125 . CHAPTER VI. 137. 204. BUDDHIST MORALITY. Chinese nese Buddhism. Asoka's missionaries. 142. the Second Council. THE LEGEND OF THE BUDDHA. the Ten Sins. . the First Council. . parable of the mustard-seed. 237. 170. summary. parable of the sower. 230. . Asoka. local legends. . . 179. other parables. 199 Manjusri. 213. the Bo tree. 231 . 224 . 166 . 194 . the Buddha as the Man in the MOOR. 143. Buddhist Beatitudes. SPREAD OF BUDDHISM. 233 . 222. prophecies regarding the child. 242 . Cause of the foundation of the Order. TIBETAN BUDDHISM. 196 . 210. 228. Buddhaghosha. . Kanishka's Council. 165 . 134 . 215. The Fruit of the Noble Path. summary of lay duty from the Dhammika Sutta. 190 . 153. the Buddha as Catholic saint. The Buddhas. the true treasure. 246. 203. 133 . 168 daily life of the mendicants. CHAPTER IX. wonders at Gautama's death. Chandragupta. Lamaism of Tibet. 1 50 Scripture verses. 128. 226 Mahinda. 164 clothing. 208 . the Tantra system. CHAPTER VIII. 183. 238. poverty. con- cluding remarks. the Dhyani-Buddhas. THE ORDER OF MENDICANTS. Theory of the Buddhas. . 124. 236. . Kanishka. 163 residence. 203. 189. miraculous birth of Gautama. 235 Java and Sumatra. 188 . 245 j the . CHAPTER VII. the Sigalovada Sutta. 206 . the Chakravartl parallel. jhana. the holy child. form of admission to the Order. 184.Viii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER V. the Third Council. the Pitakas reduced to writing. . 182. the legend as sun-myth. Scripture verses. obedience. Adi-Buddha. 197. 212. 135 . praying wheels and flags. Date of Gautama's death. and its re? ults. 241 . 127. 174.
Burma. Stud. I represents our i in hit .' iii. earliest form of the Pali language for which an alphabet was made. when the accent falls upon it. c is is our ch (tsh). and Siam where the language was still studied. European writers on Pali have in like manner characters followed the excellent practice of printing Pali texts in European . as boat. A represents the former sound doubled our a in father. represents the sound of short a in the French or German when the accent docs not fall upon it. as o. 'Ind. It is a pity there is not a more distinct sign for this sound. 185. Short e our a in mate .TRANSLITERATION OF PALI WORDS. represents our oo in foot . long o. our ny. always short when they do not. and U E O is not used. and unpractical English system. the same sound doubled. : VOWELS. Pali words are accordingly printed in English letters. of course. which contains neither an m nor an nor a^-. I. ' ' pronounced as our e in met . as in at home. 5 the Spanish n. Pali writers learnt very early to distinguish between the language and its alphabet. . short Ai and au. ' 1 ' ' ' . th. and the square letters fell out of use. the peculiarities of the pre1 In this work sent unscientific. Fausboll at the end of the preface to his edition of the Jatakas an opinion* with which I heartily concur. 1 See the strongly-expressed opinion of Mr. long our o in lot . eye and is e. as in CONSONANTS. and are always long when they close a syllable. Hence the long mark is needless. the same sound doubled. as our oa in our words how.' rh is our ng. the lan- THE guage being written in the alphabets in use in the different countries Ceylon. Also Weber.. disregarding. for instance kh. the sound of the u in our word kut. as in seek him . The h is always fully audible . was written in the square letters of which the earliest But forms preserved to us are found in Asoka's inscriptions. subject to the following remarks on pronunciation : A. u.
dh. n and part of the compound sound represented s follow it . have kept the Pali forms of a few words distinctively Pali. I have much doubt. v (or rather the corresponding native character) is always pronounced w by native scholars. and 1 are pure dentals . i. one of the chief beauties of Pali. whether I have done 1 right to use the Sanskrit form Gautama instead of the Pali Gotama. therefore. or against the teeth. as in The dve (pronounced dwe).2 TRANSLITERATION OF PALI WORDS. so that t and d are very slightly aspirate. they are t. Formerly it may have been v or either v or w. not pronounce Kama. they are all pronounced . that is. and have used forms neither Sanskrit nor Pali for one or two words (Nirvana and Pitaka for instance) which may be considered to have become English. Patta is pat-ta not pata. n. Moggallana. not Maudgalyayana . I Kamma 1 Pronounce the first syllable as in ' how. I represents the first bye. saSna kukucca. a quarter of an inch or more behind the teeth. but our t is much more often t than t. 'handsomer. other consonants call for no remark . and Karma. only the former of the two can be doubled. pronounced by placing the tongue at the root of the teeth. as of Italian. = san-nya . koo-koot-tsher. th. We do not in English make this distinction between t and t. d. When either of the forms would be particularly un- couth. d.' The on the first . and care is therefore necessary in pronouncing all the dentals. except after a consonant. e. or difficult for Englishman to pronounce. If the double consonant already represents a compound sound. There is great difficulty in choosing between the use of the Sanskrit and the Pali forms of proper names' and technical terms. by placing the tongue against the point where the palate passes into the gum.' the second and accent falls third exactly as in syllable. but it should be noticed that double consonants are pronounced double. when it was certainly w. I have chosen the other : writing. The th. pronounced. which Englishmen would inevitably . dh. for instance.
BUDDHISM. CHAPTER INTRODUCTION. The numbers human race . and what is Buddhism . together. and for this purpose they err both excess and by defect. as regards the Buddhists. which has been of the and ana is fall profoundly influenced by the results of the rise within it of the Buddhist church. indeed. quite apart from the fact that numbers are no test of truth. but also. and all other Christian Churches put From such summary statements. that the living Buddhists far outnumber the followers of the Roman Church. the Greek Church. not only what Christianity is. be nullified by an equally firm in so far as they afford are only interesting a very rough test of the influence which Buddhism has had in the development belief in another. most striking fact. L SEVERAL writers have commerced their remarks on Buddhism by reminding their readers of the enormous number of its adherents and it is. In the following tables no by allowance has been made for India. as far as rather the contrary. however. a . whether a firm belief in one religion should or should not. Before of Christians and Buddhists. but it is necessary to decide. comparing the numbers statistics are concerned. great misconceptions may possibly arise. And too .
008. in any case.000 12.000 1 According to the Ceylon census. Perhaps the deficiency is balanced by the excess .000. where three hold to one another an anomalous relation much allowance has been made religions quite unexampled in history . .000.000. and how much Taossean or Konfucian.546. number of males. we fluence of Buddhism subtract from the must leave the numbers as they are. The are total of inhabitants was The rest number Hindus and Muhammadans. this edition people entered as Jains in the census have been omitted from 3 my table. giving the nearest approximation possible to the actual number of living Buddhists as compared with the number of the adherents : of other religions In Ceylon 1 . 3. .000. which give only the The totals are therefore conjectural. Anam 3 Total about 2.888.. Burma 2 Other parts of India Siam 3 2 . for almost every China- probably profess himself a believer in the philosophy of Konfucius. Southern Buddhists. Out of Burma the In majority are in Bengal. 1891.. According to native military returns. . Their number in 1891 was 909.000 31. be as impossible to express numerically the inat in India.677 10.4 INTRODUCTION. It would..076 243. where there are about 185.000. while he would also worship man would both Buddhist and Tao temples. however. 2 From the Indian census of 1891. The following are the tables referred to. for China. as it would be to Chinese numbers so as to show how much of the average Chinaman was Buddhist..715.000 6.
see Dr. Keith-Johnston. the above estimate is 20. 128).000.000 Kirghis and Kalmuk Tartars on the lower banks of the Volga in Europe. (' Schopenhauer says Parerga Paralipomena. gives one and a half million. 196.000 2.000 414.000 8. where Buddhism p. estimates these China to contain 35.000. of et whom 9 the majority are now Hindus.461 500. 4 ' is still extending (Schlagintweit. 000. The For Buddhists in the island are from China or Siam. year not stated. quoted in Whitaker's The Buddhists Almanac. 1876. The inhabitants of Kashmir 1862.000 1 The Javanese are now Muhammadans.000 40. ' Buddhism in Tibet. p.STATISTICS. 7 From The a proper are almost entirely are nearly confined to Li-dak. pi.000. Northern Buddhists.000. 8 total population is about two and a half millions.000 1. and Hong Kong.453.000.) Total about 50. this seems to be too much.000 200. viii.000 inhabitants.686.000 3.000.' ed. 1856. . Friedrich's paper in the Journal of the R. Soc. states tributary to * The 'AllgemeineZeitung. and an increasing number of Burials and others in South Siberia. So The total of far as I can gather. 6 Muhammadans. There are rather more than 200.000.000 600. 1894. A.000 6. 34). Assam. * Chiefly in Spiti.. Further India.994 479.000 1. tit.000 500.' Keith-Johnston.000. Bali.' p. apud Schlagintweit ioc. 'Physical Atlas. Dutch possessions and Bali 2 ' British possessions Russian possessions 4 Lieu Khen Islands 3 Korea 4 Bhutan and Sikhim Kashmir 6 Tibet 4 4 5 Mongolia 4 Mantchuria 7 Japan 8 Nepal China proper 9 (18 prov.000.. census.' Jan.' 12. Physical Atlas.
The tive following table will show : at a glance the rela- numbers of the different religions.BUDDHISM. and the per- centage each bears to the whole Parsees * .
and most of them believe also in devil-worship. Ceylon. It is men they roughly It not incorrect to say ' that system.' may be true that Buddhism having been adopted by very savage and very civilized peoples the wild hordes on the cold table-lands of Nepal.STATISTICS. Bali. the at solely as statistics of actual religious foregoing calculations may be utterly misleading. On are full cf value if Not one of the five hundred millions who offer flowers now and then on Buddhist shrines. Nepal. who are more or less moulded by Buddhist teaching. But these tables cannot fail to show how great is the claim on our attention of that thoughts which make up so much of oui afford us so much of guidance and support. There must he about 11. life. for instance. the cultured Chinese and Japanese in their varying in British India. . they are vitiated by the attempt to class each man's religion under one word. in the native states. Mauritius. the West Indies. In point of fact. Tartary. 7 Looked belief. and Tibet. Their whole belief is not Buddhist many of their ideas are altogether outside of Buddhism their minds do not run only on in the . is only or altogether a Buddhist. unless used with great care .000. . Further India. each item lies open to an objection similar to that made above against the Chinese figures many of the Ceylonese so-calied Bud: dhists. power of the stais. and the other hand. take their oaths in court as Christians. such statistics they enable us to realize in any degree the enormous numbers of those who are born and live and die without even once experiencing those Buddhist lines.000 more and elsewhere. and system whose influence over living express.
be devoted to a consideration of Buddhism as it appears in its earliest records . it and down within which anything worthy of the is name of history To prepare even the materials for possible at all. Happily or unhappily. have grown.8 BUDDHISM. with a rapid summary of the principal lines along which in after-times the most vital changes. each of these beliefs breathes more or less of the spirit of the system out beliefs. through its countries to which progress in the to the present spread. such a history. of which they all alike rightly understood by those what that system really was. therefore. however.C. human race during the greater part of that period various fortunes there. be doubted whether our knowledge is sufficiently advanced to be stated in that clear and precise way which a popular treatise requires. nevertheless. that into it has developed under these different conditions inconsistent. .. and would run great danger of being wrongly certainly be constantly spent in the dark. chiefly The following pages will. those labours would directed. perhaps. there is . the labours of many scholars will be required for many years to come . from rise in India in the century B. and without a clear knowledge of the earliest phase of the religion. and the most essential developments took place. and can only be who have first realized To its its trace all the developments of fifth Buddhism. it has been so modithe palm groves of the South fied by the national characteristics of its converts. It may. undei climes and the quiet Sinhalese and Siamese. strangely and even antagonistic But. would be to write the history of nearly half the time.
. which have hitherto received no inclusive name. it is already to form an idea. not impossible : known for that the manner Vedas were handed down in this hundreds of years. on the Pitakas very doubtful whether at the time when "he lived the art of writing was known in the southern valley of the Ganges . As to the two former subjects our information is at the present derived from the same ultimate sources three Pitakas or Collections. immediate disciples learned and which were handed This is down by memory it is in their original state until they were committed to writing. nearly as much regarding the prin- Gautama cipal crises in his life as we are ever likely to ascertain.li OF THIS INQUIRY. which runs so remarkably parallel with that of Christianity. and it will be seen that enough at least. It will be seen hereafter that Gautama Buddha left behind him no written works. indeed. though we know very little. regards we himself. which indeed. and they will above all enable us to follow clearly the development of Buddhism. and about the person of Gautama. and none would many B . know. y aheady a by no means small quantity of popular on the subject. as the canonical books the Commenand the sacred books of the other Buddhists. perhaps. to correct several of the most popular conceptions. but the Buddhists believe that he is composed works which by heart in his his lifetime. is known. it of the Indian taries Buddhists are called. possible and as in its main features is certainly accurate literature . and both greater exactness and greater certainty regarding the life of its founder. Future investigations ing early will give us fuller details regard- Buddhism. Of early Buddhism. both about Buddhism.
C. nou dispute the enormous powers of memory to which Indian priests and monks attained.C. and we are left to our own researches to ascertain the time when their sacred books were composed. and round which But it other meagre knowledge centred. but repeat. as settled at the Council of Patna about the year 250 B. when written books were not invented. Even though they are well acquainted with writing. and parts of them possibly reach back very nearly. and that there is every reason to believe that the Pitakas tical now extant in Ceylon are substantially iden- with the books of the Orthodox Canon. p. the whole of the Patimokkha on 1 Uposatha (see - On is tures days by heart. p. for instance. that this cannot have been the case with any of the books of the Chinese Buddhists as yet known to us. 224. or only used as helps to memory : when they could calmly devote their and repeating one or more of those lives to learning they held to be sacred . but it Sanskrit books are known to have been translated This has as yet been very imperfectly may be stated generally that some of the into Chinese shortly after the commencement of our era. 2 As no works would have been received into the canon which were not then believed to be very old. given at the end of this chapter. the Pitakas may be approximately placed in the fourth century B. 140) this council. Tiie orthodox Buddhist belief therefore falls to the ground.10 BUDDHISM. 1 clear scriptures which all their is quite from internal evidence alone. or with those relate to the life of parts of the Pitakas which Gautama.. see A list of these scrip- . done. the monks in Ceylon do not use books in their religious services. below. if not quite. to the time of Gautama himself.
How much older the present 1 form of the Sanskrit work may be is quite uncertain.' and the earlier Pali ' much to be regretted that the earlier Northern accounts are not at present accessible. p. He holds the Tibetan version to have existed in the 6th century A. under the title 'rGyaTcher Rol Pa. and we have as yet to rely a good deal on later works. based on the accounts found in the Such historical value as it possesses is derived thereGospels. of Heidelberg. The Sanskrit text and part of an English translation by Rajendra Lai Mitra has been published at Calcutta. II But of this canon. treating and philosophy. without any 1 evidence whatever. * 496. 239).' the standard Sanskrit work of the Indian Buddhists on this subject. and Professor Lefmann.D. both Pali. assigns the Sanskrit original to Kanishka's For other opinions see Senart Council (see below p. The Tibetan accounts.' 1866. is now publishing a translation into German. by Alexander Csoma in his ' M. which. some of which are not without litera-ry value . . The Lalita Vistara.' (the r is silent). : I. however. Foucaux. M. and Sanskrit. Those. ' ' ' ' fore from the comparison which it enables us to draw between the later Sanskrit the light which beliefs It is it traditions. will be considered those relating to the life of Gautama are more especially the following of Buddhist ethics further on ' . Foucaux has published a translation into French of a translation of this work into Tibetan. and from throws on the development of the religious which sprang up regarding the person of the Buddha.AUTHORITIES. and it is just as much a poem on the birth and temptation of Gautama. The Lalita vistara is full of extravagant poetical fictions in honour of Gautama. based on earlier lives of the Teacher. only a very small part has been published . the poetical passages being older than the others. which have been analyzed by two Notices on the Life of scholars . II. Foucaux's work was published in 1847. as Milton's Paradise Regained is a poem on the birth and temptation of Christ. 275. only carries the life down to the time when Gautama came openly forward as a Teacher. and partly in verse. It is partly in prose. Journal Asiatique. and Feer.
231-332. 1 to * Read 3ist May. The date of the Sanskrit work is unknown . III. Also published separately. which is much the fullest and most reliable summary of the Tibetan traditions.) [See now Rockhill's 'Life of the Buddha. but even word for word in many passages with the Jataka commentary. 1849.. translation into English of a translation into Burmese ' of a Pali work called by Bigandet Mallalinkara Wouttoo. written in Ceylon its In vol. referring to Gautama's having renounced his home in order to become an ascetic). and. under the title 'Romantic Legend of Sakya Buddha. 410.1 2 AUTHORITIES J Shakya extracted from the Tibetan authorities. Samuel Beal was published in 1875.' It is based on Chinese amplified versions of Sanskrit texts. by a Buddhist monk named Ratna-dharma-raja: ' chiefly Both these accounts are based on the Lalita Vistara.' 1884. 1848. .' 1839. in his abridged translation of awork written in Tibetan in 1734 A.' This life agrees not only throughout in A Burmese translation was made main features. the Budha of the Burmese. the transSutra' (the Book of the was made in the sixth century A. xx. which notes are added. . to be mentioned below.] abbreviated translation into English of a translation III.' pp. livraison 3.D. in his thirty-sixth year. by Anton Schiefner.' vol. 285-296. giving a very legendary account of Gautama's life down to the time when. the English version by the Rev. and published in the Memoires presentes par divers Savants a 1' Academic Imperiale de St. ' St. Petersburg. Two editions of the English version by Bishop Bigandet have appeared at Rangoon in 1858 and 1866. vi. pp.' 3 lation into Chinese IV. under 1851. 8vo.D. he revisited his father's homo 3 after openly coming forward as a Teacher. under the title 'The Life or Legend of Gaudama. An into Chinese of a Sanskrit work called ' Mahabhinishkramana Great Renunciation.' Neither date nor author is known of the Pali work. of the 'Asiatic Researches. Peterbourg. the title Eine Tibctische Lebensbeschreibung Cakyamuni's.' the conclusion only of the latter being drawn from the Sanskrit work mentioned below (No. The in 1773 A. at 2 greater length. before the ' Academy at St.D. Petersburg.
19-30. V. fair sample of the value of the complain of the future When his relations Buddha that he is remiss in martial and manly exercises. The original Pali text of the 'Commentary on the Jatakas. (Jataka. The following instance is a different authorities. it gives slightly different versions of six short sci]. in the fifth century. and his superiority over other archers. p. life of Gautama down to the time when he revisited his home after his it is ' appearance as a public teacher .FOR THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA. vii. 15.. pp.' vol. this account is more ample and less reliable VI. in It contains word Pali Buddhistical Annals.000 men could not bend.' from the 'Madurattha-vilasinI. 1 ' et The solitary passages. Spence Hardy ' in his Manual of Buddhism. compared with Tumour. the Jataka says. vii. 29. and 'Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Soc. which were introduced into Burma from Ceylon in the fifth century. 803. discrepancy is in the account of the 'competition* referred to below. .' written in Ceylon probably about the middle of the fifth century of our era. especially as is often exceedingly interesting and inshowing the gradual growth of the super- natural parts of the biography. The later Sinhalese books make him do wonders with a bow which 1.' based on various Ceylonese books. Bigandet's account is equally simple. 797. A. As might be expected. but the number of arts ' and sciences is eighteen. than the last.' ' a commentary on the Buddhavansa.' which is the account of the Buddhas contained in the second I'itaka. The light it throws on the other accounts structive.) 58. and down to that time the best authority almost the whole of the his ' we life have. that on a day fixed by him he showed his proficiency in the twelve arts. The Jataka omits only a few very unimportant words in eleven places . The first part of this commentary.' contain. of 1 for word Gautama given by Tumour. a translated into English in my Buddhist Birth Stories. The account published in 1 860 by the Rev. It follows that its original 13 author usually adhered very closely to the orthodox books and traditions of early Indian Buddhism . 4. S. most of which date after the twelfth century of our era. J. and a-lds other paragraphs throughout.
36-41." Lastly. numerous inciportion of Gautama's life. though he had never had a teacher.) are together 1 in Prof. xi. and relic-worship had become general in the Buddhist It exaggerates the events which are said to have hapchurch. which is devoted to an account of any There are. and most of the long sermons it ascribes to Gautama just before he died are probably compositions of the author.' in M. Beal has eight pages full of the miracles ascribed to ' Gautama on that occasion. however. and they perfectly the eighteen proved arts. Foucaux's translation. more or less based. is more lengthy and more miraculous still. cannot be dated later than the end of the fourth century B. Is is called the Gautama from the Mahaparinibbana Sutta.' A it has been published in the 'Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society' (vols. . S. rather than what Gautama then actually said : but in its main facts the recital VIII. N. and he was equally well acquainted with many other sciences. dental references on which the above later accounts (Nos. AUTHORITIES twang of whose string was heard for 7. the oldest and most reliable of all our authorities.' Oxford. It is a common blunder to suppose that Gautnma attained nirvana when he died. The above is bears the impress of truth. pened after the death took place.. the only elaborate work contained in the Pali Pitakas themselves.14 the say. the Chinese Buddhists place the whole occurrence at a different time. Childers. including much that was said at other times. and viii.C. vol. and the account in the Lalita Vistara. The account in Pali of the death of ' second Pitaka. nor earlier than the time when Patna had become an important complete edition of ' 1 town.-vi.. and a complete English translation in the volume enBuddhist Suttas' by the present writer. 1881. Oldenberg's able and valuable work on * In the 'Sacred Books of the East. VII.) by Prof. pp. vii. titled This.000 " The that he knew also prince miles. The texts distinctly state that he did so after the mental struggle described below. Of these incidental references those relating to the period before the day on which Gautama attained nirvana 2 under the Bo Tree have now been collected i.
und seine Gemeinde. . not indeed as to the actual facts of Gautama's life. 63. at The is basis of fact underlying clearly the various accounts 2 sometimes enough. Buddha. translated by Rh. and more often doubtfully. and Krishna. Another Pali account of the First Sermon has also been translated by the present writer 'Buddhist Suttas. cerning but as to the belief of the early Buddhists conit. great reliance may reasonably be placed on those statements in which they agree . These are much the more reliable and complete . ' 15 Lcben. 1882. The publications of the Text Society will doubtless bring to light other ancient passages relating to subsequent periods in Gautama's life.. in his interesting work 'La Legende du Buddha. the former being inflated to a greater length by absurd and miraculous legends. The following account is based on that far belief.C. 73-151. * pp. munication between the two bodies since the third century B. shorter forms of which occur in the earlier all books. i. D. Senart. the last five on the Pali text of the original canon. O. and especially of the sun. As there has been very little comall.' chapters of the Maha Vagga give a connected recital of the events following Gautama's attainment of Nirvana. in his Pali The first three of these accounts depend ultimately on the Sanskrit works of the later Buddhists. Vinaya Texts. sein The opening 1 down to the inauguration of his afterwards celebrated order at Rajayaha. as described below. and sometimes not recognizable. and H. vol. 140-155. p. seine Lehre. as 1 as it can be at present ascertained by in their ' Now M.' attempts to trace the origin of many of the latter as also of the stories about Vishnu legends of both churches.' pp.FOR THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA. with which he compares them in the old worship of the powers of nature.' Oxford.
and delight in the physically marvellous . but simple-minded men. I would reply. historically possible in the fifth century B. that the difficulty. it is true. a critical comparison of the different authorities. Buddhist legend . in the eastern valley nt the Ganges. and what was not. it has not seemed necessary to me to reject entirely the evidence of any witness who believes in the miraculous. and not seldom absurd or childish. is The retailers of these apt to be exaggerated. myth. even. or the still powerful Order of Buddhist mendicant friars. and that the Buddhist philosophy. legends are not cunning forgers. we are getting to know what kind of things to expect from their hero- worship. with whose modes of thought we can put ourselves more or less en rapport . But it is no less aball patience with them on that account and to imagine that the life of Gautama is all a fiction.1 6 AUTHORITIES. It is true that these which they thought ought to have happened and that which actually occurred . and we are not without infor- mation as to what was. In endeavouring by such comparison to arrive at in approximation to the truth. that what they thought highly edifying is often miraculous. could have arisen from the misunderstood development of some solar making due early writers were not distinction between that capable of surd to lose . and religious reverence. Scholars will never become unani- .C. There was certainly an historical basis for the and if it be asked whether it is at all possible to separate the true from the false. though great.
but they agree in many things. The legends group themselves round a number of . but some substantial progress could certainly be made. the desire to edify. and sufficient to throw great light on the origin of Buddhism of the story may already be regarded as historical other parts may be as certainly rejected and many episodes remain. I shall therefore pass over almost in silence the later forms of the legend. and so on. . properly speaking. and after allowing for all reason- able doubts they will agree that there still remain small portions of the narrative whose existence can only be explained on the hypothesis that they relate to actual events. applications to Gautama of preIt viously existing stories. would always be much difference of opinion. complete work on the life of Gautama would thus compare the different versions of each episode so as it would then discuss to arrive at its earliest form : that account in order to ascertain not. mously agreed on rejecting all 17 will points . are in . whether all.RULES OF CRITICISM. The size and aim of this little work quite preclude any such thorough examination. mere poetical imagery. and. and such portions of the earlier accounts as my opinion certainly due to one or other of the causes just referred to. the most difficult part of the inquiry. would be that there in this. or sun myths. which may be altogether or partly fictitious. therefore. though of course by the same general rules of criticism. misapprehension. or if how much of it. very distinct occurrences each such episode should be judged separately. that some parts few indeed. but very important. A . I would maintain. could be explained by religious hero-worship.
edited by Dr. xxxii xxxviii in the Introduction to King of Milinda. It contains 'Short passages. Majjhima-nikaya. edited by Dr. I.'s 'Hibbert Lectures. THE SACRED BUCKS OF THE SOUTHERN BUDDHISTS. Samyutta-nikaya. The collection of short treatises. 2. 1 Vinaya Pitoka (Discipline.' For the contents see Rh. of each has already appeared. . now being edited. 1881. 3. 1. V.' 1 This list of the Pitakas on pp. OK THE THREE PITAKAS. commentary. 162. p. Connected Sutras. I. is Khuddaka-nikaya. The that The Patimokkha and the Khandakas are translated into ' English by Rh. 1T. The Sutta-vibhangya notes. the largest book in the Vols. its 14). Vol. Childers. three Pitakas. with and I. The tains Pali text has been edited I. The collection of 152 treatises of moderate size. Miscellaneous. in the 'Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1869. Sutta Pitaka (Discourses. commentary and Parivara-patha. for the Laity). Oldenberg: It conis. by Prof.' pp.' published by Mr. and of the number of pages already edited. D. . Trenckner. Rhys Davids' Eskin Carpenter for the Pali Text Society. I. the Patimokkha with The Khandhakas. The collection of 34 long treatises . APPENDIX TO CHAPTER LIST I. Morris. Khuddaka-patha. I. and II. III. for the Order). Vol. O. and H. Vols. J. and below. 4. Dlgha-nikaya. edited. This added by one school to the next Pitaka. in their Vinaya Texts. one of which is the Maha-Parinibbana Sutta (see p. is there added. by Prof. with English translation." An that given Questions of estimate of the number of pages in each may be compared with my ' work.. Anguttara-nikaya.1 8 LIST OF THE PITA K AS. II. D. 38-44.
Buddha-vahsa. See the Index few verses are re-translated below.' Indische Streifen. at important crises in his life. Poems by monks. 9. Patisambhida. Iti-vuttaka. Udana. Short poetical versions of some of the Cariya-pitaka. 19 Dhamma-pada. collection of 70 didactic poems. 5). The Pali text and commentary is Five hundred and now being edited by Mr. Niddesa. Songs of exultation. 1855. 1860. Zeit' der deutschen morgenlandischen Geselischaft. has now been edited for the Pali Text Society. ' A of the Sacred Books of the East. Vimana-vatthu. fifty Edited for the Pali ] Text Soc.' 1881. Apadana. Theri-gatha. possessed by Buddhist Arahats.' 1881. i. On powers of intuitive insight 13. [This book. supposed to have been uttered by Gautama under strong ' emotion. Fausboll in his A 'Sutta Nipata. the historical Buddha. A commentary ascribed Nipata (No. the most important collection of ancient folk-lore extant. 10.' published by Mr. Translated into German by Professor Weber. 14. with Latin translation. Fausboll in Copenhagen." 5. " Thus it One hundred and ten extracts beginning.' Eighty-two short lyrics. 7. as schrift ' vol. as also Nos. the to Sariputra. spirits. xi.] 4. Dr. old stories. THE PITAKAS. Morris has edited this work for the Pali Text Society. ) On disembodied Thera-gatha. Stories about Buddhist Arahats. Jataka. 8. . on the latter half of Sutta 12. of Copenhagen. Petavatthu.' 11. was spoken by the Blessed One. On the celestial mansions.LIST OF 2. 6. fairy tales. of which have been translated by Prof. Short lives of the 24 preceding Buddhas and of Gautama. reprinted in Translated into English by Professor Max Miiller. Poems by nuns. vol. 3. 15.' vol. 'Scripture verses. under Dhainma-pada. and fables. with an English translation by the present writer called ' Buddhist Birth Stories. xiv. Fausboll. 4 9 in this list. all Sutta-nipata.
i Abhidhamma}This work has 1.' 1893. 6. 7. 2 "in size the Pitakas surpass list. Dhamma-sangani. 190. stories. Edited for the Pali Text Society. . and as it tends to discourage research. Yamaka. BUDDHISM. I hope.' On the causes of Great misconceptions have prevailed with regard to the supposed enormous extent of the scriptures contained in the above Thus Spence Hardy says. Eighteen treatises of various contents. Katha-vatthu. 'The Pairs. existence. 3. the words in ten pages of our Bible I find that it. been edited for the Pali Text Society.20 Jataka births.001 . D. Sutta Nipata. consisting of about IO. book has been published by A summary of Rhys Davids in 4- Puggala-pannatti. the Dhamma-pada. On correlations of character.OOO words. rather less than 6. all I have made such calculations as By counting exclusive will. On controverted points. Western compositions. contains between 900. Patthana. Prof. Dhatu-katha. which are a fair sample of the whole. Now.000 and 950.000 words. the The number of words in the first 221 verses of Dhamma-pada.' 'Eastern Monachism. 'The Book of Origins. the 'Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.'s 'Hibbert Lectures. accord- 1 2 8 See Rh. 49." This is much exaggerated. qualities. settle the point. is the 431 verses of that book ought therefore to contain 3.000 words.' p. illustrating Gautama's virtue in formei Edited for the Pali Text Society. 10. 1881. Vibhanga. on apparent contradictions or contrasts.' p. On qualities of mind.' that is. Explanations of common personal The shortest book of this Pitaka. ' p. in which the doctrines of Buddhism are embodied. this 2. of the Apocrypha." and Sir Coomara Swamy 3 talks of "the vast mass of original writings. irrespective of the commentaries. 5.
To ascertain the relative number of words required to express the same ideas in English and Pali. no one in England seems to follow in his steps. that without them the Buddhist Bible is probably even shorter than ours. 21 1 ing to Tumour's list.800 words for the whole text. and in his translation. and even in the Nikayas whole paragraphs and chapters are repeated under different heads (the Subba Sutta. whose premature death has inflicted so irreparable a loss on Pali scholarship. D. Thus the whole of the Dhamma-pada and the Sutta-nipata are believed to be taken from other books .344. and the whole three Pitakas. and all those books which consist of extracts from the others. I venture to express a hope that some of field. 10 and of the Khuddaka n Xikllya. Considering the importance of the inquiry. The Buddhist scriptures therefore.752. gave a new start to Pali philology.242 and 2. (Compare Rh. is written on fifteen leaves. are written on 4. xxxiv -xxxvi. exclusive of Nos.) 2 1 .NOTE ON THE PITAKAS. that passionate patience with which older and well-worn studies are pursued may soon be diverted to this most promising Mahavansa. whose extent is uncertain. means unmanageable . These are so numerous. contains almost the whole of the Samanfia-phala Sutta. and a great part of the Brahmajala Sutta). for instance. and the ease with which a student in this department can add to the sum of existing knowledge. They are respectively 1. This would give 1.' pp. Ixxv. Such a literature is by no .382 leaves of about the same size. contain rather less than twice as many words as are found in our Bible and a translation of them into English would be about four times as long. including 2 all the repetitions.'s 'Buddhist Suttas. but though the untiring genius and self- sacrificing zeal of the late Professor Childers. I have also counted the words in Professor Childers's edition of the Khuddaka Patha. p.
though most useful. CHAPTER II THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA. who have preserved for us in their Vedic songs so precious a relic of ancient thought and life. were often productive of . had pushed on beyond the five rivers of the Panjab. DOWN TO THE TIME OF APPEARANCE AS A TEACHER. sprung from the same stem as our own ancestors. gradual. as well as in cattle.C. HIS AT of the sixth century B. they dwelt in villages. and were settled all along the plains far down into the Their progress had been very valley of the Ganges.THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA. even necessary to society. settled ago yielded to the inroads of class feeling. here and there large enough to be called towns and their chief wealth was in land and agricultural produce. as elsewhere. They had meanwhile given up their nomadic habits . but the old democratic spirit which made each householder king and priest in his own family. hardened into unwritten laws and with them. those Aryan tribes. they had also absorbed previously halfmany of the foreigners into their own social organization as slaves or servants. Their life had given rise to customs which had . They were still divided into clans . and though they had doubtless displaced the end many of the Dravidian tribes who occupied the land. these early institutions. had long .
whose freedom was the age. the infidel deniers of the Aryan gods. had died away. who thought that the old poems must have been the work of gods. ture. all The superstitious fears of yielded to the priestprofitable hood an unquestioned and supremacy. had given place to a succession of internecine feuds be- tween the chiefs of neighbouring clans. The worship of nature had developed or degenerated into the worship of new and And the Vedic songs themselves. less pure divinities. whose interests were governed by not often the same as those of the community. The old childlike joy in life. had given way before a debasing . The simple glorious battles feeling of awe storm. each some petty despot. individual freedom. The country was into up into little principalities. And in litera- an age of poets had long since made way for an age of commentators and grammarians. the pride of birth had built up another between the chiefs or nobles and the mass of the Aryan people. so manifest in the Vedas. great personal hardship. and the of family had further separated each class into smaller communities. ties while the exigences of occupation. until the whole nation had become gradually bound by an iron system of caste. 23 restraint and always a on The pride of race had put an impassable barrier between the Aryans and the conquered aborigines . of the and wonder at the and the recurring victories of the sun.THE ARYAN CLANS. had faded 'lessen their politically split little compatible with the spirit of an obscurity which did not value to the priests. The inspiriting wars against the enemies of the Aryan people.
superstitious. common by an irrevocable tenure. but . which tempered the despotism of the petty rajas. and inflated with a sistible The sincere belief in their own divinity. and omens. before the growing dependence on dreams. while it bound all the community Brahmans. and they inculcated a sense of duty. were use of the Vedas. quiet and not unhappy lives under the influence of a social despotism irre- few necessaries of . well-conducted. and there philosophical or sophistical discussion in the schools where the younger priests were trained. were quite unThe village lands were usually held in known. And the curious doctrine of transmigration satisfied the unfortunate that their present woes were the result of their own actions in some former birth. number earnestly thoughtful. but not unkindly. There was plenty for all of the life and the struggles and hopes and grinding poverty of a crowded country with the social arrangements of other times. growing belief rites ritualism. a still in an equal slavery to the ' twice-born ' A few of them also were really learned. and would be avoided in future ones by present liberality to the priests. A belief in the existence of a soul was probably universal. on the whole. and charms. Every man's position and occupation were decided for him by his birth. and divinations. ignorant. before the growing fear of the actual power of the stars over the lives and destinies of men . priests were mostly well-meaning. and incantations.24 THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA. before the in the efficacy of carefully conducted and ceremonies. smaller little was no The religious sacrifice. and the right to strictly confined to the Brahmans . and the thoughtless peasantry led.
That insignificant stream rose thirty or forty miles north of their settlement. on the banks of the river Rohini. at a place called Kapila-vastu. The ranks for ever firmly closed against intruders of the officiating priesthood were but a man of . 25 they were not the exclusive possessors of such secular knowledge as could then be acquired. life. about 500 years before the birth of Christ. an Aryan tribe. or whose heart was stirred by mingled zeal and ambition. but in that direction was the powerful con- federation of the Lichchavis. travelling logicians were willing to maintain theses against all the world . about 100 miles north-east of the city of Benares. in the spurs to the of the mighty Himalayas. whose giant peaks loomed up in the distance against the clear blue of the Indian to sky. a Kshatriya or a Vaisya. and solitary hermits sought for some satisfactory solution of the mysteries of ascetics with unwavering in and self-repression. and they divided the Here and there odour of sanctity with ascetics from other castes. might an entrance to find through these irregular openings the career of religious teacher and reformer. lower caste. anchorites had their schemes of universal knowledge and salvation . and the rising kingdom Magadha. Under some such conditions as these. To their north were rude hill tril> Mongolian extraction. \vhile behind them to the c . were seated. faith practised self-torture the hope of becoming more powerful than the gods . the modern Kohana. thus rudely sketched in outline.THE SAKYAS. The Sakyas had most of their penetrated further the east than beyond them i)f fellow-Aryans. named the Sakyas. whose mind revolted against the orthodox creed.
69. in other times and the in other countries. and two daughters of the raja or chief of the Koliyans were the wives of Sud- dhodana. her husband a son. With them the Sakyas sometimes quarrelled for the as themselves. that direction were the subjects of the king of Sra1 It was this vasti. on the other side of which stream lived the Koliyans. * On p. was great when in The about the 2 year of her age the elder sister.. The story tells us a misfortune great enough that both were childless . promised In accordance with custom. who thought after the state of a man's existence to death depended heir. rivalry of their neighbours more than their own strength which secured for the Sakyas a precarious but their own hand was strong enough them against the incursions of roving protect bands from the hills. . the raja of the Sakyas. the rival of the king of Magadha. a kindred tribe. cattle . upon ceremonies rejoicing. that hei See below. 51. forty-fifth be performed by his therefore. but especially that then among Aryans. They lived from the produce of their and their rice-fields their supplies of water being drawn from the Kohana. and to sustain them in their quarrels with neighbouring clans of the same standing independence to . p. possession of the precious liquid. she started in due time with the intention of being confined at her parents' house. but it was on the way under the shade of some lofty satintrees ' in a pleasant grove called Lumbini.26 THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA. but just then the two clans were at peace. the names. west lay those lands which the Brahmans held most Their nearest neighbours to be feared in sacred. see Appendix to Chapter II.
the family iiieh Ramayana and Mahabharata. and other details of may be due to this instinctive feeling that must have been different from that of ordinary men. and other Siddharthas are mentioned l who were not at all the story his birth ' peculiarly successful in may be. son. as it were. p. said to have been given him as a child. out of due time. 2. was unexpectedly born. The mother and child were carried back to Suddho- and there. his family name (lautama. the future 37 Buddha. 417). mother died .NAMES OF GAU1AMA. many marvellous stories have been told about the miraculous birth and precocious wisdom and power of Gautama. for it means he who has accomplished his aim. I. dana's house. The name occurs Buddhist works.. and these are not without value. the but the boy found a careful nurse in his mother's sister. spirit It is of the times in which they arose probable that his having been an only child. . Even the name Siddhartha. seven days afterwards. may have been a subsequent invention.ipil. born. and in Jaiiia books. the subsequent death of his mother.iv. in various Perhaps only in post-Buddhistic writings.' But parents of Suddhodana's rank have never shown much aversion for grand names. and as this was the name by However this accomplishing their desires. his father's other wife. 2 n. the 'Am. It is a curious fact that Gautama vil- is still name of the Rajput chiefs of Nagara. 2 we shall use it throughout other names given to the founder of Any in after-life.isiu (Cunningham's Gautama is often called simply 'the Go'g. As with other men who afterwards became famous.' i. but also in the Pronunciation. has been identified with K. was certainly which he was usually this 1 known book. as showing the and grew.
THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA.
seems irreverent to speak of Gautama by his mere ordinary and human name, and he makes use, therefore, of one of those numerous epithets which are used only of the Buddha, the Enlightened the lion of the tribe One. Such are Sakya-sinha,
of Sakya;' Sakya-muni, 'the Sakya sage; Sugata, the teacher the happy one ; Jina, the Sattha,
the blessed one
Lord of the world
and These expressions, like the Swan of Avon, may have had very real significance in moments of poetic fire. But their constant use among the Budone
Sarvajna, the king of righteousness,'
Loka-natha, the omniscient
dhists tended, not to bring into clearer vision, but to veil the personality of Gautama, and their constant use as
names by modern writers arises simply from mistake. There seems to be no reason to doubt that Gautama was very early married to his cousin the daughter
of the raja of Koli (see p. 50) but the next episode in the biographies is probably due to the influences
just referred to. According to accounts, his relations soon after
most of the southern
complained in a body to the raja Suddhodana that his son, devoted to home
pleasures, neglected those manly exercises necessary one who might hereafter have to lead his kinsmen
Gautama, being told of this, is said have appointed a day by beat of drum to prove his skill against all comers, and by surpassing even the
case of war.
bowmen, and showing his mastery in the have won back the good opinion of
Rujput' in the earlier portions of the Northern biographies
(Klaproth's note in
Ki.' p. 203).
the complaining clansmen. 1
and the Madhurattha-vilasim make this competition take place before his marriage, and for the hand of his wife ami there are other discrepancies. No reliance can therefore be placed on the actual occur;
rence of this
episode, the rise of the story being easily explicable, as suggested above, by the universal desire to relate wonderful things of the boyhood of
instructive to notice
most discrepancies in the accounts of those parts of the story which are most improbable, a consideration which confirms, I think, the authority
of those other parts, in themselves not improbable, in which all the accounts agree.
the solitary record of his youth.
nothing more until
denly abandoned his
2Qth year, Gautama sudto devote himself entirely
to the study of religion and philosophy. All our authorities agree in the reason they assign for this momentous step. deity appeared to him in four
under the forms of a
age, of a sick
man broken down by man, of a decaying corpse, and lastly,
of a dignified hermit the visions appearing only to Gautama and his attendant Channa, who was each
time specially inspired to explain to his deeply moved master the meaning of the sight. The different versions
and the mere
discrepancies of an old
or diseased stranger, or even of a dead body, would be insufficient of itself to work so powerful an effect
on the mind of one who was not already keenly
the later versions of the story see above, p. 13.
LIFE OF GAUTAMA.
sensible to the
mysteries of sorrow and of death.
an expression inadequate it may be, and even childish of what in the main we must ourselves believe to be the true
in this ancient tradition
But we find
explanation of the cause which induced
and his home. He was probably not the first he was certainly not the last who, in the midst of prosperity and comfort, has felt a yearning and a want which nothing could satisfy, and which have robbed of their charm all earthly gains and hopes.
