Code No: RR322204
Set No. 1
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
1. Show that the transfer function for
(a) 
a zeroorder hold is, 
(b) 
a ﬁrstorder hold is, 
G _{0} (s ) = ^{1} ^{−} ^{e} ^{T} ^{s}
s
G _{1} (s ) = ^{T} ^{s} ^{+}^{1}
T
1 − e ^{T} ^{s}
s
^{2}
[8]
[8]
Where T is the sampling period. Illustrate the signals clearly.
2. Obtain a state space representation of the following transfer function
Y ( z )
U ( z ) ^{=}
5
( z +1) ^{2} ( z +2)
using the partial fraction expansion method. Also, obtain the initial values of the state variables in terms of y(0),y(1) and y(2) and also draw the block diagram for
the system.
[16]
3. For the system deﬁned by
^{} x (k + 1) x _{2} (k + 1) ^{=} 0
1
_{1} (k
−0.16 −1 x _{2} (k
1
x
)
)
+
0
1
u (k )
x
x
_{1} (k
_{2} (k
)
)
y (k )
assume that the following outputs are observed as y(0)=1 and y(1)=2 and the control signals given are u(0)=2,u(1)=1, determine the initial state X(0) and also
X(1) and X(2).
^{}
1
0 ^{}
=
[16]
4. Show that the transfer function U(s) / E(s) of the PID controller shown below.
) _{)} = K _{o}
U
(s
E
(s
T _{1} + T _{2}
T
1
1 +
T _{1} T _{2} · s (T _{1} + T _{2} ) ^{+} T _{1} + T _{2}
1
Assume the gain k is very large compared with unity, or k >>1as shown in the
ﬁgure 4
[16]
Figure 4
5. (a) Enumerate the design steps for pole placement.
(b) Prove Ackermann’s formula for the determination of the state feedback gain
matrix K.
1 of 2
[8+8]
Code No: RR322204
Set No. 1
6. State and explain the minimum  time problems. Describe its performance
index.
Let f (X) = x _{1} x _{2} and let g(X) =x ^{2} + x _{2} ^{2} − 1. What are the potential candi dates for minima of f subject to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points
[10]
(a)
(b)
[6]
1
1
^{√} 2 ^{,}
√ _{2} and − √ _{2} ,  √ _{2} actually provide the minima.
1
1
1
7. Explain the concepts of variational calculus.
(a)
(b)
Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.
[8+8]
(a)
8. Derive the transfer matrix relation from state space representation.
(b)
The state space triple (A, B, C) of a system is given by
[6]
A =
0
2
1
1
3
1
0
0
1
;
B =
0
1
0
0
0
1
;
C =
1
0
1
0
0
1
Calculate the input and output decoupling zeros, if any. Is the matrix A
cyclic? Find out the transfer matrix T(s).
[10]
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
2 of 2
Code No: RR322204
Set No. 2
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
1. Convolve the two signals given by f (k ) =
^{0}
2 4 ≤ k ≤ 8
^{0} ^{≤} ^{k} ^{≤} ^{3} ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{k} ^{≥} ^{9}
_{f} _{(}_{k} _{)} _{=} ^{} 0
2
0 ≤ k ≤ 1 and k ≥ 6
3 ≤ k ≤ 6
Illustrate the steps involved in the convolution
[16]
2. Find the state variable models for the following system represented by the diﬀerence equation
(a) 
y(k+3)+5y(k+2)+7y(k+1)+3y(k)=0 
(b) 
y(k+2)+3y(k+1)+2y(k)=5r(k+1)+3r(k) 
3. Investigate the controllability and observability of the following system
x (k + 1) x _{2} (k + 1) ^{=} 0
1
−1 1
)
−1 x _{2} (k )
x
_{1} (k
y (k ) = ^{} −1
1
^{}
x
x
_{1} (k
_{2} (k
)
)
+
0
1
u (k )
[8]
[8]
[16]
4. What are PID controllers? Compare its performance with PI controllers and PD
controllers. Explain digital PID controller in detail.
[16]
5. A discrete time regulator system has the plant equation
X (k + 1) = ^{2} −1 1
y (k ) = ^{} 1 1 ^{} X (k ) + 7u (k )
^{−}^{1} X (k ) + ^{4} u (k )
3
Design a state feedback control algorithm with u(k) = KX(k) which places the
[16]
6. (a) What are the major theoretical approaches for design of optimal control. Ex plain one of the approaches in detail.
closed loop characteristic roots at ±j0.5.
(b) Find the extremal for the functional
j (x ) =
t 1
0
^{} ^{} 1+
•
x
^{2}
x
dt x (0) + 0; x (t _{1} ) = t _{1} − 5
[8+8]
7. (a) Explain the concepts of variational calculus.
1 of 2
Code No: RR322204
Set No. 2
(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.
[8+8] 

