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Code No: RR322204

Set No. 1

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

1. Show that the transfer function for

 (a) a zero-order hold is, (b) a ﬁrst-order hold is,

G 0 (s ) = 1 e T s

s

G 1 (s ) = T s +1

T

1 e T s

s

2





Where T is the sampling period. Illustrate the signals clearly.

2. Obtain a state space representation of the following transfer function

Y ( z )

U ( z ) =

5

( z +1) 2 ( z +2)

using the partial fraction expansion method. Also, obtain the initial values of the state variables in terms of y(0),y(1) and y(2) and also draw the block diagram for

the system.



3. For the system deﬁned by

x (k + 1) x 2 (k + 1) = 0

1

1 (k

0.16 1 x 2 (k

1

x

)

)

+

0

1

u (k )

x

x

1 (k

2 (k

)

)

y (k )

assume that the following outputs are observed as y(0)=1 and y(1)=2 and the control signals given are u(0)=2,u(1)=-1, determine the initial state X(0) and also

X(1) and X(2).

1

0

=



4. Show that the transfer function U(s) / E(s) of the PID controller shown below.

) ) = K o

U

(s

E

(s

T 1 + T 2

T

1

1 +

T 1 T 2 · s (T 1 + T 2 ) + T 1 + T 2

1

Assume the gain k is very large compared with unity, or k >>1as shown in the

ﬁgure 4 Figure 4

5. (a) Enumerate the design steps for pole placement.

(b) Prove Ackermann’s formula for the determination of the state feedback gain

matrix K.

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Code No: RR322204

Set No. 1

6. State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance

index.

Let f (X) = -x 1 x 2 and let g(X) =x 2 + x 2 2 1. What are the potential candi- dates for minima of f subject to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points



(a)

(b)



1

1

2 ,

2 and 2 , - 2 actually provide the minima.

1

1

1

7. Explain the concepts of variational calculus.

(a)

(b)

Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.

[8+8]

(a)

8. Derive the transfer matrix relation from state space representation.

(b)

The state space triple (A, B, C) of a system is given by



A =

0

2

1

1

3

1

0

0

1

;

B =

0

1

0

0

0

1

;

C =

1

0

1

0

0

1

Calculate the input and output decoupling zeros, if any. Is the matrix A

cyclic? Find out the transfer matrix T(s).



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Code No: RR322204

Set No. 2

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

1. Convolve the two signals given by f (k ) =

0

2 4 k 8

0 k 3 and k 9

f (k ) = 0

2

0 k 1 and k 6

3 k 6

Illustrate the steps involved in the convolution



2. Find the state variable models for the following system represented by the diﬀerence equation

 (a) y(k+3)+5y(k+2)+7y(k+1)+3y(k)=0 (b) y(k+2)+3y(k+1)+2y(k)=5r(k+1)+3r(k)

3. Investigate the controllability and observability of the following system

x (k + 1) x 2 (k + 1) = 0

1

1 1

)

1 x 2 (k )

x

1 (k

y (k ) = 1

1

x

x

1 (k

2 (k

)

)

+

0

1

u (k )







4. What are PID controllers? Compare its performance with PI controllers and PD

controllers. Explain digital PID controller in detail.



5. A discrete time regulator system has the plant equation

X (k + 1) = 2 1 1

y (k ) = 1 1 X (k ) + 7u (k )

1 X (k ) + 4 u (k )

3

Design a state feedback control algorithm with u(k) = -KX(k) which places the



6. (a) What are the major theoretical approaches for design of optimal control. Ex- plain one of the approaches in detail.

closed loop characteristic roots at ±j0.5.

(b) Find the extremal for the functional

j (x ) =

t 1

0

1+

x

2

x

dt x (0) + 0; x (t 1 ) = t 1 5

[8+8]

7. (a) Explain the concepts of variational calculus.

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Code No: RR322204

Set No. 2

(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.

 [8+8] 8. (a) Explain the input decoupling zeros and output decoupling zeros. 

(b) Obtain minimal diﬀerential operator realization of T(s) given below. Further, convert the D.O. form to the state space form.