This vague dissatisfaction deepens with every fresh proof of the apparent vanity of life, and does not lose but gains in power when, as is reported in the case of Gautama, it arises more from sympathy with the
sorrows of others than from any personal sorrow of At last, the details of daily life become one's own.
insupportable; and the calm life of the hermit troubled with none of these things seems a haven of peace, where a life of self-denial and earnest meditation may
solution of the strange enigmas of
feelings must have become more and more ascendant in Gautama's mind, when about ten
years after his marriage, his wife bore him their only child, a son named Rahula ; and the idea that this
tie might become too strong for him to break, seems to have been the immediate cause of his flight. According to the oldest authorities of the Southern
Buddhists, the birth of his son was announced to him garden on the river-side, whither he had gone
that of the hermit.
after seeing the
The event was not then expected, but he only said quietly, This is a new and strong tie I shall have to But break/ and returned home thoughtful and sad.
the villagers were delighted at the birth of the child, their raja's only grandson. Gautama's return became
an ovation, and he entered Kapilavastu amidst a crowd of rejoicing clansmen. Among the sounds of triumph which greeted his ear, one especially is said
have attracted his attention A young girl, his " cousin, sang a stanza, Happy the father, happy the
mother, happy the wife of such a son and husband." 1 In the word 'happy' lay a double meaning; it meant
from the chains of sin and of
2 Grateful to one who at such a transmigration, saved. time reminded him of his highest thoughts, he took off his necklace of pearls, and sent it to her, saying,
fee as a teacher.'
castles in the air thinking
me, and has sent me a present,' but he took no further notice of her, and passed on. That night at midnight he sent his charioteer Channa for his horse, and whilst he was gone he went to the threshold of his wife's chamber, and
ing in love with
there by the light of the flickering lamp, he watched her sleeping, surrounded by flowers, with one hand on the head of their child. He had wished for
the last time to
take the babe in his
arms before not do so
without awaking the mother.
trate all his intentions, the fear of
this might fruswaking Yasodhara
prevailed ; he reluctantly tore himself away, and, accompanied only by Channa, left his father's home, his wealth and power, his young wife and only
Hibbert Lectures, 1881,'
pp. 149, 150.
Nibbuta, said to be used in Pali as the participle of the verb from which the word Xihl ana is derived.
THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA.
and rode away into the night to and despised student, and a homepenniless This is the circumstance which has wanderer.
to the Sanskrit original of the Chinese
work, of which Mr. Beal has given us the translation mentioned above the Mahabhinishkramana Sutra/ or ' Sutra of the Great Renunciation.'
of this graceful story is historically true as yet impossible to say ; but it certainly belongs
to the very earliest form of Buddhist belief. next find another endeavour to relate,
the form of a real material vision, what
under supposed to
Evil, appears in the sky, and urges Gautama to stop, promising him in seven days a universal kingdom over
the four great continents,
but give up his eneffect,
have the desired
the tempter consoles himself with the hope that he will still overcome his enemy, saying, Sooner or later
hurtful or malicious or angry thought must arise mind ; in that moment I shall be his master.'
from that hour,' adds the Jataka chronicler,
followed him, on the watch for any failing, cleaving to him like a shadow, which follows the object from
Gautama rode a long
night, not stopping
he reached the bank of the
the Koliyan territory.
laking off his ornaments, he gave them and the horse in charge to his charioteer, to take them back to Ka-
Channa asked, indeed, to be allowed to pilavastu. stay with his master, that becoming an ascetic, he might continue to serve him ; but Gautama would not
13irth Stories,' p. 84.
YEARS OF STUDY AND PENANCE. to begin his new life as a homeless mendicant ascetic. being dissatisfied with his system. one of the then most powerful princes in the eastern valley of the Ganges and was situated in a pleasant valley. . was the seat of Bimbisara. sent home the dejected and sorrowing Channa. It may be relations the noticed. while he himself hurried on towards Rajagriha. yet at the same time surrounded by the solitude of nature. the most northerly offshoot of the Vindhya mountains. but the history of their rise and to development has yet 1 be written. and. In the caves on these hill-sides. hear of tions ' 33 rela- it. How will my father and my know what has become of me unless you go back and tell them?' Gautama then cut off his long hair. in passing. built by Bimbisara are still traceable. see General Cunningham's 'Ancient Geography of India. that the question of between Buddhism and the different is systems of interesting. Buddhist Period. to one of these Brah. learning under them all that Hindu philosophy had then to teach about this world or the next. saying. and exchanging clothes with a poor passer-by. Gautama attached himself. Rajagriha. several hermits had found it convenient to settle. 462-468.' pp. The ruins of the walls of the new citadel. the capital of Magadha. 1 man teachers. Hindu philosophy as difficult as it is among Six such systems are accounted orthodox the Hindus . and near enough to the town whence they procured their simple supplies. closely surrounded by five hills. first. afterwards to another named Udraka. free from the dangers of more disturbed districts. Only the fully- For a detailed description of the ruins at Rajagriha (modern Rajgir). named Alara.
Beal. Professor Monier Williams in his ' Indian Wisdom six has given an excellent popular sketch of the 2 systems just referred to. in one or other of which most of Gautama's metaphysical tenets had previously been taught. Lectures. the Brahmans paid great attention to the deepest questions of ontology and ethics. 48-126.. of the most frequently inculcated tenets of the Brahmans was a belief in the efficacy of penance as a One means of gaining superhuman power and insight and when Gautama. whichare interesting as being probably founded on ancient tradition. Like all other leaders of thought. Alara. and to the systematized form in which he presented ideas derived from those of various previous thinkers. or penance. long before Gautama's time.34 THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA. he was the creature of his time. One of the Chinese authorities gives long accounts of the discus1 sions he held with Bhagava. he resolved to go apart. 152-177.' pp. or metaphysics. . it is certain had that. sutras or aphorisms different developed systems are now extant in their but though it is doubtful whether : any of these were pre-Buddhistic or not. iii. Such originality as can be claimed for him arises more from the importance which he attached to moral training above ritual. and Udraka. after studying the systems of Alara and Udraka. pp. was still unsatisfied. and were divided into different schools. and it must not be supposed that his philosophy was entirely of his own creation. and see what progress he could himself make .-vi. ' Romantic Legend. and the most important ' authorities on the subjectwill be found mentioned there.
and. and down. Gautama's doubts and disquietudes at juncture are Kjain represented as temptations of the visible Tempter. Alabaster 'Wheel of the Law. after day. Some of the disciples thought he was actually dead . when his wavering faith might have been strengthened by the tender trust and re- and. began again to take regular food. Such self-control has always excited the wonder powerful and admiration of weaker men. near the present 1 temple of Buddha Gaya. 1 1 Bigandet. 140. and we need not be surprised that his fame is said to have spread round about like the sound of a great bell hung in the 2 If by these means he could canopy of the skies.HE by this IS DESERTED. when walking 1 Deal's 'Travels of Fa Hian. but he recovered. . despairing of further profit from such penance. the Arch-enemy Mara. that peace of mind for which he longed. having gone wrong. this 67.' p. 49 (first edition) compare Jataka.' have won that certitude.' p. to the severest penance. 35 much-vaunted method. and there for six years. when he was most in need of sympathy. a fear lest all his efforts should have been wasted. until he gave himself up he was wasted away to a shadow by fasting and self-mortification. lost in thought. Then. 120. and that he should die. 27. He withdrew ac- cordingly into the jungles of Uruvela. and gave up his self-mortification. all his weary efforts. But the more he thought. 3 At last one only failed. the more he examined himself and denied himself. . the more he felt himself a ' prey to a mental torture worse than any bodily suffering . p. the gain might have been worth the cost. slowly up he suddenly staggered and fell to the ground. at- tended by five faithful disciples.
his disciples forsook him. described in both the Pali and the Sanskrit accounts with all which the Indian mind the wealth of poetic imagery of is master. In giving up his penance he had to give up also their esteem . The ocean rose under the vibration of this earthquake . calm. where countless trees had serene during violent attacks visible Tempter and his ' . When the conflict began between the Saviour of the world and the Prince of Evil a thousand appalling meteors fell clouds and darkness prevailed. peaks of lofty mountains. the bitterness of failure. in which the very thoughts passing through the mind of Gautama appear in gorgeous Undescriptions as angels of darkness or of light. able to express the struggles of his soul in any other way. The crisis culmi- nated on a day each event of which is surrounded in the Buddhist lives of their revered Teacher with the wildest legends. spect of faithful followers. they represent him as sitting sublime. There now ensued a second struggle in Gautama's mind. rolled crumbling to the earth . Even this earth. a fierce . with the oceans and mountains it contains. quaked like a conscious being like a fond bride when forcibly torn from her bridegroom like the festoons of a vine shaking under the blasts of a whirlwind. To them it was an axiom that mental conquest lay through bodily suppression. rivers flowed back towards their sources . and went away to Benares. armed by all kinds of weapons.36 THE LtFE OF dAUl'AMA. and in his sore distress they left him to bear. the greatness of the temptation being shadowed forth by the horrors of the convulsion of the powers of Nature. and made upon him by a wicked angels. though it is unconscious. alone. grown for ages.
. J. iv. now the clouds 'Can thunder. yet stood'st alone Unshaken ! Nor yet staid the terror there . A curious point of ISuddllUt pi >ets is. and sturdiest oaks. It may be questioned how far the later Buddhists terrific have been able to realise the spiritual truth hidden under these material images . loaden with stormy blasts Or torn up sheer. O patient Son of God. 37 around . but in the \Yikleniess. between Milton and the that the former makes Paradise' to have been resemblance ' 'regained' not on Calvary. 15. some howl'd. while thou shriek'd. but rush'd abroad the four hinges of the world. S. .THE TEMPTATION. Infernal ghosts and hellish furies round Fnviron'd thee . water with In ruin reconciled nor slept the winds : Within From their stony caves. storm howled all . with which passages of Milton's 'Paradise Regained. some bent at thee their fiery darts.' though the Christian poet. the roar of the concussion became the very sun enveloped itself in awful and a host of headless spirits filled the air. some yell'd. and fell On the vex'd wilderness. as might be expected. and a 1 Madhurattha Vilasinlapud Tumour... and both ends of heaven From many a horrid rift abortive pour'd fire Fierce rain with lightning mix'd. Some Sat'st unappall'd in calm and sinless peace ! Par. Hence the Buddhists look upon the Bo-tree -is most Christians have looked upon the Cross. Reg. 812.. bk. uses much simpler images several : may be compared . just as the Buddhists regard Gautama's mental struggle under the Bo-tree AS the must impoitanl event in his career. most of them have doubtless believed in a real material combat. whose tallest pines Tho' rooted deep as high. vii.' darkness. and the act by which he regained freedom for mankind. Ill wast thou shrouded then. A. Bow'd their stiff necks. And either tropic .813..
he found his friends falling a way. the meaning sought to be conveyed by the exuberant imagery of the Buddhist writers seems. if not on the very day when his followers had gone. and they failed. he had added vigil to vigil. while learning the wisdom of others. that Still unsatisfied. and living the simple to life that intense of a student.his indomitable resolution and faith had together suddenly and completely broken down. until. he had devoted himself meditation and penance which all philosophers then said would raise gods. Soon after. To us. now. up Disenchanted and dissatisfied. these legends may appear childish or absurd. Comparing the different accounts of the events of that decisive day in the light of the past and future history of Gautama. But it is real material earthquake. but they are not without a beauty of their own .38 THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA. he . men above the longing always for a certainty seemed ever just beyond his grasp. in its principal features. Gautama had given all that most men value. Then. not in India alone that the attempt to terial compress ideas about the tangible imma- into words drawn from things has and has produced expressions which have hardened into false and inconsistent creeds. unmistakable. and his disciples leaving him. he had become more than a saint. the first half-inarticu< late efforts the Indian mind had made to describe the feelings of a strong man torn by contending passions. when sympathy would have been most welcome. to seek peace in secluded Failing to attain this object study and self-denial. have still a depth of meaning to those who strive to read between the lines of these. when to the wondering view of others. and penance to penance..
.' vol. he had thought that it contained within itself the seeds of evil. in the middle of the in the ancient is third century B. 237 . The philosophy he had trusted in seemed to be doubtful the penance he had practised so long had brought no certainty. ' This tree came to occupy much the same position among BudChristians. tree in the u<orlJ. and to glow again with attractive colours. and yet. They were within his reach. receiving his morning meal from the hands of Sujata. it is still dhists as the cross to it. by the celebrated Amara Sinha..uy. Nay. '39 wandered out towards the banks of the Nairanjara. But now to his wavering faith the sweet delights of home and love. and must inevitably..I). bring forth its bitter fruit. began to show themselves in a different light. pp. still growing there the oldest historical See below p. no peace and all his old temptations came back upon him with renewed force.C. A branch planted at Anuradliapura in .THE VICTORY. 6 ft . about 500 A. the charms of wealth and power. more. debating with himself what next to do. Cunning- ham's 'Archaeological Reports.Ceylon. For years he had looked at all earthly good as vanity. would there even then be satisfaction ? Were all his labours to be . 1 There he remained through the long hours of that day. i. he knew he would be welcomed back. and sat himself down to eat it under the shade of a large tree (a Jjcus religiosa\ to be known from that time as the sacred Bo-tree. sooner or later. . and for plans and history of the temple of the Bo-tree at Bodh Gaya. Worship was actually paid growing on the spot where the and where they believed the original had grown of it temple at Bodh Gaya. or tree of wisdom. the daughter of a neighbouring villager. among and an offshoot from Buddhist pilgrims found tree built it.. worthless and transitory. near Kajgir.
of penance and self-mortification he had in the long and so resolutely carried out had been tried fire and found wanting from that day he not . But as the day ended the religious side of his nature had won the victory .40 lost ? THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA. ' than that which the Buddhists call the Gautama had now arrived Great Renunciation. But. He seemed to have gained the haven of peace. one in his position. the solution of the great mystery of sorrow. only claimed no merit on account of them. he had grasped. to a renunciation greater. and in the power over the human heart of inward culture. Was there no sure ground to stand on ? Thus he agonised in his doubt from the early morning until sunset. that is. to rest at last on a certitude that could never be shaken. and of love to others. as before the apparent simplicity and power of this new system the efficacy of sacrifice and penance seemed to him to fade away into nothingness. enlightened . and of the world around him. . as it seemed to him. But f The works .x> his victory had not been won without a loss. That feeling of utter loneliness which is often the lot of the leaders of men. especially in moments of high exaltation nod broke upon him with such force that it insight . at that psychological and moral system to which he in the main adhered during his long career. so did Gautama feel more and more intensely the immen shy of the distance which separated him from the beliefs of those about him.' at those conclusions re- garding the nature of man. but took every opportunity of declaring that from such penances no advantage at all could be derived. and had learnt at once its causes and its cure. probably. his doubts had cleared away he had become Buddha.
any of the charms. and live amidst the sorrows inseparable from finite existence. without any of the rites. it will suga less lofty gest itself that other considerations of . but ' in i many former births. any of the gods. as those of his system of salvation salvation merely by self-control and love. when emancipation from all the and troubles of life was already within his reach.THE AFTER-DOUBT. him. have occurred to him. to proclaim his doctrine to the world. what- ever hazard. any of the ceremonies. but without that earnestness and insight which he felt himself to possess. which made Gautama resolve. utterly otherwise. in which men love to trust ? That such a thought should.' not then only. but so simple and men so powerless in appearance. seemed 41 men the to him impossible to go to his fellow-countrywith a doctrine to them necessarily so strange. so even incomprehensible. how could such grasp the reality of truths so fundamental and so far-reaching in fact. man of mixed motives and desires. as seemed doomed at and lost. have condescended to enter the world. To the pious liuddhist it is a constant source of joy and gratitude that the Buddha. any of the priestly powers. should again and again. under the circumstances. To arcs those as a who look upon Gautama in a less mystic light. it the to thought of mankind. is so very natural. they assign as the motive for his final determination said to have been love is it is worthy of notice : and pity fur humanity. How could men subject to same temptations as those whose power he had just so keenly experienced. in mere love for man. that we need not be surprised at the account of his hesiAnd the reason which tation as given in the books.
42 THE LIFE OF GAU1AMA. like Muhammad. and his sense of isolation yielded the deep realities or rather unrealities of soon before his consciousness of power. they where his former disciples were then living. The Brahman Gautama's expression and carriage. Alara way he meets with an acquaintance named Upaka. as a confession of failure and. but is so deserving of notice. had an intense belief in himself. At first. asks him for Then the Brahman craving. It is at least certain that Gautama. asks whither he . even apart from what had happened.5. he walked straight to Benares. but finding that were dead. For silence would be taken . in BeaPs ' komanuc Legend/ from the Chinese. thy countenance so lovely. On his old teachers. The the 1 account of the conversation is one of the striking that surprised at ' less it is authentic only preserved to us in 1 biographies. in the kind must have tended. p. and error. . half-unconsciously perhaps. same direction. a confidence that must have been peculiarly strong in that moment of clearness when he had seemed at last to stand face to face with life . and his prophetic zeal. an from him receives his first rebuff. in verse. it is said. there is always a sweetness in declaring the unknown. or being the bearer of good news. 2.4. he intended to address himself to and Udraka. thy appearance so peace- ful ? What system of religion ' is it that imparts to thee such joy and such peace ? To this question Gautama replies. and passionate is going and on hearing he was going to Benares. that he has overcome all worldly inllucnces and ignorance. Whence comes it that thy form is so perfect. asks him.
going to that city of Benares To give Light to those enshrouded in darkness. says curtly. Venerable Gautama. has probably arisen from a misunderstanding ' word amata. unable apparently to brook any longer such high-flown pretensions. Compare on turning the wheel belnw. 140. it never means of the name immortality. D. and the older account. as being the heavenly drink of the wise (who are above the gods) . . 141). and for ever got rid of the remnants of personal being. and could not grammatically have that So that the striking parallel between the 2 Chinese verses and 2 Tim. the expression turning the wheel of ' the excellent Law means. he desires light to all. by the light of his religious system to dispense even as a lamp enlightens all in the house. and the expression to open the gate of Immortality to men. To found a king- dom ' of righteousness . I think. to this ' World-honoured replies the following verses I now desire to turn the wheel of the excellent Law. This is a applied to Nirvana. and H. your way lies yonder.HE what purpose :n ' IS DESPISED BY UPAKA. 45. 10. puts the matter in a different As I have pointed out in my Buddhist Suttas light. i. p. as might be expected. On ' this the Brahman. 89. the : 43 ' . we have now this episode in its Pali 1 form. 1 Translated in Rh. or nectar. in the Vinaya Pitaka. in. sense.' and turns away himself in the opposite direction.' being quite unbuddhistic. ' ' (pp.' i. falls to the ground. on 'Amata.'s ' Vinaya Text*. O. Fortunately.'p.' this For purpose I am To further questioning he then informs Upaka that having completely conquered all evil passion. And to open the gate of Immortality to men. ambrosia.
i. and the remains of which. They object. and how can his mind . Nothing daunted. and in the cool of the evening enters the Deer park. to offer him a mat to sit down upon. could show them also how to escape from the evils of life. being by General Cunningham. This place. in the third century B. and told them they were wrong to call him Venerable Gautama. See also chapter xviii. and to address his five his name but. 103-130. 'Archaeological Reports.C. 1 and of numerous later buildings. Asoka. M. built a memorial tower there. A. authoritative teacher one whom they are forced to regard as fallen from orthodoxy. which was seen by the Chinese pilgrims. as he was of high caste descent. resolve not to recognize as a master one who has broken his vows. about three miles north of the city. seeing him coming. . One of them only. naturally enough. of the Rev.' 1862. with plans. now called Dhamek. OK GAUTAMA. They respect him still. where former disciples were then living. held aloof from this design . that he had failed before when he kept his body under. on the other hand. Shcrring's 'Sacred City of the Hindus. still exist. A great deal has been written on the discoveries at Dhamek. but a strong sense of duty prevents their receiving igain as an him simply by ..' pp. facsimiles of the inscriptions.' that they were still in the way of death ' where they must reap sorrow and disappointment. whereas he had found the way of salvation. 250 ct se<j.. but Gautama noticed the change of manner in the others. pp. which had so long remained hidden and having become a Buddha. was held by the Buddhists only less sacred than that where the holy Bo-tree grew. vol. &c. the fullest description. from a Hindu ascetic point of view.44 THE LIFE. 1 They. the aged Kondanya. the new prophet goes on tc Benares.
difficult to translate. Pravartana (Pali ppavattana) is setting in motion onwards. and a cakravarti makes the wheels of his chariot roll unall the world' 1 is a universal monarch.' the commencement of an action which is to continue. an exposition preserved in the Foundation of the the Dhammacakka-ppavattana Sutta. outward rules.' which. Dhanna and best rendered here by ' truth or righteousness . the Sutra of Kingdom of Righteousness. ' ' therefore. whereas the word law ' suggests cere- monial observances. ' connection with ancient Hindu mythology. up the figure in ' order the rendering in the text gives to retain the underlying ' ' meaning. ' This expression is usually translated Turning the wheel of the Law. To set rolling the royal chariot-wheel of a ' of truth and righteousness . while retaining the Buddhist figure of speech. which it was precisely the object of Gautama's teaching to do away with. The whole phrase means. but would sound more grandiloquent to us than the original words can. fails to represent the idea the figure was meant to convey . therefore. wheel . not law.THE FIRST DISCOURSE. to whom the allusion to the chakra was familiar universal empire this through its As we cannot. . make use of this figure spoil its without adding explanatory words which BShtlingk-Roth in their Sanskrit Dictionary. have won the victory to his 45 now when he serves and yields body ? Gautama replied by explaining the funda- mental truths of his system. have done in the ears of Buddhists. it ' The is is he who opposed over cakra' (Pali cakka) is no ordinary the sign of dominion . but that which (Pali Dhamma) a word often most underlies and includes the law.
Hardy. and bow themselves before the Teacher while the powers of the air dispose all things as is most meet . each one of the assembled hosts thought himself addressed in his own language. Only the Chinese life and 1 Chiefly from the Sinhalese.2 4 . P. 1865. Leon Peer. Manual of Buddhism/ Romantic Legend. The oldest form of this Sutra is in Pali.' 244-254 . the stars were the pearls upon her neck. Gogerly. 122. the still as a waveless sea. everlasting for joy. Jataka. on which the world is built. 82 . great and small. p. 'Journ. and hear the first preaching of the word. Gya Tclic: ' ch. Bigandet. As. and her voice was.' 1845. Journal of the Ceylon Asiatic Society.' When Gautama spoke. and delicious flowers fill the air with their scent. Compare ' Beal. this lovely maiden came. heavens where the angels dwell . as it were. leap . these three worlds were as her body . her eyes were the white lotus flowers.. 186. 118 Kol Pa. it THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA. the dark clouds her braided hair. hills. pp. and the sound of their approach is like the noise of a storm..' 1866 and 1870. 81. in . pp. till at the blast of a heavenly trumpet they become as All nature is moved . though he spoke in Pali. To worship the Buddha. the deepening As a crown she had the space her flowing robe. and the later tradition. and one used above is at once exact and appropriate. ' The evening was like a lovely maiden . accounts are poetical versions of the ancient The devas throng to hear the discourse all until the heavens are empty . gentle breezes sigh. and so thought the different kinds of 1 animals.46 simplicity. is the necessary to choose another. the humming of the bees. . 26 . which open to the rising moon .
and among religious teachers naturally assumes the form of the belief that one's own sect alone is defending the centre of Truth against Superstition on the one side. 1867. Right Actions. resulted from four ' The that all others are at one of claim to be in the Middle Path. better version of these Buddhist Suttas. 3. 5. as quoted by Gogerly. from any trust in the efficacy of the mortifications practised " by Hindu ascetics. inferring or suggesting two extremes. with the actual words of the Pali text as translated by the present writer in his ' Buddhist Suttas. The figure was a favourite one also with Gautama. vain. and he uses it again (teste the Sanyutta Nikaya.THE FIRST DISCOURSE. The necessity of adhering to this path. Speech. S. in the miraculous and poetical details . on tji^one hand. anas will . and useThis Middle Path was summed up in eight less. 8. 47 the Lalita Vistara gave any lengthened account of what was actually said.J." 1 principles or parts (angas}~ found in all schools of Buddhism 1. vain. Right Meditation. as to tirely. Right. vulgar. Right Endeavour. as might be expected. in being hering to the>'Middle Path " devotion to the enervatfree. Right means of Livelihood. I think. 6.' this middle course of a virtuous life.' ' discourse/raid stress on the necessity of adthat is to say. The ing pleasures of sense which are degrading.' p. : Right Belief. 144. * l-c A less literal. from . is a very common one . 7. found in my ' and. 2.. which are painful. and they differ almost en. ' 4. C. Right Aims. and Worldliness or Infidelity on the other. and profitless". Right Mindfulness. 125). when describing his view of Karma. the course of Gautama's argument. sensual. A. but they agree on the whole. and on the other.
such states of mind as co-exist with the consciousness of individuality. over and destruction of this eager thirst.' pp. The action of the out- side-world on the senses excites a craving thirst for something to satisfy them. called ' ' the four Noble Truths. are sorrowful. compare 'LalitaVistara. all sorrowful separation from objects we love. The cause of suffering. Suffering or sorrow. . See also below. with the sense of separate existence. this lust of life. . but by the light of reason and intuition alone. the Path which leads to the cessation of suffering. The path leading to the cessation of sorrow is the Noble Eightfold Path briefly summed up in the above 1 description of a virtuous life. The complete conquest 3. It will 1 be difficult for the reader to realise all the On theTruths. the Cause of suffering. and craving for what cannot be obtained. hating what cannot be avoided. p. not by study of the Vedas. Birth are is sorrowful . truths. A'l other accounts are derived from these. the Buddha declared that he had arrived at these convictions. p.' as the path is called The four truths are. 106. or a delight in the objects presenting themselves. Briefly.' Foucaux. These are the causes of sorrow. nor from the teachings of others. growth. 392. with the Pali text. 4. Suffering. 2. 148-150. death. either of which is accompanied by a lust of life. is that by which sorrow ceases. 1 the Noble Eightfold Path. decay. 1. are states of suffering and sorrow. Lastly. translated in my ' Buddhist Suttas. illness.48 fundamental THE LIKE OF GAUTAMA. The cessation of sorrow'. the Cessation of suffering.
and that. us forced and that they But it must be remembered all were addressed to Brahmans skilled time. doubtless at some repetitions. after a time of hesitation. whilst their former teacher. free from that impatience which is so characteristic of our knowledge into and quite marked a them time was no modern modes of thought. To object. explained and comIt may even be open to question whether the completeness of the form and the manner of its presentation would not weigh more with them than the truth of the principles which were thus presented. on the other hand. earnest and dignified. 49 carefully condensed into these short phrases . and they would sit under the trees listening with grave politeness. and. and not without mentated upon them. When we also remember the relation which these men had long borne to him. but they will be further considered later on. and the doctrine of it is not difficult to believe that his persuasions were successful. laid down the principles of his system. to avoid putting a Christian interpretation on these Buddhist expressions. his old disciples were the first to acknow- ledge Gautama in his new character. and then. and that they already held very strongly beliefs nearly allied to those parts of his doctrine that are most repugnant to us transmigration the pessimist view of life. length. who first . and to at- tempt to deal with them now would interrupt too much the course of the narrative. to Such classified statements of moral truth seem artificial. in the dialectics of the accustomed to put their short aphorisms to assist their memory. ready for his release from life.THE meaning that is FIRST CONVERTS. It was the aged Kondanya.
in the Pali authorities (Jataka. 6. S. 1 p. 24. and Tumour. and Beal Catena. they give her different names. sometimes sepaen rately. 124). Ind.5<5 I5UDDHISM. 186 below.' vol. Alterth. 52] of the immediate ancestors of Gautama and Yasodhara. his adhesion . Lassen. A. The name of Buddhakacana given by Tumour (loc. 34.' p. 396.' 255. also p. but mean the same She is called Yasodhara by Bigandet (24. Beal Rom. only mention here the conversion of Kondanya. p.' 134. p. 208).. J. vii. 54. 369. where. 357. 9. which all the accounts put first. and Bigandet. 152. cit. the mother of person. who adds that she was the daughter of Suprabuddha (Manual of Buddhism.. but allows some interval. is said to several of his principal disciples in the his wile and to manner appearing in the It is taken chiefly from the Mahavansa. 1st edit. 146.' vol. 815. same by Spence Hardy. Koppen. i. 'Manual. ' ' APPENDIX TO CHAPTER GAUTAMA have been related to ' II. app. after tracing the descent of Jayasena from the mythical first king among men. Comp. ' compare Senart. ' The one early authorities agree in stating that Gautama had only wife ..' 187 . but she is usually called simply Rahula-mata. soon accepted 1 tirety his plan of salvation. Leg. GAUTAMA'S WIFE AND RELATIONS. ' On the general question of the value of these genealogies. Foucaux. 816) is a mere mistake for Subhadrakancana. 18 90. in its many talks with the Buddha. Hardy. 97. . the authot gives the list [on p. the Jataka. and the Raluila. 511. during the succeeding three months. 58. 206) . p. on the four subsequent days . 'Vinaya Texts. I. convert the other four on the same day .' ii.. sometimes together. 82. following table. . ii. 76. and is there stated to be the same as Yasodhara. openly gave in after but the others also. B. is doubtful.. ' Religion des Buddha.
but Foucaux in a note to p. as Prajapati.' for which the Sanskrit can only be as given above. and Utpalavarna. is made the daughter of Danc'a- panl. 290. and in another place that the name of the is Mrigaja. where the word is spelt Manodara. but never saw her presence. The oldest accounts agree in giving to Gautama only one wife. The of Dandapam. GotamI is the name used only in one story (Beal. 21. and Utpala Varna. 152.' xx. 'Tibetan Grammar. 162. n. but explained 'who seizes the mine!. and so ' ' on. 96). and the epithet would be applicable of course to every is member of the also called GotamI. All this seems to be explicable on a very natural hypothesis. Of the last. for instance. Yaso2 3 that the first dhara. The Chinese ficantly life 5 1 gives three wives.APPENDIX. which does not occur in any other authority. 308.' p. namely. ' Some Doctors of the Law say that the attendants on Manohara only knew her name. . f ' 1 Asiatic 'Researches. Alexander Csoma. (the mother and Manohara. GotamI. the daughter relates of her the stories which are related elsewhere of Yasodhara. p. Mrigaja or Gopa. The Chinese editor signiadds concerning the last. the Illustrious. Finally. and Lalita Vistara speaks only of one wife Gopa. that she and Prajapati Buddhist nuns. and names them Gopa. third 4 whom they call the mother of Rahula. Deal's 'Romantic Legend. whilst Yasodhara.' xx. note. show that they can be traced back to the one wife of the older 1 story. 1 Yasodhara. ' As. 101.' and this evidently mythical person is of Rahula). As the legends grew she was surrounded with every virtue and grace.' p. Still later. mentions three wives. the Attractive. Gautama GotamI clan. Res. the only wife who appears throughout the book. Yasodhara. never mentioned elsewhere. and was spoken of as the Lotus-coloured. is made the daughter of Mahanama. but states elsewhere two are the same . but the curious confusions in the later accounts in which they are used as names. thes&epithets were supposed to refer to different individuals. says that Gautama had three other wives. p. he gives one detail which identifies were the first her with Yasodhara. the great authority on Tibetan Buddhism.
.: . n P ~i a. a in V ^" -1.
. The Mrigadawa' or "Dew Park. Berkeley. and extends from the great tower of Dhamek on the north. GAUTAMA now remained 1 for some time in the Migadaya wood. but Leibnit/. of Spino/a. CHAPTER LIFE OF III. which still covers an area of about half a mile. 'Arch.' * It . joined to his gifts as a thinker a prophetic ardour and mis- He sionary 1 zeal. Mill. Hume. Cunningham. says. GAUTAMA FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF HIS PUBLIC MINISTRY TILL HIS DEATH. 2 lastic system. teaching his new doctrines. Hobbes. and Hartmann are sinking exceptions. may be interesting to notice how many of the modern of metaphysical thought have similarly been private. the names. which prompted him to popularize ' Gen. but in a manner which shows us at once how great was the gulf which divided him from the professional His was no mere schoteachers of the time." is represented by a fine wood. to the Chaukundi mound on the south. . Descartes. among others. non-professorial men . 107. p. Schopenhauer. Reports. Locke. Comte. quietly it is true and only to those who came to him. involved like those of the Brahmans and even in that halfin a mysterious obscurity form offered to the consideraincomprehensible .' I. tion of only a few selected adepts.TEACHING IN THE DLfiK-PARK. and Spencer will at once suggest themselves. It is true that among the professional men in Germany and Scotland there are many great nanio.
his doctrine. and wife. Some of the details of Yasa's conversion (Mahavagga. note 63. trans- . See below. A enter the paths/ 2 and. the next were Yasa's father. gence. remained lay disciples. and though he held the of a mendicant to be necessary to rapid progress ' towards deliverance from that thirst which was the life ' cause of all evil. wanting will be further discussed below when in self-control The subject we come to See on this point the admirable remarks of Bishop Bigandet. There is no magic in any outward act every one's salvation consists of and depends entirely on a modification and growth in his own inner nature.' vol. and all men and women. yet he highly honoured the believing householder. 117. though not yet able or willing to cast off the ties of home or of business. It was not till some time afterwards that Gautama established an order of female mendicants. ' lay disciple. be brought about by his own self-control and diliand thus the earnest layman will advance further in the paths than the mendicant who is to ' ' and energy. in . 1 Thus to preach to all without exception. trans1 lated in 2 ferred to the story of 'Vinaya Texts. p. 103) were afterwards Gautama's own conversion. the evils inseparable from which he estimated as very great . ignorant and learned of his first disciples were laymen. The first convert was a rich young man named Yasa. by a life of rectitude and kindness. who joined the small company of personal followers . 108. mother. pp. 148. high and low. ensure for himself in a future existence more favourable conditions for his growth might yet goodness. who. p. however. i. 2 . which have suggested some of the above. alike. and Dhammapada.5/t LIFE OF GAUTAMA. 142. 7. i. and two of the very first were women.
while to those who had Five months after the three crisis under the Bo-tree.' * iSS i. men and jiats. let us part with each other and proceed in various and opposite directions.i^. and sent them in different directions to preach and teach. 122. expounding every point thereof. so that not two of us should follow up the same way.mdet. 82. he called together all his disciples. encompass owing to the instructions you have received from me. .i. and arrival at the months after Gautama's Migadaya wood. and procuring to them the invaluable To the end of securing blessing of the deliverance. enjoy the same There is now incumbent on us a glorious privilege. . men and you 1 Jatak. ble with the highest degree of this self-culture. like an immense too.SENDING OUT THE SIXTY. and of ordinary life were considered incompatihopes state here that they would become distasteful reached in it even a lower stage. The Burmese account puts on this occasion the following curious speech into Gautama's mouth Beloved Rahans. Go ye now. treat 55 sufficient to more fully of the 'paths': it is Gautama's whole teaching resolved itself into a system of intellectual and moral selfthat the fruitless cares and empty culture. Log Gods (devas). Yasa only remaining at Benares.i. and preach the most excellent Law. that of labouring effectually on behalf of great duty. !'. I am free from the five great : ' passions which. net.il. 'Rom. nats* . who are represented to have numbered already sixty persons. . Hauly. near his 1 parents.f. more effectually the success of such an undertaking. ' Maii.
with a great as yet hopelessly given will number of mortals not avail themselves up to their passions. and unfolding it with care and attention in all its Explain the beginning. You will Show. and freeing themselves from the thraldom of passions.' living as he did in a country ' where the missionary 1 spirit had long died out? Mahavng^a. and the end of the law. to men and practice of pure meet. . quaintness of the original. the five passions I presume to be those arising from the five senses. To the Burmese author they would seem quite natural. to all men without exception publicly : let known and brought everything respecting it be made to the broad daylight. which will well represent the 1 Rahans are mendicants. course. n.56 LIFE OF GAUTAMA. and who of your preaching for re-con- quering their hitherto forfeited liberty. the most excellent Law Of is. whatever his opinions about supernatural beings (an interesting question we cannot here discuss). doubtless. He cannot have thought his followers already perfect. I will direct situate in the vicinity of the solitude of Uruwela.' my I have retained the quaint phraseology of Bishop Bigandet's translation. Not. the bearings and particulars. now. T. nats are deities. but whence did he derive the idea of the duty of proclaiming to all men alike the whole of the most excellent law. and. part. For my course to the village of Sena. nats the way leading to the and meritorious works. middle. the Dharma. The Pali lias since Leon published. the Buddhist religion. these cannot have been the actual words spoken by Gautama. it is at least certain that they were inconsistent with the expressions put into his mouth. doubtless.
living in temporary huts. if not with . roofed. the year. and round it they sit in the moonlight on the ground. ' WAS ' TlME. put up by the peasantry of some Pali district who public services. 57 from Hinduism . from June to October. devoting himself more to the instruction of his declared folparticularly lowers.PREACHING AT certainly. rain). long after the reason of their institution has ceased to operate. hold a series of in which they read and explain the all choose to of any age or sex or caste who This period. Throughout Gautama was in the habit of travelling about during most of the line part of the year. Word) at was time They put up under as their great the palm-trees a platform. during those months which were the rainy season in Magadha in the time of Gautama. and as there are no regular religious services at any other time. specially invite them. This custom has survived down to the present day in Southern countries . and ornamented with bright cloths and flowers . and listen through the night with great satisfaction. they leave their permanent homes . the peasantry celebrate the reading of bana (or the religious festival. and. but quite open at the sides. called was (from the Sanskrit varsha. but in a form which is a curious instance of the way in which the letter and turned original of such religious ordinances can be observed. to real use. his career. but every year. The wandering mendicants have become settled celibate parochial clergy. he remained in one place. nor is any other source spirit conceivable except a genuine survival of the early of Buddhism. teaching and preaching to the people . is in Ceylon the finest part of Pitakas to listen. but during the four rainy months.
nor that high resolve to battle with and overcome it. to the sacred words repeated by The greatest favourite at relays of shaven monks. whether man. the mild narcotic of the betal leaf. Of these. and with the gentle beauty of those 1 moonlight scenes. or fairy. being looked upon as an incarnation of the Buddha in one of his previous births. and preserved by the leading hero in each.' 232-237. neither hearers nor preachers may have that deep sense of evil in the world and in themselves. dressed in and brightest. To these Aryan peoples. wonderful stories the simple peasantry. . in harmony alike with the teachings of Gautama. The first of Buddhism may have passed away as comspirit pletely as the old reason for was. festivals But there at least these a genuine feeling of human kindness. which contains so to the many of the old fables and stories sanctified common now. white lime. 127 . these readings of bana is the 'Jataka' book. Eastern Mona- chisin. Hardy ' Manual. great intelligence. chatting pleasantly now and again with their neighbours and indulging all the while in their best . and they all think themselves to be earning is ' merit at ' by their easy service.' 101 ' . their stores of which (and of its never failing adjuncts. chunam. or animal. the only possible historical of Gautama's 1 Bigandet. that is. listen all the night long with unaffected delight . p.58 LIKE OK GAUTAMA. and the areka nut). which animated some of the early Buddhists . afford a constant occasion for acts of polite good fellowship. The importance sion afterwards attached to the acces- next convert is shown by the number of miraculous events which are said to have preceded it.
The new disciples. perceives objects : For the i. worshippers and hermit philosophers. whose high reputation as teachers had attracted a considerable number of scholars and that after Gautama had remained some . who had been worshippers of Agni. the sacred fire. Map. His brothers and their scholars followed his example. Cunningham's' 'Archaeological Reports. site of the Elephant Rock. from this eye. and at once took a principal place in the small body of believers. or into method common occurrences of life. PL On iii. as it were. 1 Taking the fire as his text. the elder brother adopted his system. were seated with Gautama on the Elephant Rock.SERMON ON basis is FIRE. below. the Teacher declared that so long as men remained in ignorance they were.. 155. These things acted upon them through the five senses and the heart The 1 (which Gautama regarded as a sixth organ of sense). for instance. the near Gaya. This Sutta affords an excellent example of the so often adopted by Gautama of inculcating his new doctrines by putting a new meaning into the religious ceremonies of the time. consumed by a fire by the excitement produced within them by the action of external things. with the beautiful valley of Rajagriha stretched out before them. at the foot of vol. see Gandhahasti. . and the first set discourse preached by Gautama to his new disciples is preserved in the Pitakas under the title Aditta-pariyaya Sutta (Sermon on the Lessons to be drawn frorr Burning). time among them. p. 59 that in the solitudes of Uruwela there were fire then three brothers named Kasyapa.' the sentiment comp. when a fire broke out in the jungle on the opposite hill.
disappointment. the rainfall of the nectar of his teaching. concupiscence.60 LIFE OF GAUTAMA. producing and joy.. the sensations from without no longer give fuel to the inward fire. .' . Buddha is described as that great man who. and The same the anxieties of birth. works out salvation for all the world . they are delivered from the miseries which would result from another birth . an inward sensation. old age. disease. sooner or later. unaided. and ignorance. and anger. grief. was declared to be the case with the sensations produced by each of the other senses. of birth. and will lead them even in this birth they no longer need the guidance of such laws as those of caste and ceremonies and sacrifice. for One may they have already reached far beyond them well pause and wonder at finding such a ! sermon preached so early in the history of the world. is 1 perhaps scarcely clear without a knowledge of the ' In a passage from Jina Alankara. . and despair. have ceased to burn l true disciples are thus free from who . and error . and death. the fires of lust. since the fires of concupiscence. the wisdom they have acquired on. that craving thirst which is the origin of evil . &c. . more than 400 years before the rise of Chrisand among a people who have long been tianity. produce this misery because they supply fuel as it were to the Sensations inward fires. and extinguishes by the 332). have become wise purity and whose goal is love. But those follow the Buddha's scheme of inward selfthe four stages of the Path whose gate is control. and death of pain. but still more Its meaning remarkable for what it leaves unsaid. thought peculiarly idolatrous and sensual a sermon remarkable enough for what it says. anger. decay. lamentation. given by Burnouf (Lotus. to perfection . perception arises pleasure or pain.
see ' Vinaya Buddhist Birth Texts.' p. 130-144. From Gaya. . Rh.' p. 118-140. and replied that. birth. the most powerful chieftain in the eastern valley of the Ganges. and seeing how impressed they were. all and others in sacrifice. 1881.WELCOME AT RAJAGRIHA. The latter saw the motive of the question. excited by the conversion of Kasyapa and ..' pp. and the general spirit which it breathes is sufficiently unmistakable. 159 . 115. 1 Gautama is then said to have told the people a Jataka story about Kasyapa's virtue in a former birth . 82. the crowd was uncertain which was the master and which the paths. Gautama and his new disciples walked on towards Rajagriha. decay. a rest destructive of : a happy state be reached by inward growth alone. then the capital of Bimbisara.' disciple. he had these alike were worthless. was a state of peace unattainable by men under the perceived that guidance of sense and passion transmigration. D. and death For the story of the conversion of Kasyapa.' but to explain them here would detain us too long. p. Gautama therefore asked Kasyapa why he had given up sacrificing to Agni. and 100 Both Gautama and miles east from the river Sona. and when the raja came out to welcome the teachers. Bigandet. to have gone on to explain to them the four Noble Truths. At the end of this sermon the raja professed himself an adherent of the new system and the next day all the people in the place. Kasyapa were well known in the town. to . and 'Hibbert Lectures. and had Nirvana tfiven up sacrifices whether great or small. while some took pleasure in sights and sounds and taste and sensual love. ' ' 6l and of the senses. 1 ' Stories. whose kingdom of Magadha extended about too miles south from the river Ganges. Jataka.