8. 
(a) Explain the input decoupling zeros and output decoupling zeros. 
[6] 
(b) Obtain minimal diﬀerential operator realization of T(s) given below. Further, convert the D.O. form to the state space form.
T (s ) =
s
+1
s
^{2}
2
s
s
+2
s ^{2} +1
2
s +3
s ^{2} +1
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
2 of 2
[10]
Code No: RR322204
Set No. 3
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
0 . 16
1. The signal f (t) = 5 sin(20πt ) + 2Π ^{} ^{t}^{−} ^{0} ^{.} ^{1}^{4}
where Π(x) is the unit pulse signal deﬁned by Π(x ) =
is sampled at 25 samples per second. Determine the Ztransform of f(kT) for
0 ≤ k ≤ 8.
1
0
1
if x  ≤ otherwise
2
[16]
2. Explain the procedure for discretization of continuous time state space equations.
3. Consider the state equation
A
•
_{X} = AX + Bu
W here,
=
1
−4 −3 ^{B} ^{=} 2 0
1
[16]
Investigate its controllability and transform the given equation into the controllable
canonical form.
[16]
4. Show that the transfer function U(s) / E(s) of the PID controller shown below.
) _{)} = K _{o}
U
(s
E
(s
T _{1} + T _{2}
T
1
1 +
T _{1} T _{2} · s (T _{1} + T _{2} ) ^{+} T _{1} + T _{2}
1
Assume the gain k is very large compared with unity, or k >>1as shown in the
ﬁgure 4
[16]
Figure 4
5. Explain the steps involved in the pole placement design by state feedback for multi
input system.
[16]
6. (a) State and explain the minimum  time problems. Describe its performance
index.
1 of 2
[6]
Code No: RR322204
Set No. 3
(b)
Let f (X) = x _{1} x _{2} and let g(X) =x ^{2} + x _{2} ^{2} − 1. What are the potential candi dates for minima of f subject to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points
[10]
1
1
^{√} 2 ^{,}
√ _{2} and − √ _{2} ,  √ _{2} actually provide the minima.
1
1
1
7. (a) Explain the concepts of variational calculus.
(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.
[8+8] 

8. (a) Explain the input decoupling zeros and output decoupling zeros. 
[6] 
(b) Obtain minimal diﬀerential operator realization of T(s) given below. Further, convert the D.O. form to the state space form.
T (s ) =
s
+1
s
^{2}
2
s
s
+2
s ^{2} +1
2
s +3
s ^{2} +1
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
2 of 2
[10]
Code No: RR322204
Set No. 4
III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
(a)
1. Obtain the Ztransform of
1
i. f _{1} (t) = _{a} (1 − e ^{−} ^{a}^{t} ) where ‘a’ is a constant
ii.
f _{2} (t) = 9k ^{} 2 ^{k} ^{−} ^{1} ^{} − 2 ^{k} + 3
k ≥ 0
(b) Show that z ^{} k (k − 1)
(k − h + 1) a ^{k} ^{−} ^{h} ^{} =
^{(}
^{h} ^{!}^{)} ^{z}
(
z − a )
_{h}_{+}_{1} .
[4]
[4]
[8]
2. A second order multivariable system is described by the following equation
x _{1} (k + 1) ^{} x _{2} (k + 1)
^{} y _{1} (k ) ) ^{}
_{2} (k
y
_{=}
_{=}
^{} 2
−5
^{1} / _{2} −1
x
x
)
_{2} (k )
_{1} (k
+
^{} 2
1
0
−1 x _{2} (k )
x _{1} (k ) ^{} _{+} ^{} 0
0
1
0
4
0
−2 0
1
3
0
−2
u
u
u
_{1} (k )
_{2} (k
_{3} (k
)
)
u
u
u
_{1} (k )
_{2} (k
_{3} (k
)
)
Convert the state variable model into a transfer function model.
[16]
3. State and explain the conditions for stability, instability and critical stability in terms of weighting sequence g(kT) of a linear time invariant discrete time control
system.
[16]
(a) 4. Give the advantage of using w transformation for the design of discrete data systems. 

(b) 
What can you say about root sensitivity of a system with dead beat resp onse? 
[8+8]
0
A = 3
1
0
0
2
•
5. For the state equation _{X} = AX ,
−12 −7 −6 Find the initial condition vector X(0) which will excite only the mode corresponding
to the eigen value with the most negative real part.
[16]
6. State and explain the minimum  time problems. Describe its performance
index.
Let f (X) = x _{1} x _{2} and let g(X) =x ^{2} + x _{2} ^{2} − 1. What are the potential candi dates for minima of f subject to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points
(a)
(b)
[6]
1
1
^{√} 2 ^{,}
√ _{2} and − √ _{2} ,  √ _{2} actually provide the minima.
1
1
1
[10]
1 of 2
Code No: RR322204
Set No. 4
(a) 7. Derive the fundamental necessary condition of variational calculus. 

(b) Given x˙ = −x + u ; x(0) = x ^{0} , x(2) =x ^{1} Find u* that minimizes 

2 

J 
= 

(x ^{2} + u ^{2} )dt 
. 

0 

[8+8] 

(a) 8. With step by step procedure explain the controllable realization algorithm. 

(b) Obtain observable state space realization for the following transfer matrix T(s). Is it minimal? 
T (s ) =
(
s − 2)( s +1)
( s − 1) ^{2}
s
^{−} ^{1}
s
2
s
( s − 1)
1
(
s − 1) ^{2}
^{0}
1
s
− 1
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
2 of 2
[8+8]
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