T (s ) =

s

+1

s

2

2

s

s

+2

s 2 +1

2

s +3

s 2 +1

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Code No: RR322204

Set No. 3

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

0 . 16

1. The signal f (t) = 5 sin(20πt ) + 2Π t 0 . 14

where Π(x) is the unit pulse signal deﬁned by Π(x ) =

is sampled at 25 samples per second. Determine the Z-transform of f(kT) for

0 k 8.

1

0

1

if |x | ≤ otherwise

2



2. Explain the procedure for discretization of continuous time state space equations.

3. Consider the state equation

A

X = AX + Bu

W here,

=

1

4 3 B = 2 0

1



Investigate its controllability and transform the given equation into the controllable

canonical form.



4. Show that the transfer function U(s) / E(s) of the PID controller shown below.

) ) = K o

U

(s

E

(s

T 1 + T 2

T

1

1 +

T 1 T 2 · s (T 1 + T 2 ) + T 1 + T 2

1

Assume the gain k is very large compared with unity, or k >>1as shown in the

ﬁgure 4 Figure 4

5. Explain the steps involved in the pole placement design by state feedback for multi

input system.



6. (a) State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance

index.

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Code No: RR322204

Set No. 3

(b)

Let f (X) = -x 1 x 2 and let g(X) =x 2 + x 2 2 1. What are the potential candi- dates for minima of f subject to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points



1

1

2 ,

2 and 2 , - 2 actually provide the minima.

1

1

1

7. (a) Explain the concepts of variational calculus.

(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.

 [8+8] 8. (a) Explain the input decoupling zeros and output decoupling zeros. 

(b) Obtain minimal diﬀerential operator realization of T(s) given below. Further, convert the D.O. form to the state space form.

T (s ) =

s

+1

s

2

2

s

s

+2

s 2 +1

2

s +3

s 2 +1

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Code No: RR322204

Set No. 4

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

(a)

1. Obtain the Z-transform of

1

i. f 1 (t) = a (1 e at ) where ‘a’ is a constant

ii.

f 2 (t) = 9k 2 k 1 2 k + 3

k 0

(b) Show that z k (k 1)

(k h + 1) a k h =

(

h !) z

(

z a )

h+1 .







2. A second order multivariable system is described by the following equation

x 1 (k + 1) x 2 (k + 1)

y 1 (k ) )

2 (k

y

=

=

2

5

1 / 2 1

x

x

)

2 (k )

1 (k

+

2

1

0

1 x 2 (k )

x 1 (k ) + 0

0

1

0

4

0 2 0

1

3

0

2

u

u

u

1 (k )

2 (k

3 (k

)

)

u

u

u

1 (k )

2 (k

3 (k

)

)

Convert the state variable model into a transfer function model.



3. State and explain the conditions for stability, instability and critical stability in terms of weighting sequence g(kT) of a linear time invariant discrete time control

system.



 (a) 4. Give the advantage of using w transformation for the design of discrete data systems. (b) What can you say about root sensitivity of a system with dead beat resp onse?

[8+8]

0

A = 3

1

0

0

2

5. For the state equation X = AX ,

12 7 6 Find the initial condition vector X(0) which will excite only the mode corresponding

to the eigen value with the most negative real part.



6. State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance

index.

Let f (X) = -x 1 x 2 and let g(X) =x 2 + x 2 2 1. What are the potential candi- dates for minima of f subject to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points

(a)

(b)



1

1

2 ,

2 and 2 , - 2 actually provide the minima.

1

1

1



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Code No: RR322204

Set No. 4

 (a) 7. Derive the fundamental necessary condition of variational calculus. (b) Given x˙ = −x + u ; x(0) = x 0 , x(2) =x 1 Find u* that minimizes 2 J = (x 2 + u 2 )dt . 0 [8+8] (a) 8. With step by step procedure explain the controllable realization algorithm. (b) Obtain observable state space realization for the following transfer matrix T(s). Is it minimal?

T (s ) =

(

s 2)( s +1)

( s 1) 2

s

1

s

2

s

( s 1)

1

(

s 1) 2

0

1

s

1

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[8+8]