K. saying that Yashtivana was too far off. he was surrounded by an enthusiastic The raja received him with great respect. multitude. : above. marked K. afterwards conspicuous leaders in the new crusade. p. 1 There he stayed for two months. where Gautama had rested. to see him and hear what new thing he had to say . and G. crowded to the Yashtivana grove. and delivered many of his most complete discourses. 33. which Gautama. i. allayed which Gautama soon by calling together his followers and addressing them at some length on the means requisite for Buddhist salvation. in Cunningham's map of See kajagriha (PL xiv. which became celebrated as the place where Gautama spent many rainy seasons. This is the religion of the Buddhas. To cleanse one's own heart. . joined the Sangha or Society.' At the same time he ' laid down the first rules for the Curiously enough while Yashtivana has been identified by General Cunningham ('Ancient Geography of India.62 LIFE OK GAUTAMA. and when Gautama went towards midday to the city to the raja's house to receive his daily meal. and. ). however. K. named Sariputra and Moggallana.). To get virtue. The high position after assigned these new discreated some ill-feeling among the older memciples bers of the Sangha. as the little company of Buddhist mendicants was called. were found by him. Bimbisara. which he summed up in the celebrated verse. and during that time two ascetics. Reports. vol. and map xii. 461. assigned to him as a residence a bamboo grove (veluvami) close by.' p. the site of Veluvana has not yet been discovered it must have occupied about the position where the ancient basements. ' To cease from all wrong-doing.
on the ground that the new teaching would deprive households of their support. added such penance to their celibacy as they hoped. which is not surprising. my ' Ancient Coins 162. B.. Ceylon.' word afterwards applied to a book containing a summary of the more complex system of laws. incorporated. so far from seeking imitators. 198 . so to speak.' called Pati1 vii. whereas the Buddhists painted in life glowing colours the contrast between the miseries of life in the world. 85 . but only and the tapasas or ascetics. M. attainable by ordinary men . S. for the charge was unfortunately true. they were received with abuse and ridicule . in indeed. Hardy says that the verse above quoted (v. as it had ' ' been elaborated at the time of Gautama's death. The Brahmans. held celibacy in high honour. the simple code being called that is the Disburdenment. for we hear of no other conversions besides those of Sariputra and Moggal lana.THE FICKLE MULTITUDE. and depopulate and ruin the country. ' Savaka- The enthusiasm of down as rapidly as it the people seems to have cooled arose. would be unyouth and old age .' or assembly of the disciples. p. and their pupils . 63 guidance of the society. is known as the 1 sannipata.' a Patimokkha. This meeting of mendicants at which the Society was first. Compare 5. B. when they went out to beg their daily food. Tumour. A. Gautama's Jataka. 183 of the Dhammapada). 816. and the members of the society began even to complain to Gautama that. and Measures of and below p . mokkha.' p. and the sweet calm of in the Order. J. and wanted every one for his own sake to share at once in their salvation. Hardy.. rightly enough. This they did not know how to answer. 'constitutes the discourse.
perhaps the best possible. There his father. but the latter at uncles. he came near the gate of the little town. he gained only by means of the truth. his relations at Kapilavastu had not remained ignorant of the change in his life and Suddhodana had sent to him of his . to say that the He advised his followers righteousness. and experiencing first the devotion and then the attacks of the multitude. therefore. used no weapons except persuasion those whom he gained. and others came to see him . in a grove outside the town. least were by no means pleased with their mendicant clansman and though it was the custom on such . accordingly started for Kapilavastu. and holding his outer robe together with . asking him to visit his native city. accompanied by his As carrying his bowl to beg for a meal. It soon reached the raja's ears that his son was walking Startled at such news. disciples. While the new teacher was laying the foundations order. and on his arrival there stopped. but simply reasserts that what the people called ruin he called good. they all left without having done so. Gautama. which he proclaimed for the benefit of all. that his now aged father might see him once more before he died. . according to his custom. does not dispute the charge. occasions to offer to provide ascetics with their daily The next food. answer. he rose up. but at last he determined to adhere to a rule of the Order. Buddha was only trying to spread as former Buddhas had done that he . day. Gautama set out. he hesitated whether he should not go straight to the raja's residence. through the streets begging.64 LIFE OF GAUTAMA. according to which a Buddhist mendicant should beg regularly from house to house.
it is his duty first to present his father with the most precious of the jewels . p.' and he accordingly addressed his father on the cardinal tenet of his doctrine. when a man has found a hidden treasure. and they. 148. where the members of the family and the servants of the house1 Verses 168. master. and comp. Maharaja/ was the our race. in this world and in the next. 65 hand went out quickly. and in the next. my descent is from the prophets (Buddhas) of old. begging their food. but simply taking his son's bowl.' ' reply. 169 . my father. below. his words being reported in the form of two verses given in the Dham- ma-pada: ' 1 Rise up ! and loiter not ! Practise a normal life and right ! Who follows virtue rests in bliss. he said. have always lived on alms. But.' bread.VISIT his TO HIS FATHER. and hastening to the place where Gautama was. Why. Follow after the normal Follow not after wrong life ! ! Who Both follows virtue rests in bliss. this is the custom of all ' warriors.' ' You and your answered Gautama. led him to his house. But we are descended from an illustrious race of and not one of them has ever begged his family. Both in this world. ' may claim descent from kings .' Suddhodana made no reply to this. do you ' put us to shamo ? Why do you go begging for your food ? Do you think it is not possible to provide food for so many mendicants ? ' ' Oh. .
The raja it thought necessary to apologize for her. pp. She became an earnest hearer of the new doctrines and when. taking but one meal a day.' hold came to do him honour.' 198-204. but on a mat spread on the ground. went to the place where she was. much against his will. though she knew it would be so. . Spence Hardy. and burst into tears. refusing comforts which he denied himself. often tell The different accounts us the thoughts of the Buddha on any particular occasion. he will him' self come. and falling on the ground she held him by the feet. 1 . two of his disciples.66 LIFE OF GAUTAMA. compare Jataka. not on a bed. telling Gautama how entirely she had continued to love him. w. although no member of his Order might touch or be touched by a woman. Then remembering the impassable gulf between them. come.' she I can welcome him better Gautama noticed her absence. she rose and stood on one side. and interviews with and his wife. 169 Bigandet. 360-364. When she saw him enter. and attended by had said ' . she could not contain herself. and Bcal. with the commentary on Dhammapada. and sleeping. . 168. showing how great had been her virtue in a former birth. 'Manual. a recluse in yellow robes with shaven head and shaven face. stating only that he then told a Jataka story. sometime afterwards. Gautama was induced to establish an order of female mendicants. For Gautama's journey to Kapilavastu. first warning his followers not to prevent her. should she try to embrace him. here they are silent. but Yasodhara did not If I am of any value in his eyes. 156-168 1 his father . here. his widowed wife Yasodhara became one of the first of the Buddhist nuns. 87-90.
and he has great wealth. in his best. how happy I urn to benear you. so neither did his disciples interfere. and told him to go to his father to ask for his inheritance. and shall be the head of the clan. "I am your son. be founded on fact. say. 'I know of no father. whose appearance is so glorious. but the Jataka there also suggests that she acted from pride.THE SPIRITUAL INHERITANCE.. About a week afterwards. This wealth that he is seeking from his father perishes in the ' using. That monk. The Buddha was still silent. Rh.' Gautamasaid nothing. he told him to admit Rahula into the Order. When they reached the Nigrodha grove. ' but presently having finished his meal. where he was staying.' said the boy. it would seem to show Yasodhara was of a grasping disposition. which we have not seen since the day when he left us . rather than from love. rose up to go to the Nigrodha grove. pointed out to him the Buddha. Rahula followed him. which was accordingly done. her child and Gautama's. go to him and ask for your rights . and brings vexation with it I will give him the sevenfold nobler wealth I acquired under the Bo-tree. is your father.' 3 Then turning to Sariputra. . Give it to me. D. holding him up to the window. Gautama thought. 129. 'Buddhist Birth Stories.' p. and shall want my inheritance. and with much affection. with which she is credited 1 If this legend that in the preceding episode . asking for his inheritance. meanWho is my father ? Yasodhara ing Suddhodana ' ' . 67 dressed Yasodhara Rahula.without fear. inconsistent with the lofty love for her prophet-husband. but the raja."' 1 Rahula went up to Gautama and said. : and make him the heir of a spiritual inheritance. but as he did not stop his son's asking. 'Father. and saying.
LIFE OF GAUTAMA.
he was exceeding sorrowful for Nanda, Gautama's half-brother, had already become a mendicant, so that his two sons were lost to him as far as all earthly hopes were concerned, and now his grandson was taken from him. He therefore went to the Buddha and asked him to establish a rule that no one should in future be admitted to Gauthe Order without the consent of his parents. tama granted this request, and after some more interheard of
views with his father returned towards Rajagriha. On his way he stayed for some time at Anupiya, on
the banks of the Anoma, in a mango grove, near the spot where he had sent Channa back on the eventful night of the 'Great Renunciation'; and whilst he was there
from his own clan, or from that of
Among these Ananda, Dewadatta, and Anuruddha deserve especial mention. The Upali, first became the most intimate friend of his cousin,
as will especially appear in the account of The second, also his cousin, death.
1 praved man. The
represented as a
and opponent, and is most wicked and dewas a barber by caste
and occupation, whose deep
great intellectual powers
afterwards one of
The Chinese account even says that Gautama refused to admit him to the Order, on the ground that his mind was not in a proper condition telling him first to go home and bestow all his wealth in charity, so as to make himself fit to become a
Beal, p. 378
but the commentary on the
pada, p. 139, confirms Hardy, p. 231, andBigandet, pp. 174, 175
most important leaders
Gautama's disregard of the supposed importance of caste. The last, Anuruddha, became the greatest master of Buddhist metaphysics.
After spending his second
at Rajagriha with
river Rapti, a
E. of that place.
Sravasti has been
doubt by General Cuningham with the ruins of Sahet-Mahet, in Oudh; 1 it was in Gautama's time one of the most important cities in the valley of the Ganges, and the capital of Praseidentified without a
King of Kosala.
acceptance of an invitation given him by a mer chant, Anathapinclika, who had heard his preaching in Rajagriha, and who presented to the society a
There Gautama afterwards and many of the discourses and Jataka are said to have been first spoken there.
the Jataka com-
mentary and that of the Chinese work translated by Mr. Beal come here to a close. From this time to a few days before his death we have only a few passages in the Pali commentary on the Dhamma-pada, and certain tales recorded by Bigandet and Spcnce
Hardy, which are probably derived from the above
or other commentaries on the different utterances of
Those of these
Ancient Geography of India, 407
LIFE OF GATJTAMA.
which can be arranged chronologically refer only to the next seventeen years of Gautama's ministry ; the first w as having been spent in Benares, the two following at Rajagriha. In the i\th year Gautama admits the rope-dancer,
1 Uggasena, to the Order, and then, crossing the Ganges into Wesali, lives for a time in the Mahavana grove. Whilst there he hears of a quarrel between the Sakyas and the Koliyans about the water in the boun-
dary river Kohana, and, flying to Kapilavastu through the air, he reconciles the two clans, and then returns
Mahavana, and prepares
spend the rainy season
In the middle of was, however, he hears
of the illness of Suddhodana, and again returns to Kapilavastu, and is present at the death of his father,
then ninety-seven years old, at sunrise of Saturday, the full-moon day of the month of August in the year of the Eetzana era, 107. 2 After comforting his relatives, and carrying out the cremation of the body with
due ceremony, Gautama returns to the Kutagara Wihara at Mahavana. He is there followed by his father's widow, PrajapatI, Yasodhara, and other Sakya and Kolyan ladies, who earnestly ask to be allowed
He is very unwilling to admit to the Order, but at last yields to the earnest advocacy of Ananda, and lays down certain rules for
take the vows.
Kosambi, near Allahabad.
said to have been addressed o: this
occasion to Uggasena.
CHRONICLE OF THK MINISTRY.
After spending the rainy season at
whilst there kula, Gautama returns to Rajagriha, and admits Kshema, the wife of Raja Bimbisara, to the
of his disciples gaining a patra, or almsthe display of miraculous powers, the bowl, by Buddha had the patra broken to pieces, and forbids any miracles ; but, on Bimbisara telling him that his
opponents think this arises from fear, he himself works some mighty miracles at Sravasti, at a place and time appointed ; and then goes to heaven to
teach the law to his mother,
after his birth. 1
who had died seven days
to Sravasti, to the Jetavana Wihara.
descends from heaven at Sankissa, While'
there the opponent teachers induce a woman named Chincha to accuse him of a breach of chastity, but her
rainy season was spent at the rock Conversion of the Kapilavastu.
and mother of Nakula, and of the father and mother of Moggali. Gautama returns to Kosambi,
up enmity against Gau-
urges him to go elsewhere, but he A dissension then breaks out in the Order, refuses. and Gautama in vain exhorts the two parties to pa-
and then sorrowfully
never said to have descended into
a later legend among the northern Buddhists of Avalokiteswara (see p. 205) having done so. Compare Prof. Cowell in the "Journal of Philology," vol. vi. p. 222 et seq.
LIFE OF GAUTAMA.
alone, to the forest of Pa-
io/7; year. There, in a hut built by the villagers, he The refractory menspends his loth rainy season. dicants seek him out to ask pardon, are well received, and forgiven ; Gautama addressing to them a kind of
outsiders who knew half-apology (with a sting in it) not the littleness of all things might indeed quarrel,
He who has found but they should have been wiser. sober, and wise companions, may walk prudent,
the unwise let
he be considerate ; but rather than be with him walk alone, without sin, and with
few wishes, like the lonely elephant.' 1 With the repentant disciples he returns to Sravasti, and thence
goes on to Magadha. 1 \th year. In a village near Rajagriha, he converts the Brahman Bharadwaja by the parable of the
After spending the rainy season there, he returns to Kosala to a town called Satiabia.
i zth year. Thence he goes to the neighbouring town of Weranja, where he spends the i2th rainy season. 3 After it is over, he undertakes the longest he had yet made, penetrating as far as journey Mantala (to the south ?), returning via Benares, and
Vesali, to Sravasti in
Kosala, preaching in
On his return he preached the places he visited. Maha Rahula Sutta to his son Rahula, then eighteen
224, with the
commentary on Dhamma;
328-330, and especially p. 105. The parable is given below, p. i \.
Yasodhara.ig. whom Bigandet only mentions. spent at Rajagriha. who had succeeded Bha- draka. p. 230). Hardy M. Buddha then returned to the Jetavana Wihara. to his cousin Gautama addressed Mahanama. in the following year. a story which in its present shape seems to include a sun myth. delivering on this occasion the Rahula Sutta. 265) put into the mouth of Alawaka. 1 1 6th Gautama next goes to Alawl. 73 Gautama then went to Chaliya.CHRONICLE OF THE MINISTRY. of which a summary in Kumara Swami 15/7* year. In this year Gautama ordained at the Jetavana Wihara in Sravasti his son Rahula. 17 17i year. where he delivered a discourse on the superiority of with righteousness (Dharma) to almsgiving in answer to four questions propounded by a Deva. his Sutta He then travelled to Kapilavastu. Sravasti. curses who was angry Gautama for deserting his him publicly. where he spent the i3th rainy season. B. a discourse summarized by Bigandet (p. Suprabuddha. the successor of Suddhodana. converts a mythical monster who ate the children of the district . 232) are in the Sutta Nipata. The i5th season was spent at the Nigrodha grove near that town. The shortly afterwards swallowed up by the earth. \$th year. and then returned to i ^th year. where he year. verse in has been translated by Sir Nipata. the raja of Koli. 47 (comp. in the headship of the Sakya clan. and is daughter. 1 During the iyth rainy season which he Gautama preaches a sermon on It is instructive to notice that these very questions (I'. .
who become Buddha him and his Gautama then goes on to Sravasti. Gautama then returned to Rajagriha. where the i3th had been spent . After spending the rainy season in the igt/i year. Gautama gadha preaching travelled through Ma- one occasion. constant companion. had accidentally Weluvana Wihara. There he spends the rainy season. returns all through Sravasti to Alawi. having been twice treated contemptuously by the mendicant who had carried his alms-bowl. to a At Alawi he refuses to preach he has been well fed. named Anguli- whom he persuades to become a mendicant. he appoints Ananda to be his goes to a forest near Chaliya. recovering from his trance. the occaion of the death of Sirimati. preaching in the places he passed through. As from neither the Sinhalese nor the Burmese authors Spence Hardy and Bigandet translate account of the sources from which they draw give any their information. he releases it. finding a deer caught in a snare. but restrained by a miracle. it is not possible to say whether these details whom depend upon the authority of the three . and while there. Then he and succeeds in over- coming by kindness a famous robber. Chaliya. mala.74 LIFE OF GAUTAMA. in On meditation. the teacher comforts a weaver who killed his daughter. becomes absorbed in all the villages. a courtezan and in the fine weather. and the lay disciples. preaches to family. and ZQthycar. iSfh year. and sitting down under a tree near by. is The angry hunter tries to shoot him. hungry man until The rainy season is again spent at near Sravasti. .
who presented the society with a grove to the east of the town. 247 . Hardy's Manual. . and it is not unlikely that in the course of compilation discrepancies have filled up. or Eastern Garden. Ajatasatru. home tama came to Rajagriha to spend the rainy season in 1 Big. Gauson. notably one Wisakha of Sravasti. Pitakas themselves. real mode of life is probably not inac- and many of them may well have had some foundation in fact. where built for him by the raja BimbiSome years afterwards. I have not given them at length but the general picture they . the remaining years life might easily have been filled up by other for make of the events which are fixed related without a time being them.due to a later hand. he settled in a sara's had returned to Rajagriha. of which we have not as yet the earliest forms before us. and built there a Wihara called the Pubbarama. Among them are the stories of certain women who devoted their lives and their sub- stance to the new movement. been smoothed over. and lacunae stories are full of As the legendary matter. during one of the Buddha's visits to that place. 75 The or only upon the commentary. 220. especially as some of these are of now great importance. offended with certain slights put upon him by the people of Kosambi. et seq. chronological order in which the stories are arranged is . give of Gautama's curate. Had there been any desire to the chronology complete. 1 Another event of the greatest importance in the the Order was the schism created by Gautama's cousin Dewadatta who.CHRONICLE OF THE MINISTRY. having been history of .
so long as they ate without indulgence of the appetite. p. and to found a new religion of his own. this act is said to have been instigated by Dewadatta.j6 LIFE OF GAUTAMA. Hardy. but that they were not necessary. and Dewadatta still professing himself a Buddhist. It was pos1 Mahavansa. and could not be kept at all by the young or delicate.. and these failing. always beg their food from door to door (that is never accept invitations. . Gautama answered that his precepts could be kept in any place. Bimbisara. the rules of which should be much more stringent than those adopted by Gautama. and formally called upon Gautama to insist on the stricter rules which he advocated. As to food. asked permission to found a new Order under his own leadership. who Three times attempts of Gautama. 193. Bigandet. These were.B. the members of the Order might eat whatever was customary in the countries where they were. p. life were then made on the vana.' says. should . Dewadatta went with due solemnity to Velu- hoped to profit by the change. 249. and not should dress in cast-off rags . the Veluvana Wihara. The refusal of this is said to have determined him to break with Buddhism altogether. that he had no objection to such members of the Order as wished to close to towns do so keeping stricter rules. that the mendicants should live in the open air. and should eat no meat. M. Ajatasatru put to death his father. thirty-six years. When. soon after (in the 1 3yth year of Buddha's mission). 'he rendered assistance to Buddha during which comes to the same thing. or food sent to the Wiharas) . 10 .
or in to . 162.DEWADATTA. Book of the Great Decease. 163. 2 1 Compare the Commentary on Dhamma-pada. sible 77 of a tree. confirmed by a few passages in the commentary on the Dhamma-pada. 248-253. Dewadatta upon this returned to own Wihara. with Hardy. 1881 . While the accounts of Gautama's visit to life since his first Kapilavastu are only available at present in imperfect and fragmentary notices found in Hardy and Bigandet. or whilst using establish one uniform law would be a hind- rance in the way of those and was his who were seeking Nirvana . 315-329. . vv. 87. To it whilst abstaining from flesh. which the Judaizing Christians stood to St. in name at least. a portion of which gives a detailed description of the events of the last three months before his death. Burnouf. and Ajatasatru soon after ever. howopenly supported by Ajatasatru. and founded a new and stricter Order. the head-quarters. The relation in which Dewadatta stood to Gautama seems * the relation in ' to have resembled. became. as it were. become pure at the foot a house in cast-off clothes. Gautama's death he not only took Sravasti. 448. Paul. Lotus. though in the year before a supporter of the Buddha . was to show men the way to Nirvana which his sole aim. did not live long.' Oxford. of 1 Buddhism. in some essential points. and was Dewadatta. we have in the Pitakas themselves the Maha-parinibbana Sutta. Beat's Fa Hian. Bigandet. which gradually grew in numbers. 90. Translated under the title. but totally destroyed Kapilavastu. or in clothes given by laymen it.' in ' my Buddhist Suttas.
and afterwards became the capital of the enlarged Bigandet. and he took occasion to inculcate very earnestly on the mendicants. at a spot on the site of the modern city of Patna. 20. the beginning of a town which soon began to rival Rajagriha. 114. Hwen Thsang III. who occupied the plains on the northern shore of the Ganges. in obedience to the It is. . 1 Ajatasatru was then planning an attack on the confederation of the Wajjian clans. a cave on overhanging the beautiful valley of Rajagriha. opposite to Magadha. Gautama declared that as long as they were united in their adherence to their ancient customs they would be able to retain their independence.' map Compare pp. 21 and Julien's . perhaps. needless to add that agreement on such a basis was found impossible. Reports. ' kingdom of Magadha. 253. . the absolute necessity of union. to the Vulture's Peak. and new sects of reformers are at this moment rising both in Siam and Ceylon. The history of Buddhism is the history of the struggles of so-called heretics against the continual additions made to the Rules and Beliefs of the Order by the majority who called themselves orthodox. Archaeological . ningham Hian. precepts and customs of the Order. whom he assembled for that purpose. Besl's Fa p.78 LIFE OF GAUTAMA. after Gautama spent the 44th rainy season Buddhahood in the Jetawana Wihara at and then returned the side of the loftiest of the five hills. his Sravasti. is The site of the cave given by Cunxiv. The teacher then crossed the Ganges where. Ajatasatru was then building a fort to keep the Wajjians in check. 20.
loc. keep watch over your own hearts unweariedly to this Law cross the ocean of life. sent Pitakas are here referred to . and be perpetuated for the good and happiness of the great ' ! multitudes. 18.. : fit. in order that this religion of mine (literally. to the 1 Thence he progreat offence of the Wajjian nobles. Dharma and Vinaya . 227. See below. where he became the guest of the leading courtesan of the place. leaving you.' loc. while the Tathagata In three others) will pass away. 171. the divisions of the Law. p. in a is (he like months from now accomplished. Then followed an enumeration of p. having relied on myself alone. O Mendicants thoroughly learn. thoughtful. during which he was attacked by a severe and painful illness. and openly declared that he could not live long. and exhorting them to adhere to his doctrine. . and practise. cants. and 1 ' Whosoever shall adhere and Discipline. and spread abroad the Law. 3 alas. and below. O mendi- and pure Steadfast in resolve. 1 perhaps older recensions of the prebut I think the words only Parinibsignify generally the doctrines taught by the Buddha. and perfect. ii. 16-21. 3 he shall make an end of sorrow ! ' ! * Book of the Great Decease.THE LAST DAYS. My age is little is my life done ! . 45. to the advantage and prosperity of gods and men. everywhere collecting the members of the Order. thought out and revealed by me.. I depart. out of pity for the world. O who mendicants. bana Sutta. this purity) may last long.. pp. 82. After the season of was was over he went slowly through the villages of Wesali. ceeded to Belu-gamaka. tit. the Tathagata will die. 79 He went on to Ambapali.. Be earnest. where he spent the 45th rainy season. Now..
E. About half-way between the two places flows the river Kukushta . At the that river. Thus refreshed he is able to bathe in the river. a town about 120 milesN. At the close of this conversation Ananda broke . feeling that Chunda should reproach himself he was dying. he was obliged to rest. food he gave me. who prepares for him a meal of rice and young pork and it ing dha's death having been be a mere invention. rests for the last time. of Benares. having eaten of the . and resting many hours where he reaches in the evening a grove outside Kusinagara. On reaching Pava he is entertained by a goldsmith of that place named Chunda (a man therefore of one of the lower castes). I am about to pass away. and afraid or be re' After I proached by others.' and earnestly with Ananda about his burial and long about certain rules (mostly relating to intercourse While with female disciples). to be observed by the Order after his death.8o LIFE OF GAUTAMA. and being thirsty he asks Ananda to bring him some water from the river.N. There are two gifts that will be blest above all others. In the afternoon he started for how improbable is may be noticed in passthat the story of the Buddue to such a cause should it Kusi-nagara. he says to Ananda. however. Say it was from my own mouth that you heard this. and this gift of Chunda's before I finally in the grove of trees he talked pass away. before reaching it. and about 80 miles due East of Kapila-vastu. am gone tell Chunda that he will in a future birth receive very great reward for. that of Sujata before I attained Buddhahood under the Bo-Tree.
this ' Ananda. 1 As the night wore on. and thoughtfulness. a sketch of whose systems is given in the Samafma-phala Sutta. Lotus. came to ask some questions of the Buddha. Ananda. 290-292. or whether some knew things 1 ' 2 By Book of the Great Decease. repeating what he nad so often said about the impermanence of all things. and You have always done word. have been very near to me by kindness in act.. a Brahman philosopher of Kusinagara.' But Gautama missed him. teachers. . Subhadra. v. these are meant the six Brahman . the sound of their talking. do not let yourself be : ' ! troubled. fearing that this might lead to a longer discussion than the sick teacher Gautama heard could bear. turning to the rest of the disciples he spoke to them at some length on the insight and kindness of this thirst of life. and asking what it was. and you too shall be quite free from well persevere. no such For a long time. tit. do not weep. down. ' 81 I am not yet perfect. The Burmese corruptions of the Indian names are often curious. : chain of ignorance . The latter began 2 by asking whether all the six great teachers knew as they said they did.' loc. you condition can exist. Manual. and. told them to let Subhadra come. or put together. 449-498 with which compare Hardy. can overcome the dissolution inherent in it. and sending for him comforted him with the hope of Nirvana. O Ananda . 32-40. would not admit him. and went aside to weep and my teacher is passing away he who is so kind. part from all we must sant? Have I not told you that we hold most dear and plea- No being soever born. Burnouf. but Ananda.THE LAST DAYS.
or none. ' This is not the time for such disthem. listen and I will preach cussions. Soon after the dying teacher says to Ananda. 'Book of the Great Decease. the eight stages of the Path of Holiness. Channa. or regarding the paths. He then gave instructions as to the mode in which the elder and younger members of the Order should address one another and laid a penalty on one love. son of Natha . but the most remarkable instance Gautama said is that of these six names which are given by Bigandet. Compare the note above. " our Teacher is gone but you must not think so. After I am dead let the Law and the Rules of the 1 Order.82 LIFE OF GAUTAMA. which I have taught. 79. ' : 3 . Gosala. called oc- or misgiving as to any matter of the law. which begins with purity and ends in that salvation could not By this discourse Subhadra is said to have been converted.' loc. .' was the answer . Sala. or virtuous conduct. 150. so that the syllables ! Thindzi Ja are 1 Burmese of the other four names Dharma and Vinaya. he the doubt ' forward in response to this appeal. at p. the word is ended now. as Mekkali. i. who spoke indiscriminately whatever curred to him. to ask him and he would resolve lest they should afterwards regret not asked when they had opportunity. Gow. at. The first name is in Pali Makkhali Thindzi. be a Teacher to you. Jani. p. the last is Nigantha.. all that is left in vi. You " may perhaps begin to think. and Ganti. and Gautama went on to declare ' ' be found in any system which ignored the virtuous life. to you my law .' When having Ananda expressed his astonishment that none came : Then addressing all the upon anyone who had any doubt disciples.
work out your salvation with diliThese were the last words the Teacher gence spoke shortly afterwards he became unconscious. is most often thought of as the philanthropic righteous now Buddhist Emperor.THE LAST DAYS. it 1 ' Mendicants ! I now upon you. decay is inherent in all component things. impress ' ! : In concluding this sketch of the early Buddhist accounts of the life of Gautama. vi. Gautama was born. Asoka. M. After another pause he said. I shall make no a such attempt to sum up his personal character . See the remarks of the Rev. Sherring. Hilaire.' p. and that Gautama was an enemy to his chief claim on the gratitude of his countrymen lies in his having destroyed a system of iniquity and oppression and fraud. Baring Gould. and died a Hindu. 255 . cit. But the foregoing account will be sufficient.. II.' i. But and he loved to 'Book of the Great Decease.' pp. A. This is not the case. St.' loc. ' Le Bouddha. 12. 'Development of Christianity. the most dis- tinguished of the lay followers of Gautama. 83 who had once been converted (who had entered the paths ') could not entirely fall. and lived. ' Sacred City of the Hindus. Yule's e<l. to remove at least one misconception the prevalent notion that Hinduism. 6-ro. I hope. and in that state passed away. and brought up. . 2 1 Polo. 13. than from the record of his life. 357. v. opinions as that we may fairly allow ourselves to have on subject will be more safely derived from the record of his teachings. but was certain eventually to arrive that the very least of all those present ' at complete enlightenment.
in the way in which he carried out to their logical conclusion principles of equity and justice already acknowledged by some of the most prominent Hindu thinkers. and his declaring the Arahats or 1 called himself His contemporary.84 call ' LIFE OF GAUTAMA. were Brahmans he always classed them with the Buddhist mendicants as deserving of respect. also by the same epithet. and above. Many of his chief disciples. ennobled. : saints. many of the most distinguished members of his Order. the delight of the gods . viz. the pious Buddhist king of Ceylon. his abolishing caste within the limits of his Order. and he used the name Brahmans as a term of honour for the Buddhist then. 251 and following. 34. it would be more exact to call him a Hindu of the Budhimself. There was not much in the meta- psychology of Gautama which cannot be found in one or other of the orthodox systems. Such originality as Gautama possessed lay in the way in which he adopted. Devdnam piya. Even these differences are probably now than they were much more apparent and by no means deprived him of the support and sympathy of the best among the Brahmans. and systematized that which had already been well said by others . pp. and though he was an earnest Buddhist. 2 See below. Com- pare the Rock Pali inscription. physics and and a great deal of his morality could be matched from earlier or later Hindu books. l dhist sect. ' Asoka. . 1872. 2 Doubtless.. The difference between him and other teachers lay chiefly in his deep earnestness and in his broad public spirit of philanthropy. p. enlarged. published by me in the ' Indian Antiquary' for May.
We hear of no persecutions till long after the time of Asoka. . little sioned no discontent . and his belief in the capacity of every man to work out here. and wisest. Gautama's whole training was Brahmanism .BRAHMANISM AND BUDDHISM. he probably deemed himself to be the most correct exponent of the spirit. So far from showing how depraved and oppressive Hinduism was. the product of Hinduism. in this life. it shows precisely the contrary for none will deny that there is much that is beautiful and noble in Buddhism and Buddhism was the child. as distinct from the letter of the ancient faith and it can only be claimed for him that he was the greatest. But neither Gautama nor the great body of the Brahmans believed them probably to be so then. 85 as road to Nirvana to be as open to the lowest outcast it was to the proudest of the twice born occa' ' while his contempt for ritualism. : . . his own salvation. when Buddhism had become corrupt . seemed to the : doctrines it is conservative party to be dangerous even true that in the long run the two systems were quite incompatible. and Bud- dhism grew and flourished within the fold of the orthodox belief. and best of the Hindus.
his doctrine. CHAPTER IV. During his long career as teacher. or systems of their own. and trained to that wonderful command of memory which Indian disciples tlest ascetics then to possessed. held at Patna about 250 B. will be seen that much more . And Gautama Buddha did not leave behind him a number of deeply simple sayings. WITH reliable authority than life. And further. his leading were. like himself.. his mission began. THE SKANDHAS. and to test their knowledge of it. at least 130 years after the death of the teacher. KARMA AND NIRVANA. he had ample time to repeat the principles and details of the system over and over again to his disciples. from which his followers subsequently built up a system after. It is true that regard to Gautama's teaching we have more we have with regard to his none of the books of the Pali Pitakas can at present be satisfactorily traced back before the Council of Asoka. TRISHNA.C. accustomed to the submetaphysical distinctions. He had himself thoroughly elaborated but in its partly as to details. that is to say. THE ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES OF BUDDHISM. but they undoubtedly contain a great deal of much older matter. fundamental points even before.86 ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. it When these facts are recalled mind.
hereafter. I. and that everything is constantly.' p. and of his relation to first the world around him. Majjhima. the reason of this was. no heaven or hell. let us last question for con- endeavour to give a brief outline of the explanation which early Buddhism has to offer of the nature of man. as regards the person of Gautama except. asked the Buddha whether the existence of the world is he made him no reply . and it holds that everything is subject to the law of cause and effect. therefore. to ascertain which parts of them are older than the rest. There are worlds therefore. but of growth or change in fundamental ideas none of any certainty. though imperceptibly. and whether they contain an older system hidden under a later one . has since been published. eternal or not eternal. indeed.IMPERMANENCE OF ALL THINGS. reliance 87 may reasonably be placed upon the doctrinal parts of the Buddhist Scriptures. that 1 1'ali [The original Hardy's 'Manual of Buddhism. himself. changing. Buddhism does not attempt to solve the ' problem When Malunka of the primary origin of all things. 430. but it was considered by the teacher as an inquiry that tended to no profit. this sideration later on.' ] Buddhism takes as its ultimate fact the existence of the material world and of conscious beings living within it. may be possible. Postponing. at present it can only be said that of difference in age there is already sufficient evidence. when the Pitakas shall have been published. or on the It biographical parts of the Buddhist canon itself.] . 375. than upon corre- spondingly late records of other religions. in the ordinary sense. There is no place where this law does not operate .
As a child grows up. and the horse in the pride of seems to scorn the earth from which it thinks so separate but to the watchman above. they will vanish. horse and chariot. To this universal law of composition and dissolution. its mind a dim mirror the occurrences of the sur- practically. Gradually its circle widens somewhat. and . and heavens. of the horse reflects as in itself. the unity of forces which constitutes a sentient being must sooner or later be dissolved . whose existence is material. A watchman on a lofty tower sees a charioteer : the driver thinks urging his horse along the plain he is moving rapidly. and hells tending to renovation or destruction . seem to crawl along the ground. waving in the wind. The whole kosmos is always earth. is always in a course of change. and to be as much a part of the earth as the horse's mane. but when the active power of the is evil that produced them exhausted. and driver.ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. of which the beginning and the end alike are unknowable and unknown. and it is only through ignorance and delusion that such a being indulges in the dream that it is a separate and self-existent entity. but the it rounding world. and the worlds they inhabit are not eternal. a series of revolutions. according as their previous lives were more or less more or less good . is a part life itself . but the devas die. There are places of torment where the evil actions of men or devas produce unhappy beings . or of cycles. regards itself as the centre round which the universe turns. and the worlds they inhabit pass away. men and gods form no exception . where devas live. though unconsciously.
related to life future births. first make clear the G . might have given a more decisive and more lasting utterance. 89 grown man never escapes from the delusion of self. a a belief in the curious doctrine of transmigration doctrine which seems to have arisen independently.Y. indeed. if not simultaneously.BUDDHIST PSVCHOI. however. produce not happiness. different . the noble eightfold path. been used. and contributed nothing to life. for theories similar.or. and similar ideas lie at the foundation of earlier Indian philosophies. a and Buddhism The new in past and new hypothesis. in other systems widely separated from these in time and place and Buddhism in dealing with the truth which they contain. in this it of the evil whose origin was supposed to explain. in indeed. always engaged in the pursuit of some fancied good.' to We shnl! endeavour tl'erefore. here. in the valley of the Ganges and The word transmigration has the valley of the Nile. and spends his life in a constant round of desires and cares. For the majority of men these cares are mean. like the old one. the removal. so modified it as to originate. petty. Such teachings are by no means peculiar to Buddhism. are equally seeking after vanity. . Iccging for objects which when attained. but very adopting the general idea from post-Vedic Brahmanism. They are to be found. and contemptible but even those whose ambition urges them to higher aims. but fresh desires and cares. hypothesis. if it had not also borrowed . and only laying themselves open to greater sorrows and more bitter disappointment. in fact. in different times and at differ- ent places. is To ' this end Buddhism teaches that there a way.
speech Seven qualities of living bodies . nose. abstract These ideas. Essays. smell. 242. and Vinnana. none of which corresponds to the Hindu or modern notion of soui. Rupa . female. In some lists this is omitted. Five attributes of matter form.9 ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. 6.r. v. i. Two means of communication gesture. sound. buoyancy. body. : Four elements earth. The Material Properties or Attributes (Rfipa) are twenty-eight in number . i. . man consists of an assem- blage of different properties or qualities. . Three essential conditions thought. According to these. . 4. space. * According to Colebrooke.' p. are tendencies material qualities. s. and Buddhist metaphysical explanation of the originof evil. Sanfia. 3 Two distinctions of sex . and my 'Buddhist Suttas. and Alabaster. and 'food' added later on. sensations. shall then discuss the Buddhist way of salvation. substance. Riipn. the Buddhists think that these elements of matter consist of atoms. to 3 ' 1 Wheel of the Law. taste. eye. 2 Five organs of sense . The modification which Buddhism introduced into the idea of transmigration was necessitated by the early P-"ddhist theories of the nature of sentient beings. vitality. .' p. Visuddhi Mngga apud Childers. and the enumeration is not without interest for its sake. Sankhara. tongue. Vedana. of mind. ear. fire. 237. air. water. elas. male. a few own word? may* be devoted to the details of each of these Skandhas or Aggregates. See Childfix's Pali Dictionary. v. and mental pMversJ- and as the point is a matter of great importance for a right appreciation of Buddhist teaching. and deem compound bodies be conjoint primary atoms.
change. resulting sensation (Vedana). turning these groups over and over (Manasikara). The Abstract Ideas (sanna) are divided into six . continued . gation. duration. classes. Contact (Phassa). this group is were from a subjective point of view : The 3. or sixthly. ticity. 2. 7. classes corresponding to the six classes of sensations for instance. into eighteen classes. a tree. and further. power of aggreinto six 2. as each of these six classes may be either agreeable. 11. or are identical with. Investigation (Vicara Effort (Viriya. 1 which assists all other faculties). are classed under sight 4. disagreeable. or Potentialities (literally con- fections. 91 power of adaptation. by the mind (through memory) . formed on sensation (Sanna). sankhara). . Attention (Vitakka. are in fifty-two divisions. the regrouping of ideas (Cetana). Reflection.THE SANSKARAS. which are not. 5. Thought. . Steadfastness (Adhimokkha. under taste. however. mutually exclusive. The Sensations (vedana) are divided according as they are received immediately by each of the five senses. 3. Individuality (Ekaggata). which may cause contact No. and so on. the ideas blue. The Tendencies the idea sweetness. Some of these include. continued attention). 10. Memory Vitality (Sati). 6. 2. 8. or indifferent. but whereas it ranged as arranged as it 1. Abstract ideas. items in the previous classes . decay. 9. also in Group i ). (J Ivitindriya . 4. the previous groups are arwere from an objective. i). effort).
Joy (Piti). Selfishness . also in Group i. 20. Sleep and torpor (Thina and Middha. 34. rejoicing in the joy of others (Mudita). Propriety . of body or mind (Pagurmata). delusion (Vicikiccha. 41. 6. '3- 14. or life (Samma). Envy. 50. 38. Pride (Mano). Pity . C 52. 47. No. 31. intelligence 1 8. activity of body or mind (Lahuta) also in Group i. 22. f 46. 28-30. Gladness . 37. 43-45. ( 1 15. 26. 40. sorrow for the sorrow of others (Karuna). of body or mind (Ujjukata) Straightness . 19. .)i f < Moroseness (Kukkucca) Vanity (Uddhacca). . sorrow at the joy of others (Issa). . 36.92 ( ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. Impulse (ChandaV Indifference (Majjhattata). 32. share one's joy wif. and Ditthi). Stupidity and (Moha and Parma). and of mindlightness. 24. of body or mind (Muduta) . 25. elasticity. 35. of speech. Shame and Hatred and Saddha. faith. Fear and rashness (Ottappa and Anotappa). 33. 39. action. 17. 48. Repose of body or mind (Pasiddhi). [_ 49. 34). 27. 51. 42. . of body or mind Adaptability. No. . 23. (Kammanfiata) Dexterity. Covetousness and content (Loblia and Alobha). pliancy also in Group r. s-hamelessness (Hiri and Ahirika). dislike to others (Macchariya). 8. Lightness. Doubt. 21. the opposites of attention. Softness. affection (Dosa and Adosa).
The third group. The second group. really an amplification from another point of last all view of the fourth of the inherent in the others. are like the plantain stalk. group. the thoughts.. is 5 The seat of vinnana is in the 1st 2 group. Reason (Vinnana). material qualities. therefore. concern us here. 1867. the uncertain mirage that appears in the sunThe fourth group. the ideas. is the last skandha. 1 on the Buddhist scheme of the and does not. Such Sanskrit BudFrom Spence Hardy's Manual.THE SKANDHAS. He gives his authop. 171. S. A. are like a spectre or magical illusion. . C. 399. 1867. are like a mass of foam. Gogeri}. 3 See the passages quoted by Gogerly in the Journal of the Ceylon Asiatic Society. 5. rities for dhist books as are known say exactly the same : see Burnoufs quotations. the chapter at p. mentioned J. and then vanishes.' 2 It is repeatedly and distinctly laid down in the Pitakas that none of these Skandhas or divisions of the qualities of sentient beings itself is 1 the soul/' The body and so of each of the constantly changing. 95 ana is is Thought. are like shine. 510. is permanent. are like a bubble dancing on the face of the water. includes all The above enumeration the bodily and ' mental parts and powers of man. below. group (sankhara) which It is divided from the point of view of the merit or demerit resulting from different thoughts into eighty-nine classes. Comp. the mental and moral predispositions. 424. 122. and neither any one of them. without firmness or solidity. the sensations. p. p. or any group of them. 121. a division which throws no light constituent elements of being. And the last group. 507. Intr. The first that gradually forms. supposed to be the heart. 118.
or as identical with. and is also found a Sanskrit Buddhist work from which Burnouf drew a great deal of his information. Introduction a 1'histoire du Buddhisme Indien. quoted by Buddhist Nirvana. or understand their law. 71. So important for a is this doctrine. p. tical with. and there is within him no abiding principle whatever. 1 Gautama is there reported to have said in : "Mendicants. or as containing. mendicants. p. which are only functions of the livne body. or as residing in sensation (vedana). propensities. 420. or as residing in the material properties (rupa). unconverted man who does not associate either with the converted or (Samanas it and Brahmanas) regard the five think is to the holy. and so difficult is it nize mind impregnated with Christian ideas to recogit fully and freely as a fundamental tenet of the I widely-adopted religion of Gautama. Compare Dhp. or as possessing. 2. in whatever way the different teachers the soul. or as containing. 263. Vagga." and so on of each wf the other three skandhas (ideas. other divisions. taind). or one of the five. p. : The Abhidharma Kosha VyaKnya : part is quoted by Bur- nouf.94 ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. that must ask attention to the following passages and authorities. Thus. The first is from the Sutta Pitaka. The original Pali is in the 5th Sutta of the Khandha Alwis. n. or live according such a man regards the soul either as idenit. produced by the contact of external objects Man is never the same for with the bodily organs. two consecutive moments. of the Sanyutta Nikaya in the Sutta Pitaka. . or as possessing. the unlearned. and " By regarding soul in onr of these twenty ways. they skandhas..
or shall be neither with nor without. 1 grief. 108. five organs of sense. called sariyojunas.' the name given which lead as a part of the chain of causes to the origin of evil. and belief in the efficacy of rites and ceremonies) which must be abandoned at the very first stage of the is ' Buddhist path of freedom. see p. self. as above) do not . has got rid of ignorance and acquired wisdom and therefore (by reason of the absence of ignorance. and the rise of v sdom) the ideas 'I am' (&c. decay. the sensual unlearned man derives the notions I am. It is there classed with sensuality. and despair. the 'heresy it. . the learned disciple of the converted.' not be.' Then there are the five organs of sense.' qualities.. mendicants. having the same occur to him. exists. the doctrine of soul or to it * The which other is attavdda. sensation (produced by contact and ignorance). From ' ' This I. of individuality.' the name given to this belief as one tise of the three primary delusions (the others being doubt. ideas. pain. 95 he gets the idea ' I am. heresy (as to eternity and annihila tion). which are the immediate cause of birth.'HIE SKANDHAS.' 'I shall be." This belief in self or soul as a heresy that is regarded so distinctly twO well-known words in Buddhist terminology have been coined on purpose to stigma The first of these is sakkdy adittin. sorrow. death.' 'I shall shall not have material ' qualities. lamentation. On these delusions. and and ignorance. and mind.' But now. and belief in the efficacy of rites and cere monies as one of the four upadanas.' I shall or I shall or shall not ' have.
Nagasena by my But Nagasena is not To this the king objected. and asked of each whether All these questions were answered it was Nagasena. Nagasena is a sound without meaning. nor retribution (in other words.' ' ' 1 See Colebrooke's Essays I. who have misunderstood many im- portant or less clearly-expressed tenets of Buddhism. no reward. It is a series of riddles or puzzles put into the mouth of Milinda (wlio is the Greek king Menander of Sagala in Baktria). that in that case there could be no \irtue. and the ' Skandhas just described. He then mentioned one after another all the parts of the body. the priests. . Full particulars of the curious history of this important old work will be found in the Introduction to my translation of it. Another proof of the prominence of of the non-existence of the soul is this doctrine the fact that the less Brahmans. It is expressed in a more popular manner in the Milinda. I do not see Nagasena.96 ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. How is your reverence known ? What is your name ? ' ' ' Nagasena replied. There is no Nagasena.' and others. nor vice . a book most popular among the Buddhists themselves. 1 recognise this as one of its distinctive features. very much as a modern Christian might.' The very first riddle may be summarised as follows The king said. You have spoken an untruth. Then. no sanction '). a separate entity.' said the king. I am called parents. 417. Cowell's edition. and answered by Nagasena. a Buddhist sage. now published at Oxford under the title of The Questions of Milinda. in the negative. and mind. and full of interest to the European reader. of 1'rof.
' And just so. the spokes of the wheels. which is called a chariot.' Whatever we may think of the argument it is at least clear that a soul is just as much and just as little acknowledged in man as a separate sub-stance is acknowledged in a chariot. where he had said. in the case of man . form a being.' was the answer. it is only a sound. ' come What is a chariot ' ? asked Nagasena. is known. and ask them if it be proper that the great king of all Jambudwipa should utter an untruth ' ? the But Rather neat. No. wheels.' Nagasena. does there remain anything which is the chariot ? To ' all this Then the king said. I appeal to the nobles. but must have been clearly and consciously held. They are the usual signs by which that. seat. Did your majesty here on foot. 'As the various parts of a chariot form. doubtless. or the reins. ' No untruth have I king is not convinced.' said ' ' when united. ' 97 The mendicant asked. the chariot. The cover. . a living existence. the chariot ? Are ornamental cover the chariot all these parts together (in a heap) the chariot ' ? If you leave these out. and he quoted the words of the Teacher. ' In saying that you came. ? ' Is the Are the wheels. when united in one body. uttered.' I see no chariot. so the five Skandhas.THi: SKANDHAb. and not undeserved. It shows also that this doctrine is not drawn from Buddhism by implication. a name.in a chariot you have uttered an untruth. venerable monk. or in a chariot?' ' In a chariot. parts all and other united or combined (chariot-wise) form the chariot.
E. or is both. Gautama goes on to discuss the question of the soul .' here. ' These are. that it will have one or many modes of consciousness . some apprehension. immovable. Living beings pass away. and we ought to add. they transmigrate . or neither. 'or of mixed joy and misery. appear still more clearly from a curious passage in the Brahmajala Sutta. which he declares to be wrong. that its perceptions will be few or boundless . as follows principle. they die and are born. Carpenter.' After showing how the unfounded belief in the eternal existence of God or gods arose. Then 1 there are eight heresies teaching that the soul. that it is finite. or infinite. do these mendicants and Brahmans hold the doctrine of future : Upon what ? existence is They teach that the soul is material. but these continue. me and a In the Digha Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka (now edited by Mr. or immaterial. Pali Text Society. that it will be in a state of 2 These are the sixjoy or of misery.9# with ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. 1 To quote the whole of it would be impossible. or both. think is ' among which The soul and are those held by men who .' teen heresies teaching a conscious existence after death. or neither . or of neither. as being eternal. of the possible objections to This will. . 1890). Gautama discusses sixty-two different kinds of wrong belief. There is an omission somewhere. but. shortly. J. less correct. the world are eternal there as no newly-existing substance . and points out thirty-two beliefs concerning it. or on what account. in short. however. more or it. as we have only fifteen it is I think views actually stated. but these remain mountain a peak unshaken.
finally. moreover. eight others which teach that the soul. in the same eight ways. from the well known to the less known.TRANSMIGRATION. but after the termination of life. 'that which binds the Teacher to existence is (viz. and pausing humbly where unbut by certainty begins of his earliest creed parts his gradually rejecting those mind) to which could be proved (to be inconsistent with what he held to be In such cases every surrender causes a is defended more strongly actual fact. While his body shall remain he will be seen by gods and men.' Mendicants. in any it be possible to manner. has an unconscious exist- ence after death. each standpoint . And. but his body still remains. neither gods nor him. neither conscious nor ' unconscious. 99 material or immaterial. finite or infinite. exists after death in a state of being. thirst) cut off. had gradually formed his belief not by working up from the simple to the complex. tanha. wrench . for the mind to resist the the disproof of those hypotheses which satisfy longest It is natural. after death ? But Gautama had not been able to give up the belief in transmigration. or both or neither.' concludes the sermon. than the sarily last and the ultimate belief is not necesmore true than those which have been aban. like some other seekers after truth who are at the same time deeply religious. He. upon the dissolution of the body.' men will see Would gorical entity. or both or neither. . of manner in a more complete and catedeny that there is any soul any any kind. doned but only less easily proved false. which continues to exist.
loved. this is owing to his eyebut he has vanity. Several interesting instances of this are given by scientific See the cases quoted by Dr. in a former birth. is : . in a former birth this is because he also unusual powers of hearing in the distribution child. by which we sometimes feel so sure that sensations we are experiencing have been experienced by us before. for it is derived lies in from them and it cannot be disproved. A blind . 430. for instance. to listen to the preaching of the Law. the belief was retained in Buddhism as providing a moral cause for the suffering and as Buddhism condition of men in this birth . for it is scarcely . 1 However this may be. more than a repetition of the point to fit be explained a sphere it . Carpenter.' second series. . is not capable of disproof. and yet we know not how or . for it beyond the reach of human inquiry. does not acknowledge a soul. ct seq. It is probable that the idea of transmigration first originated in that curious trick of the memory. quite complete to those who can believe it. transmigration. while it affords an explanation. Brodie. 'Mental Physiology. 'Psychological Inquiries. the bridge between one life and another. lust of the eye. somewhere else. In order to do this. The explanation can always be exact. in either the Now the doctrine of or the Buddhist form.' pp.00 i ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES afford of most completely by the explanation they Brahmanical o:fierwise inexplicable mysteries.. and thus save the moral cause. p.when. and Sir B. 1 it resorts to the desperate ex- psychologists. may always the facts. it has to find the link of connection. of the apparent anomalies and wrongs here of happiness or woe. 55.
. &c. a thirst (trishna) . a new body with capabilities). and will be explained Sensations originate in the contact of further on. divided into four classes sensuality (kama). The size. (Alabaster. or sentient then determines the neiv set of skan- locality. of the being who had died. The omniscience. a from trishna results a yearning.and the delusion of self (attavada). of the new The 1 reader will now be prepared this is to agree with the Buddhist dogma. a new ' skandhas. 'Wheel of the Law. upadana. soul. skandhas. The supernatural powers attained by iddhi.KARMA. that ' grasping state of mind' 2 causes the new (not.one of the four acknowledged mysteries in Buddhism (which are also the four points in which it is most certainly wrong) 1 the doctrine namely of karma? ' This is the doctrine that. of course.' thirst. grasping after objects to satisfy that desire (upa- dana) being . The effects of karma. delusion the soul. Oi. uccheda-vada and sassata-vada).. a new being is produced in a more or less painful and as material state of existence. or angel) dies. dhas. IO1 pedient of a mystery . that an incomprehensible These are I. Trishna comp. 3. and future of the sentient being. from sensation springs a desire to satisfy a felt want. 106. animal. as soon a sentient being (man. 4. ritualism (silabbata).) Those are like the straws which a drowning It is : 1 (about man catches at. below p. . 2. the organs of sense with the exterior world .' the desert or merit.' grasping which are expressions for nearly similar states of mind.' 239. age. but a new set of mental tendencies and set of The ' karma of the previous being. The ' cause which produces the new being or ' is ' trishna. and first cause of the kosmos (loka}. according to the karma. nat:re. of the Buddha.
he would think. however. the same truth which lies at the bottom of the widely prevalent beliefs in fate and predestination. mit ' . because the Teacher said so. the difference is very obvious. the sufferer. I do not intend to say that fate and karma are the same . if he believed in would think. 'This is my own doing. greatest practical effect on the lives of its Though. and is an interruption to the law that effects are due to causes. and has had the believers. of Buddhism . in the darkness of the future. the doctrine of karma finds a moral cause for the effects it seeks to explain. If he believed in karma. I must suband he would try to rectify the balance of jus. has been most universally accepted. tice by assuming a result.' and would try to rectify the balance of justice ' fate. the one which. even to find the foundation of truth on which it . It has been also the most stable doctrine mystery. and rests possible to throw some light on the hypothesis. This was preordained.102 ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. When the innocent is oppressed. I must bear no malice. in all the different systems developed out of the original teaching of the Pitakas. beyond what he sees. the mode of action of karma is an incomprehensible mystery (not as the Buddhist thinks. Fate is un- moral (neither moral nor immoral). and his persecutor prospers in the world. but simply because the force itself it is is a nonexistent fiction of the brain). But both depend on a perception of the fact that happiness and misery in this life are apportioned with an utter disregard of the moral qualities of men according to the current notions of good and bad.
' . of his action. but only one or other of superstitious extreme. Buddhism is convinced that if a 1 man reaps sorrow. parts of the sentient being are dissolved sult. he himself. error sin and if not in this life. that whatever a man soweth man force. in his good or evil karma (literally his doing '). which does not die. in the re- namely. Karma. the soul of those who do not believe in moral justice and retriBuddhism claims to have looked through bution. that he must also have sown . then in some former birth. reaps. is the identity between him who sows and him who reaps? /. . ' ' Whatever a that shall he also reap . disappointment. twenty different delusions which blind the eyes of men. that may contravene our Christian fruit no exterior power can destroy the 1 See above. Where then. and the constituent . beyond what he sees. 103 bv assuming a cause./ that which alone remains when a man dies. p. in the darkness of the/>ast. of those who believe in the separate existence of some entity called and the irreligious extreme. and can therefore enter into the Buddhist feeling. .KARMA. . We are familiar with the doctrine. must at some time have sown folly. on the other. we are familiar with the doctrine of the indestructibility of and can therefore understand the Buddhist it dogma (however r <!"u mas). 94. in the latter case. from a Buddhist point of view. and thought. avoids the on the one hand. Nevertheless. the word soul for the fact it purports to cover and to have found no fact at all. speech. and no other. pain.
not to be dissipated. where they have left it. teach men to seek for some sort of happiness here. but doing. into many held. so each individual in the long chain of life inherits all. that is. its karma. past and present. liarity of is Buddhism or does is lies in this. which he. His consciousness enjoy hereafter. in its constituent parts and being. which all its predecessors have done or been and takes up the struggle towards enlightenment precisely there. as it separate streams. will shall cease to feel. is when never conscious (except in a few rare instances. And so the true Buddhist saint does not mar the purity of his selfdenial by lusting after a positive happiness. the exact result of pre-existing causes. of good or evil. but his virtue will live and work out its full effect in the decrease of the sum of the misery of sentient beings. As one generation dies and gives way to another the heir of the consequences of all its virtues and all its vices. But it . Most forms of Paganism. its being. but the faithful and the holy shall find happiness Buddhism hereafter. powers. but to be concen- trated together in the formation of one new sentient new. that they must effect to the pleasant or the bitter end. work out their full But the pecuthat the result of what a man were. of a man's deeds. in a better world beyond. its the same in its essence. himself.IO4 ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. or of what its successors shall be. it has risen above the possibility of pleasure and of pain) of what its predecessors were. maintains that the one hope is as hollow as the . Most other forms of belief say that this is folly.
of since it is not ' ' ! . They have been charmed and awed perhaps by the resolutely Path ' . shake off your on the ' kind. sentient existence. other lusion . and thoughts. tossing waves of the ocean of life the Path to the Joy and Rest of the Nirvana of Wisdom and Goodness and Peace !' Strange is it and instructive that all this should have seemed not unattractive these 2. there will only remain the accumulated result of all your actions. infinite. words. which leads to sorrow. and Be awake. and there the conditions of existence are the same.300 years and more to many despairing and earnest hearts that they should have trusted themselves to the so seeming stately bridge which Buddhism has tried to build over the river of the mysteries and sorrows of life. 105 of self is that . the consciousness a de- that the organized being. Drop then this petty foolish longing for Here it personal happiness. and each new birth will leave you ignorant and finite still. everything becomes . yourself will pass away like everything else . lazy in thought. not delusions. and enter which will lead you away from these restless. is bound up inextricably with and therefore with sin. delicate or noble beauty of of which the arch is built some of . the several stones they have seen that the .KARMA. sorrow. There is nothing eternal the very kosmos itself is passing away .' Buddhism would say comes of ignorance. and all that you see and feel. and therefore with ignorance. bodily or mentally. whole that H . on the other the law of causality. Be pure then. nothing is. rests on a more or less solid foundation of fact on one side of the keystone is the necessity of But they justice. and leads to sin.
these four Truths 1. or an eager desire to supply a felt of life creating either delight want 1 this eager yearning thirst (Trishna. system he laid explanation which down the four ' Noble Truths concerning Sorrow. 1 The Excellent Way. link this have failed to see that the very keystone itself. this in- imaginary cause beyond the reach of reason the dividualized and individualizing force of Karma. is a mere word wonderful hypothesis. its Cause. disease. 48 . individualizing. We have seen that in the his ' first Gautama gave of pression. death. Pali tanha) in so far as the result of a Individualized. unfulfilled desire of possession. in so far as it is the force by which different beings become one individual. this air}' nothing. with 2. The authorities are quoted above. such as) birth. In other respects the force of karma is real 3 enough. such as) contact disagreeable objects. come to this * : That (those events which are distinctive of indi- vidual existence. the between one life and another. its Supand the Path leading to its extinction. man's actions is concentrated in the formation of a second sentient being . the five Skandhas. p. and (those which bring forcibly mind the sense of separate existence. separation from are pleasant ones. and the lust the objects that present themselves. Briefly explained. which follows on and causes the delusion of in self sensation. into decay. those states which are full of suffering or precisely sorrow.106 ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. The kind of craving excitement.
' tanha becomes a hydra-headed monster possessed of one hundred and eight modes of inflicting suffering on thus the little And humanity. and by further dividing each of these into two (outward and inward). 108 different kinds of 'thirst. it is said to be six-fold . in Childers's Pali Dictionary. 354. 1 Sorrow and suffering will be overcome. it is eighteen-fold . below. under the word tanha. who have ' ' : To : found out how to quench the darts of yourselves must make the effort : grief. is not a mere vague adworked out into detail. or love is the origin of all suffering. 4. growing into sensuality. 128 ' 1 .' 'Dhammapada. we have. . that man's sorrows grow. the Eight Divisions and Four Stages. * Ibid. extinguished. and as each of these may grow in the three ways men- tioned in the text.THE FOUR TRUTHS. like water this drops from a lotus leaf. again.' verse 336. You are the Buddhas only preachers the thoughtful who enter the Path are freed from the bondage of the deceiver. ' JOJ life. accomplish the Noble Path of a virtuous and thoughtful life '' Enter on this Path and make an end of sorrow verily the Path has been preached by me. present." 2 end there is only one way.' verse 335). salvation ' be good it is As tanha may be produced by sensations received through either of the five senses. 3. verses 275. Dhammapada. and ' future). finally.. p. and compare w. or through the memory.' (Vijesinha Mudaliar. this lust of life " He who overcomes this contemptible destroyed. if this thirst be quenched. desire of future of the present world. it is thirty-six-fold . like the blrana-weed when it is spreading.' 3 : And this means of ' monition to expressed 1 in. by dividing each of these into three (past. 276 Compare v. Mara. sufferings fall off from him. and. 342. 285.) thirst 'The man whom this contemptible that poison in the world overcomes. ' thirst (difficult to be conquered in this world).
' verse 178. Right mindfulness. 2. and impurity . 4.1O8 ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. 5. (2) from doubt as to the Buddha and his doctrines. The entering upon ' of the Path are l : The unconverted man is unwise. 3. (p. better than going to heaven. TJie path of those last who will never return to this (4) sensuality 1-7. under the influence of sin. 7. Eight Divisions as already mentioned : The 1. but if by one or more of the means just mentioned he has arrived at a perception of the four Noble Truths.' 2 The path of those who will only return once to this The converted man free from doubt and the delusions of self and ritualism. lust. 23 and ' of the Great Decease. Right aims. (i) companionship with the good. While in this path he becomes free successively. better than lordship over all worlds is ' (this three-fold) fruit 2. Right exertion.' pp. and has entered the first Path. succeeds in this path in reducing to a minimum. and (3) from the belief in the efficacy of rites and ceremonies. 3. translated in Dhammapada. . hatred and delusion. tran- the stream. enmity. of the first Path.' Conversion. world : 1 in which the remnants of and my a See 'Book 'Buddhist Suttas. Right words. or (4) the practice of virtue. The four Paths or Stages 1. (3) enlightened reflection. ' Better than universal empire in this world. 6. Right behaviour. Right mode of livelihood.' he has become converted. ii. Right meditation and quillity. world. which follows on.' foil. 47) are as follows Right views. (i) from the delusion of self. 8. (2) hearing of the law.
R. malevolence. evil desires kinds being rooted up from his mind. being destroyed. existence. and ignorance. I. from all error he sees and values . 'Metta Sutta. of the Sanskaras p. her only son so let him cultivate goodwill without measure among all beings. J. above. sitting. desire for material. 8. . 30. unstinted. unmixed with any feeling of differing or opposing interests. Let him culti: vate goodwill without measure toward the whole world. : 51. or lying down. the best in the world. protects of her son. Dhp. in The path of the Arahats. or arise in the heart. Let a all man remain is steadfastly in this state of mind the while he walking. which with their Pali names are i. he only experiences right desires for himself. whether he be standing." awake.. 1869. 4.' from Childers's text. quite different. 345. Bandhana a. 2. (8. I see also p. and on all is the Fetters. 52. Delusion of self (Sakkaya-ditthi). not the least low wrong feeling towards others can insight. v. On No. 92. (5) 309 desire for oneself. from 10) is pride and He all now free self-righteousness. 9.THE FOUR PATHS. " As a mother. even at the risk of her own life. This state of heart is l The ten errors or evil states of mind thus conquered : in the course of the four paths are the ten Sangyo3 janas or Fetters. 221. S. Dhp. 7) or immaterial. things in this all life at their true value . A. describing the state of the Arahats. around. 346. the men set free by which the saint becomes free from (6. above compare numbers 28. 5. 26. below. 9. and tender pity and regard and exalted spiritual love for others. I II With numbers 95 .
the state of an Arahat. and has entered the fourth path when the other five are broken. (ManoX Self-righteousness (Uddhacca). 3. 8. who has freed himself on all sides. the first When five fetters are completely broken. heaven (Aruparaga). bodily passions (Kama). 6. of a man But cording to the Buddhist faith. and passed beyond sorrow. there is no more fever of grief. 1 Modern Buddhists p. 5. ill-feeling (Patigha). like a horse well broken-in by the driver lust of the flesh. and thus put an end to all delusion and to all sorrow. life Love of Pride Desire for life in on earth (Ruparaga). ' Law. Wheel of the Alabaster.13O 2. 10. and the defilement of ignorance the gods envy. Doubt (Vicikiccha). " To him who has finished the Path. who is free and the lust of him even existence. he has become Asekha. unvexed like the pillar from pride and the . the Fruit of the fourth Path. 9. become an Arahat. Such a one whose conduct is right. ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. Compare the first few lines of class Christianity under this Fetter. 4. Hatred. and thrown away every fetter. . 237. 24. One might ecstatic praise fill which pages with the awe-struck and is lavished in Buddhist writings on this condition of mind. Ignorance (Avijja). remains like the broad earth. 1 Sensuality. Dependence on works (Sllabbata-paramasa). made all perfect acthat could be said can be included in one pregnant phrase THIS is NIRVANA. the converted Buddhist has . .' p. 7." " He whose senses have become tranquil.
'Ratana when it was 2 Sutta. and no new yearnings springing up within them. it it should be noted that used of Nirvana. has attained unto. 4. . the cause of their exist- ence being destroyed. Their old karma is exhausted. 94-96.' first verses 90. . free from yearnknowledge of. extinction ? Nirvana. and well trained in the teachings of Gautama they. Tranquil is the mind. cannot be the extinction of a // is the extinction condition of mind and heart. v. un- For such there are no more births. and made free by wisdom. See also below. 60. of that sinful. of ambrosia. of the city gate. . who. like a pellucid lake." l " They who by steadfast mind have become exempt from evil desire. and always alludes to it. have received without price. which means simply going (it being quite clear. from what has this gone before. heavenly drink' at Rat. grasping which would otherwise. pp. Nirvana. Of Amata." 2 "That mendicant conducts himself well. no new karma is being produced their hearts are free from . 184. and Sweet food and Sammaparibbajanlya Sutta. 14. and skilled in the and. and immersed themselves in that ambrosia. Sutta. from whose eyes the is veil of error has been removed. are extinguished like this lamp.' 7. that soul). the longing after future life . ' ' of Ambrosia. who has conquered error by means of insight. Ill unmoved . and are in the enjoyment of Nirvana.' 14. they the wise. who well-trained in religion ing." 3 What then is out. having obtained the fruit of the fourth Path.NIRVANA. tranquil the words and deeds of him who is thus tranquillized. be the cause of 1 ' Dhammapada. according to the great mystery of Karma. 8 ' had acquired the sense Thus we have the Lake 25. ruffled.' v. Fausboll's Jataka.
reneived individual existence. On the other hand. therefore. and end in different results . which a blissful mental state. as is the word Nirvana one name of the Buddhist summum bonum. and of the cessation of individual existence of which the former is not essential to. as the new word part of a new language which is the outcome of a different tone of thought while it may denote the same or nearly the same idea. may represent states of mind not greatly different but these are due to different causes. a personal creator ideas inconsistent with Buddhist holiness. Holiness and Nirvana. and the latter is quite unconnected with. and we should allow the to remind us. our word very different ones. perhaps. usually calls up together with it This is the case here . in other words. and wisdom.Nirvana implies the ideas of intellectual energy. a moral condition. and in using . so as not also to think of its origin and its effect. be rendered holiness holiness. complete when that opposite condition is reached. our idea of holiness. perfect peace. calm state of mind . . That extinction is to be brought about by. may best. and if translated at all. ' ' To attempt translations of such pregnant terms is however always dangerous. to retain cation of personal character . the words. . holiness would often suggest the ideas of love to. that is. a modifiIt is better. goodness. in the Buddhist sense. and awe in the felt presence of. the growth of the opposite condition of mind and heart and it is . Nirvana is therefore the same thing as a sinless.112 ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. as it did the early Buddhists. it is impossible to confine one's thought to the thing expressed. and runs parallel with.
prehensive name of all the five is upadi. to grasp. That this must be the effect of Nirvana is plain . that is to say. p. rise of a new set of The Arahat will be no longer will alive or existent in any sense at all. ' 113 Path ' which leads to the extinction of and also of the break in the transfer of Karma. the fruit of the fourth Path. 2 extinction not only 1 * See above. his all its powers. Nirvana Sutta. He have reached Parinibbana. the fruit of his former error remain. the Skandhas. Parinibbana Sutta. complete extinction. J. are imperwill soon pass away. tradistinction. will. however. R. from upada. for that state of mind which in Nirvana trishna) is is precisely that which extinct (upadana. vol. That 1 new individual would consist of certain bodily and mental qualities or tendencies.. of a new individual. 101. Now. lead at death to the formation of a new individual. the upadi. or Nir-upadi-sesa-nibbana-dhatu. 58. either with the hand or the mind. p.' vense 14). enumerated. upadana). and klesa ( error ). viii. 238. in the five Skandhas or aggregates. to whom the Karma of the dissolved or dead one will be transferred. is . In concalled sa-upadi-sesa-nibbana (' Vanglsa Comp. S. both of the sin. These. as already comexplained. when he has reached Nirvana. Julien's Hiouen Thsang II. when a Buddhist has become an Arahat. klesa. they body with nothing left to bring about the skandhas. he has extinguished upadana.NIRVANA. There will then be manent. a word derived A (in allusion to the name of their cause. according to the great mystery of Buddhism. A. which the extinction of sin will bring about. but he is still alive .
where life was. 14. in- same dividual existence. is like the flame of an Indian lamp. will go out like the flame of a lamp. and of the fires of passion. a metal or earthenware saucer in which a cotton wick is laid in oil. 1 Stars. long ago extinct. it will go out. of Tanha. cause has ceased to act : then. below. and as no new body will be die. p. but without the other it would not have been. and where the light was. to use a constantly recurring Buddhist simile or parable. So the living. though its but it will soon decay. . may be still visible to us by the light they emitted before they ceased to burn . depends on the cleaving to low and earthly things. a result of. the parable of the Tree. Freedom from the imperfections of finite being is. Karma will be individualized no longer. but it is not Nirvana. will be nothing. but the rapidly vanishing effect of a no longer active cause will soon cease to strike upon our senses . One life is derived from another. as one flame is lit at another . so life. And so the parts and powers of the perfect man will be dissolved. but also of the upadi and of the five skandhas. quoted above. and is not on death but on 1 Compare Ratana Sutta. and and pass away . As flame cannot exist without oil. it The Buddhist in. moving body of the perfect man is visible still. will be darkness. 137. and no new being will be born to sorrow. The wise : will and their pass away. it is not the flame. v. p. The life of man. the sin of the heart. though not until the and oil which the wick has drawn up is exhausted then no new flame can be lighted there. formed. and heaven is not death.1 14 ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. If there is no oil in the lamp.
US a perfect life here and now. 1 "If we Dhamma-pada at every passage where mentioned. . Thus of the Dhamma-pada Professor Max Miiller. which one History of of the books of the Second Pitaka. find existence opposed. The same thing may be said of such other parts of are " the Pitakas as texts. the three . of being. Jataka text. ih another. that to the the extinction. not to Nirvana. and so on. would become perfectly unintelligible look in the is Nirvana if we assigned to the word Nirvana that signification. In those verses we have (inter alia) an argument based on the logical assumption that if if there a positive exists.' Fausboll. hatred. p. Nirvana meant not Nirvana. whilst. I think. these pairs fires we but to non-existence (of lust. 2 It follows.NIRVANA. the goal of the Excellent Way. 1 . there is not one which would require that its meaning should be annihilation. 14. xli. there must be cold . Nirvana as one aspect of it. its negative must also exist In one of is heat. together p. and delusion) are opposed to mind of the composer of the Buddhavansa. the absence. quote here all the passages in the Pitakas in which the word Nirvana occurs would be tedious. while most. says. that the Pitakas lavish those terms of ecstatic description which they apply to and to Arahatship. or is some the Buddhas. who was the first to point out the fact. if not all. but the extincTo tion. Buddhaghosha's Parables. but they will be found 1 in the ' appendix to this chapter. accessible to us in published Thus the commentator on the Jatakas quotes verses from the Buddhavansa. of the three fires of passion. the negation.
after that time we occasionally (but very seldom. ' and so far from this usage being a proof that Nirvana. Bur- nouf. in none of which the sense of annihilation is necessary. and it is conceivable that phrase might come to be used ' ' ' for In these cases tne general sense paraphrase. but so far as it is possible to judge. most important passages from the Ceylon fifth-century commentators. Lotus. 1 06. or prefixed word. From those passages it would seem that the word was used in its original sense only. pp. 235. both Sanskrit and Pali. that it is difficult to discover their doctrine on any controverted point . So little is known of the Sanskrit and Tibetan Buddhist books. 364-8. where in the heaven. would otherwise have had . 290. and only when the context makes the modification clear) find Nirvana used where we should expect anupadisesanibbana or parinibbana. Foucaux.' or some such expression. even as late as the time of Buddhagosha . In the Lalita Vistara the word occurs in a few passages. without the qualifying prefix.Il6 with the ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES.' 404. it is very striking that such a use of the word should not occur in books even those in which it is much earlier than actually found. meant the same as Parinirvana. they confirm that use of the word Nirvana which we find in the Pitakas. 262. . 1 The Tibetan rendering of the word 1 ' is a long phrase. and from other later books. 391. according to Burnouf. meaning. just as bow is actually used for rainbow. 340. and in all of which I take Nirvana to mean the same as the Pali Nibbana.' of the context has the same force as the qualifying prefix. is in the context .
4 1 'Introduction a 1'histoire ' clu Buddhisme 3 Inclien. as to the views of their authors but it is clear that they use Parinirvana and Anupadhisesha Nirvana-dhatu in the sense of death with no life to follow. and consequent disappointment.. when one is so delivered Beal's This is confirmed by Mr.' or. is 7A/</. to be reached here. scrupulously avoiding all idle dissipation. p.NIRVANA. Letting go all lust. 120. Compare 4 159. 247. Nirvana as a moral condition. where the Chinese version of the Sanskrit vana "NirParinirvana Sutra has the following passages In the midst of sorrow there is no is just so. 118. look upon Chinese. 250. In the later Sanskrit books the notices of Nirvana are so meagre that no conclusion can be drawn . : I Nirvana. like the Pali texts of the Pitakas. Nirvana mentioned at pngei 114. think we moy. dhists. in the verse quoted from the Pra- timoksha." " devote myself wholly to moral culture." And so again. and in Nirvana there is no sorrow.' p. 3 1 The Heart. Fixed and unchangeable. 19. 116.' 174. 283. this world. of the . ' 117 the state of ' him who is ' the state in which one finds oneself (affranchi)}- delivered from sorrow. 1 Catena of Buddhist Scriptures from the Chinese. 183. enters on Nirvana. 263.' If we can and trust I these translations through the as far as our purpose the early Sanskrit texts of the later Budrequires. and valuable work on Chinese comprehensive Buddhism. Diligently applying itself to the Holy Law of Buddha. in and in this life. (Gautama) 2 " " so as to arrive at the highest condition of moral rest (the highest Nirvana).
I presume. s. 83. Professor Professor the ' passages in the Dhanr Childers added those in ' Khuddaka Patha ' (Nos. For controversy there has been no space. at pp. Parimrvana. think that the few devoted to the discussion of the meaning of pages Nirvana have been.' Upadhi-sesha is a blunder of the Sanskrit Buddhist writers for the Pali upadi-sesa. Max Miiller These distinguished scholars alone have sought to define the meaning of the word by a strict comparison of the passages in which I it had been found to occur. has . . Max Miiller discusses the ma-pada' (Nos. i-n below). It others. of the 'Introduction. and I have attempted to state them as shortly as possible. consistently with clearness. 12-14 and 16 below). only remains for me to express my obligations to No one has written a work on Buddhism without touching on this great question. '/8. ' it seems to me to derive its chief confirmation Lotus de la bonne Loi. I trust. and if my view of it bt- correct. and though in my conclusion I have ventured to differ somewhat from them. the original has. It has The seemed to me of the first importance to make my views on this point quite clear. of the term fessor had foundation for his explanation but thanks are especially due to Pro and Professor Childers. It was re-introduced into Ceylon in the I2th century. 1 hive followed their method.' Where Burnouf has Nirvana com- plft. each one has thrown some light upon it. See Childers's Diet. I should have avoided it. v. 590.Il8 ESSENTIAL DOCTRINES. and even had there been. and is found in Parakrama Bahu's inscription at the 1 Gal Wihare in Pulastipura. too many. reader will not. Compare the quotations from the Avadana Sataka and Panca-krama. 591. nevertheless.
James (TAlwis. Ceylon Branch. 1 both of theirs. A . 320-323.' pp.' which has been too little read) Wassilief. ' ' . 89. 'Legend of Guadama. Alabaster. from the fact that it IIQ reconciles. ' Der Buddhismus. Remusat.' 143. 'Lotus' 519. p.' xxiv. other writers will be found in Obrjfs *Du Nirvana Bouddhique. et seq. xxxvii.. Spence Hardy's 'Eastern Monachism. part I.' Paris. 130 the Rev. ibid. besides the passages quoted above and 'Journal of the Royal Asiatic . Wheel of the Law. pp.. 280-290 ' 306-309 and 165 . ' ' ' . 1863. Chips. 169-174. 'Foe Koue Ki. Scott. Sutta Nipata. . Kbppen. Buddhist Nirvana (a pamphlet full of information. 1867-1870. see notes. Sivamy> and ChilderJ Diet.' G.. . 80. pp.' p. i. 516-522. p. Introduction.' i. in 1877. 1 article ' The argument present in this chapter the writer in the ' is taken from an Contemporary Review by for Jan.' pp. Bigandet. Society. 280-309. 84. and Upacliseso. the On Nirvana. ' Die Religion des Buddha. 156 Sir Coomara Max Mutter. and removes the diffi- culties involved in. . 247-250." pp. 93-101. and 'Legends and Theories of the Buddhists. BurnouJ. Gogerly. number of references to Parinibbanarh.NIRVANA. under Nibbanarh. pp.
is probably a slip. for his authority is the Parinibbana text itself (Childers's ed. no (true) mendition to cant 5. Dhp. If thou keepest thyself as silent as a broken 3. life. J. w. 496. who has . APPENDIX TO CHAPTER PASSAGES IV. synonym for the Arahat. 2* of strength. 1 On The the Skandhas and Sanskaras see above. attain to in diligence. 89-90. the highest bliss. 32.120 BUDDHISM. v. who insults others. Hunger is the worst disease. The Buddhas declare the best self-mortifica- be patience. and he is in the very Dhp. M. and omits delusion .. 290. (The preceding verse condemns harsh speaking. the best (thing of all) to be Nirvana . and ignorance (of the four ' Burnouf. 202. 184. and the A. E. Dhp. v. no angry clamour is found in thee. 1 6. lust aftei delusion ' Noble Truths '). Asavas are 4 . Manual. there is no misery like the Skandhas. away. v. Dhp. Anasava is a entered the fourth Path. Dhp. v.' 823. but this Sutta . long-suffering . pp. Those who are ever on /he watch. there is no sin like hate. sensual pleasure. I. there is no happiness like peace. &c. IN THE PUBLISHED PARTS OF THE PITAKAS IN WHICH THE WORD NIBBANA (PALI FOR NIRVANA) OCCURS. R. 203. 1876. their Asavas go to an end).) 4. persevering.. There is no fire like lust. for he is no (true) monk who strikes. pp. These wise people (speaking of full Arahats) meditative. is Nirvana. Lotus. 134. The mendicant who delights fall looks with terror on sloth. who study day and night. ) gives the same four as Hardy. 228-230. the Sanskaras the worst suffering knowing this as it really is. their infulness 2 dies away (literally. 23. 'Hunger' 3 surely alludes to tanha (thirst). : the highest bliss. cannot presence of Nirvana. S. says they are three. (about the soul). thou hast attained Nirvana . 226. gong. ever Nirvana. v. whose heart is set on Nirvana. Dhamma-pada.
11. p. 141. the waves of the The four whereby the emotions.. Cut off the love of lotus with autumn your hand ' Precepts. 155). 176. and below. 4 (below. is that though Gautama revealed the 'Noble eight. p. As there is a doubt about the reading. v. Dhp. Dhp. 276. (dis-lusted. is in the presence of Nirvana. v. 2 The wise man. M. transmigration . 8. Compare v. 369. Dhyanas are four stages of religious meditation. Cut clown lust. thou shalt go to Nirvana. 1 self. 4 and Nirvana to be which one is safe future births. Jhanam. 4 At Kama Sutta. 7. v. p. greatest blessing. from being tossed about again in ocean of transmigration. fear having cut down with undergrowth (vanatha). 5 without wisdom. 4 10. having reached . this boat . ' Path 3 seeing the force of this truth. restrained according to the 9. See below p. The idea. II. perhaps. the other shore. 283.APPENDIX OX NIRVANA. 285. should at once clear the leading to Nirvana. Bail out. v. Dhp. 344. no wisdom without Dhyana he who has both wisdom and Dhyana. 121 . Ma again Sntta. that is the bailed out it will : . 23). mendicant. the water-logged boat to be the sinful man the sea to be Sansara. (for) by the Blessed One. 12. as (you might) an devote yourself to the ' Path of peace alone. Nirvana has been revealed. Dhp.) oh! mendicants. (all) not a tree its from lust spring. v. the island. to experience Nirvana. Dhp. 3 The Precepts (Silas) are the ten commandments (Hardy. to discern the Noble Truths. quoted above. Compare Nava Sutta. mind is gradually purged from all earthly See Childers's Diet s. E.fold Path' leading to Nirvana. 107. I take the water as the Asavas . believer's . 372. almost exactly same form. v. when ' O ! go quickly when you have cut off lust and hatred. howI do not quote the latter verse. 6. free the forest of lust (vana) become Nir-vana'd. Temperance and chastity. 2 curious pun is repeated at v. : v. 1 This in the ever. There is no meditation (Dhyana). from yearning. yet only personal exertion can bring one to it. the same figure is used. v. 289.
glorious Law. the destruction of yearning (tanha).' 1 It occurs once in its literal lamp. 12. v.' p.' the death. the 1 6. sense (like tlie going out of n J. . Nirvana. and heavenly and the gain of Nirvana. the Tranquil State.. is. v. the passage quoted from the Maha Vagga of the ' This is a matPitaka. v. p.122 13. A. All earthly glory.' Dhp. on Buddhism. Cessation (of sorrow). (charity. the important fact that in the Maha Parinibbana Sutta. And where heat is. but the arahats go out altogether (' Parinibbanti Anasava. which is also something that takes place here on earth. 13. ' The passage quoted as above. Nidhikanda Sittta. (by which the wise are nourished). the word Nibbana standing alone in its ethical or figurative sense. of ' ' man without the Asavas. Nirvana.' Lastly. does not once occur. piety. hatred. the cessation (of sorrow). . so where the three. ter hard to understand. 14.' the are all the passages in which Nirvana is mentioned from the Pitakas. the 'going out. is exin published texts The above Such are the Heavenly Drink pressed by some other figure. 126). by Gogerly. APPENDIX ON NIRVANA. " Some people are reborn as men evil doers in hell the well" conducted go to heaven. is 1 18. 15. It would lie possible to strengthen the case by quoting all those passages in which the moral condition called. the four Asavas). giving a long account of Gautama's death. Ratana Sntta. of one who has attained Nirvana. which joy. viz. of an Arahat. lust. there also cold from the Bnddhavan<. Absence (of sin. 252). Destruction (of tanha). in those just quoted. fold fire (of lust. preached for the good of leads to Nirvana. and self-control).. pajjotass' eva nibbanarh. It would also be possible to strengthen the case by quoting all passages mentioning Parinibbana. first ' absence of forsaking of all sin. can be procured by this treasure. But I will only mention a . (Beautiful) as groves first and thickets (the covered with blossoms in the hot month of all his summer Buddha). the suppression of all the Sanskaras. and ignorance) there Nirvana must be sought. R. S. 1876. viii.a. and other expressions. 6. the Unshaken Condition (alluding to the final perseverance theory).
63. Also Ten. and 'Hibbert Lectures. xxx. Bengal A. published since the note was written. Vimutti. pp. 1881. 'Saddharma Lankavatara. 77. 516. 14.' pp.. 69. S.' p. instance the views above expressed. (J. and also ch.APPENDIX TO NIRVANA.' p. For passages on Nirvana in the Pali Pitakas. occurs in Saddharma Pundarika. 'Avadana Sataka.] They confirm in every . pp. Mahavansa. Some passages in the later books in which the word occurs are as follows : 123 Nibbana ' Patimokkha. 260. 118. 'Jinn Alankara. 545. 78. 77. 312.' Bur76. and compare pp. 3. 311.' pp. 4.' verse 30. 'Lotus. 15. &c. pp. A. 5.' pp.. 80. 1874)1 referring to the Compare Pari-nibbana. 73..' 831. ' S. ' J. 45. 516. Rasavabini. 80. pp. Jat. ' p. 332. 796-797. n. 'Jataka' (Commentary). 393. 29. vii. [I have preferred to leave the above note as it stood..' ibid. ' ' apud Burnouf.' apud Barnouf. 282. 108. 509. Compare 376. Introduction.' the passages -quoted verses. 401. 91. 4. 118. 120. see my 'Buddhist Suttas. R. Dhamma-pada Commentary.. ' Compare Madurattha Vilasini translation. The word Nirvana noufs 109. 8S. 61. 520. 22.
The task has been no easy one . which are nevertheless expressed in words capable of being used in a Christian sense. whole history of the world has the bare and barren tree of metaphysical inquiry put forth.124 LAY MORALITY. THE GKNERAL MORAL PRECEPTS OF BUDDHISM. it ' ' ' ' . where one would least expect it. the lust. In the Buddhist age the humility of confessed To use a Buddhist ignorance was as yet impossible. there was an upadana. which was the standing cause of a delu' sion ' the grasping. CHAPTER V. a more lovely flower the knowledge. Our object. To free himself and the world from the supposed effects of this non-existent hypothetical cause. will expression. chapter an attempt has been made to put and distinct language the principles of the intricate and obscure system of Buddhist metaphysics. after absolute From and Buddha never ' freed himself. but because of the confusion arising from the utter strangeness of ideas. or grasping state of mind. not only on IN the last into clear account of the inherent difficulty of the subject.' an Never in the epithet it most assuredly deserves. namely. after certainty. to give a sketch of Buddhist be more easily attained. he thought he had discovered a Path which he called Noble. present morality. this upadana the produced in him the delusion of the great theory of Karma.
Hardy. for instance. indeed. we arc told of only one or two instances of their having done so . many directions of a much more general. I. A deva speaks I. and less metaphysical nature than those we have been discussing precepts applicable . attained Comp. E. Though laymen could attain Nirvana. 1 death-bed.IJUUDHIST UKATITUDKS. the paths in this life . No one now hears of such an occurrence . he is certain in some future existence. of Nirvana. at the calm and rest of Nirvana. and he once enters them. we only hear. even though he not reach the end of. a prime minister. There are. of one or two who did so. reached Arahatship on his Santati. 308. Dhp. perhaps under less material conditions. II. Do thou declare to us the chief good. but will if the Buddhist hopes to enter. for it was first necessary to extinguish much evil in the heart by the cultivation of the opposite virtue. 64. . 148 . who have devoted Such. p. accordingly. and Jat. to all men. not only to those life. I. 14. Many gods and men Have held various things blessings. Gautama's father. Jat. after the time of Gautama. 229. Sucldhodana. 125 flower that grew into the Fruit which gave the nectar The Fruit of the fourtli Path was not. Nirvana. J and though it was more possible for members of the Buddhist order of mendicants. to arrive at the goal of salvation. for ordinary hands to pluck. themselves to the religious are the precepts laid down in the now well-known Buddhist Beatitudes. When they were yearning for happiness. M.
cherish wife and child. (i. to serve the wise . and cease from to sin.e. Good works done dwell in a pleasant land. 317. This is the greatest blessing. To associate with the tranquil monks). 3. Reverence and lowliness. And whatever word This 5. Much insight and education. follow a peaceful calling : This 6. as '. 4. 1 To bestow alms and live To give help to kindred. the greatest blessing. righteously. is of the Law at due seasons. having been well-known verse in the time of Gautama . 1 Quoted in the n ' ' Dhamma-pada Commentary. Contentment and gratitude. Self-control and pleasant speech. p. : Right desiies in the heart This is the greatest blessing. Not But to serve the foolish. is be well-spoken : the greatest blessing. Gautama answers 2. in a former birth. is the greatest blessing. The hearing This 9. : To honour To those worthy of honour This is the greatest blessing. These are the greatest blessing. : 7. be weary in well-doing. Not 8. Abstinence from strong drink. To abhor. Deeds which cannot be blamed These are the greatest blessing.126 LAY MORALITY. Buddhist Religious talk at due seasons. To be long-suffering and meek. To To To support father and mother.
In the sacred shrine. and literal all translations like the above lose. The treasure thus hid is secure. They who do On every side they walk in safety. 115. 1 1. that shaketh not. note 62. 127 Self-restraint and purity. Though he leave the fleeting takes with him A treasure that no wrong of Let the wise and passes not away. in his 'SuttaNipata. On every side are invincible acts like these.\ld itself. cit. J. 1 the rhythm and beauty of the Pali ' Mangala Sutta. by Professor 'Ceylon Friend' for June. and secure. when laid up in a lost. 1839. after saying that what men call treasure. and mother. others. and no thief. In individual man. and by the Kev. can steal man do good deeds the treasure that follow* of H.is the greatest blessing. Without grief or passion. or the Buddhist Order. 43 in the . profits nothing. Gogerly.' p. And theirs is the greatest blessing. The mind Beneath the stroke o~ life's changes. temperance and self-control. of course. ioc. 12. In his father. 1 Again. Truths. p.' The text in Childers's ' Khuddaka Patha. the Nidhikanda Sutta (Treasure Chapter). T>jis is the Greatest blessing. this a mar. Translated from the . and may easily be The (real) treasure is that laid up by man or woman Through charity and piety.. and elder brother. Burmese by Bigandet. Fausboll. deep goes on pit.' Translated from the Pali by the editor. in the stranger and sojourner. 10. riches of this world. The knowledge of the Noble The realization of Nirvana.SCRIFI'URE VERSES. This .
nor familiarity with the delighl For the 2&. o! another individual. but it has been thought a less evil to convey a wrong impression of the grace of the original. For never in this world does hatred cease by hatred Hatred ceases by love . The wise looks down upon the fools . When by earnestness he has put an end to vanity.f28 verses. And has climbed the terraced heights of wisdom. 1 Of the same general nature. though the Chinese collection 2 is somewhat larger than the Pali. of the same. but such an idea was never present to the mind of a Buddhist reading them.. 176. 5. 113. * Childers's Diet. 130. xiv. naturally been understood by Europeans to refer to a soul passing from a tempoicvry state to an eternal one . upon an ill-thatched hut. than to convey a wrong impression of its thought. p. in upon the untrained mind. Follow not after vanity. . ii. of lust. are the following extracts from the Dhamma-pada or Scripture verses/ a collection common to both ' schools of Buddhism. The foolish follow after vanity deluded men ! 27. Serene he looks upon the toiling crowd. appealing to all men. quoted below. as known in China and Japan. . . lib. 13. Buddhist Tnpitaka.' p. 3 in In the last extract the idea is simply that good deeds don* one birth will be the very thing that will determine the ma terial and spiritual lot of the individual in the next birth. this is always its nature. p. from our point of view . As rain breaks in So passion breaks 26. Preface. As one standing on a hill looks down On 1 those who stand upon the plain. 8 Beal's ' v. Kctherj compares Lucre tins. 7-14. acPassages like these have cording to the Buddhist theory. LAY MORALITY. Compare Dhp. While the wise guards earnestness as his richest treasure. earnest and the thoughtful obtain ample joy.
6 1. 29.SCRIPTURE VERSES. Whatever an enemy may do to an enemy.' p. As long as the sin bears no fruit. ' Sigalovada Sutta. The fine words of him who does not act accordingly are fruitless. 35. mind intent on what is wrong Works evil worse. injuriiig not its As the bee The flower. Like a beautiful flower full of colour. The wise should notice what himself has done or left undone. he goes down into sorrow. or do or leave undone. Not where others fail. Difficult to hold in. leaving those behind As the swift steed the horse who has no strength. 103. . Like a beautiful flower full of colour and full of scent. man think lightly of sin. 42. without scent.' Comp.' in 'Sept Suttas Palis. So let the wise man dwell upon the earth. Rushing where'er it listeth A tamed mind is the bringer of . . taking the nectar . indeed. he thinks it honey . 52. The fool. colour. It is good to tame the mind. and flighty . 305. Let no 121. bliss. . One may conquer a thousand thousand men in battle. 50. saying in his heart. But when the sin ripens. But he who conquers himself alone is the greatest victor. Then. or scent - Flies away. A 49. 129 Earnest among the heedless Wide awake among the sleepers The wise makes progress. 'It cannot overtake me. The fine words of him who acts accordingly are full of fruit. Or an angry man to an angry man.
As the waterpot fills by even drops of water falling, The fool gets full of sin, ever gathering little by little.
there laughter? fire of passion,
and hatred, and ignorance
always burning, Ye, surrounded by darkness,
ye not a light
159. Let a man make himself what he preaches to others The well-subdued may subdue others ; one's self, indeed,
hard to tame.
formerly was heedless, and afterwards becomes
Lights up this world, like the
escaped from a cloud.
The man who has
transgressed one law, and (speaks) lies, scoffs at the next world, there is no evil he will not do.
Let us live happily, then, not hating those Let us live free from hatred
who hate among men who hate
Let us live happily, then, free from ailments
Let us dwell free from
among men who
among the busy among men who are anxious! Let us live happily, then, though we call nothing our own We shall become like the bright gods who feed on happiness
Let us live happily, then, free from care
Let us dwell free from yearning
201. Victory breeds hatred, for the conquered is ill at ease. The tranquil live well at ease, careless of victory and defeat.
holds back rising anger as (one might) a rolling
others only hold the reins.
indeed, I call a driver
anger by kindness, evil by good Let him conquer the stir.gy by a gift, the liar by truth.
This verse occurs also
Let him speak the truth ; let him not yield to anger ; Let him give when asked, even from the little he has By these three things he will enter the presence of the gods.
to be done is neglected ; what ought not to be done is done. Those who are proud and slothful their asavas (delusions)
The gift of the Law exceeds all gifts, The sweetness of the Law exceeds all sweetness The delight of the Law exceeds all delight The extinction of thirst overcomes all grief.
Vasala Sutta, 27
Not by Not by
one become low caste, one become a Brahman j By his actions alone one becomes low caste, 7 By his actions alone one becomes a Brahman.
obstinacy, bigotry, deception, envy, self-praise, dis-
paraging others, high-mindedness, evil communications, these constitute uncleanness ; not verily the
eating of flesh. " Neither abstinence from fish or flesh, nor going naked, nor shaving the head, nor matted hair, nor
nor a rough garment, nor sacrifices to Agni a man not free from delusions. (fire), will cleanse
Reading the Vedas, making
offerings to priests, or
sacrifices to the gods, self-mortifications
by heat or and many such-like penances performed for the sake of immortality, these do not cleanse the man " not free from delusions.
the Asnvas, see above, p. I2O. idea occurs in the 'Mahabharata,'
See Dr. Muir, in the 'Indian Antiquary,' Nov. 1876, and compare Koppen, i. 129.
" Live ye freed from lasciviousness, firm-minded, abandoning inordinate laughter ; not recounting worthless stories of kings and others
not lamenting, fretting, deceiving; without hypocrisy,
greediness, malice, harshness,
and rusty ignorance." "Rise! sit up! what advan-
your sleeping? To men ailing, pierced by the darts of sorrow, what sleep indeed can there be? Sloth is defilement, to be ever heedless is defilement By earnestness and wisdom root
out your darts of sorrow
would be very interesting
composition of these and similar verses. They purport to be the real words spoken, or answers given by Gautama on certain specified
occasions, on which
and such a
gravely reported that he It is believed that
they occur in the midst of prose throughout the Pitakas, and the Dhamma-pada is confessedly merely
a collection of such verses culled from the other
scriptures. books in
modern languages the found without the verses. These
the other hand, in later Buddhist stories are often
stories are always very instructive, as showing the way in which Buddhism looks at human affairs, and some of them are
not without charm
when read merely
the story of Kisagotami, given by Captain Rogers in his translation from the Burmese of some of these stories. 1
verses of the
There are three Parables,' chap. x. said to have been spoken about a
Kisagotami, but they are
quite inapplicable to this story
114, 287, 395).
Parable of the Mustard-seed.
of a young
marriage with the only son of a wealthy brought about in true fairy-tale fashion.
child, but when the beautiful boy could run The young girl in her love for it alone, it died.
dead child clasped to her bosom, and went from house to house of her pitying friends But a asking them to give her medicine for it. Buddhist mendicant, thinking She does not understand,' said to her, My good girl, I myself have
no such medicine
of one who
The Buddha can
go to him,' was the answer. and doing homage to him, said, Lord and master, do you know any medicine that will be good for my
give you medicine She went to Gautama,
of some,' said the Teacher.
was the custom for patients or their friends to provide the herbs which the doctors required, so she I want some asked what herbs he would want.
and when the poor girl to bring some of so common a eagerly promised You must get it from some house drug, he added, where no son, or husband, or parent, or slave has died.' Very good,' she said, and went to ask for it, The people still carrying her dead child with her. but when she Here is mustard seed, take it said,
house has any son died, or a
husband, or a parent or slave
what is this that you say ; the living are few, but the dead are many.' Then she went to other houses, but one said, I have lost a son ; another, We have lost our parents another, I have lost my slave.' At
not being able to find a single house where no one had died, her mind began to clear, and summonlast,
resolution, she left the
dead body of her child
in a forest,
said to her,
Buddha paid him Have you the mustard-
Lord,' she replied, 'I have not; the that the living are few, but the dead Then he talked to her on that essential
part of his system
her doubts were cleared away, and, accepting hei she became a disciple and entered the first Path.
The Parable of the Sower.
In another of these
before us in
three versions, from the Pali, Sinhalese, and Burmese 1 respectively, we find the processes of agriculture
into an elaborate allegory. A wealthy Brahman, named Bharadvaja, was holding his harvesthome when the Teacher comes and stands by with his bowl. Some of the people went up and paid him reverence, but the Brahman was angry, and said,
Sutta Nipata,' Kasi Bharadvaja 10-13; Hardy, 'Manual of Buddhism,' 214-216; ' and Bigandet, Life of Guadama,' 226, 227. The allegory in each differs in such essential points from the others that it is L I have followed pity we have not the Pitaka text. chiefly the
version in 'Sutta Nipata' [the Pali text of which has since been published, Pali Text Society, 1884].
I too plough and sow. I eat . but only to suggest it. and the seed.' and are ' used indeed as standing similes or poetical well figures. meii- . so known that there is no. ' Brahman. signs of Brahman. gifts are looked upon as seed which should be sown in the field of humanity. Law earnestness .' was the answer.need to mention the thing signified. Faith is the seed I sow. I is lay hold of the I the goad this use . this and by ploughing all sorrow ends. and good works are as the rain that fertilizes it wisdom and modesty are the parts of the plough. I plough and sow. and especially in that part of the field where there are fewest weeds.e. and having ploughed and sown. Thus ploughing harvest that The ploughed. that is in the field of the Order where the weeds of hate. Parables similar to the above are constantly re ferred to in the verses of the Dhamma-pada. ' 135 mendicant).' said the ' ' ' . and it. destroying the weeds of delusion. and passion. The crop in this case will be Kusala. and vanity.PARABLES.' Srnmana (i. my mind is handle of the the guiding rein. and the plough ? Then the Teacher answered. and having ploughed and sown. and yearning have been destroyed. and then you would have food to eat. and diligence is is my draught ox.' You say you are a husbandman but we see no ' ! ' O . Agriculture Thus naturally plays a great part in these parables. it yields is the ambrosia fruit of Nirvana. it would be better if you were in like manner to plough and sow.' Buddhist Similes. I eat. Where are your bullocks.
and ' Buddhaghosha/ nf ?. 251.' verse 335.' . 2 Another allegory is that of the flood (ogha). Comp. is to have reached Nirvana. 'Catena. . according to the spiritual advancement of those who were affected One of the worst weeds by the corresponding acts. p.. 1881.'pp. p. and delusion and the lust. .. 287. 1 'Dhp.' Bigandet. 'Dhp. whose roots go very deep root left in into the ground.136 torious LAY MORALITY. 3 Transmigration itself is also constantly called the ocean its ever-tossing waves are births . The flood is of four kinds. Karma which birth. safe from the floods. and springs up again when the industrious peasant thinks he has It is therefore This is a standing figure of quite got rid of it. most difficult to get rid of. chapter III. the yearning grasping state of mind.' 194.- ! On the theory of Karma see my ' Hibbert Lectures. Dhp. transmigration. Beal. 47.' verses 25. . to have extinguished which. to have in rice. which comes down suddenly and carries off the careless sleeper against which the wise must constantly be on the watch until he is safe on some bank or island which no flood can reach. 21 1. the smallest piece of the ground propagating itself very rapidly. * ' See the second 'Noble Truth.fields is the Irirana-grass. 106. Arahat who has reached the island of Nirvana is called Oghatinna. 356-359. more efficacious both for good or bad. 370 432. the foam at . Trishna. sin. 1 will some future This produce great rewaid in is a parable which the yellow-robed that the willingly let die members of the Order would not and it has become a received truth Karma resulting from good or bad deeds is . .
' v. a fruit. 405.. and eventually destroys that on which it was nourished. is compared to will be a creeper which grows like a parasite on the sala trees.' of which the following verses are quoted from Sir Coomara Swamy's translation. but if the tree be cut off at the root. 2 these similes or parables those passages quoted from Milinda Prashnaya by Spence Hardy. 340. 19. the Nirvana. p. note 4. 121. when they fitted well into any argument.' in v. as not only useful to make clear the speaker's meaning. not produce any further seed. it will and visible a little while only whilst it decays. 1 Again the five Skandhas. K . in his Manual of Buddhism . the yearning thirst. the bodily and mental other shore is properties and tendencies. and ir 1 Comp. I have allowed myself a few 'Sutta Nipata. Again.PARABLES. The tree produces a seed. Dhammika The duties Sutta clearly laid down of a lay disciple are distinctly and in the latter part of the Dhammika ' Sutta. but also of great value in proving the truth of what he said. 107. 334. and it is evident that the early Buddhists A very large number of will be found ' in ' regarded such allegories.. are like a tree. 3 Gautama himself 'Dhp. one does not again enter the great ocean of Sang-sara.' 162. 18. according to the commentary on ' Dhp. Trishna. the crest of the waves is 137 this perishable body . from which will spring another tree . alterations. 2 3 v. having reached which. such as 'mendicant' for 'priest.' ch.
. should avoid frain from stealing anything every kind of theft. of the manner in which a disciple should conduct himself well. both those that are strong. so that the command here . 'The householder who the law should not indulge in intoxicating drinks. 1 who drink. delights in 23. 'A disciple then knowing (the law) should at re any place . 21. should not consent to the acts of those who steal anything. 'When one is come to a royal assembly or 1 gathering. a state of celibacy should not commit adultery. Such duties as are peculiar to the mendicants cannot be fulfilled by one who has a tell Now I family. The ignorant commit sins in consequence of ' That is given is. he should avoid every kind of untruth. at any official inquiry not to bear false witness. Let him refrain from even hurting any creature. at all. ' (p. Let him not destroy. or cause to be destroyed. 20. is supposed to be speaking . 156) : you of the life which a householder should lead. ' 19. One who is not able to live in 22. knowing that it results in insanity. which will be considered separately below 1 8. should not cause others to drink. or sanction the acts of those any life who do so. should not sanction the acts of those 24. and has already described the duties of a mendicant. he should not tell lies to any one. and those that tremble in the world. or cause any to tell lies. or consent to the acts of those who tell lies . should not cause another to steal anything.138 LAY MORALITY. 'A wise man should avoid inchastity as if it were a burning pit of live coals.
TEN COMMANDMENTS. insanity. i5th. 'In the next place. EIGHT. is not given. and also make others drink. and taking constant delight in so doing. inter- ' 6. intoxi- 4. being of a pious mind. one should 27. and Pati-haraka pakkha (p. observe Uposatha on the i4th. The order of the commandments in v. 1 on a mat spread on the ' Such. pp. should not take that which should not tell lies.THE FIVE. ' ' One One One should not destroy life. and 8th day of the lunar fortnight. 139 You drunkenness. 141) man who has kept the (Uposatha) should in the morning. 2. 160. 25. 'One should ground. that. 28. 3. a wise On these three commands it * From this expression seems see below. : and ignorance though it be pleasing to the ignorant Precepts. 'One should not become a drinker of cating liquors. ' 7. ' who came amongst us to put an Moreover. should avoid this it is the cause of demerit. while verses 18-24 are own mouth. being of a pious mind. One should not eat unseasonable food at nights. . they say. 2 is the eight-fold fast (Uposatha) de- clared by Buddha. 1 One should not wear garlands or use perfumes. 140. the rest of the verses are supposed to be spoken by some one else. One should course refrain from unlawful sexual an ignoble thing. end to sorrows. fast-day 1 should also be duly observed. ' 5. 1 sleep 8. 26. 25 is also different from that of the preceding put into Buddha's verses. ' The Eight 1.
140 LAY MORALITY. 1 It would be a curious . ' 29. 27 must be understood as the i4th day from the new moon (in short months). and it is. it is considered irreligious break any of the eight precepts on Sabbath days . quire no commentary. placed above in the mouth of Gautama himself. layman other three are not obligatory . The may do for any length of time. in Sinhalese ata-sil). and should practise a just trade the householder observing this with diligence reaches the l self-shining gods. but the pious is recommended to take the vow of the eight This he precepts (atthangasila. periods of ' extra Lent. live apart from his family. and are binding on every Buddhist. Uposatha is. therefore. He should maintain his father and mother in -. com- mandments. But whether the 488). he should (at least according to Spence Hardy's Manual. or halfway between the two. considered especially meritorious to take the vows during the referred to in v. order with food and provide the members of the drink according to his ability. or was. or for his whole life and during the time he is under the vow. perhaps. . a weekly The festival. the this ' refers to all . or new. vow has been taken to or not. fact if this should be the only com' roan^ment with promise that has been said. The Uposatha days month when the moon are the four days in the lunar is full. re- They are called the five . p. par excellence (pancha-sila Sinhalese. a just manner. and may well be rendered Sabbath.' With regard to these commandments.' 26. the first five. but. numbers given in v. pan-sil).
(ata-sil) is more These others ing.THE SABBATH. day previous to the offering of the intoxicating soma. connected with the worship of the . the Buddhists were to keep the fast-day by special observance of the moral precepts . The month succeeding Was. viz. The three epithet of three distinct periods. Monday being Moonday. and five anciently known planets. new sets of robes. 10. music. . above months of Was. or words and customs. to eight precepts (p. Modern Buddhists have now the same week after the sun. periods. would have been quite unbuddhistic. The Patiharaka-pakkha. the fastcorresponding . probably as late as ' we have as the sixth century of our era. Instead of worshipping the moon. who require them. or Robe-month. and so on. and. But this they derived from the Greek astronomers. or Rain. To place have anything to do with the intoxicating soma. The first half of the that the Robe-month and it is to this third period term more particularly applies. and the days are similarly named. called (p. moon. because it is then with customary to provide mendicants. one of many instances in which Gautama spiritualized existing reliance on any sacrificial rite. 57).' is an i. which have been explained 2. During these the observance of the eight precepts common than at other periods. sing- use and stage plays. 9. or extra fortnights.moon. . Chivara masa. Sanskrit word is upavasatha. 139). 141 and the i5th day from the full moon (in the long The months) and the 8th day from each of these. together with two abstain from dancing. to abstain from the are the ten Moral Rules of gold and silver . 3.
Dickson. 1 60). there is another division into ten sins. It is curious (Dasa-slla) binding on the mendicants. 192. p. eight. p. and in the Khuddaka Pa'. in the Vinaya Pitaka. Besides the above division of moral duties into the five obligatory and three permissive precepts. 460.' seems to be is less reasonable. Compare Sanskrit Sutra of the 42 Sayings . ' * the . 8 . 1 ' ' ' Hardy. p. 'Manual of Buddhism. 'Catena. that the former of these two. Theft (taking what has not been Unlawful sexual intercourse. Lying.' p. Slander (includes there'). ' given). in other parts of the 1 Pitakas. saying here what one hears Abuse (swearing). Four of speech. 9. but the above attempt ' poetical list from the Dhammika Sutta. Childers. Vain conversation.ha (edit. so that it is one of the eight precepts. The Ten Sins. Taking life. as it is also less well supported by authority than the usually received order. 7 . 3). which are 2 : Three of the body. while the precept concerning beds (which usually runs not to use a high or large bed) is excluded from the tradict themselves. but No. it Where the Pitakas con- perhaps presumptuous to to decide between them .' as quoted in the 'Kammavaca' (edit. see also below.' Beal.' p.142 LAY MORALITY. is not No. For instance.
on the dudes of every-day life. S. SINS. honouring. 1847.THE TEN Three of the mind Covetousness. On the Teacher asking the reason why. to the four quarters of the heaven. and known as The Sigalouiada The Teacher was . sees the householder Sigala bowing down.. and clasped hands. M3 Scepticism. with streaming hair. is one that is common to both the Northern and Southern schools of Buddhism. the Buddha to is and the law. the effect of moral causes. Each of these is explained at some length . The favourite prose Sutra or chapter. Sigala ' says that he does this. this world and the next. and the zenith. As. 'Journal of the Roy. Compare the Rev. reverencing. here or hereafter. and existence. Soc. and by Childers. Seal's ' The Buddhist Tripitaka known in China and Report on Japan. applied to a particular class only. 112. birth." Feb. knowing that this was done to avert evil from 1 Translated from the Pali.' Ceylon Branch. however. The text in Grimblot's ' Sept Suttas Palis.' Then the Teacher. staying at the bambu grove near Rajagriha and going out as usual to beg.' . Malice.' p. 1876. 'Contemporary Review. but the explanations are mostly those which would occur any moralist on those points. trans- migration. and holding sacred the words of his father. and the nadir. by Gogerly. and wet garments. Scepticism. those who roundly deny everything.
' 451. the six directions. his wife and children as the west. and his slaves and dependents as the nadir. Provide them with suitable wives or husbands. 189. 178. 2. Train them in virtue. 4. I will perform family duties incumbent on them. his friends and relatives as the north. Lotus. 2. evidently intended to assist the me- mory. 87. after some general precepts and a description of true friendship. 5. I will honour their memory 1 Turning to the East is Seal's Fs Kian. 3. men devoted to the religious life (whether Brahmans or Buddhist mendicants) as the zenith. 1 his Teachers as the south. a very ancient Buddhist practice. Have them 4. Parents and Children. guard their property. The 1. 5. Restrain their children from vice. 3. Then in an orderly arrangement. Parents should 1 . AVhen they are gone. ' . Burnouf. points out to him that the best way to guard the six quarters is by good deeds to men around him. Give them their inheritance.144 LAY MORALITY. I will make myself worthy to be their heir. the chief duties men owe to one another are thus enumerated under the above six heads : i. to his parents as the east. child should say I will I will support them who supported me. taught arts or sciences.
5. danger. 4. The 1. By attention to instruction. By treating her with kindness. 4. The husband should i. 4. She shows skill and diligence in all she has to do. By giving her suitable ornaments and clothes. 5. By guarding them from 3. By speaking well of them to their friends and companions. By being faithful to her. The 1. By supplying their wants. pupil should honour his teachers 2. The 1. 5. 3. . 3. cherish his wife 3. By treating her with respect. She is a thrifty housekeeper. wife should show "her affection for her husband. By obeying them. 2. 145 2. 5. She is hospitable to kinsmen and friends.S1GALOWADA SUTTA. By ministering to them. 4. By rising in their presence. Pupils and Teachers. teacher should show his affection to his pupils 2. ?. She orders her household aright. She is a chaste wife. By teaching them to hold knowledge fast By instruction in science and lore. Husband and Wife. 3. By training them in all that is good. By causing her to be honoured by others.
By promoting their interest. 1 : They This rise is before him. 5. By sharing giving presents. for the welfare of his The master should provide dependants 1.' verse 129. to his family. now and then granting them holidays.' 'By doing to them as he would be done 'Dhp. 5. with them his prosperity.. 4. by. 1. By guarding his property when he is careless. 15. Friends and Companions. Compare Max Miiller's note to . tending them in sickness. 1 By treating them as his equals. Childers has Gogerly's rendering. By apportioning work strength. 4. By By courteous speech. 2. 3. 4.146 LAY MORALITY. They should show their attachment to him as follows i. Masters and Servants. minister to his friends The honourable man should 1. to them according to their 2. By By By By supplying suitable food and wages. 4. 3. 3. By offering him a refuge in danger. By showing kindness 5. By adhering to him in misfortune. sharing with them unusual delicacies. 2. They should show their attachment to him By watching over him when he is off his guard.
By feeling kindly towards him. to 1.' Sigala then acknowledges himself converted. supplying their temporal wants. 4. By instructing him in religion. to 6. By clearing up his doubts. They speak well of him (or perhaps properly him). 5. and becomes an upasaka (a lay disciple). By exhorting him to virtue. .' Liberality. and unselfishness these are to the world what the linchpin is to the rolling chariot. 6. 4. courtesy. affection in words. 4. The whole is ' then phrases. 5. By pointing the way to heaven. affection in thoughts. 2. 147 3. him 3.' He who ' worships these six quarters will be competent to the duties of a householder. They retire later to rest. giving them a ready welcome. Laymen and those delated to Religion. ministers and 3. They should show their affection By dissuading him from vice. such as By summed up in a few general thus acting the six quarters are ' each preserved in peace and free from danger. and shall be exalted. 2. By By By By By affection in act. They are content with what is given them. to mendicants The honourable man Brahmans 1. They work cheerfully and thoroughly. kindliness. 5. 2.SIGALOWADA SUTTA.
but we can. they will fall again to a In this sense the ordinary morality is called Adi-brahma- of the cariya. of them without and obedience to many of Arahats.. them is considered a necessary preliminary l to that pilgrimage. Paths is Magga-brahma- . which leads to the heavenly land of the ' not most. much social honour will be gained in and in the next birth a happy entrance this world will be secured to some less material existence in those heavenly mansions where the bright gods feed on joy. through these and simple Before closing this slight sketch of the general principles of Buddhist morality. entering the Paths at all .148 LAY MORALITY of the ideas in the ' Many Sigalovada Sutta' are only suitable to a state of society which we. when their good Karma 1 shall be exhausted. realize how happy would have been the village or the clan on the banks of the Ganges. while the righteousness cariytv.the character be ennobled and purified . much misfortune be avoided.' One might obey many. in this anxious time of social struggle.' to the ' Lake of Ambrosia which washes ' away will all sin. if those of the ' Noble Path. have for ever left behind . where the people were full of the kindly spirit of fellowfeeling. and run (as far as they go) parallel to. which breathes sayings.' Nirvana. it should be pointed out that these precepts are apart from. troubled ocean of transmigration . at least.' to the observing these will first glad City of Peace. By steps in morality. But even good men will not thus escape from the . the noble na'ive spirit of justice.
141). in some former is temporary. or animals or plants. 131). here on earth. Grimblot. Ceremonial Bathing (Childers tinder Nahataka). 149 The happiness of the gods themselves. men ness that it soon must end. and then made subservient to that life of self-control. p.jl.worship of the six directions (above. and marred by the consciousbirth. and truth 2 first ennobled and spiritualized. Unclean food is spiritualised into (AriyaJhaniini). have gained the fruit of the Noble Path. and universal charity. So the seven worldly treasures of the CakravartI become in Buddhism seven virtues (above. its beauty. Nirvana of Arahatship. pp. wrong . g. free for ever from all delusion and all the sorrow. Thus it was that while most of the superstition and folly which had encrusted the ancient faith was re- were pudiated or ignored. quoted p. Fire-worship (above. ' Sept Sutta Palis. 59. Soma. 245. and wisdom. actions in the Amagandha Sutta. and have become cleansed from all defilement. which Gautama declared to the highest aim and the highest happiness of man. i. 1 be Malia Nidana Sutta . 1 E. escaped from the floods of passion. p. 144) . and poetry. 1 perhaps. in that Rest which cannot be shaken.' p. the worship Caste (Vasala Sutta. p. life.DISTINCT lower FROM 1HE PATHS. which can never be lost. above. 155). But the very gods envy the blessed state of those who.
given to the moral power working in the uni- It is probable. and denies the existence of the soul. IT will seem strange to many that a religion which ignores the existence of God. from another. is a name verse. which. CHAPTER VI THE SANGHA. or devil-worship. but the purest adherent of the old Asoka Buddhism would believe firmly in Karma. perhaps. or witchcraft. should be the very religion which has found most acceptance among men. THE BUDDHIST ORDER OF MENDICANTS. They should consider that Buddhism has never been the only belief of the adherents. however. and a sect of this school had even gone so far in the tenth or eleventh century as to evolve (not. mat the absence or presence of any particular belief had less to do with the spread of Buddhism than the organization of its . who have always powers of nature under the veil of astrology. One school of Buddhists mass of its also revered the has also developed a mythology of its own. or the belief in tantras and charms. and the orthodox Buddhists would condemn the whole mythology . without Christian influence) a personal First Cause out of Buddhist metaphysics. and.150 THE ORDER. has much analogy with soul . Chinese Buddhism still condemns this sect as heretical. from one point of view.
Had the Buddha merely taught philosophy, he might have had as small a following as Comte. It is true that Gautama's power over the people arose
in great measure from the glow of his practical philanthropy, which did not shrink in the struggle It is true with the abuses most peculiar to his time.
that the equalizing tendencies of his teaching must have been attractive to the masses, from whose hands It is true also it struck off the manacles of caste. that his psychology and his ethics became a religion as soon as they had been addressed, not to a school only, but to the world. But there is no reason to believe that Gautama was conscious of this, or that he intended, either at the beginning or the end of his career, to be the founder of a new religion. He seems to have hoped that the new wine would go
into the old bottles,
men, Brahmans included,
being gradually won over to his, the only orthodox form of the ancient creed. However the question
of the historical
succession or connection between
Hindu philosophy be ultiwhether any of them, as we now possess them, were pre-Buddhistic or not they afford at least sufficient evidence that beliefs, very
the different systems of
inconsistent with the practical creed of the masses,
little opposition if they were taught only in schools of philosophy ; and Buddhist morality was not calculated to excite anger, or envy, or alarm.
But the very means which Gautama adopted to extend and give practical effect to his teaching, while
giving it temporary success, led to its ultimate expulsion from India. It was his Society rather than his
the Sangha rather than the
insured for his religion its great vitality and its rapid spread, and which afterwards excited the hostility
of the Brahmans.
conclusion from the views of
held by Gautama, that any rapid progress in spiritual life was only compatible with a retired life, in which
such contact with the world as would tend to
earthly excitement and cravings should be reduced as much as possible ; and accordingly, from
he not only adopted such a
himself, but urged
contemplated no such division between clergy and
laity as obtains in Christian countries,
maintained that there was no positive merit in outward acts of self-denial or penance. But holding that family connections and the possession of wealth
power were likely to prolong that mistaken estimate of the value of things, that yearning thirst, that clinging to life, which were the origin of evil, he taught that to forsake the world was a necessary step towards
the attainment of spiritual freedom. Little by little, as occasion arose, he laid
guidance of those
thus devoted them-
selves to the higher
life ; and insensibly as he did so, the Society became more and more like one of the monkish orders which sprang up afterwards in the
But not even now has the Order become a
lay claim indeed, often with
ground, to superior wisdom and not to any spiritual powers ; and
system which acknowledged no Creator, the monks could never become the only efficient intercessors
Their help was not
required to avert
by gods whose deity was temporary, and who had no power And since salvation was held to be and over men.
their prayers the anger of
depend upon a brought about by
own self-denial and his own monks could never obtain control
over the keys of heaven and
successive kings and chiefs were allowed to the Society, not indeed with gold or silver, but
of the monkish life (including lands and houses), it gradually ceased in great measure to be the school of virtue and the most favourable
sphere of intellectual progress, and became thronged with the worthless and the idle ; but in the time of its
was undoubtedly purer, and contained few
beside .those who, in their better moments, longed, under his guidance, to train themselves in Buddhist
In attempting a sketch of the rules under which
we shall first, as in the chapter on lay quote some general precepts from the Pitakas, and then descend to more minute particulars.
who, himself not
the yellow-stained robe around him, He, devoid of self-control and honesty, Is unworthy of the yellow robe.
But he who, cleansed from
grounded in the Precepts,
of honesty and self-restraint,
'Tis he who's
worthy of the yellow robe.
The restrained in hand, restrained in foot, Restrained in speech, the best of the self-controlled He whose delight is inward, who is tranquil, And happy when alone him they call mendicant. The mendicant who
controls his tongue, speaking wisely
not puffed up,
throws light on worldly and on heavenly thingssweet.
The mendicant who, though receiving little, Thinks not his alms are less than he deserves,
very gods will magnify, pure, who is not slothful.
That mendicant whose
joy the teachings of the Buddha,
will enter the tranquil lot,
where the Sanskaras end.
As soon as ever he comprehends The origin and end of the Skandhas,
then receives joy and gladness, That ambrosia of the wise (i.e. Nirvana).
376. Let his livelihood be kindliness,
His conduct righteousness,
in the fulness of gladness,
He will make an
the Vassika plant casts
cast out utterly,
On the robes, see below, p. 165. On the precepts see The two verses are full of puns, 'stain 'being above, p. 139. ' Is kasava, while the reddish-yellow of the robe is kasava.
to suggest Arahats.
no violence to a Brahman, 1 But neither let him fly at his aggressor.
Woe to him who strikes a Brahman More woe to him who strikes the striker
has understood the
Revealed by the Omniscient One, Let him worship that continually, As the Brahman does the sacrificial
platted hair or family does a man become a In whom is truth and righteousness is joy and
is the use of fool platted hair, of a garment of skins ? low yearnings are within you !
the outside thou makest clean.*
He who, though he has committed no Endures reproaches, bonds and stripes And out of much endurance Makes for himself a mighty army He it is I call a Brahman.
Drinking of the water of a
of the water of
passions, drinking also of the pleasant beverage called the perception of the truth, he becomes free from
excitement and wrong-doing.' Ndva Sutta, 4. ' When a
has fallen into an
overflowing river, whose waters are unfathomable and
idea underlying this the true Brahman.
and the following verses See above, p. 84.
monachum, nee horrida
virtus animi, perpetHusque vigor. Miiller translates the third line 'Within thee there is
ravening,' with allusion to Matt, xxiii. 27, Luke xi. 39 ; and the analogy is indeed curiously exact. I retain the expression I
15. these are not equals. dreams. That mendicant does right who is not found " " thinking People should salute me . and that other who lives righteously.' Dhammacariya 'A mendicant who is fond of disputes. possessing nothing. how can he ' in the torrent. affliction ' ! meeting everywhere That mendicant Samma-paribbajaniya Sutta.56 flow swiftly down. ' 5. and is at the head of a household . p. ' and l ? it. meteors. but the wise and re- a protection to Sutta. it. and brings men . ' wards 13. and signs are things abolished . will to womb. ' That mendicant does right who is tranquil. cause others to escape Muni Sutta. flit Such a from womb mendicant going first to calamity. . all living beings. he is free from all their ' evils. The head strained is about the destruction of of the house lives unrestrained. but is not partial when there are persons of different faith (to be dealt with).' The above spirit passages will exemplify the general which ought to animate the Buddhist mendi1 See above. is walled in by ignorance. who with firm mind overcomes ill-will and covetousness which injure men. and understands neither religion nor the law of Gautama. though cursed by the world. who. 2. who sees truth as it really is. and has completed his course. carried with THE ORDER. 3. He who maintains a wife. 136. from darkness to darkness. yet cherishes no ill-will to 8. does right to whom omens.
2 14. returning alone. Dhammika 10. ' 15. which causes See above. 157 The following summary curious particulars. touch.SCRIPTURE PRECEPTS. reflecting within himself. pp. 11. sound.. smell. Temptations from this source and that are made to cling to them.e. his mind should be ' well controlled. mentions certain compared with the same Sutta) of a layman's duties. The 'A mendicant should As temptations ' food at unseasonable times. cling to the mendicant doing at unseasonable times. these inl cut off the yearning which is beings . let not go to the village for him not go in the night toxicate taste. Should he speak with a follower of the Buddha or another mendicant.' v. A mendicant should take his inherent in them. 129. 'A mendicant having received in right time his meal. p. and not backbite or speak ill of another. noonday meal in time. sensation. he should speak of the excellent Law. Hear me. ' Sutta. should always carry himself with propriety and dignity). and should be summary given above (from the cant. should sit in private. Some fortify themselves for controversy. the wise 1 2. above. We 1 By causing vedand. trisiind. 35. 13. 101. praise not those small-minded persons. 106. so. thirst * ' Compare Dhamma-pada. go not out Form. he should not spread out his mind. time. O priests all ! and it I will declare the sin-destroying law ' ye bear in heart ! sage seeking after good should practise the Iriyapatha suited to the Order (i. .
This At 'Dhp. and Dhp.' ] Admission to the Order. in seeking for food. afterwards. nor a soldier. 'Nevertheless he should not be anxious about these things. somewhat different. the application is The instance of Rahula will be found above. lodging. seats.. Afterwards a simple ceremony was adopted. also. 17. probably identical with that now in use in Ceylon. consumption. should attend to the Law as preached by the Buddha.' v. merely having his head shaved.' v. bed. that is.' v. 1 6. The applicant was obliged to state that he was free from contagious disease. as occasion arose. p. that he was neither a slave nor a debtor. clean robes. 107. that he of his was sui juris. and that he had obtained the consent At first. quoted above. certainly send their and they minds very far away when they engage in controversy.158 THE ORDER. For admittance to the Society no other credentials were at first required than the mere wish of the applicant . seats. 2 a few necessary conditions were imposed. and leading a retired life.. the candidate was parents. 336. the earliest 1 and most complete account of which is ' ' is given a standing metaphor. bed. and water for cleaning robes or personal ablutions. admitted without any ceremony. and water. 'One who follows the Buddha. * p. 401. food. where the Arahat is to be as unpolluted by low desires as the lotus-leaf untouched by water. 17. Compare Khagga-visana Sutta. putting on the orange-coloured robes peculiar to the Order. but should be like a water-drop which adheres not to the lotus-leaf. . 65. and fits .
initiation. until. and let me be 1 initiated. initiatory service just referred to as The in now held is Ceylon : in accordance with the Pitakas. l At first. the Order became more and more subflivided. Have pity on me. 159 n the Vinaya Pitaka. and at least twenty before receiving full On the day appointed. Dickson has given an account of the way in which the ceremony is still performed in Ceylon in the Journal of the ' Royal Asiatic Society ' for 1873. a chapter is held of not less than ten monks. also. and J. xiii. the president being at the head of one row. in the portion translated. in lay dress. lord. but carrying the three yellow robes of a mendicant.' vol. 230-236. . Oldenberg. He ' then three times asks for admission as a novice.ORDINATION. in their Vinaya Texts. briefly as follows The layman who wishes for entrance to the Order must be at least eight years old before obtaining the noviciate. and him a small present as a token of respect. pp.' there is no mention of any distinction within the the ' ranks of the Society . in the twelfth century. chapter sit on mats in two rows facing each other. in some countries. that I may escape from sorrow. for first time. and by Prof. Sir F. 'Sacred Books of the East. take these robes. in Tibet. by the present writer. the president being of at The monks forming the least ten years' standing. we find a complete episcopal hierarchy. The candidate. and later on. is introduced by his proposer offers (always a monk). but the preparatory rank of novice was very early introduced. makes salam to the president. as the religion became more and more corrupted.
' take the vow to abstain from impurity. candidate then retires and changes his dress. ' I 9. I vow not vow not to use a high or broad bed.' The follows 1.' to receive gold or silver. vow not to steal.' take the vow not to lie. and stage plays. experience Nirvana. and as a When he reappears protection from heat. he kneels before the president. I I I take the ' 3.' take the vow to abstain from dancing. cold. Law. repeating the while a formula to the effect that though he wears robes he does so only out of modesty. for refuge to the Order.' See also above. p. take the 1 8. or ornaments.l6o THE ORDER. ' 4.' The president then takes the bundle of robes and ties them round the candidate's neck. and repeats after him three times two well-known Buddhist formulas. ' The first of these is that called I I I go go go is for refuge to the for refuge to the Buddha. music. 139. singing. the Three Refuges. ' I I ' vow not to destroy life. clad as a mendicant. . I take the ' 10. scents.' take the vow not to eat at forbidden times.' take the vow not to use garlands. repeating meanwhile a formula of meditation The on the perishable nature of the human body. I 6. &c.' take the vow to abstain from intoxicating drinks. other : called the Ten 1 Precepts. unguents. 7. which hinder progress and virtue. which are as 'I take the ' 2. ' 5.
l6l The candidate then sident. being granted. and retires a novice. placing him before the president. where his begging-bowl is fastened round his neck. it who proceed been taken . Having apart. has been admitted by the . asks three times for ordination. full admission has to put off and again. the is who chapter rises and stands by the thus placed between two monks. and Mendikneeling.' The examiners then repeat the examination in the hearing of the chapter. The candidate now to returns. and ' soy. His proposer then goes down and leads him up again. for the noviciate. rises. whilst another monk from candidate. that he satisfactory result of their inquiries.' This. the full signification of which will be noticed presently. and gives his respectfully asks him to become his superior. his salam ' the and three times president. and three times ask the chapter if any one objects to the candiNo one objecting. to act as were as examiners.ORDINATION. to go through the above forms. The examiners then report to the chapter the that is and the robes diseases . M. and lift me up. pays respect to the preHere. the candidate. he tells them his name and that of his superior that he is provided with the alms-bowl . and that he has the consent of his parents. and. I ask the chapter for admission . and sui juris. the ceremony ends. as a layman. president. A the novice applying for robes. cants. on leave ' granted. he has none of the disqualifying a male twenty years old. have pity on me. they bow to the date's admission. coming forward again. the candidate retires to the end of the hall. again makes present.
from which the third is derived. N. the second Sumana and The first. The chapter agrees over. this is not always carried out. literally ' The Dis- . to this. and In acting towards him as his personal attendant. in sickness and in health. Self-conquest and poverty. treating his superior with the respect due to a father. and after the same form has been observed with each of the other candidates. The Teacher gave a number of rules and directions which have been handed down to us more or less correctly in the Khandakas (see p.1 62 THE ORDER. as among laymen a father would to a son . being his superior. controls himself. means one himself. be. however. a similar relation naturally springs up between the older and younger members of the Sangha. to avoid were 15). who exerts means simply a beggar. and therefore is silent. while the offences they were summed up in the Patimokkha. the new monk living at some other place but wherever that in the . fact.' This ends the ordination of that candidate. the latter advising and instructing him. and acting towards him. he. and to the novices Samanera. So we understand. The new member side at first of the Order is supposed to re- same monastery with his superior . The most usual names applied in the sacred books may to the senior members of the Order are Bhikshu. one 01 the chapter reads a short summary of the regulations of the Order. and the service is Society.' But it was not far left to them to decide for themselves how this self-suppression and absti- nence were to be carried. in return. these were to be the distinguishing characteristics of the ' sons of Sakya.
so that it almost certainly dates from the fifth century B. The usual mode of obtaining food is No monk for the monk to take his begging-bowl. i. 1 its cover. together with offence). 15. but it may possibly have existed before it And in either case the Patimokkha itself must be older than the Old Commentary upon it. nearly 2. burdenment. in shape nearly it like a soup- is to say but simply stand outside the hut. and holding beg straight from house to house.C. It occupies therea unique position in the literary history of the world . and no rules for moral conduct have been stricter fore for so long a time as these in constant practical use.C. in formal meetings of the members of the Order.' 1 163 this list An Old Commentary on of an introductory story to each (giving the occasion on which it was supposed to have been declared by the Buddha himself to be an offences.PATIMOKKHA.300 years twice in each month.) It is probable that the Old Commentary was composed for that work. except only those laid down in the Old Testament. Since that time during a period that is of it has been regularly repeated. the doors and nothing. He Translated into English by Rh. D. in ' Vinaya Texts/ vol. a brown earthenware tureen without to vessel. can eat solid food except between sunrise and noon. and total abstinence from intoxicating drinks is obligatory.. and in the works of Konfucius. . 350 into the work now known as the Sutta-vibhanga (see p. Food. in his hands. were combined that is before the date of the Council of Vesali before B.
of eating the whole meal without rising . it was also allowed to the laity on special occasions to bring food to the monastery. But the practice of the Order possessing rice-fields. and passes on . For the stricter devotees further vows are men tioned of abstinence from animal food . of eating everything in the bowl without leaving or rejecting anything. ' : then eat a mit.' v.164 THE ORDER. especially on full-moon days . and 1 See 'Metta Sutta.' v. the mixture was not so very incongruous. As the food of classes consisted almost exclusively of some form of curry. and say with first it all Earth to earth I com- was permitted to a wealthy or to invite one or more monks to take pious layman their midday meal at his house . think it dust. and then having their meals cooked at home by some lay follower. and to pass. if nothing is given. is of modern growth.' bit. 2 ' . 31. letting them out to be cultivated on condition of receiving a share of the produce. and thus begs straight on without going to the houses of the rich or luxurious rather than to those all of the poor and 1 thrifty. of refusing all invitations and all food brought to them . Khaggavisana Sutta. the monk retired to his home to eat it. When enough had been given. If anything is put into his bowl. . he passes on in silence. of the processes through which the food would have To quote a Buddhist idea in the quaint words of Herbert Take thy meat. thinking the while of the impermanence and worthlessness of the body which was thus nourished. and this was frethe From quently done. he utters a pious wish on behalf of the giver. windows of which in hot countries will usually be large and open.
career. as now quary' for May. from the commencement of his prophetic among men. the monks were to be habited . to Ceylon in the third cen2 tury B. especially in Ceylon. ' I have published a specimen of these in the Indian Antithis custom. and often bear inscriptions in the old Pali alphabet brought by Asoka's son. see above. and very soon the piety of laymen provided for them suitable monasteries. the other hand. now and they were formerly taken only rarely and very even so. During the fine weather the monks often travelled from place to place as their Teacher did but during . several of which were built even in the lifetime of Buddha. in or and near the ancient cities of India have site On been discovered extensive ruins on the of the monasteries mentioned in the Pali books.RESIDENCE. Clothing. As 1 regards clothing. 1872. so on . 57.C. spent his life. put. were evidently meant for solitary hermits. But as he himself. Gautama considered a lonely life in the forest to be the most conducive to self-conquest. p. there have been found numerous lately rock caves. so from the first the lonely life was adopted only by the most earnest. The majority of the monks lived in companies in groves or gardens. 165 but it : is doubtful whether they are ever obfor served a time. and that only for a time. many of which. Mahinda. . after having lived apart from the world. Residence. the rainy season l : near a town they settled in one spot. together from cast-off rags On * observed. in cloths of no value.
as such. The colour was uttarasanga. All three are simply lengths of cotton cloth . but here again. They formed two under garments. . Of course. are not worthy of the orange and craved colour (kasava). and one loose robe to cover the whole of the body. and are not permitted at any time to lay their robes aside. and even the 1 See the verse quoted above. being wrapt round the middle of the body. ' current expressions for joining or leaving the Society. p. v. and because clothes of that colour were of no value at all probably at for ordinary purposes . the antara-vasaka and the sang/idti. so as to deprive them of commercial value. respectively . 153 . first torn to pieces and then sowed together again. the two under ones. the robes/ being . so that the Dhamma-pada. 9. no ornaments are allowed. the being first wrapt round the legs. and that followed by the large majority of the brethren. soon became looked upon as an honour.' or to put off. but the orange-coloured robes. whereas the monks are to cover the whole body. and then drawn over the left shoulder. has to give a warning that those who are not free from sin (kasava). and round the thighs and legs. the practice of Buddha himself. To do the Order so would be to lay aside their membership of ' to put on. from their very peculiarity as a sign of the members of the Sangha. Blip. as we have seen. and the upper one. 1 In Buddhist countries men's ordi- nary dress was merely a cloth wrapt round the loins. except the right shoulder. being nearly the same as that of very old rags of the common white cotton cloth.1 66 THE ORDER. was to dress in simple robes of dull orange-colour. first chosen as the one regarded with most contempt.
in . On the vow of poverty. No monk should possess more than one change of robes. and chiefly. a a girdle for the loins . and to be care- fully kept in serviceable repair. the individual vows have. entail upon the culprit irrevocable expulsion from the Order. POVERTY. 8. even down to guard against any indirect methods. This individual vow of poverty has. and minute rules in detail brother. but even lands and houses. through which he is to strain all he drinks. a water4. Obedience. 5. been swallowed up by the permission given to the community to possess not only books and other personal Gautama himproperty. Poverty. . which. 7. OBEDIENCE.CHASTITY. laity. 3. a few words ought to be said. at the time of India. It is scarcely necessary to state that sexual inter- course. and murder. but also. however. an razor . self is related to have received such gifts on behalf of its expulsion from must have rivalled in wealth the most powerful orders of the Middle Ages and in Buddhist countries at the present day the church is often as wealthy as it the Sangha. a needle . . 2. taking any steps by to provide them sponto procure himself new robes are laid taneously is the duty and privilege of the Chastity. complete tonsure being obligatory on all. to prevent the accidental destruction of any living creatures. not only to remove impurities. is among ourselves. Otherwise. following eight articles : mentioned above alms-bowl strainer. . It is to be a cubit square. 6. natural 1 6? ornament of hair is not permitted . however. theft. In his individual right no monk is to possess more than the the three robes i.
at least. Burma. the occasional reading of the law. and to the precepts laid down by their Teacher. or of the pomp and pride of is no place in the Buddhist scheme for the offering of flowers before the sacred tree or image of the Buddha takes the place of wor- ritual. so completely contrary to all the principles of their religion. as a body. under a simple roof of trees or palms. Siam. they are not. and water-drinking celibates. in public. will avail him who fails in obtaining this complete mastery over himself. But in the Southern Church. The vow of obedience was never taken by the Buddhist monks or nuns. to his superiors is ex- but his own salvation and his . and have never given way to the weak vanity of dress. they are often lazy. churches ship. and not seldom avaricious. was the aim set before the Buddhist Each one is to ascetic by the founder of his Order. bers of monastic orders in the West : not mental death. could never inThe members dulge in unbounded personal luxury. and the observance of no ceremony. There . disgraced by gluttony or drunkenness. Buddhism does not acknowledge the efficacy of prayers. by moonlight. enjoy the fascinating power of wealth. for the attainment of spiritual progress . conquer Outward respect and courtesy acted from the novice . can take place best in the air. and Ceylon been pretty well observed. and in the warm countries where Buddhists live. self by himself. and dress in a simple uniform. the belief in no creed. who take only one meal a day. and in this may be noticed a fundamental difference between them and the memmental culture. of the Order are secured from want some of them .1 68 THE ORDER. or preach- open ing of the word.
he shall then meditate on the regulanese Mr. few simple rules of discipline are laid down but is to compel the fallen brother : and return self-control to the world. his superior has no supernatural gifts of wisdom or of absolution. filter it.' as the clean little hut where the mendicant lives is called. The daily life ' of the novice should. or claim obedience from any novice. p. then sweep round the Bo-tree. 239 et seq. E. according to a manual called He shall rise Dina Chariyawa. Retiring to a solitary place. to sweep : the courtyard of the wihara or sprinkle dust round the sacred Bo-tree. ). some slight penance is laid upon him. usefulness as a teacher to 169 is depend on his self-culture . Charges may be brought against a monk for breach of the ordinances laid down in the Pitakas. and it is instructive to notice how much the moral standard has been lowered in the Comp. when the rules of the Order are read. 24-28. Daily Life of the Mendicants. 1 ' ' M . ' the wihara or residence. and Big. and must then be examined into by a chapter . before daylight and wash then sweep . he obey not his brother but the Law. but no one can change or add to the existing law. however young. 190. M. which he Twice a month. A the highest punishment to retract his vows. Beal has analysed a corresponding work of later ChiBuddhism ( Catena.DAILY LIFE. and place it ready for use.. a monk who has broken them is to confess his crime if it be slight. and by himself must the ascetic stand or fall.' a be about as follows. but no inquisitorial questions are to be put to any one. fetch the drinking water for the day. has not sufficient to reject. lapse of time. p. Hardy.
Soon after. About an hour afterwards he is to begin his studies ship Buddha. thinking of the great virtues of the Teacher and of his own faults. and repeat such passages from the canon as he has learnt If he finds he has committed any fault he is to tell his superior . were expected to devote themselves all the more earnestly to intellectual culture and meditation. Then he shall offer flowers before the sacred dagaba the solid dome-shaped shrine in which relics of the Buddha are buried or before the Bo-tree . asking his At superior about passages he does not understand. relieved by the novices from any manual labour. or copy one of them. from the books. over. The first is Metta-bhavana. to bring water for his feet and After the meal is place the alms-bowl before him. for others. he is to be content with such things as he has . sunset he is again to sweep the sacred places.' or meditation on LOVE. taking the begging-bowl. to grow in grace without haughtiness of body. There are in Buddhism ' called kinds of meditation. he is to follow his superior and on their return is in his daily round for food. or mind. in five principal which the monk thinks of all beings and longs for happiness for each. The superiors. anger. and evil desire. Firstly. which takes the place of prayer. and keeping under his senses. and. he is then to wish for the same happiness and lastly to long for the welfare of his . thinking how happy he himself could be if free from all sorrow. THE ORDER. to listen to the teaching of his superior. speech. then again to wor- and meditate on kindness and affection. lighting a lamp.170 tions. he is to wash the alms-bowl .
t that in his Remembering their good actions only. is The third meditation Mudita-bhavana.' I. with utter calmness and serenity of mind. foes. pp. and to rejoice in their joy. and of the horrors of disease and The corruption sea. the meditation on IMPURITY. When Gautama. riches and want. earnestness and truth to desire for ' him all the good \ he would seek for himself. youth and beauty. fourth is Asubha-bhavana. in which the mendicant is to think of all beings in distress. love and hate.SUMMARY. 1 Summary of the Ditty of the Order. The second meditation is Karuna-bhavana ' or meditation on PITY. 157163. and regards them all with fixed indifference. and how by the continued repetition of birth and death mortals become subject to continual sorrow. The fifth is Upeksha-bhavana. or sorrow for the sorrows of others. i. and some former birth his enemy may have been he must endeavour in all father or his friend. the meditation on SERENITY. in which the mendicant thinks of the vileness of the body. how it passes away like the foam of the . wherein the mendicant thinks of all things that worldly men hold good or bad . power and oppression. 'Eastern Monachism. in which he is to think of the gladness and prosperity of others. or the meditation on JOY. and thus awaken the senti- ment of pity. the converse of the last. fame and contempt.' p. On the duties of a Vinaya Texts. decrepitude and disease. ' . 1 just before his death. to realize as far as he can their unhappy state. took his last novice see also Hardy. 243.
the four great Efforts. 61-63. mendicants thoroughly learn. as much space as we have devoted above to the fundamental ideas of Buddhist metaphysics . at least. to have laid stress. in that last and solemn moment. each one of the items would require. On the evils which arise from sensation. the seven kinds of Wisdom. but the general spirit. On the impurity of the body. four Great Efforts The (Sammappadhdna) are the effort or exerti jn x Rh. to the advantage and prosperity of gods and men. will be apparent from the following short descriptions. What is that law? It is the four earnest Meditations. the four roads to Iddhi. and the Noble Eightfold Path. farewell of the assembled Order at the Kutagara Hall. perhaps. and spread abroad the law practise. and be perpetuated for the good and happiness of the great multitudes. out of pity for the world. and of the duty of the mendicants of his Order. the five moral Powers. and and perfect.. 'Buddhist Suttas. he is said to have charged them as ' follows Oh. On the conditions of existence. as the summary at once of his religion. . in order that religion of this mine (literally this purity) may last long. To be made quite clear and intelligible. The * four Earnest Meditations (Sati-pattjidna) are meditations 2. On the impermanence of ideas.1}2 formal THE ORDER.' 1 It will be of great interest to determine more exactly what it was upon which Gautama is believed. 4.' pp. D. 3. : ! thought out and revealed by me.
put away bad qualities which have arisen. Energy. 2. and Serenity. (JBaldni). . or the Seven Deadly Sins in England now. and a few other Chapter IV. are Faith. and also Investigation of Scripture. doubtless. or the Three Graces. and their names called up as distinct ideas to known. as the words Ten Commandments. p. Joy. or Five Senses. increase goodness when it does exist. do to us. necessary preparation of the heart. will to acquire it. third. four bases of Saintship (Iddhipdda) are four means by which saintship (Iddhi. The Seven Kinds of Wisdom (Bodhi-anga) are the second. 5. enumerations. The The The necessary exertion. Intuition. very much as the Nine Muses. adopted and the to numerical assist arrangement was merely the Some of these aggregates were as well memory. To To To To prevent bad qualities from arising. 4. The 174) 1. 3. is obtained. 3. or Four Gospels. Of other though the names were and called up a general idea. The Noble above in Eightfold Path has been explained These. 4. Con- templation. Recollection. Moral Powers 2. five The i. the Buddhists. similar technical terms formed as it were the catch phrases of early Buddhism. produce goodness not previously existing. Investigation. on which see below. the details were known only to the more learned. 4. and fourth of the last set. 1. familiar enough. also called mental organs (Indriydni).BUDDHISM. 3. 1 73 2. Repose.
we are told of a child who was left who have five Arahats are those are clear from the first Fetters. not either a member of the Order or a Brahman ascetic. They adhere. but when some quite unexpected and extraordinary piece of good luck happened to some one who had evidently done nothing to deserve it. Jhana and Samadhi. may have extraordinary good fortune or powers in the next. acquiring these powers. called Iddhi. light on the origin of the belief. and whether. so that a person who has practised mystic ecstasy. of mendicants. some quite extraordinary (supernatural) This throws. There remains to be considered one very obscure. the belief that it was possible by intense self-absorpand mystic meditation to attain to a mental state which six kinds of supernatural wisdom. could work the particular miracles in question. viz. but very instructive side of Buddhist teaching. from all the Fetters . 1 or only 1 Asekhas. entered the Fourth Path. or been very wise or very virtuous in one birth. as such.. 109). called by Abhinna. whether Arahats. Karma was held sufficient to proOrdinary duce ordinary continuous states . So far as I am aware.174 THE ORDER. was postulated to Thus. Buddha always possessed them . perhaps. and Asekhas are those who free have finished the Fourth Path and are (see above. p. no instance is recorded of any one. to the Karma. only Arahats. could do so A is at present not clear. however. and ten supernatural powers. tion were acquired. some religious exaltation in the last birth explain 1 it.
The mental condition by which these powers were apparently acquired is called in Pali Jhana. but clearly. . It is only by the completion of the fourth Jhana that Abhinna is acquired. in Sanskrit Dhyana. D. therefore. also. 502. Above. 175 by mistake.. that former actions of the same individual. of which this extraordinary good fortune was the It would be difficult to point out where else the orthodox Buddhist could find his deus ex ma- result. but no example of Iddhi has yet been found in the Pitakas themselves. 259. During the night he saw many devils and ghosts come out of the shut gate of the the city on .' p. ' p. outside the city gate in a cart. china for the solution of such knotty points . the child's delivery from such fearful enemies was clearly a miracle . way to the cemeteries to procure nourishment but they did the child no harm. and the Iddhipadas referred to in the above passage from the Parinibbana Sutta 2 may have 3 nothing miraculous about them after all. Buddhist Suttas. pp. : 1 a 3 Hardy. on a dark night. 40. alone. of which there are four stages. and the four are thus described in identical terms in northern and southern texts 'The first Jhana is a state of joy and gladness born of seclusion. 173. 1 2. event in life has a moral cause clear.MYSTIC TRANCE. ' Manual. it was the child must have acquired some extraordinary goodness or wisdom in a former birth. Compare Rh. he had in this life evil As every good or in the acquired no miraculous powers. 1 To him and the friends who heard of it these creatures of darkness were very real beings indeed . full of reflection and investigation.
The in the Lotus. the predominance of intuition. by the l rejection of joy. recollecting. holy. reliit. glad. The second Jhana is a state of joy and gladness born of deep tranquillity. passes away. wherein the whole body is lifted up with ecstasy this is the third Jhana. without reflection or investigation. it is the tranquillization of thought. s. mendicant having separated himself from all sensuality and all sin.176 the ' THE ORDER. and the rejection of sorrow. ' 1 Burnouf describes the four Jhanas et seq. joyful and conscious. This felt ecstasy.' pp. 8or. and there is only left equanimity and memory. these being suppressed . pure. . So at least I this difficult and very ancient passage. intuition has been reached Then the consciousness of the subject thought of and a state of enduring gladness is reached. without either joy or sorrow. however. by the destruction of previous gladness and grief.' In the first Jhana the mendicant. and 1 ending in abiding religious peace. this is the second Jhana. gious thought . applies his mind to some deep subject of it. ' In the third Jhana the mendicant is patient by gladness and the destruction of passion. aware in his body of that delight which the Arahats announce. v. reasoning upon investigating Gradually his mind becomes clear. patient. Pali text as given in Childers's Diet. without sorrow and without joy. which seems to me to be describing a state which has been reached by others besides Buddhists a moment understand of unusual conviction and insight. Jhana. reasoning vanishes. and alone. ' The fourth Jhana is purity of equanimity and recollection. followed by exalted religious ecstasy. soon vanishes.
of small practical importance compared with the doctrine of the Noble Eight fold Path. 204. 439 . at least among Buddhists. p. almost incredible that such a trance should be possible. ' Ceylon As. 139. vi. sup- It seems posed to be a proof of superior holiness. Soc. 6l. et seq. In the Parinibbdna Sutta in is Childers's separate edition.' 1846. ' and at intervals in Stimailfla-phala Sutta in Grimblot's Sept Suttas Palis. 1 For an actual instance of Indian ascetics having voluntarily entered into a lasting trance resembling the hybernation of bears and other animals. 177 Samddhi on the other hand later was. and below. 'Jat. ch. Carpenter's interesting paper (in the Contemporary Review for December.. that the most ancient Buddhism despises dreams and visions and that the doctrine of Samadhi .. but its occurrence has been well authenticated in modern times. a self-induced mesmeric trance. Mahavansa. The Sanskrit text in Lalita Vistara. comp.' pp. Ed. Jour. 75 . But it must be added. A . xxii. et sey. it attained them when on his death-bed. stated that Gautama Comp. also ch. entitled ' The Psychology of Belief. p. has not been able to escape from the natural result of the wonder with which abnormal nervous states have always been regarded during the infancy of science.BUDDHISM. l is occurs in the Maha Siidassana Sittta. and has regarded the loss of mental power as the highest form of mental activity. It has mistaken the temporary cessation of the outward signs of life for an actual victory of mind over matter. it thus appears. Gogerly. Buddhism. is how to attain Samadhi given in Beal's ' description Catena. 90. 1873). 262.' pp. to its credit.' Instances of Jhana and Samadhi are ' ' ' found. see Dr.' 269.' p. p. Calc. p. 14 .
when the rate of progress in India or China has been so slow. England or America. 'the immovability of the East' talk a delusion. the proverb will be likely to fall into disuse. both inside and outside of the Buddhist church. compared with the seemed in a progress as nothing in . VII. enough is known to it certain that this period was full of movement. As well might the Japanese of the unchangeable customs and beliefs of Russia or of Spain. There have been times. Outside that church the ideas and beliefs of Brahmanical Hindus were being modified by Buddhism while inside the church Buddhism itself was being . it has but there have been times when faster than Eastern Asia has moved Europe. . Though but little is known of the religious and political history of India in the centuries immediately make following the death of Gautama. institutions THE supposed immovability of the of the East has and . IN DOCTRINE. that. Except much more meant is usually limited sense than the expression is to convey. beliefs become almost a proverb but as our knowledge of the East increases. not far remote.LEGEND OF THE BUDDHA CHAPTER DEVELOPMENTS I. The Legend of the Buddha.
the death of each Buddha his religion flourishes for a time. but it is very difficult.THE BUDDHAS. : and have formed and yet it is not so part of his actual teaching necessarily implied in. is represented to have taught that he was only one of a long series of Buddhas. apart from the beliefs regarding the person of the Buddha. Thus of the doctrine of the Buddhas it is impossible to say how early. from the books of the Pitakas themselves . In the Pali and Sanskrit texts the word Buddha is always used as a title. and by the growth of the legends which sprang up rapidly regarding his personal These latter changes are sufficiently evident history. the most important and arisen. for it contains no internal evidence sufficient to show in that it could not have existed. till it is at last completely forand wickedness and violence rule over the Gradually then the world improves . before the settlement of the Pitakas in their present form. that doctrine arose . if not impossible. after his death. earth. until at . The historical Buddha. the Gautama of this little work. or original parts of his salvation as to exclude the possibility of scheme of its having been largely developed. 1 79 profoundly altered both by the reaction which must immediately have set in against the high standard of Gautama's morality. or closely connected with. previous to the date of the recension of the Pitakas which we now possess. at present to come to any definite conclusion as to what change took place in Buddhist doctrine. who appear at intervals in the After world. not as a name. and then decays. the time of Gautama himself. as is represented. gotten. and who all teach the same system.
last lost new Buddha appears who again preaches the or Truth. gives the lives of all the previous Buddhas before commencing its account of Gautama himself. later than the time of Gautama. years shall have elapsed since his re-discovery of the Truth under the Bo Tree. the religion of Gautama shall be forgotten.000 Dharma . a new Buddha will again open the door of Nirvana to men. we have actually some sayings attributed to Kasyapa 1 Fausboll's ' vansa has Society. The names of twenty-four of these Buddhas who appeared previous to Gautama have been handed down to us and when.] now been Jataka. and it is. it may well have seemed to later' Buddhists very edifying to give such lists.' pp. Morris for the Pali Text . one of the books of the second Pitaka. 1 It is sufficiently evident details are merely imitated that nearly all these from the corresponding details of the legend of Gautama . for while it is scarcely likely that he should have deliberately in- vented these names.' the last book of the Khuddaka Nikdya in the second Pitaka. and the Pali commentary on the Jatakas gives certain details regarding ' each of the twenty-four. R. to say the least. the list is probably grains of historical fact. and very reasonable to include in them the names held in In the highest honour by the Brahmans themselves. The Buddhavansa or History of the Buddhas. 2-44. his name being Maitreya Buddha. Sutta Pitaka. the Buddha of kindness.I So a LEGEND OF THE BUDDHA. after 5. [The full text of the Buddhaedited by Dr. very doubtful whether the tradition of these legendary teachers has preserved for us any If not.
2 and though nearly all more or less frequently. the in question.. as well as the orthodox. but the passage is the Amagandha Sutta. and St. 10-21.THE FORMER BUDDHAS. . to have done. P2 Matthew 131- xv. last l8l of the twenty-four . in the fourth century A. and especially Kasyapa. this spiritualising. reverencing only the three previous Buddhas. In it. tells us nothing of their creed except that they claimed to be followers of Devadatta. they seldom carry so far as he seems Yet. quite in the manner and spirit of all the teaching ascribed to Gautama himself. of Gautama's teaching. but still making use of an existing belief seems to me to be quite characteristic Oriental reformers adopt. of the well the the argument being strikingly similar to that known passages in the Gospels enunciating same principle. p. 1 This putting of new wine into old bottles. 40. it is declared that it is not the eating of unclean food (Amagandha) which defiles a man. at which they. they showed their dagabas. 149. St. there was certainly near to Sravasti a sect of Buddhists who rejected Gautama. there was some difference those of Kasyapa to between the teachings of Gautama and but Fa Hian. and the practice of evil habits . A few striking examples of this are given above in the note to p. the it same method. Compare See above. but rather evil deeds. . To them. Buddha.' vii. that special object of the odium theolo1 whom Professor Fausbbll's 'Sutta Nipata. at least. Mark 14-23. whose body they believed to be buried under one of the dagabas. worshipped. while another was said to be built over the spot where he had died.D. the Chinese pilgrim.
90. and absolutely sinless. that he had no earthly father that he descended the greatest of the Arahats. p. 83 ...' p. a development of the earliest form of sepulchral monument.1 82 LEGEND OF THE BUDDHA. 96 . 176.' From his perfect wisdom. A dagaba is a solid dome. 82. pp. of his high character and of of his own accord into his Foe Koue Ki. is this point can never have formed part of the teaching of Gautama himself. that he was not. 74 . his sinlessness follow as a matter of course. would and As a consequence of soon sprang up that he could not have been. see above. born as ordinary men are . Res. Hardy's ' Manual.' (Beal's translation).' found at the commencement of every Pali text: and at the present day in Ceylon. immediately after his birth. this doctrine the belief : mothers womb from his throne in heaven . 'As. built over the relics of a saint. Gautama himself was very early regarded as His perfect omniscient. 126.' pp. the venerable omniscient one. 'Hiouen Thsang. 1 ' Fa Hian' ' . but the subject is too inter- on firmer ground. On KIsyapa Buddha. On Devadatta.' xvL 280. He was the first. for it most prevalent beliefs on clear that we stand at once many of the esting not to deserve more special consideration. and compare Mah. the usual way in which styled is Sanvajnan-waJianse. 87. ' p.' pp. and that he gave unmistakable signs. 'the completely enlightened one. 93. 97. acis Gautama ' cording to Buddhist belief. _ gicum of orthodox Buddhist from the discussion of such doctrines 'as those regarding turn th Gautama himself. wisdom is declared by the ancient epithet of Sammd-sambuddha. A few of these have been already noticed in the chapters on the life of Gautama.
and the angels and arch- His mother was angels were present with their help. After seven days of fasting and seclusion the pure and holy Maya 1 dreams that she is carried by archangels to heaven." this p. that Buddha. On her relating her dream to her husband lie calls it. but this has not been confirmed. or. (Foucaux. a universal monhe becomes a recluse. 50. was brought forth by a virgin from her side. if who 1 be a Chakrawarti. remove the veils of ignorance and sin from will ' Korosi refers in a distant way to a belief of the later that Maya was a virgin (As. and the very names they contain.MIRACULOUS BIRTH. bk. 183 at Earth and heaven : his birth united to pay him homage the very trees bent of their own accord over his mother. 299) . xx. will be a Buddha. and his father was of royal lineage. that the child will be who will arch ' . dream so . the founder of their system. It was a pious task to make his abnegation and his condescension greater by the comparison between the splendour of the position he was to abandon. 'It is handed down as a tradition among the l) Gymnosophists of India. pret a son together sixty-four chief Brahmans to interTheir reply is. and the poverty in which he afterwards lived and in countries distant from Kapilavastu the inconsistencies between such glowing accounts. and a prince of wealth and power. Res. and that there the future Buddha enters her right side in the form of a superb white 2 elephant.' 1 Fausboll's 61) ' Jataka. Jerome says (contra Cooma Mongol Buddhists : Jovian. his future greatness. St. credulous hearers. far In the ' Lalita Vistara ' becomes reality that the Buddha actually descends from heaven in the form referred to. the best and the purest of the daughters of men. passed unnoticed by .
M. p. the imprisoned are set free.) . all nature blooming.' p. the 10. the white elephant. many of the beliefs which had clustered round the idea of a Chakrawartl. for instance. (See below. and sometimes without change. Foucaux. the deaf hear. the universal monarch of the sky. the mythical poets of the * Rig Veda ! (Foucaux. 1 In the alternative thus pro- phesied we may find a key to much of the legend . and has certainly enough to show that in this direction an may be found of much that appears at first sight bizarre and unnecessary in our legend of The idea that a man should enter his the Buddha.) Many of these beliefs again were borrowed from the older sun-worship . and so on. the blind receive their sight.184 LEGEND OF THE BUDDHA.000 worlds are filled with light. 52.' has attempted to trace many of these coincidences. the lame walk. 220. ' who will all the worlds glad by the sweet taste of the Ambrosia of Nirvana'). 63. the crooked become straight. because This form was deliberately chosen by the future Buddha deva who had in a it was the form indicated by a previous birth been one of the Rishis. the dumb speak. make the world (or as the Lalita Vistara has it. mother's womb in the form of a white elephant seems a most grotesque folly. thirty-two signs take place . in his learned work. until the origin of the poetical 2 figure has been thus ascertained. which has simply transferred to the Buddha. p. 51. Senart.* like the white horse. beings in earth and heaven being while by a bold figure of speech even 'Jataka. 'La Legende du Buddha. and filled 1 all with joy . being an emblem of the sun. established explanation At the conception of the Buddha. sometimes in a spiritual sense.
I steps forward. 91 we have seven steps only. 52 . and the tortures of are mitigated. stretching out his hand to do so without wounding his mother. who had retired for meditation to Himalaya mountains. this is my last birth. reverence but instead of doing so its feet were miraculously placed on the matted locks of the ascetic. 'Lalita Vistara' (Foucaux. Tumour. 103-110). The ' Lalita Vistara makes him take seven steps in each of the six directions. and the child is brought in to do him .' 73-75.' 54. During the ten months in the of his womb the child is distinctly visible.' 51. Madhurattha Vilasim.B.THE WONDERFUL the the fires CHILD. but at p. The sage then explains the wonder to the astonished father. so his mother can bear no other child. and on the seventh day after his When the child is born it takes seven birth she dies. .' 2 ' am and again the thirty-two signs of joy appear in the earth and heaven. Both Kala and j . ' ' On the * ' 3 'Jataka.' Pali name is Kala-devala Asita mean 'black.S. sitting cross-legged. and makes a speech for each (Foucaux.A. and weeps that he himself will not the day. An the to aged saint. and versal time without any reference to unimonarchy) prophesies that the child will be(this come live to see a Buddha. seeing these signs is guided Kapilavastu. 3 fifth ' ' day the name-choosing festival takes place. and dignified and he preaches to the angels who guard him. ' Jataka. The the Sanskrit Asita. unsoiled. J. 1 As a dagaba holding sacred to relics cannot be used guard any less sacred object. 185 damned life of hell are extinguished. when 108 Brahmans learned in the three Vedas. and exclaims with lion's-voice the chief of the world. vii. 89) . 798. Foucaux's Lalita Vistara.
and how all the gods of the then Hindoo Pantheon rose up and is This episode its wanting in the ' in did obeisance to him. Madhurattha Vilasini. and x.) the infant was presented at the temple.' p. after ' on the child's body. cit. afterwards Gautama's first disciple. on the couch.1 86 LEGEND OF THE BUDDHA. are feasted at the palace. and Dhyana. examining the marks rance from the world.) are also wanting in the Pali books. ' ' Then comes to ' celebrate ' prince is the opening of the season. but one. of whom eight were especially learned in divination. hold up two and prophesy that he will become either a ChakrawartI or a Buddha . The Jataka commentator is so engrossed with the prophets that he forgets to give the child's name l ! Lalita Vistara/ but are stanzas describing how place (chap. viii.' Seven of the eight. and the whole story is in glorification rather of these five disciples than of the child. Kondanya. The great king Suddhodana goes out festival. foe. The other four of the first converts were sons of four of these prophets . and prophesies that he will assuredly become a Buddha. who will remove the veils of sin and ignofingers. and the taken with him. . chaps. (the child's the curious story of the ploughing found both in the Nepalese and Ceylonese accounts. ix. holds up one finger. the It baby is neglected. In the rejoicing. and its poem miraculous knowledge of sixty-four alphabets. 1 then seats into the itself cross-legged Though mystic trance of the shadows of all other trees had falls 5 ' 'Jataka. 56 . the Sanskrit The two following episodes in ornaments.
with the four visions. p. the Light appearing in the Darkness of the world's ignorance. 27-31. were miraculously stopped as they passed above him. 184. I think. n. though many of the details of the latter are doubtless derived from the ancient myths arising from the victories of the sun over the clouds of darkness. 119. 3 otherwise.' * See above. and harems.SONG OF THE FIVE turned. pp. See 'SutUNip. Jataka. the Physician of those tormented by decay and disease by him would be obtained the truth which would be the salvation of sentient beings. 3 13. adds that five rishis (p. saying that by him. and palaces (one for each of the three seasons). . flying through the air. ' These episodes seem ' to me to 'LaL Vist.. and the temptation of Mara . The ' Lalita Vistara. and the horse Kanthaka. xi. and servants. . 2). on which he finally rides away from his father's house. 2 So the splendid accounts of his equipages. and teaching even his masters in the arts and sciences. is It is the sun-horse of the ancient mythology. sat shaded the all the details. 58. 1 To the same category as the legends of the infancy of the Buddha belongs the story of his surpassing all others in youthful prowess.' chap.' which differs in They Water appearing sing stanzas in his praise. the tree under which it RISHIS. Compare Senart.' 57. the Ship appearing amidst the perils of the Ocean of human misery. the Liberator of those enchained in the bonds of sin. are all invented to harmonize with the notion that if he had not become a Buddha. 29. he would have become a universal monarch . still l8/ child. the in the midst of the Fires of sin de- vouring the world. and 428.
The prophecy concerning the future greatness of Pataliputra.' p. 53. Compare Senart. Above. on a substratum of fact. The ' Parinibbana Sutta. D. .' the Pali account in the Pitakas of the Buddha's death. rest and to relate. in the language of the time. the rolling on- ward of the royal chariot-wheel of righteousness. The 4 temptations of Mara are merely the form in which the time 1 when 2 3 4 Above. Ib. cit. the shows that the book as we have modern Patna. and his journey to heaven to preach the law to his dead mother. 3 it is later than the capital of Magadha was moved from Rajagriha to the banks of the great river. loc. form perhaps an exception but these episodes cannot be discussed with profit till we have much more authentic accounts of them than are at present accessible. related at the end of the sixth year after his enlightenment. Very few of the miraculous incidents during the seem to be explicable from the same source. or it may be the origin of. 1 The title given to the first sermon. 413-422. those mental struggles which I have endeavoured to translate into the language of the nineteenth century. forty-five years' ministry .1 83 LEGEND OF THE BUDDHA. which has had so marked an influence on the legend of the Buddha's early life.. They have mostly the appearance of being due entirely to the love of exaggeration and of mystery universal among rude peoples. 2 may be derived from. pp. 45. contains much less of the miraculous. 30. Gautama's display of miraculous power. ' Buddhist Suttas. 36-38. xv.. the Chakrawarti parallel. Rh. p.-xvii.. p.
and stands with bent head opposite the feet.. Tb. p. 4 The 1 latter accounts relate that as Kasyapa stood Suttas. The episode of the is 2 would fit in very well with Senart's transfiguration pressed. and when everything except the bones has been consumed. with the connected story. 130. and the former especially are evidently influenced by the desire to make the Budtrees . 1 pp. 128. the old and faithhead of the Order of mendicants. to explain the rise of so graceful and probable a traSala-trees also assisted at his birth.WONDERS AT BUDDHA'S DEATH.. * Ib. and sala- render him homage at his death.' p. The body refuses to be moved until the wish of the gods as to the direction in which it should be carried is ascertained and followed . . 74. and bending lovingly over him their branches which gave him shade and who can wonder that angels in the sky drop heavenly flowers and sing heavenly songs to strengthen him ? After his death the miracles and exaggerations increase. 129. and it refuses till the venerable Kasyapa. letting fall upon him fragrant flowers out of season. showers from heaven extinguish it. 'Buddhist Ib. 189 Gautama's thoughts of his approaching death are exThe timely purifying of the stream from which he wished to drink. Then the to burn ful pile takes fire of itself . 3 Three times with his monks he paces reverently round the pile on which the dead body of his master lies. Si. think idea of the last glow of the setting sun . p.. * Rh. 1 an ordinary exaggeration.. but I do not it at all necessary to call in the aid of sun myth dition. D. arrives. dha's funeral rites as splendid as those of a Chakrawarti king.
Dividing the legend. on the bank of a river. the coffin opened. his birth. and the feet came out like the full moon were visible. Jb. Kasyapa and his monks reverently placed the feet on their heads. . 1 the This legend seems to M. the coverings unrolled themselves. Hardy's 'Manual. 337. when emerging from the bosom of a dark cloud. and soon after the destruction of the 2 modified extent.' 348. As M. I here add his summary. and when he recovered from the trance prayed to see once more the sacred feet on which the thirty-two signs of a Chakrawarti He had scarcely uttered his prayer. the coverings replaced themselves. before Resolution to quit Heaven. Senart's theory of the almost complete dependence of the Buddhist legend on these myths is most interesting and ingenious. and the coffin and the pile resumed their natural position. by the he fell into the mystic trance of Dhyana . Senart to have arisen from myth of the last glow of the dying sun . M. to speak ' i. though it will be seen from what has been written above that I can only accept it to a certain trees. is a god.1 90 LEGEND OF THE BUDDHA. into twelve divisions. Senart thus 3 sums up the history of the Sun-Buddha : The Buddha. pp.' p. among Sakya clan. 389. feet of the revered teacher. after which the feet withdrew. ' 7 La Legende du Buddha. and he derives from the Krishna myth the statements that ' the Buddha's death took place among the ' wrestlers of the town of Kusi. the chief of the gods . 504-507. 1 Bigandet. The whole assembly burst into loud applause on seeing this matchless prodigy. according to old tradition.
the companions of his games become now his wives and the god delays and forgets himself in his lovers 4. He is born. his presence reveals itself there by his first rays. That he is for their . He has no mortal father his descent from heaven takes place under the symbols of a god of light. from the fire-producing tree. to which all the gods form a retinue and render homage. which call all the gods to prayer and awaken them to life. veiled in the cloud-womb of his mother. ' virgin-mother. In reality. illu- from his birth. minating the world. Growing up amidst the young daughters of the air. the harem. Marriage and pleasures of him the young nymphs have grown up. His conception is altogether miraConception. amidst the delights of his cloudy harem. 3. With 5. or only reveal themselves at rare intervals. he incarnates himself among good and their salvation. 19 1 men ' not born. advances in space. irresistible Her son. powerful. correctly. dies away from the first hour in the dazzling radiance of her son. and at the same time half-obscure goddess of the vapours of the morning. ' ' . the day comes when he makes himself known. heavenly palaces. by the aid of Maya. and proclaiming his supremacy. . and shines without a rival.THE LEGEND AS SUN-MYTH. representative of the sovereign creative power. she survives under the name of the creatress. the nurse of the universe and of its god. ' ' Trials. as hero of light and fire. Birth. tries himself in his first battles against his gloomy foes. 2. culous. among whom his power and his splendour are hidden and unknown.
divine tree . Departure from his father's house. having ' 10. across space his disk with a thousand rays. lose their form. the gloomy army of Mara. miraculously away from his splendid prison . 9. ' 6. But his hour has come . wandering as he is in the forests of space. and traverses the river of the ' air. the last light vapours which float in heaven. struggle. he disengages is himself from ' their embrace. TI. A little later. From first that moment begins the and enfeebled. the conquest of ambrosia and of the wheel. and from every adversary. Nirvana. the heavenly charger leaps over the walls of the demon fortresses. 8. avenged the attempts of his eternal foe. and bathes in the water of immorhero appears tried tality. He takes possession of the fertilising rain and light. Austerities. his glory. in this struggle against darkness the beneficent hero remains the conqueror . he reaches the end of ' . 7. the Apsaras. where he drinks ambrosia.192 LEGEND OF THE BUDDHA. try in vain to clasp and retain the vanquisher . he tears himself violently. scattered . broken and rent. Defeat of the Demon. He is ripe for his destined mission. Soon he regains his might in the heavenly pastures. the god : has attained the summit of his course it is the mo- ment of triumph. He appears then in all Perfect Enlightenment. and in his sovereign splendour . the demon of the storm runs to dispute ' The it with him in the duel of the storm . repulses them . he sets in motion obstacle. Free from every Putting the Wheel in motion. daughters of the demon. and vanish. they writhe.
Senart regards the whole story of Gautama's as a sun-myth debased into prose. must have had a human founder. and has almost driven out the But that the historical basis on which it rests. himself disappears in the He west. ' 12. like every other system. the glowing wild boar but first he sees all his race. if we add the influence of explain all local and sectarian jealousies. as a He propounds no theory of the worship of the sun. or once was. at least. or the whole of Buddhism. he does not doubt . glowing with his last rays. as on a huge pyre . The general . his career . though its adherents knew it not.THE LEGEND AS SUN-MYTH. is. 193 on the point of extinction. In this chapter only the earlier forms of the legend have been considered. his retinue of light. Funeral rites. historical basis. to . but the reader would do wrong to conclude from the above poetical language that M. and an life historical origin. and he holds that Buddhism. the later developements and it would be impossible in the space at our command to point out in any detail the differences between the older and any one of the later forms of the biography. in the sanguinary mele'e of the clouds of evening. and only strives to show that much of the old sun-myth has been incorporated into the legend of the Buddha. victim in his turn of the demon. rise of Buddhism. the myth has mar- vellous grace and beauty .' In M. and only the milk of the clouds is able to extin- guish on the horizon the last flames of these divine funereal rites. Senart's hands. disappear he is . The principles which have guided us in their interpretation are sufficient. there.
. new episodes which have been this visit is given in The fullest account of the Rev. end of the fourth century A.' further l The tradition has not at present been traced written about the back than the Dipavansa. 150. Seal's' Fa Hian. but he seems to know only of two instead of three visits. note. 2 From the nature of the legend it seems very probable that it has merely been adapted to the Buddha from myths pre- The same reference conclusion is made to the The 301-325. in the 'Adam's Peak. ' Sidat Sangarawa. a Sinhalese work classed by Mr. James Alwis among ancient ' translations of the books. who was in Ceylon about 410 A. a history of Ceylon.D.' p. 50 illustrated . rule that the later forms of each episode differ chiefly from the former in the way in which they further exaggerate the details of the stories so as to make them more consistent either with the imperial wealth and power ascribed to Gautama or his father by the ChakrawartI parallel . As an instance of the effect of local prejudice may be cited the legend of the Buddha's three visits to Ceylon. one of the few invented. . and it may be laid down as a general relation of the various accounts to been already at pp. or with the belief in Gautama's omniscience and omnipotence.' p. 191. forced upon us by the short Buddha's visit by Fa Hian.' pp. but the account given in the opening chapters of that work shows that the tradition must have then been old. printed in Skeen's Alwis. Cornells Alwis's 24th 1 chapter of the Sarwagnya Gunalankara.D. translation is Compare Jas.194 LEGEND OF THE BUDDHA. one another has by the examples given above. . 13.
who divided the relics. Arahat Kshema having 2 of the funeral that the stole pile. under the title 1 See the inscription published by me in the ' Indian Anti- quary' for May. tend that the Buddha's neck relic is still preserved under the Mahiyangana Dagaba. whose ancient name was Sumana Lene. 51. . 133-135. p. that should have been adapted into a Christian form by a father of the Christian Church.' ii. another tooth 3 and the Sinhalese who pre. * Rh. D. a curious part of the history of the it its Legend of the Buddha. add that the elder named Sarabhu abstracted that relic on the same occasion. and have been found so agreeable to the Catholic lovers of saints. and is ordered to be worshipped on every ayth of November. taken the tooth from the ashes So the Burmese have related Brahman Drona. and it is evident that relic-worship was already in full 5 favour when that book assumed It is present shape.' ii. worshipped both on Adam's Peak. 'Dathavansa. and at the great cave of 1 Dambulla. 5 2 3 ' Bigandet.' pp. 343 (second edition). 'Buddhist Suttas.LOCAL LEGENDS. that the hero of it has been entered in the Roman as a saint Calendar. 4 None of these incidents are given in the Parinibbana Sutta. The worship of local relics has also brought about Thus the worshippers of the supposed Buddha's tooth in Ceylon have added to the account of Gautama's death the incident of the local additions to the legend. ' Dathavansa. 1872. viously current of the sun-god 195 Sumana. though Drona's division of the relics is described at length..
minister at the Court of Khalif Almansur. 8 See especially Liebrecht 'Jahrbuch der Romanischen und He compares the Catholic Englischen Literatur. John xxxvi.' pp.196 LEGEND OF THE BUDDHA. was so popular in the Middle Ages that the romance was translated into several European languages. Barlaam. ii. How A certain St. which here and there seems to betray Buddhist influence. this came about has been told by the present writer in the introduction to his 'Buddhist Birth Stories or Jataka Tales. with a Latin translation. St. or the Lalita Vistara. romance with the 'Lalka Vistara. we need not wonder hero was subsequently canonized. in the course of which some Buddhist Jataka stories are inserted. not mentioned by Butler in his standard work on the Balaam of the iQth of November is given quite ' ' another story) .' and the likeness to the 1 Jataka' story is still closer. John's romance will be found in The Migne's Patrology.v. Josaphat. bulk of the work consists of long theological and moral instructions to the Prince Joasaph byhis teacher.-xli. Barlaam. was the son of Sergius. Among other works ascribed to him is a religious romance called the ' been distinctly it Life of Barlaam and Jdasaph. . and wrote many books. 1 of St. Paris.' vol. As the moral tone of the book. as told in The the Jataka commentary. 1822. but see the Bibliotheque Sacree of Fathers Richard et Giraud. became a monk. s. To have been made a Christian saint is that the not the only 1 He is saints (under St. John of Damascus.' which has proved to be derived as to the narra- tive part of from the story of Buddha. Greek text of St. who wrote in the eighth century.
1863 (sixth edition). and recollecting that men cannot is grass. mag/. (the splits period 1 the world will Paris. and jumps into the ' fire. 4to. he resolves. the ' fire does not burn him. but when the hare really offers himself. . to after exhorting part of their eat his food. dieu. 1 a quaintly illustrated dictionary of all matters relating to devils. ' Dictionnaire place also in the Infernel of M. placed the soul of that hare in the to the I moon where he is still Kalmucks I is plainly visible. and begs . St. hare. his who keeps the Sabbath. ' * Reisen durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russische Reich's. which and piety. can trace the origin of this legend. and so on. astrology. de Plancy quotes as his authority a Kalmuk story given in the 'Travels' of Pallas. let your virtue till Then Sakra saying. carnivorous animals. to give away own body. 17711776. exhorts friends. In one of the Jataka stories is the future Buddha and charity a holy hare. Petersburg. Collin de Plancy.' think which very old.c. rather of the Hare in the Moon. 2 that after the hare had given ' himself to be eaten by a hungry man. M.THE BUDDHA AS MAN curious fate which has IN THE MOON. O wise be known through all the Kalpa be next destroyed). One Sabbath day them to give to any hungry person food. the spirit of the earth (!) pleased with the beautiful action. 3 vols. ou or. his if the oppor- tunity arises. 1 97 befallen the great Teacher. He takes ' his fairies. There he apge'nie pears in a curious woodcut as 'Sakimuni.' in the character of the Man in the Moon . The god Sakra becoming aware of this high resolve comes in the form of a Brahman.
p. . and Tawney's English version of ' the ' Katha Sarit Sagara.' vol. 51-68. ' Benfey. ii.' i.198 LEGEND OF THE BUDDHA. open a mountain.' On the subsequent history of this story. Fausboll had not published the text of this Jataka l we might have found it difficult to discover the connection between our Gautama and the 1 Man in the Moon ! It is given both in Pali and Sanskrit in the Five Jatakas. If Mr. Paiica Tantra. 349. and taking the sap of the mountain (!) draws a picture of the hare on the disk of the moon. compare pp. 66.
and this not only in its docThe hiertrine. there is evidence of any development from the doctrines of the Pitakas in Burma. It has resulted at last in the complete establishment of Lamaism. but actually antagonistic to. the primitive system of Buddhism . a religion not only in many points different from. APART from and Mongolia. but also in its church organization. its doctrinal system. has been chiefly modified by the gradual additions to its theory of the Buddhas. and Tibet is exceedingly interesting. Nepal. Tibet.DEVELOPMENTS IN DOCTRINE. archical system of Lamaism will be briefly considered in the next chapter . (continued}. and very valuable from the similarity it bears to the development which has taken place in Christianity in Roman Catholic countries. little the legend of the Buddha. with which we have now to deal. Siam. The development of the Buddhist doctrine which has taken place in the Panjab. China. Japan. but the case is very different with Nepal. . DEVELOPMENTS IN DOCTRINE Tibetan Buddhism. 199 CHAPTER VIII. or Ceylon . in which the legends regarding Gautama play little or no part.
or future Buddhas. the name This doclater system of the Little by which the calls school. the pious Buddhist 1 One Maitreya is therefore also called Ajita. 17. . the Unconquerable a name also given to the second of the twenty-four saints or Tirthakara's of the 'Jainas. Buddhas (Sanskrit Pratyeka). is the title given to each of the beings (man. Buddha himself has reached vana. from the theory as given beginning of the last chapter. the name it gives to itself. as distinguished from the Great Vehicle Little The (JSfaMyana). ii.200 TIBETAN BUDDHISM. not without some contempt. Bodhi-satwa. the doctrine of the Pitakas. 1 has been personified as Maitreya Buddha. or animal) who. the future Buddha of kindness. is held to be the future Buddha will in one of is his former births in a Bodhisatwa the name given to it and generally . and by the strength of which the Buddhist church will once more triumph throughout the world and conquer all sin and unbelief. Vehicle already talks also of the Pacceka . in each of the 550 Jataka stories. others. or while they are not able to explain the truth to Buddha Elect. but also to attain Buddhahood them. angel. a being whose Karma continually-ascending in a produce other beings as the scale of goodness. the spirit of kindness out of which According to all virtues rise. Parinir- Now. has passed completely away. trine already forms part of the Vehicle (Hlnayand). the Buddhas Elect. the Personal Buddhas and of the Bodhisativas. The first are those who have sufficient wisdom and selves holiness not only to become Arahats and attain Nirvana.' Compare Koppen. starts The development at the it. until becomes vested Buddha.
MANJUSRI. 400 A. in southern Buddhist temples the pure white image of Maitreya is sometimes found by the side of Gautama's idol . had already become general. that their hearts craved after Buddhist gods to fill the place of the dead gods dhists. 193. named Manjn-srl and Avalokitesvara. who are not even mentioned in the Pitakas. of the Hindu Pantheon. the worship of two Bodhisatwas.. % or to make them live again in their Manju-s rl is the personification oi Wisdom. .' or in the older Nepalese and Tibetan books. and among the followers of the Great the time of Vehicle. the merciful protector and Both are frepreserver of the world and of men. ' quently mentioned in the Saddharma-pundarika. who Thus. Karma which will are the present result of the produce the Buddhas of the future. Avalokitesvara is the personification of Power. They will probably be found to be the invention of Bud- whose minds were steeped in Brahman philosophy and mythology and who were so imperfectly converted to Gautama's system of salvation by selfcontrol and moral culture.D. AVALOKITESVARA.' the Lotus of the good Law (which is a mystic name for ' ' 1 ' Csoma Korosi. or in the ' Lalita Vistara.' p. 1 and especially of the mystic religious insight which has produced the Great Vehicle. . It is difficult at present to explain the origin of the belief in these hypothetical beings. 'Tibetan Grammar. descendants. 2OI to those naturally turned with peculiar reverence and longing Bodhisatwas supposed to be now living as angels in heaven. at least as early as Fa Hian.
good luck. 2 It is not impossible that the name of the Bodhisatwa Manjusri may be derived from that of the Indian mendicant. glory. and the advantages to be derived from the worship of Avaloki' tesvara. according to tradition. lovely. . 160 of Burnouf's translation.' is a common part ' ' of names of gods and men. The former part of the name. it is quite likely that his name may have been preserved as that of the mystic wisdom by which the world was created and Burnouf has. at least.' while sn. who. clearly shown that organized.' and a whole of that work (the 24th) is devoted to a glorichapter fication of the character. &c. manju meaning charming. itself. Manjusri. and teacher of The name 1 Avalokitesvara. sounds more human than divine. in the books of all sects of rules the greatest confusion Nepalese Buddhists there between the metaphysical civiliser Being and the legendary Nepal. 389-396). the only one kosmos) translated by Burnouf. For other details as to his power. * 261-268 ' also translated by Beal through the Chi' nese Catena. pp.' pp. Manjusri is the mythical author of the T Saddharma-pundarika. of the nine great books of the Great Vehicle as yet accessible. . except in MS. the missionary. p. 220-224. seems to have lived about two hundred and fifty years after the Buddha attained Parinirvana and as he is looked upon as the founder of that school of thought which ended in the Great Vehicle.. the power. ee Burnouf's Introduction a 1'Histoire. into Nepal. (' . prosperity. and with it civilisation.202 this TIBETAN BUDDHISM. at least. . which means 'The So says the work Ib. introduced Buddhism. pp.
' Compare Foe Koue Ki. together with the other two Bodhisatwas. 121. and this new being. ' Lotus de la bonne Loi.' pp. were better than gods. which knew nothing of God. 374. 4 And Northern Buddhism 1 did not stop here. Catena. the thunderbolt-handed. and But Fa Hian acknowledged no form of prayer. on the images of these gods. ' 1 See BurnouPs learned note. separated from his protecting care and providence and the former more specially personified as the Bodhisatwa Vajradhara. had become practically gods . forms the earliest Trinity of northern Buddhism. Manjusri is the deified teacher. 226. 4 Introduction. 21. holy men. and it need not be pointed out how utterly contrary their worship was to the original teaching of Gautama. 493-5"* Bumouf. to Avalokitesvara just as a Hindu might to prays Indra or to Siva. and Avalokitesvara.' is a purely use of the Lord who looks down from on metaphysical invention. ' There Beal's 'Fa Hian. is the Spirit of the Buddhas present in the church. 2 Somewhat later the power of Avalokitesvara was . 1 The curious past participle passive avalokita in an active sense is clearly evident from the translations into Tibetan and Chinese. as we shall presently see.' p. These beings. w<\ pp. 8 In this Trinity Vajrapani is the Jupiter Tonans.' both formerly used as epithets of the god Indra . and one or two other less conspicuous Bodhisatwas. 56.VAJRAPANT.' ' the bearer of the thunder- or ' Vajrapani. 203 high. 167. . taught that Arahats.' p. on the Trinity .' p. bolt.' p.
Kosmos was last destroyed. The idea seems to be that every earthly mortal Buddha has his pure and glorious counterpart in the mystic world. or third Dhyana. Those who attain the fourth Dhyana enter the tenth or eleventh Brahma-lokas . or type of a Dhyani Buddha living in the ethereal mansions of those worlds of idea material conditions tion. or rather that the Buddha under is only an appearance. those who attain ' on earth to the first. I have spoken above (pp. in theory. 1 The number accordingly. one step further removed from Gautama's doc- trines the step from polytheism to monotheism.204 is TIBETAN still BUDDHISM. The Great Vehicle Dhyana. To : each of these five groups of worlds the Great Vehicle assigns a special Buddha. infinite. or mystic teaches five instead of the four stages found in the Pitakas and the Lalita Vistara. the reflecor emanation. three worlds being assigned to each Dhyana. one above another. il 26. the remaining five being occupied by those who attain to the third path here on earth. the age who belong to the present Kalpa. and who will reach Nirvana in this new existence. The earlier Buddhism teaches that above the worlds of the gods are 'sixteen worlds of Brahma (Brahma-loka's). including Gautama. like the 1 of Dhyani Buddhas number of Compare Koppen. and this step it also afterwards took. free from the debasing conditions of this material life . called Dhyani Buddha these five Buddhas corre- sponding to the that is. the five Buddhas. . last four and the future Buddha Maitreya since the Buddhas. are reborn in the lower of these worlds. second. 174-177) of the four stages of meditation. and mystic is trance.
Akshobya. is This theory of the Dhyani Buddhas unknown. The Manushi (human) Buddhas 1. p. are mentioned that work. : Kraku-chanda. Amogasiddha. GAUTAMA. but only the five are practically acknowThese Dhyani Buddhas. of them. 2. 2. 5. Ratnapani. antitypes the Buddhas. 5. AVALOKITESVARA. 4. Maitreya. and even to the Saddharma Pundarika. 3. Kanaka-muni. Two . like their types or ledged. 4. not only to the Pitakas and the Lalita Vistara. 2 but also. : Vairochana. 4. 205 the Buddhas. Vajrapani. the first and fourth. Their Bodhisatwas : 1. Ratna-sambhava. must have their Bodhisat was also. and the following three sets of five are thus co-ordinated. 113. Introduction. Samanta-bhadra. AMITABHA. Kasyapa. 3. if we may judge from negative evidence. PADMAPANI Visvapani.' p. 5. to the Chinese Buddhist 1 ' 1 in Burnouf. 117. Burnouf. 2. 1 The Dhyani Buddhas 1. however. 2.THE FIVE TRINITIES.
Fa Hian and Hiouen Thsang. and Buddha. the highest and most important sits rank. 99and Kumarajlva.. e. of course. occupies. who visited India in the beginning of the fifth and in the seventh respectively. the fourth. 'SukhavatI Vyuha. the belief in which must have arisen after the seventh century of our era.. Catena. 222.' p. 1 a paradise of heavenly joys. he enthroned under a Bo Tree in SukhavatI. 488. Surrounded by innumerable Bodhisatwas. self-existent. whose description occupies whole tedious books of the socalled Great Vehicle. meditations while each of these evolved out of himself by wisdom and 1 contemplation ' the corre- Guna Karanda Vyuha. 'Tibetan Grammar. the Primordial was held to have evolved out of himcalled self the five Dhyani Buddhas by the exercise of the . xx. this time infinite. pp. is ' Immeasurable Light.g. each of the five Buddhas has become three. pilgrims. ' * 101 ' . and the fourth of the Blissful.D. and whose emanation is Gautama.' p. For this date.e. 2 By this theory. p. 378 1 Csoma Korbsi.. But all this was not enough to satisfy the Tibetan and Nepalese hankering after gods many. ib. and lords In the tenth century A. hollow beings. 'Asiatic Researches. abstractions without life or reality. i.206 TIBETAN BUDDHISM. and omniscient was invented. 192.' pp. 3 a new being many.' vol. these five sets of three is the second Buddhist Trinity. see .' whose Bodhisatwa Avalokitesvara.' analysed by Burnouf. century Amitdbha. in Burnouf. Among these hypothetical the creations of a sickly scholasticism. five He Adi-Buddha.' translated by Beal through the Chinese et seq. Introduction.
the debasing belief in rites and charms. had been the especial object of his scorn. and spread like the Birana weed '. and the nobler and simpler lessons of the founder of the religion were smothered beneath the glittering mass of metaphysical subtleties. the degrading worship of Siva and his dusky bride neglected. which . Our present world is supposed to be the creation of the fourth of these. each new step. 2OJ spending Bodhisatwas. in some sense based upon the teachings of Gautama.vanned by a tropical sun in marsh and muddy As in India after the expulsion of Buddhism soil. It is needless to add. the greatest possible contradiction to the ethical which is the characteristic of his system of philosophy. and. began to live again. that under the overpowering influence of these sickly imaginations the moral teachings of Gautama have been almost hid from view. be noticed that these emanations bear a disEons or Emanations of the Gnostic Schools . is culture. indeed. The theories grew and flourished. until the whole sky was 'filled with forgeries of the brain. and incantations. the Adi Buddha Theism has never been considered orthodox even in Tibet. and it is not impossible that these It will tant resemblance to the gods owe their existence to the influence of Persian In any case the whole theory. a material world.THE EMANATIONS. though Christianity. As the stronger side of Gautama's teaching was and ceremonies. and each of them again evolved out of his immaterial essence a kosmos. that is of Avalokitesvara. each new hypothesis demanded another. and to grow vigorously.
a mixture of magic and witchcraft and Siva-worship. both male and female. in the inferior heavens of the then prevalent Buddhism . an influential monk of Peshawar. first Bhumi Sdstra. who travelled in the half of the seventh. The founder of this system seems to have been Asanga.' p.208 TIBETAN BUDDHISM. by means of magic phrases (Dharai}i). while their practical belief had no relation at all to the Truths or the Noble Eightfold Path. . 94. In his 1 ' M&noires sur les Contrees Occi- dentales. Asanga's happy idea bore but too ample R^musat's translation. for the half-converted and" possible rude tribes to and even to these more congenial shrines and bloody offerings. . and ' La Vie de Hiouen Thsang. and by representing them as worshippers and supporters of the He thus made it Buddha. the Tantra system. and wrote the first text book of the creed. i. 1 managed with great dexterity to reconcile the two opposing systems by placing a number of Salvite gods or devils. fruit. was incorporated into the corrupted Buddhism. about the century of our Hiouen Thsang.' 270. and magic circles (Maydala). found the monastery where Asanga had lived in ruins.000 years after the Buddha. in the Panjab . and says He that he had lived 1. the sixth Yogdchara era. who lived. but busied itself remain Buddhists while they brought offerings. had been incorporated into Brahmanism from the wild and savage devil-worship of the dark non-Aryan tribes . and of Avalokitesvara. almost wholly with obtaining magic powers (Siddki). so as pure Buddhism died away in the north.
as they are odious and degrading in respect of meaning. which supply to him the place of good deeds . that he may keep a reckoning of his good words. But this full effect has only been worked out in the lapse of ages the Tantra literature has also had its growth and its development. 2 09 own country and Nepal the new wine. pp. and hands are painted walls. that as the Dhyani and Tantra systems grew. speaking and Csoma. 488. ..' he says. The belief in mystic charms and phrases for the also re-acted even on the purer Buddhism with many eyes. when he found the later Tantra books to be as immoral as they are absurd. and some . g. the idols of the Dhyani Trinities and the Tantra gods and goddesses took their place in the monasteries and the temples. ' refuses to transcribe doctrines as miserable in respect of form.THE TANTRA SYSTEM. ' The pen. Comp. unhappy scholar of a loathsome history. and Buddhism is even nominally extinct. completely disqualified them from enjoying any purer drink and now in both countries Saivism is supreme. and put up on the sides of roads. except in some outlying dis. xx. 558. Res. &c. tricts of Nepal. and their hideous figures and heads. supposed efficacy of endless repetitions is one of the most striking features of the modern religion of Tibet. in the books and on the .' . and in private worship the greatest importance both public and is attached to 'Introduction.' l I have only to add. Every Tibetan has a rosary of 108 beads. As. sweet and luscious to the taste of savages. 553. future age may have to trace its The nauseous taste repelled even the self-sacrificing industry of Burnouf. 554 of Panca-krama.
are placed beside the footpaths and the roads. those curious machines which. xhi. 181 . if not our admiration. revolve in every stream. 1 So in the public divine services the hymns and anthems are sometimes chanted in unison. pi. the jewel is in 1 Hue et p. and occasionally the hymns each monk intoning a different are actually chanted in a quite original manner. line . Klaproth. Though we know something of such doctrines nearer home. are ".' Gabet. filled sages from holy books. Ladak. and even (by the help open of sails like those of windmills) are turned by every breeze which blows o'er the thrice-sacred valleys of Tibet. 'Transactions of the Royal Asiatic ' Reise in den Kaukasus. a plan which has is its manifest advantages when the object holy words as possible.' that is. stand with prayers. lofty flag- with silk flags upon them emblazoned with that ' mystic charm of wonder-working power. so that the whole entire chapter in the time it body can chant an takes to chant a single verse.' . Davis. Otn Mani padme hum] 'Ah. Ferguson. the multitude of words. to get through as many what they staffs So. General Cunningham's 374. one by the other.210 TIBETAN BUDDHISM. ii. 'Voyages. the Tibetan carries them out with a fearless logic which may gain our wonder. also.' i. or charms. sometimes antiphonally one verse by one choir. 'Tree and Serpent Worship. Perhaps the most marvellous invention which he has devised for drawing down blessings from the hypothetical beings with which his childish fancy has filled the heavens. these simple folk are fond of putting up ' call Trees of the Law. But this takes time .' Society. or pasin the towns in every place.' i. the sacred words. 324.he well-known praying wheels. 494.
PRAYING FLAGS.e. the flags are blown open by the wind. down 1 On Lamaism may be compared also the few remarks below. and the holy six syllables are turned towards heaven. Everywhere in Tibet these praying flagstaffs meet the eye and one may be glad in closing this outline of the theological doctrines which have smothered Buddhism. 211 is the Self-creative force ' in the Kosmos). it counts as if a prayer were uttered. . is not without its graceful side. the lotus' (i. 1 . pp. but also upon the whole country-side. a prayer which brings Whenever ' blessings not only upon the pious devotee at whose expense it was put up. 248-250. however foolish. to have met with a custom which.
both cases I have been compelled to state the results to which I have been led. it partly. and to the sketch of Buddhist meta- In physics. sible to discuss with that fulness which to make * perhaps. Similar objections apply. with almost equal force to the sketch of Gautama's life. without combating the objections to them. because it would be impos- is necessary a chronological discussion of much value . But there not sufficient space at make the question of the Buddhist I can only refer. therefore. partly. to the . our disposal to era even clear. and without giving at sufficient length the processes by which they have possible been reached : and in the constant endeavour to matters as make clear the discussion of these abstruse and simple as I omitted to touch upon possibly could. because it would be difficult in any case to make the subject clear. I must have points which ought to have is been noticed. CHAPTER IX. ON THE HISTORY OF THE ORDER.312 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. question that arises in giving a sketch of the of Buddhism is that of the date of Gautama's history death a question so intricate and uncertain that I have decided not to enter upon it at any length in first THE this little work. which I have above attempted to give.
' p. After Gautama's death.' and merely state here the final conclusion that the Buddha died in the fifth century u. II first council. pp. and by far the largest in numbers of all the religious orders which the world has seen. which still exists in the Vaihara hill. with whom the Buddha had once exchanged robes as a symbol of the unity of feeling between them. determined immediately after the death of the Teacher to hold a council in order to settle the rules and doctrines of their Order the first.c. near Rajagriha. did not at once asunder into numerous sects though doubtless from the very first there must have been some among the fall . and under the presidency of the aged Maha Kasyapa. authorities there quoted. 189.FIRST COUNCIL. one of the first members of the Order.. iii. see above. them who retained more than the rest the influence of the Brahmanism in which they were brought up. and which was prepared for the occasion by King 1 On the On Kasyapa. the Buddhist society. full 213 my statement of the argument which will be found in 'Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon.' vol. It is possible that further knowledge may throw doubt on the fact of its having been really . The first council was accordingly held near Raja- griha in the season of was following the death of the Buddha. as both Pali and Sanskrit texts agree. see the Vinaya Texts. 89. that is. This was owing to the wisdom of the older members. 1 the The Order. as it has been the most abiding and influential. members of the Order. and was held council consisted of 500 members of in the Sattapanni cave. and Mahavansa. book xi. ' ' and the held. who.
learnt by heart. pp. 29. 3 4 ' Parajika. 4 1 It is as follows : Hence ' the Pali word for council is Sangtti.' canto iv. Hodgson. 355. p. and below. said to have chanted together l the words of their revered Teacher. s. Burnouf. following Upali when the subject was the rules of the Order (Vinaya). 'the chanting together. Introd.' p. 60. case. ' 'Manual. had been. p. 61 . Some parts of the Pitakas. Diet.. vansa. 356 v. . Lotus. sloka 17 . Dlpa- . griha the doctrines of Buddhism had already been formulated into treatises which could be. 36. 51-63. and Anguttara. be the however much of the Thera Vada other parts may contain and this question cannot even be discussed until the Pitakas are published bear evident marks of later composiBut that at the time of the Council of Rajation. See Childers. preserved in the Theravada or . Sadd. p. 'Essays' (1874). and which This cannot. yet that from the earliest times the contents of the first two of our three Pitakas was well is known. Alwis. Pali Grammar. 3 which shows that though the division into Pitakas of later date.214 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. There the whole council is Ajatasatru of Magadha. 15. existing in Ceylon. Pund. The orthodox Buddhists believe that the Thera Vada is identical with the Three Pitakas as now however. 235. Majjhima. 175. pp. 2 There is a very ancient division of the Scriptures found in some of the oldest books. and Ananda when the subject was those more general doctrines of the Elders precepts applicable to the Order and the laity alike (Dharma). is not only not impossible but highly probable. . Hardy. 2 Compare the remarks above.' pp.
bring as it all the Pitakas within these divisions to but both. . Vedalla l . Short notices of it are given by the Chinese Buddhists. and by the Tibetans. 2 . 20). loc. 6. 21). . ' golians (ibid. Both the Ceylon chronicles seven months. Taranatha's ' History of Buddhism. (Hodgson. 248. Par.754-757* The three Comp. 7. Book XII. Veyyakarana Exposition. xxv. Burnouf. 3 Some of the monks 1 Means the same as Vaipulya in Sanskrit. 5.' p.. by the Moniii. p.' i. seems me. Long treatises. 4. verse. The Nepal and Buddhaghosha attempts to . p.SECOND COUNCIL. 41. 3 On the second Council. Apadana is one of the divisions of the second Pitaka.' voL ' ' PP. S. p. pandits attempt to bring all the later works of Sanskrit Buddhism under the above and three other2 heads. Discourses. 1.' p. 3.' . 158. Gatha . in the Vinaya Texts. Abbhuta.' and Upadesa '/. Schiefner. 310. 248) . . 5) gives the Order till the time of the second council of Vaisali. 238. 99). Sanang Setsen.' canto iv. Mixed prose and . (Beal.. 20). p. 9.' chap. 'Lotus. p. 8. After this we have no details of the history of the say that the first council lasted the Dlpavansa (iv. Udana (see above p. Fa Hian. end. iv. and names of eight of its principal members. D. others are Nidana. 19.. Avadana. with very little success. p. Itivuttaka (see above p. about 100 years after the first. 4. See above.. 'Voyages. Jataka (see above p. Geyya . in Remusat's 'Foe Koue Ki. 397-399. Verse. . . Julien's 'Vie de Hiouen Thsang.). Mysteries. and Rh. see Dlpavansa. 21 S Sutta. Mahav. ch. and v.
3. but till the sun threw shadows two inches long. That gold and silver might be received by members of succeeded the Order. water. maintained what are called the salt at Vaisali gences. that consent might be obtained and not only before the act. Ten indulThey were : might be preserved in horn.. this Taranatha's list differs. 2. and forthwith under the leadership of Yasa. whereas salt like other edibles might not according to the Winaya be laid aside for use. 1 After a severe struggle. and not only in the uposatha halls attached to the monasteries. son of Kakandaka. 9. might be 4.. performed in private houses.21 6 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. 5. That seats covered with cloths were allowed. and of Revata. confession. 4. 1. 3. the consent of the Order was 5. That solid food might be taken. a second 1 council. That That the rules of the in the country. 8. &c. 10. 6. 6 . 2. the more orthodox party in getting these indulgences condemned . Winaya might be relaxed from the conveniences of the away monasteries. That conformity to the example of others was a good excuse for relaxing rules. 7. That ordination. so long as the cloths had no fringes. necessary to any act. not only up till noon. if they looked like were allowed to be drunk. which were opposed by others. That where after. and not only liquids such as water or milk. That whey might be taken after noon. That fermented drinks. especially as to Nos.
The Patisambhida. rules of the Order and the doctrines of the Faith again settled and vindicated. ' p. 4 These are Xos. What was the obvious and what the higher meaning. 21.Dharma' and 'Vinaya' ' Bhanavara V.' the '.' See 1 The whole of the ' loc. Attached new meaning to new words. ' r> . It is to be regretted that we have not as yet any seceders detailed account of this struggle from the side of the for it is difficult without such assistance to . 4 and a portion of the Jataka 4 So much they put aside. 10-12 in the Khuddaka Nikaya. the Great Council. But the decisions of the council were not universally acknowledged. The other party also held a council.' : The monks They broke up A of the Great Council overturned religion.). partly rejected the Sutta and Vinaya so deep.THE 'GREAT COUNCIL. distorted the sense and the doctrine of the five Nikayas length. and made othe rs in their place ! Sasana. And They destroyed much of the spirit by holding to the shadow of the letter. as if spoken by the Buddha. These monks who knew not what had been spoken at And what had been spoken concisely.' See p. much more numerous than that of their stricter opponents. as the Southern Church calls them 'heretics. the old Scriptures and made a new recension. (Bhuddhaghosha. and the six books of the Abhidhamma. And made a different Sutta and Vinaya and text. decide how much truth there may be in the partial The Dipavansa2 says of the descriptions before us. and hence called the Maha Sangiti. 4 the Nidesa. at. And discourse put in one place they put in another.' 217 and the 1 time of 700. was held during eight months at Vaisali. The Parivara 3 commentary. 20. 3 The last book in the ' Vinaya Pitaka.
298. know almost nothing at present of the differences which divided these sects from one Tibetans. and though the dispute between the two great divisions of the laxer and the stricter bodies may have been bitter. himself an ad- In herent of the Great Vehicle. the 32 heresies above. 2 they doubtful whether the eighteen sects were sects in the modern sense. whether. p. is. formed different church governments.2l8 HISTORY OK THE ORDER. calls all the others heretics. 1892-93. and the noise of their passionate discussions rises like the waves of the Heretics of the different sects attach themselves to parsea. Thsang." 1 Csoma 2 On in As. . but they all contradistinction to belonged to the Little Vehicle the Great Vehicle of the It is later debased that Buddhism. i. ticular teachers. xx. and by different routes walk to the sarru goal. and from the list of eighteen sects given by the . Some of them at least. the 18 sects... ' Julien. the next paragraph he gives the number of the sects as eighteen. themselves. 8 Asiatic Society. 77. see my articles in the Journal of the Royal sects.' &c. they each and that the others could attain the all acknowledged same salvation as In the words of the learned Chinese 3 Buddhist Hiouen Thsang "The schools of philosophy are always in conflict. 98. p. This was the first open and declared schism. 96) mentions 96 Conip. and their adherents lived apart from one another in different monasteries. Memoires. must have differed only slightly from the rest. Res. 1 We another in . Both the Ceylon chronicles go on to give the names of 18 sects (or rather of 17 besides the orthodox) into which these two afterwards divided but the lists differ as to five or six names from one another. Fa Hian (Heal.
These struggles gave a chance to men of the lower castes which they could never have in the old system a system which. and then ensued a series of struggles Ganges between Magadha and the neighbouring kingdoms of Kosambi and Sravasti. which raised a low-caste adventurer to be the first king of all India it. The the time of stances. intrigues for the coveted possession of the throne. It is instructive to notice that this rapid is 2 I ) growtn of placed just at the time when me political history of the Eastern valley of the Ganges would have been most likely to favour and strengthen the Buddhist sects it. or as both Buddhists and first Brahmans would call to be the Monarch. old Aryan civilisation had begun even at Gautama to yield to changing circum- The influence of the priesthood was becoming more exclusively spiritual. of the clans The kingdom of Magadha had by that time become supreme. the first Universal India was the world.POLITICAL CHANGES. while the temSome of the poral power of the chiefs was growing. The lesser chiefs had to take sides with one or other of the powerful combatants. and the oligarchies of the clans were more and more merging into Shortly after Gautama's death Ajataking of Magadha. while each country became the scene of . and either just before or just after the councils had assembled in the old capital of the Wajjians.' just as ' . To them Chakravarti. that important revolution took place. destroyed the Confederation of the Wajjian clans on the opposite side of the despotisms. satru. latter had even then become kings. at the time of the Councils of Vaisali. must almost have ceased to exist.
robber chief stept into the vacant throne title and shortly afterwards. and there a defeated rebel escaping from the hands of the king of Magadha visited his camp.C. or Greeks adding the glow of the sun-myth to the glory of Alexander. the Greek ruler Is it possible that he was of the Indus provinces. . the Indians should have formed an ideal of their Chakravarti. the low-born . and that the of the Buddha should be tinged with coloring of these Chakravarti myths ? story It the was in torious career 325 B. and transferred to this new ideal many of the dimly sacred and half-understood traits of the Vedic heroes ? Is it surprising that the Buddhists should have found it edifying to recognise in their hero the Chakravarti of Righteousness. gathered round him the tribes of the Panjab. drove Greeks out of India. was murdered in his palace. When Alexander had turned away. Is it ' surprising that this unity of like power ? in it one man made a deep impression upon them Is surprising that Romans worshipping Augustus. that Alexander stopt his vicon the banks of the Hyphasis. 1 He began to count his reign seven or eight years before. European writers till quite recently talked comthe world. and gradual!) extended his power till. 1 when Nanda. defeating Seleukos.. about 315 B. that despised and rude adventurer. under the the or name of Chandragupta. whom he had almost determined to kill. the Raja of Magadha.220 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. when he became king of the western provinces.C.' while they were ignoring placently of more than three-fourths of the human race.
the party of reform. properly speaking. . ghata. 221 the Asoka in whose reign both our Pali and SanIt is Councils ? skrit books place the Vaisali certain that the ing this his Asoka with Kakavarna moon-protected himself Ceylonese are wrong in identify. it would be found in the fact that the Greeks only know Bindusara as Amitrochates a difference unexplained till Lassen pointed out that Amitrochates is the Sanskrit AmitraFoe-slayer. began to rise rapidly Neither Chandragupta nor his son Bindusara1 were Buddhists . it is clear King Nanda. Chandragupta. but an epithet. and is reverenced from the Volga 1 If any proof were wanted that Indian. in influence. best known under the name of Asoka (in Pali Asoka).CHANDRAGUPTA. Piyadasi. who. that the Buddhists. ' . just when the old order of things had given place to new. is honoured wherever the teachings of the Buddha have spread. invariably styles is not a name at all. while placing the Vaisali Council in the time of Asoka. His name openly adopted the now popular creed. the party who made in numbers and light of caste distinctions. the name by which grandson the great Asoka. the like Piyadasi. of their kings had an official epithet which often took the place more proper name.' doubtless the official epithet of Bindusara. two. like other Oriental. that it was just when Chandragupta and his low caste followers from the Panjab came into power. but the third of the race. adds that its members were supported by However this may be. adopted probably after the rise of his power and probability is also in favour of the name Asoka being twice found rather in one family than in This would seem to be confirmed by Taranatha.
and hospitals for man and beast. of course. If a man's fame/ says Koppen. that the conversion itself injured the church. but those rich domains first That the wealthy Pope received of thee. of how much ill was cause. conversion. He himself built many monasand dagabas. . not.' Asoka is more famous than Charlemagne or Like his Christian parallel Constantine. which took place in the loth year of his reign. to Japan. the words of Dante 1 : Ah ! Not thy Constantine. he became a very zealous supporter new religion. and pubgardens lished edicts throughout his empire. Within the last 50 years a most important and interesting discovery has been made of several of of the teries ' Inferno. and provided many monks with the necessaries of life. it And yet cannot be doubted that it was the on the downward path of Buddhism. he was converted by a miracle. After his conversion. without much change. enjoining on all his subjects morality and justice. from Ceylon and Siam to the borders of Mongolia and Siberia.22 2 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. can be measured by the number of hearts ' ' who revere his have mentioned and memory. Csesar. 'Paradise.' canto xx. but Buddhist writers have cause to use. .' canto xix. by the number of lips who still mention him with honour. The transla- tion is Milton's. and he encouraged those He also established about his court to do the same. great step the first step to first its expulsion from India. so highly do the Buddhist scribes estimate his adhesion to their cause.
kindness to the and mercy towards . or hypothetical deities. engraven in different Prakrit dialects on whose wide distance from one another show the great extent of Asoka's pillars are at Delhi and Allahabad the empire. brute indulgence to inferiors reverence towards . 2 children creation . from Delhi to Jayapura. Obedience friends . and have been since by Emile Senart. or charms the edicts are full of a lofty . 1 They were first published and translated by James Prinsep. pp. and at Babra. rooks at Kapur da Gin near Peshaur. reminding us often of the wise and simple teachings of the Siga- lovada Sutta. then republished by Wilson. then further explained by Burnouf and Biihler and Their general sense is not at all doubtful. We spirit of tolerance and righteousness. at Girnar in Guzerat. Brahmins and members of the Order 1 suppression In the edicts themselves he claims to rule also over South India and Ceylon. to parents .W. It were much to be wished that the Indian Government would have a correct published of these noble memorials of a byegone time. nothing of ritual. 223 pillars or rocks. and the text is by no means settled. or beings ceremonies. It is clear from these that Buddhism in the time of Asoka was most valuable inscriptions still com- hear nothing of metaphysical paratively pure. 143-148. is these edicts.ASOKA'S EDICTS. at Dhauli in Orissa. records unique of their kind in the edition history of the world. on the sufficient to The . road running S. but the facsimiles which have hitherto reached Europe have been imperfect. . See above.
that of Babra. All those things. was held under the presidency of Tissa. revehealth and happiness. the true Law I honour. reverend sirs.. order to share in its advantages ' the yellow robe in whenever they had . passion. son of Moggali . 39Captains Burt and Kittoe. and heretics. which (the it . 718-730. they acted according to their own will. 616. The increased respect paid to the Order had attracted to ' its ranks many unworthy members . lasting nine months. 32-43- . were well spoken by looking upon them. Burnouf. Soc. cruelty. kind-hearted).' assumed says the Mahavansa. of Magadha. the delight of the gods. to. of the Bengal As. 'Lotus. says as follows King Piyadasi rend the sirs. greeting You know.000 elders. of anger. 38. just before the council held at in the i8th year of Asoka's reign.' pp. wishes Law. and charity such are the lessons which ' the kindly king. is One Order Patna of these edicts in addressed to the Buddhist Magadha. and not according to what was right. Kern. generosity. were spoken by the Blessed Buddha. and tolerance. Jahrtelling.' 1 Accordingly. a formal council of 1. reverend sirs. opinions of their own they gave them forth as doctrines of the Buddha. and once more the rules of the Order and the doctrines of the Faith were solemnly rehearsed and settled. 1 - Pp. and the Order.224 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. The a : edict referred the Order. as authority.' all his inculcates on subjects. ix. pp. as such. J. the followwill long endure. or extravagance. reverend sirs. how great is my respect and reverence for the Buddha.
of) 4 tures of the Law. with the is quite unfounded . 72. the Discourse on Conduct Befitting the Wise. the excellency.' vol. p. xxvi.. I I think it would be evident from this inscription alone.-samutkarsha. the conclusion is inevitable that these cannot have preserved to us the recension made by the Council of Patna. but they never could have omitted their canon. 225 1 ing Scriptures of the Law : The substance of the Vinaya. shows us that books agreeing to these descriptions were then extant. i. the son of Sari. reverend sirs. 30. Comp. and have uttered my desire. Child. pp. or may have inserted them in other later books which they regarded as sacred. reverend also the laity of either sex. 149. and if we do not find them somewhere in the present Pitakas. I hope monks and nuns may constantly learn and that the honourable reflect upon . that the whole of the Three Pitakas was spoken by Buddha. sirs. moreover. p. * Vinaya-Samukase=V.* the Poems on (or the Wise. p. for a comparison of it given above pp. Muni-gatha. Thera. Upatissa is * 6 Moneya-suta=moneyya-sutta. Rahula was Gautama's son. the name of the monk usually called Sari-putta. Diet. p. 1 ' them from mary of the Vinaya. sumSee Vinaya Texts. meaning of 3 4 Anagata-bhayani.COUNCIL OF PATNA. 7 See Vinaya Texts. 617. Asoka's list. . Com. the State of the Just. Above. 18-21. There is much doubt about the real vasani.' vol. will show the reader that the list is far shorter than that of the list Pitakas. 50. this to be written. 21. i. the Exhortations to Rahula regard7 These scriping Falsehood spoken by the Blessed Buddha. and so cause To that end. Aliya (=ariya) vasani.and Therl-gatha above.* the Fears of the Future.* 8 the Questions of Upatissa. that the belief of the Ceylonese Buddhists. The pious editors may have described them by other titles.
the Nepalese Buddhists are perhaps 1 2 2 ignorant. as It must be borne are in different dialects. are such that if we should expect to find them. It is not known to be mentioned in any Sanskrit Buddhist . which is the foundation of the first part and the Muni-gatha. the Ariyavasani Ariyas being the same as the Arahats who have which The Terrors of the Future entered the 4th Path. seems to be a description of the different worlds of purgatory. mind in that we only know the contents of a few of the books jects at one division of the Sutta Pitaka. -missionaries were sent into It is Majjhima No. it should be noticed. The differences in the names need not sur- We lists the two in should expect to find slight differences. same the Qth. seems to be a description of Nirvana. and it may also have included of the ist Pitaka . in . and the subof those books in Asoka's List. work but it is mentioned. at the The present unknown. the 8th Book of the 5th Division of the 2nd Pitaka. but Gautama in and several purport answer to questions by to have been addressed nothing has yet been heard of one on the subject of Falsehood. of which.226 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. which we cannot present trace. 1 At the close of the Council of Patna. Book's we of find them are at all. 71. in those Divisions. delivered by Sariputta. The Vinaya-samukasa is perhaps the same as the Patimokkha. with both the former ones. prise us. one of which is described in the Petavatthu. the yth Book of the 5th Division of the 2nd More than one Sutta purports to have been Pitaka. to Rahula.] [Since found. possibly the as the Thera-gatha.
1 That is. xiii. Mahadeva. . 8 whether this could have ' Historische Skizzen des alien Buddhismus. .. Sena and Uttara. It surely cannot mean Tibet (see Childers. I.. .. . and the 8th chapter Dipavansa and the i2th chapter of the Mahavansa give us the details comprised in the following table : To Kashmir and . land .BUDDHIST MISSIONARIES. . Mahinda and others.. teste Lassen. Aparantaka Maharattha 4 Yonaloka 4 Himavanta* 3 . . call the Golden. 681). which the classical geographers. . More probably the whole coast from Rangoon to Sincapore..A. of Ceylon. 6 Bombay. seat of the Mahrattas the west of the Panjab. Majjhima.. Maha Dhammarakkhita. Perhaps the Malay Peninsula is meant. uncommon even at Palladji's ' In the time of the Ceylon chronicles it was no thing for boats to cross the Indian Ocean. .S.R. . 1 139. 'Diet.. A. to India. ..imlhiira MahTsa Vannvasi* 1 went Mnjjhantika.'). in the Desert 3 4 in Rajputana.. G. its broadest part. .' in Erman's i. i. 150 miles north-east of * Bactria.. ui). different 227 of the countries .. teste Koppen. Suvanna-bhumi 7 Lanka (Ceylon) . Archiv. Rakkhita. his relics The central Himalayas.. 206 and following.' pp.. . (Cunningham. Palladji The most southerly settlement of the Aryans. . at the sources of the Go- davari. where lately discovered 7 ! and were The Golden Land. The Border The ancient that is. drew his materials from Chinese sources. Majjhima returned was burned under one of the Sanchi Topes. Perhaps it was on the borders of the Great Godavari. the Wilderness.. J. Maha Rakkhita. south of Oe Nizam's dominions (Lassen. 249. 8 Parakrama the Great. ii. the BactrianDhammarakkhita... actually sent an army . which is still so called in Ceylon..
stated in them to have established in neighbouring lands hospitals for man and beast ." J. 3. Asoka founded an office. and to have dug wells and planted trees on the roadsides for the use of man and beasts. For similar acts by Buddhist kings of Ceylon. that of chief Minister of Justice or Religion. ch. ment and the progress of the aborigines and the a striking conjunction of duties..R. women in the . .S. to have planted medicinal plants and fruit-bearing trees where such did not naturally grow . in the been thought of time of Asoka is doubtful. and to overlook and care for the right treat- Dharma Mahdmdtra..' p.228 HISTORY OP THE ORDER. should so entirely confirm that one of them which would. Tumour.. see my article 1 "On Two Old Sinhalese si. pp. 24. The Edicts also show us that Asoka was not content with spreading the precepts of Buddhism He is within his own territories. 25 . 1 As the foreign countries where these orders across See 'Coins and to Cochin China about A. 242. have as those used in the been least likely to be true. whose duty it was to preserve the purity of religion. In the same year. subject races Similar officials were appointed in the dependent and others to promote the education of the harems and elsewhere in the principles of the religion of Gautama and these appointments courts. p. 245. if unconfirmed. Mah. Ixxx. and it is certainly very curious that the inscription in the same characters most of the Asoka Edicts found on tomb of Majjhima. were also recorded in the edicts.D. Inscriptions. Mah. Measures of Ceylon. large as they were.A. The other items are not improbable. 1180. 1875.
Pandya. See my articles J. p.). the modern Besnagar. the delight of the ' he probably adopted from his great contemporary. 89.' a title council to introduce Buddhism into that island. as far as our present purpose is concerned. he took with him a band of monks. close to which are the Bhilsa Topes.C. To him. called king of Ceylon at that time was Tissa (250-230 B. south 4 of the Narmada. but by religion. as we have seen above.' p. Ceylon. Satyaputra. Sumana and Bhandu. others. Asoka claims to have sent embassies to four Greek kings whose names enable his date to be fixed within a few and to have won from years the sword. The Koromandel coast is the mattddala. where General Cunningham has made such interesting discoveries. not by or mis- The most important of Asoka's embassies sions was. 3 ' Jahrtclling. 76. When he did so. pp. however. .A.MAHINDA S MISSION TO CEYLON. 77.R.. 4 Greek king Antiochus. or province of Chola. and Bhaddasala . and the land of the In another edict. undoubtedly. He did not. that which he sent to The Ceylon. and Kerala together are used in later in the Ceylon inscriptions to describe all South India. 3 l 229 Pandya. Chola. 6 and also.S. 71) Itthiya. Four of the names are given ('Mahav. The modern Satpura mountains (Ilolkar's dominions). in Tanjiir. 3 I read Pada in accordance with Madura and Tinnivelli. were carried out are mentioned Chola. in the chronicles Tissa. Asoka's own son Mahinda. 2 Kerala. 5 who had been admitted into the Order 1 2 years before. Kern. start till the next year. * The Malabar coast. 8 Uttiya. Mahinda and his sister Sanghamitta were born at Wessanngar. was sent immediately after the gods. for 1874 and 1875.' and two Sambala.' ' them a victory.
the central trunk-road which runs along its side. and had even allowed himself to be crowned by Asoka's ambassador. each now surmounted by a Dagaba. who became a very zealous ad herent and supporter of the new religion probably because it was the religion of Asoka. Close by it the king also erected a monastery for the Indian monks.236 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. together with These commentaries the commentaries upon them. the Pitakas as just settled at the Council of Patna. affords a magnificent view of the plains below. he subsequently translated from the Pali into the Sinhalese Prakrit. but the details prove that the relic is fictitious. he had his study hollowed out. at a completely shut out from the world. or for . form so striking an object from. There also the of the hill. that the famous missionary spent most of his after years. with holes either for curtain rods. The king was persuaded by Mahinda to build the Thuparama Dagaba. the three peaks of which. stone couch which was carved out of the solid rock still exists. which is still one of the glories of the ruined city of Anuradhapura. He had already sent an embassy to Asoka. the memory of himself and of his followers. eight miles to the east of the city. and had received an embassy in return. and steps cut in the rock over which alone it could -be reached. spot which. Here on the precipitous western side under a large mass of granite rock. and another on the beautiful hill of Mihintale. It was on this hill. He vanam Piya was received with great favour by king DeTissa. Under it both the chronicles say that the right collar-bone of Gautama was buried.
hill he afterwards died. Sanghamitta also brought over with her a branch of the sacred 1 ' Bo Tree.and instructed the new disciples in the precepts of Buddhism. Shortly after the building of the Thuparama Dagaba Mahinda accord- had commenced.000 years ago the great teacher of Ceylon had sat. there is only heard that hum of the insects which never ceases. Taking leave of her father.. and of several of their most learned pupils are yiven in the Dipav. their principal occupation being the hearing and repeating of the sacred books. th.MAHINDA'S STUDY. in whose warm light the broad valley below lies basking. and worked through the On that long years of his peaceful and useful life. then full of busy homesteads..' p. and thought. a protecting 231 balustrade beside it. Not a sound reaches it from the plain. and quiet chamber. who had entered the Order at the same time with himself. and the rustling of the leaves of the trees which 1 shall not easily cling to the side of the precipice. cool. . The names of nine of them. the tree then growing at * Compare Mahav. so simple and yet so beautiful. some of the expressed a wish to king's female relations become nuns. 18. which is the principal object of the 1 reverence and care of the few monks who still reside in the Mahintale Wihare. and his ashes still rest under the Dagaba. forget the day when I first entered that lonely. she brought over with her a band of nuns. now the cave from The great rock the heat of the one far-reaching forest. where more than 2. effectually protects sun. 123. ingly sent for his sister Sanghamitta.
and the Cypress of Sorna. Buddha Gaya on the site of the present temple. not. must be purely inferential whereas the age of the Bo Tree is matter of record. was planted 288 2. This should be 245 .232 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. Sir Emerson Ten- " The Bo Tree of Anuradha-pura the oldest hisfo) ical tree is. . and the Conqueror's Oak half Windsor Forest barely numbers The Yew trees of Fountain's Abbey are beits years. the Eucalyptus of Tasmania. and the story of its vicissitudes has been preserved in a series of continuous chronicles. and then believed. Terment adhered to the now-rejecte-d The Bo Tree is now (1877) 2. ' in the -world. in Lombardy. to be the very tree under which Gautama had experienced is that mental conflict which called his attainment of That precious memorial of their revered teacher was planted at Anuradhapura. among kind. is said to have been a tree in the time of Julius Ccesar yet the Bo Tree is older than the oldest of these by a century .147 years years before Christ. the Olives in the garden of Gethseinane were full grown when the Saracens were expelled from Jerusalem . and. perhaps. : But all these estimates are matter of conjecture . the Dragon tree of Orotava. and hence is now old. however ingenious. as it may seem. without reason. the most authentic that have been handed down by manis Compared with it the in Oak of Ellerslie but a sapling. lieved to have flourished there 1.200 years ago. and the chestnut of Mount Etna. strange Buddha-hood. the Wellingtonia of Ages varying from one California.122 years old. a little to the south of the Ruwanwaeli Dagaba . to four thousand years have been assigned to the Baobabs of Senegal. in It all probability. and would almost seem to verify the prophecy pro: 1 chronology. there nent says of it : it still grows. its conservancy has been an object of solicitude to successive dynasties. and such calculations.
and be The tree could scarcely have lived so long had not been for the constant care of the monks. 3 Dewanam-piya Tissa.C. that it would "flourish. about B. nounced when green for ever. who for some 60 years retained the Northern provinces and the kingly power in their hands. The whole history Ueber Buddha's Todesjahr. As showed it. large 1 Dagabas at Anuradhapura. and soon after his death Ceylon was for the first time overrun by the Tamils. See Westergaard ' Q . 39. 1 40. See also above. its botanical name species its than twenty feet above for the tree being of the fig fans religiosa its living branches could then throw out fresh roots. pp. a grandson of Tissa's brother. quoted Not is are his own. ii. the Miriswceti. note. it it signs of decay terraces were built it up around so that now grows more is the surrounding soil .' discussion here on this period of Sinhalese most valuable. rude pillars of iron or masonry have been used to prop them up . by Dushta Gamini. and foil. 613. They were driven out. but we could not be sure of its identity were it not for the complete chain of documentary evidence which has been so well brought 2 together by Sir Emerson Tennent. who reigned for 20 years.. who had fled to This king also was a the south of the island. Where long arms spread beyond the enclosure. and it is carefully watered in seasons of drought. 164." it ' 233 was planted. The whole aspect of the tree and its enclosure bears evident signs of extreme age . p. 150 italics .THE BO TREE. He built two of the zealous supporter of Buddhism. * The Ceylon. p. died just before Mahinda. In the appendix to the chap. 105.
C. and 330 years were which ' for the first death of Gautama.Mahav. a son of Dushta Gamini's brother. 207. S. if all the printed copies of the still Vedas were destroyed. Even at the present time. of the modern town of Matale. . in about 88 B. and the huge monastery (called the Great Brazen also its having been roofed with metal.'* it To is understand the real significance of this record necessary. Palace. Thirty-four years after his death the Dravidians again conquered the island. 1 60 years after the 250 feet in height after the and was in his reign.) whose 600 granite pillars still stand just outside the sacred enclosure round the Bo Tree. to get rid of the European notion that books can only be preserved in writing. 1 The relates this important event in a stanza. And.000 years. the Vedas would the memory of the priests. and the Commentary upon them. p. called the it Abhaya-giri Dugaba. and * Dlpav. 20. still is well-known. they wrote them in books. .234 feet HISTORY OF THE ORDER. verses 19. The Indian opinion is just the other way. high. that the Three Pitakas time reduced into writing. which well worth a visit. and those At Alu Lene. from i. : Mahavansa it quotes from the Dlpavansa The wise monks of former days handed down by word of mouth The text of the Three Pitakas. He built the largest Dagaba in Ceylon. Seeing the destruction of men. ch. in the first place. xx. a cave lies close to the great central road. 3 m. 200 feet high . and the Maha Thupa. . the monks of this time assembled. but were a second time driven out by VVatta Gamini. that the Faith might last long. about Council of Patna. be preserved in as they have been for cerpriests look tainly 1 more than 3.
but probability is in favour of our present text having been handed down correctly during the 160 years between Mahinda's arrival. that . they would argue. as the test to which all printed or written copies must give way. and the time when and since that time it has it was reduced to writing been preserved in the same manner as the classical 3 writings of whose authenticity there is no doubt. in vain to 1877? once tried persuade my friend and tutor. but when a text has to be preserved in a small country liable to be overrun by persecuting enemies.THE PITAKAS. 10. 2 That he did not choose to do so ought to throw no doubt upon the that identity of the existing version of the text with which he brought to Ceylon. We know that the square alphabet which Asoka used was at least known in Ceylon. if it did not originate there. the it learned and high-minded monk Yatranuille Unnansc. On this question. as on so many others. and to perpetuate mistakes but the text as handed down by word of mouth is preserved. . itself constantly repeated. . in which every word of the text is carefully enshrined. 1 Compare * See Dr. thus authenticated. and it becomes necessary to preserve it also in writing. we must wait for the publication of the Pitakas before we form a definite conclu- sion . If you written copies. 86. ijth February. the condition of things is changed. letter to the Actnieiny. but by of the commentaries. you depend upon are sure to make. 23$ upon the Veda. Mahinda could have written the texts had he so chosen. Goldschmidt's I the remarks above pp. 1 So long as not only by being assistance the reliance can be placed on the succession of teachers and pupils this argument may not be so far wrong.
. and he would not be convinced that books printed on our flimsy paper were safer than those written on substantial palm leaves. cl. that every trace of it has now been lost. is the work of Buddhaghosa. and rame Ceylon about 430 A. should turn out to be as early as this period.D. he quickly proved himself to be a master of all the Buddhist knowledge and he was employed by rulers of the Order in Ceylon to rewrite in Pali the commentaries which had till then been . unless. This seems to me highly improbable. as Alwis thinks. this is it As discussed. * Sidat Sangarawa p. may be the last place in which the text will be of interest to add that a Revision at Committee of the most learned monks met Ratna- pura during 1875. but since my departure from Ceylon the project has. Other influential Buddhists thought differently. at Buddha Gaya. would be a good thing to print the Pitakas. 1 Almost ascribed all the com- now existing are to him. He said they would be no longer copied . the Visuddhi Magga or Path of Holiness. two very ancient Sinhalese works. The only other event in the history of Ceylon Buddhism which we need here record. handed down mentaries his in Sinhalese. Compare my paper on Pali and Sinhalese literature in the 4th Annual Report of the Philological Society (1875). the This celebrated monk was born to near Bo Tree. been quite neglected. 250-253. a cyclopaedia of Buddhist doctrine. Mahav. Sumangala.236 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. and went carefully through the whole of the Pitaka Texts. 75. under the presidency of the learned Chief Priest. I am 1 afraid. There by his great work. p. p. the Kudusika and 2 Mulusika. and work was at least complete enough to drive the Sinhalese version so completely out of use.
. though there is every reason to believe that those sent to parts of the peninsula of India itself were not unsuccessful..THE COMMENTARIES. Samyutta Nikaya. Buddhavansa... Manoratha-puranI Paramattha-jotika . Khuddaka Pat ha and Sutta Nipata. Niddesa. ." s. Five last Sammoha-vinodanI Paiica-ppakarana Atthakatha . Dhamma-pada Atthakatha Paramattha-dipanI .. 1 Childers' ' Pali Diet. Patimokkha... Vimana-vatPeta-Vatthu Theragatha. Jataka. .. Abhidhamma The have other missions sent out after Asoka's Council few traces behind them. . Digha Nikaya. 2 37 The following now extant l : is a list of the Pali commentaries Samanta-pasadika Kankha-vitaram Sumangala-vilasim on the Vinaya. dhism from Ceylon when Buddhaghosa wont there after his stay in that . Atthakatha... . Cariya-pitaka Atthakatha Attha-salinI Dhamma-sanganl. Dhamma-pada. Vibhanga.. Theri-gatha.. Majjhama Nikaya. and Abhidhammattha-dlpanI Jataka Atthakatha Iti-vuttaka . Anguttara Nikaya. books cf the Pitaka. .. Saddhamma-ppakasim Visuddha-jana-vilasinI Madhurattha-viliisini A pad an a.. . Papanca-siidam Sarattha-ppakasini .D.. .. . v... Udana. Patisambhida. . Saddhamma-ppajotika . Both left Burma and Siam were first really converted to Budthe former about 450 A. . Cariya Pitaka. thu.
island. J. ii. 1092). the third of the three brothers. 3 His successor. Alexander Polyhistor.R. 1 ' Cunningham. this by stating that monks (Samanaioi) 'philosophised ii.Buddhism became the State religion of the north-westerly parts of India at about the commencement of our era.. who wrote 80-60 B. Crawfurd 'Journal of the Embassy to the Courts of Siam and Cochin China.. Huvishka first reigned in Kabul. but the point is still uncertain 2 . New Series v. where he built a monastery.' i.. and when driven out from there founded a new kingdom in Kashmir. was a very zealous Buddhist. Of the success of the missions towards the north we have more certain knowledge.D. but both of these His kings seem also to have been fire-worshippers.A. It is clear from the coins of Huvishka and Kanishka that . Dawson. also built a Vihara. confirms p. 238. who began to reign about 10 A. successor. 615. and the . iv. 182. 1076. * See Lassen's Indische Alterthumskunde. About this time also Buddhism penetrated from Java into the adjoining islands Bali and Sumatra. in Baktria ' (see tbe passage in Lassen. Hushka. over Yarkand and Khokan throughout Kashmir.' p.D. 1 638 A. 711. 'Ancient Inscriptions from Mathura.S.238 HISTORY OF THE ORDER.C.. p. however. the latter in Java seems to have missionaries from Kalinga in the sixth or seventh century. Kanishka's dominions extended from Kabul to the Hindu-kush and Bolor Mountains. Ladak. Kanishka. 'Archaeological Reports. but in the latter it never took firm hold. it received its first is only clear that Buddhism was the prevailing religion in the thirteenth century. and subsequently conquered the adjacent countries as far down as Mathura. . when the great Temple at Boro Budor was built.
is taken from 1 ihe 'Travels. 173-178). according to Hiouen Thsang. the Moguls. Gu/arat.' xx.' p. and Sindh and through the whole of the Panjab a magnificent empire. vol. The H. pp. pp. 41. Schiefner. nothing was done towards settling a canon of scripture which might have prevented the subsequent changes which so entirely reformed the The monks satischaracter of Northern Buddhism. 96). Chinese Life of H. but that learned traveller wrote nearly seven centuries afterwards. T. 310 oil from 297. each. pp. Kanishka held a council of 500 learned monks. 2 The only account of this council is in Hiouen Thsang's That in the 'Travels' (Jdicn's trans. there they probably still lie buried. and his account of None of the the council contains incredible details. l unfortunately. i. He tells a story of the miraculous completion of Vasu- .000 couplets. 95.' Schmidt 'Geschichte der Ost Mongolen. Res. 3. These three works Kanishka is said to have had . engraven on plates of copper. Parsvika. Upadesa on the Sutra Pitaka 2. in 100. fied themselves with drawing up three Commentaries... .315. over which he built a Dagaba.KAMISHKA'S COUNCIL. If the tradition preserved by Hiouen Thsang be correct. 239 down over the Himalayas (Himavanta) Upper Ganges and Jamna as far as Agra . Vinaya-ribashasasfra on the Vinaya and. over Rajpatana. pp. (Julien's trans. under At this council. sources independent of * council is referred to by Csoma. Central .. and sealed up in a stone box. On the recommendation of his tutor. T. i.. Abliidharma-ribashdsastra on the Abhidharma Pitaka. 17. 'As. unequalled in extent from the time of Asoka to that of plains of the . the presidency of Vasubandhu. 'Lebensbeschreibung.
79. from which. Beal's Catalogue. . bandha's Arahatship just after the council met. many of which are still extant. and had no written copies of them. it difference between would seem that there was but very little it and the Buddhism of the Pitakas. . 36. 49. 3 Ch.240 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. 1 or were known Burnouf or Csoma. p. This council is unknown to the Ceylonese BudAs it was held before the rise of the school of the so-called Great Vehicle. three works are mentioned in Hodgson's long list of Sanskrit Buddhist works extant in Nepal. 1876. sat. and from the Lalita Vistara. death Kanishka's empire fell When at his to pieces. J. the various masters handed down the doctrines by word of mouth. 4 though he does not mention the others. The same work is still extant in China and Japan. all our knowledge of early Sanskrit Buddhism is derived.S. and from the meagre accounts of them. The Upadesa mentioned above (p.. through the whole of Northern India. 36-39. p. the works then held sacred.R. com. Abhidharma-vibasha-sabtra explained to him during his residence in Kashmir. 5 dhists. must preserve the ancient Buddhism . and legendary. and before it evidently due to a reminiscence of the similar story about Ananda.000 slokas sound s * Essays (1874 Edition). 80. 4 Life. or are included in the sent to Europe 2 and Fa Hian says 3 that in his time. See the catalogue drawn up by Professors Co\vell and Eggeling.A. 164. 1 the detail about the 100. and a copy is in the India Office. Hiouen Thsang had the to Hodgson MSS. 215) is evidently a different and older work. pp.
monks in and China . and the Chinese themselves made many journeys to the older Buddhist countries to collect the sacred writings. along the took China. this. 29-79.. belonging to most of the different schools of later Nepalese Buddhism. 44. 62 A. 24! till succeeding dynasties again favoured Brahmanism. an embassy. valuable sketch of the history of Chinese Buddhism is Fa Hian. Buddhism had long before this penetrated to fixed route from India to that round the north-west corner of the Himalayas country. xx. 41. and brought Buddhist books to China. books to the then Emperor of and the Emperor Ming-Ti. A. dream.BUDDHISM IN CHINA. Buddhist A-ili 2 .. and still the state religion are.' p.-xxii..' pp. Monks from Central and North-Western India frequently travelled to China . to have of conquered Ceylon. and extended his power down the valley of the 1 Ganges as far as Kalinga and Orissa. Megha-vahana became King of Kashmir. China. ' guided by a is said to have sent to Tartary and Central India. iii. 'Fa Hian. very Buddhistic in its morality.D. but the native histories know nothing An inscription by him. 104144.. From this time Buddhism rapidly spread there. though no new sects seem to have been formed. perhaps sent by Huvishka. Already in the 2nd year B. 4 He is also said in the Raja Tarangini.D. given by Beal in the introduction to his translation of A .C. ' Foe Koue ' Ki.. and across Eastern Turkestan.' p. has been found in Orissa. 1 5 Remusat's Beal's 1 4 Foe Koue Ki. which they diligently translated into Chinese. In the fourth century Buddhism became there have been.
The old religion of Japan was a worship of the powers of nature. Klaproth. and the monks belonging to which wear the ordinary dress.' p. 43. Into -the Korea China as early in 552. the island of Formosa. p.. the Balkash or Dengis Lake. but even before then In India itself. 3 Many of them are thus allied to noble porates into belief to the royal family.' 8 Ibid. a monk named much Sin Ran. 255. by a learned Japanese in 1262. In the course of the century Muhammadamisrn drove Buddhism out as far as the west frontiers of China and India .242 HISTORY OF THE ORDER.D. carried on a continual struggle The latter gained ground all against Buddhism. Brahmanism. 2 as . thirteenth year of King Kin Mei Teno. Bokhara. 3 Annales des Empereurs de Japan. ' Foe Koue ' Ki. 1 Remusat. during the fourth and fifth centuries . in and even Japan Kochin China and Ava. the great mass of the people belong to this sect . and in the thirteenth century. in the Buddhism was introduced from l and thence into Japan 372 A. and all the Buddhists that is. who died founded a new Buddhist its which incor- of the old creed. . the latest development of which has been preserved in the work on Sin To. and into China again by way of Jungaria (Hi) and Kobdo. sect. from the commencement of our era. p. and marry. 25. and before that it had spread westwards and northwards from Kabul and Yashkand to Balk. but the fashionable religion of the chiefs is still the system of Sin To. probably received their Buddhism from China. woman of the twelfth century . and Mongolia. twelfth it had become weak and corrupt.
earlier. 657. 174-208. though monks from Balk was Buddhist . Fa Hian found Buddhist monks belonging to both Vehicles.D.D. 243 down fifth the Ganges valley and in Central India. but in Kaferistan. and monasteries.. and mentions that the king of Khoten was not a Buddhist. 2 two centuries Buddhism. dynasty. Sung Yun. From Indian coins and as. derived from the accounts of the Chinese pilgrim? Fa Hian.D. It is impossible here to compare at any length the data of the Chinese travellers. p. west of the Indus. 55. and were supporters ot Thomas. and princes and people honoured both. and Sung Yun did not penetrate further than Peshawur. we can only gather a few vague that the later kings of the data. 3 He came by Sung Yun's account is very short. till the century. ruling over ten kingdoms in Afghanistan but . pp. the usual route. whom Lassen 1 Gupta places from 435-540. 629-648 A. but Brahman priests and Hindu temples were scarcely less numerous. 654. and dagabas in great numbers. 1 iii. 1 ' Records of the Gupta Dynasty (1876). 518 A. all the way from Kabul down to Magadha. and Hiouen Thsang. inscriptions for instance. 400 A.. Hiouen Thsang found the powerful Buddhist king Kapisa. p. India had visited the country. a heathen Tartar conqueror was persecuting the believing people. and for some time longer in the south Almost all that we know of it i? of the peninsula. 660. . It \vil' je found translated in Beal's Fa Ilian. pp. East of the Indus all was Buddhist. and iv.CHINESE PILGRIMS.
was in much Gandhara never very dense in those regions. of the monasteries that he saw were in ruins. the same state. Even in Benares there against 100 idol temples. this council see the ' Life of Hiouen Thsang ' (Julien's transl. .000 monks. and mostly adherents of the Great Vehicle. and foil. where king and people were zeal- ous Buddhists. to constant wars and the shifting of the popu- many owing lation. however. Slldditya.). Peshawar. but the people were Buddhists still. especially in the former. also the On the Upper Ganges and Jamna dhists adhered to the old school. at which the teachings of the Little Vehicle were formally condemned. In Sravasti and Kapilavastu all was in ruins . pp. and in the ancient capital. the true belief was 1 On . Vehicle was still the favourite..D. Kanoj (Kanyakubja). and where Hiouen Thsang found 500 In Sindh the Little monasteries. who was a zealous Buddhist. as well as 100 Buddhist monasteries. the great monastery built by Kanishka was deserted . and heretics numerous. . held under Slladitya in 634 1 A. were only four monasteries In Magadha and Vaisali. the few monks remaining only followed the Little Vehicle Brahmans were flourishing. 242. This was also the case in Kashmir. At Kanoj there reigned the then most powerful monarch in all India. and himcapital there in the holy books but in his were 100 Hindu temples.244 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. and 5. Whilst he staid in this country Hiouen Thsang was present at the great council of self well read . but BudBrahmanism was also in great favour.
and the upper Panjab. Khandesh. He also describes at great length the dagabas. Nagpur. 245 by far the most flourishing. The even from Ceylon. and sheltered 1. at . which included Guzerat. On the whole Buddhism appears in Hiouen Thsang below the point at which it stood in Fa Hian's time . and to have been generally accepted as the one religion of the country only in Kashmir. Hiouen Thsang gives the names of the principal teachers. at the east end of the Rajagriha valley. in Magadha. ary. the powerful Vallabhi king. and the relics of which the Buddhist Holy Land was and Here both Vehicles were equally honoured. but in of which the Godavari was the south boundKalinga. it was again in the ascendant. Further down the Ganges and in Orissa Buddhism was in full life and on the west-side of the peninsula full. and himself studied there for years. and 50 monasteries principal seat of learning was Nalanda. was also Buddhist .000 monks. the legends..KUDDHISM still IN INDIA. Shortly after he 10 left India the Buddhists are said have been cruellj persecuted and oppressed by . Kosala. Nalanda all the sacred books of all the sects were repeated and explained. to which students from all parts of India. then called further south. ruled over a Buddhist country. however. and the south-west half of Rajputana. in Dravida. the holy places. and in to have fallen very far Guzarat. were attracted. to have been equal in power with Brahminism only where it was supported by powerful kings. Dhruvasenall. and throughout Telugu it was in little favour .
472. still king The tradition of supported the religion of Gautama. Samath show idols.S. quoted on Wang Pu translated by Beal.' 1 The best account of the Jains is by S. 128. and when it lost it no the favour of the kings. especially under the instigation of learned Brahmins Khumarlla Bhatta. sionaries went there is not. that ' all has been sacked temples. king of Orissa. the only country where the Order has Lamaism of become a hierarchy. and afterwards Sankaracharya .A. there India. preserved and by adopting the principal tenets. and When the first mishistory began with Buddhism.' Major Kitto in Cunningham's Reports.' 18/6. civilisation entered. . J. accurately many 1 The discoveries at priest. 123. and this than once. I. of Kashmir. and Sthlrapala. . but the details of their extermination are not known and in the eleventh century Harshadeva. it had no power to stand against In the twelfth century. as to caste and ceremonial observances. 1854. and burnt more See also pp. ' Over de godsdienstige en wijs geerige Begrippender Jainas. also certain that Buddhism had in the is eighth and ninth centuries become so corrupt that longer attracted the people. 2 A few words must be added on the Tibet. 126. altogether. except a few who an ignoble existence by joining the Jain sect. the persecution but it seems 1 certainly not devoid of foundation . as" other countries. Catena. ' The end was the streams of the Sweti (in Kabul) overflowing wjth blood. however. and Thomas. when Kashmir was conquered by were no Buddhists left in the Moslems.B. '. 121. of the ascendant Hindu creeds. Warren. p. in so Here. and acquired temporal power. the opposition of the priests.246 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. says p. 139.he the Hindus.
the repreon earth of Adibuddha. the crozier proved power. and then. present in the church. progress. and rapidly gained in wealth and influence. He is supposed the . As the Order became wealthy. This belief did much to hasten the downward course. century. I have already sketched above the development which took place in doctrine . and the chiefs had first tried to use the church as a means of bind- ing the people to themselves. rival abbots had contended for supremacy. the Dalai Lama became in had 1419 sole temporal sovereign of Tibet. But before the doctrine was thus carried out to its logical conclusion. as throwing light on the and the intimate connection of superdogma. gorgeous ritual.D. triumphant after his death. the Spirit of the Buddhus. long and severe struggles had Lama. destroyed the monasteries. and have noticed the rise of the belief in Avalokitevsara. who occupy much church same position as the cardinals in the Romish and to be especially incarnate in the Dalai infallible Head of the Church. the sentative taken place. 247 in the sixth known but Nepal was becoming Buddhist . Buddhist king of Tibet sent to India for the holy scriptures in 632 A.LAMAISM. the Buddhist pope. A century afterwards an adherent of the native devil-worship drove the monks away. to be present in the chittuktus. and priestly power. However interesting and instructive the study of the rise of natural causes stitious be. first and the and burnt the holy books but the blood of the it returned martyrs was the seed of the church . than the sword. it Lamaism may . startled at its and stronger to fight against it for their own privilege When in the long run.
and censers. The walls are covered with rude paintings of scenes from the legends of the Buddha. and the learned work of Koppen it. on the lowerthe bells. and in the furthest niche in a . or table of offerings. it would be quite outside our purpose to enter upon here. the abbots. . and the eighteen orders of inferior clergy. l will give its rise him. At the end is the holy place. ii.248 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. of his 'Religion des Buddha. kind of apse deified is now Gautama Buddha.' . with mystic symbol s of Sang-sara and other creations of Buddhist metaphysics. Vol. gradually decreasing in height and splendour. and its roof is supported by six massive pillars covered with beautiful carving. the seats of the Chutuktus. on in order the right that of the either side.and lamps. The church by gorgeous paint a long nave divided by rows of pillars from two aisles. Pantshen Lama. spoilt itself is and gilding. following sketch of the high service in Lhassa cathedral will show the reader the stage to The which Lamaism has now reached . should he so desire fall : a full account of or Temple of the holy a large hall where holy water and city through rosaries are sold. and clay. and in which stand four statues of is The entrance to the chief the Archangels. containing fifteen jewelled tablets. and by silver screens of open trellis-work from two large chancels. raised floor by several stages above the on the upper levels being images of gold. silver. and on In front of the idol is the high altar. the magnificent golden statue of the On the left is the throne of the Dalai Lama. Into the aisle on each side open fourteen chapels.
. the Ten Precepts. marches down the aisle. and all the monks burst A out into a Df all the hymn Buddhas. the Three Refuges. : vessel or mystic symbols. Above. 160. bell is rung. of prayer for the presence of the Spirit One of them raises aloft over his head a looking-glass the idea of which seems to be to catch the image of the spirit as it comes a second raises aloft a jug a third a mystic symbol of a fourth a cup . which another wipes each time with a napkin of silk. p. Sec above. when the offerings are blest. and the sound of the bells and drums and trumpets grows louder and louder. on his throne each Lama bows three times before him. and all according to his rank. and then seats himself cross-legged on the divan A bell is then rung. 1 and After silence is restored the bell sounds again. with the living its Buddha at When he is seated head. At the sound of a horn or trumpet the clergy assemble in the entrance hall. day. murmur other formulas. and the church is filled with incense from the sacred censers. The water flows over the mirror on to the symbol of the world. and the priests now sing in choir 2 If it be a feast longer pieces from the sacred books. .SERVICE AT I. The monk with the jug pours several times water mixed with sugar and saffron over the mirror. Meanwhile the voices of the singers. 210. and others other sacred the world .1IA 249 and other vessels used in the holy service. or prayer for sanctification. the highest point of the service is reached in the Tuisol. third blast the procession. and is caught : in the cup beneath. * Thence the holy p. wearing the cloak and cap and at its .
p. its . I. 'Buddhism I. and of its mode of thought. its cardinals.25 HISTORY OF THE ORDER. Klaproth ' Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Pallas p.' i. Father Bury in Kerson's ' The Cross and the ' Dragon. in so doing. its worship of the double Virgin.' ' Reise in den Kaukasus. the water has past. bells. who marks the crown of his shaven head. whose image has been caught in the mirror over which . Reichs. indeed. pictures . and foil. 'Voyages. gorgeous dresses . and of the saints and angels confessions.' pp. its and rosaries. and his breast with the sacred liquid. his forehead. 1 Lamaism. pp. believes himself to be mystically swallowing part of the Divine Being. . 203. its fasts. in which the laity are spectators only . and holy water. Hue et Gabot. its cathedrals.. 239. and a drop or allowed to trickle on to the hands of each of mixture two is the worshipping monks. and and processions. and purgatory . and nuns of many grades . and mystic rites. and incense. its idols. 344. 185.' Moorcroft and Trcbeck 'Travels. (1854) p. its images. and its huge monasteries. and its gorgeous powerful hierarchy. in Tibet. 29. its Pope. bears outwardly at least a strong resemblance to Romanism. its images. 160-190. 1 of its Schlagintweit. and creeds. in spite of the essential difference 2 teachings. its service with double choirs. 227. is poured on to another jug. with its shaven priests. its abbots and monks. He then reverently swallows the re- maining drops and.' * ii.
25. 79. 195. 150. 173. 69. 244. Avalokitesvara. 175. 242. 29. 68. 65. Suita. 35. 224. Alain. 169. 2. Vaisuli. Aroagnndha Sutta. 181. 53. 5. Channa. 205. '/<). Dharani. 219. BAI. 204. 197. 3. 107. 231. 208. Benares. 75. So. 176. Kammavaca. 12. Bali. Deer-park. 182. Paths. 173. 69. 206. Amitablia. Kanishka. Anathapindika. 32. Council of Kanishkn. 120. 59. 108. Kama Sulla. Karma. Chunda. 121. 220-228. .S. Dhyani-Buddlias. 200. 106. 19. 238. Dhyana Asanga. 68. 201. 197. Jataka. 45. Council of Rajagriha. 237. 222. 39. 154. 240. Asava. 27. 158. 238. 137. Ammuldha. 157. 245. China. 5. 169.. 237. 21. 185. 68. 242. Japan. Kapilavastu. Chandragupta.INDEX OF THE PRINCIPAL PROPER NAMES AND TECHNICAL TERMS. v. iSi.ANI. . Dliamma-pada. JAINS. 215. 158. Bodhi-satwa. 122. 83. 175. Ajatasatru. Buddhists in. Acli-biKhlhn. DAGAIU. Anam. 4. 45. 153. Bodhi-anga. 3. J liana. Devadatta. 42. Burma. 3. 243 Patna. 58. ioS. 101-103. 68. 72. 236. EUROPE. Burials. FOUR Truths. 120. 180. 208. 43. IDDHI. 214. 52. . . 204. 1 Bo tree. Ananda. 203.X. 204. 213. 25. MIRI SUTTA. 75. KAI. GHANOHAIIASTI. 33. 31. 169. Iriyapatha. 203.. Dhamma-cakka-ppavattana Sutta. Asoka. 155. Java. Dina-cariyawa. 73. 109. Kanoj. 131. 29-33. 32. 174. Tet&vaaa. Dhammika Dharma. Anfipiya. 82. 4. iSj. 62.PA. 2. 174. 4. Arahats. 156. 3. ClIAKRAVAKTI. Anoma river. 120. . J liana. 6. 52. ADAM'S Teak. 42. 5. 37.
Sariputta. 33. Pati-harika-pakkha. 62. 47. 93. 149. Nirvana. Kajyapa. 199-210. Upadi. Moggallana. 236. 59. 177. 172. Nava 52. Lcud. 169. Saniia. 113. 189. 2. 158. 33. Sankhara. 125. Upali. 9. Trishna. 233. Manchuria. 62. 68. Koliyans. Mara. 81. 234. 3. 29. PACCEKA-BUDDHA. II. Yasodhara. 90. Rohini. Uposatha. Maha Parinibbana Sutta. Sikhim. 5. i4'<. n. Sravasti. 133. 52. 136. Sigalovada Sutta. 164. 34. Mahabhinishkramana Sutra. Sammappadhana. 14. Lalita Vistarn. II. 6'3. Mangala Sutta. 172. UDRAKA. 41. 141. 162. 201. 2OO. 91. 65. 35. 26. 68. 20. 78. 62. 200. Siam. Vehicle. Suddhodana. 25. 5. Maha-Nidana Skandha. 208. 172. Sutta Nipata. 78. 215. 121. 20. 117. 62. Maitreya. 121.'ii <S-= Buiigay. 139. 122. 137. 30. 3. 120. 54. Vihara. Kusi-nagara. 177 Sainma-sambudtllia. NAGASENA. 218. II. Nanda. 155. Sang-yojana. 50. Siddhi. Richard CLiy ^~' Ssxs. 206. 141. 13. 5. 199. Rupa. 50. 107. Sati-patthana. \f inaya. 101. Ratana Sutta. 21. Kondanya. 95. 72.INDEX. 32. VAJJIAN clans. 135. . 243. 238. 50. Subha Sutta. 21. 70. I So. 82. 19. Kohana. 182. Kusala. 113. Veluvana. 70. Yashtivana. 49. SukhavatT. Upadana. Kashmir. 64. 26. Pathama Sambodhiya. Tooth. Lamaism. TIBET. 139. RAIIULA. 237. 69. KisagotamT. Sutta. LAUAK. 109. 91. Spiti. 25. 200. 96. 44. 113. 185. 101. 5 1 1. II. 163. Vedana. 228. Milinda Prasnaya. Mandala. 109. Vinfiiina. Limited. Pitakas. 33. 140. 26. Subhadra. 177. 8l. 8. 246. Rajagriha. Malla lingara Watthu. 28. Manju-srT. Mongolia. 5. 80. 61. 79. 208. Sang-sara. 18. Uruvela. 26. Sutta. 186. 18. Sila. MAD-URATTHAVilasinT. SAMADHI. 52. 129. 113. Vindhya Mountains. 187. 79. 149. 137. YASA. 9. 127. Patimokkha. Khagga-visana Sutta. in. Metta Sutta. 107. 5. Samaiina-phala Sutta. Nepal. 67. 121. 120. 195. 246. Mahinda. Ratna-dharma-raja. 93. Pava. 96. 214. 91. 188-190.
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