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Code No: RR322204

Set No. 1

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

1. Show that the transfer function for

 (a) a zero-order hold is, (b) a ﬁrst-order hold is,

G 0 (s ) = 1 e T s

s

G 1 (s ) = T s +1

T

1 e T s

s

2

[8]

[8]

Where T is the sampling period. Illustrate the signals clearly.

2. Obtain a state space representation of the following transfer function

Y ( z )

U ( z ) =

5

( z +1) 2 ( z +2)

using the partial fraction expansion method. Also, obtain the initial values of the state variables in terms of y(0),y(1) and y(2) and also draw the block diagram for

the system.

[16]

3. For the system deﬁned by

x (k + 1) x 2 (k + 1) = 0

1

1 (k

0.16 1 x 2 (k

1

x

)

)

+

0

1

u (k )

x

x

1 (k

2 (k

)

)

y (k )

assume that the following outputs are observed as y(0)=1 and y(1)=2 and the control signals given are u(0)=2,u(1)=-1, determine the initial state X(0) and also

X(1) and X(2).

1

0

=

[16]

4. Show that the transfer function U(s) / E(s) of the PID controller shown below.

) ) = K o

U

(s

E

(s

T 1 + T 2

T

1

1 +

T 1 T 2 · s (T 1 + T 2 ) + T 1 + T 2

1

Assume the gain k is very large compared with unity, or k >>1as shown in the

ﬁgure 4

[16]

Figure 4

5. (a) Enumerate the design steps for pole placement.

(b) Prove Ackermann’s formula for the determination of the state feedback gain

matrix K.

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[8+8]

Code No: RR322204

Set No. 1

6. State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance

index.

Let f (X) = -x 1 x 2 and let g(X) =x 2 + x 2 2 1. What are the potential candi- dates for minima of f subject to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points

[10]

(a)

(b)

[6]

1

1

2 ,

2 and 2 , - 2 actually provide the minima.

1

1

1

7. Explain the concepts of variational calculus.

(a)

(b)

Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.

[8+8]

(a)

8. Derive the transfer matrix relation from state space representation.

(b)

The state space triple (A, B, C) of a system is given by

[6]

A =

0

2

1

1

3

1

0

0

1

;

B =

0

1

0

0

0

1

;

C =

1

0

1

0

0

1

Calculate the input and output decoupling zeros, if any. Is the matrix A

cyclic? Find out the transfer matrix T(s).

[10]

⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

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Code No: RR322204

Set No. 2

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

1. Convolve the two signals given by f (k ) =

0

2 4 k 8

0 k 3 and k 9

f (k ) = 0

2

0 k 1 and k 6

3 k 6

Illustrate the steps involved in the convolution

[16]

2. Find the state variable models for the following system represented by the diﬀerence equation

 (a) y(k+3)+5y(k+2)+7y(k+1)+3y(k)=0 (b) y(k+2)+3y(k+1)+2y(k)=5r(k+1)+3r(k)

3. Investigate the controllability and observability of the following system

x (k + 1) x 2 (k + 1) = 0

1

1 1

)

1 x 2 (k )

x

1 (k

y (k ) = 1

1

x

x

1 (k

2 (k

)

)

+

0

1

u (k )

[8]

[8]

[16]

4. What are PID controllers? Compare its performance with PI controllers and PD

controllers. Explain digital PID controller in detail.

[16]

5. A discrete time regulator system has the plant equation

X (k + 1) = 2 1 1

y (k ) = 1 1 X (k ) + 7u (k )

1 X (k ) + 4 u (k )

3

Design a state feedback control algorithm with u(k) = -KX(k) which places the

[16]

6. (a) What are the major theoretical approaches for design of optimal control. Ex- plain one of the approaches in detail.

closed loop characteristic roots at ±j0.5.

(b) Find the extremal for the functional

j (x ) =

t 1

0

1+

x

2

x

dt x (0) + 0; x (t 1 ) = t 1 5

[8+8]

7. (a) Explain the concepts of variational calculus.

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Code No: RR322204

Set No. 2

(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.

 [8+8] 8. (a) Explain the input decoupling zeros and output decoupling zeros. [6]

(b) Obtain minimal diﬀerential operator realization of T(s) given below. Further, convert the D.O. form to the state space form.

T (s ) =

s

+1

s

2

2

s

s

+2

s 2 +1

2

s +3

s 2 +1

⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

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[10]

Code No: RR322204

Set No. 3

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

0 . 16

1. The signal f (t) = 5 sin(20πt ) + 2Π t 0 . 14

where Π(x) is the unit pulse signal deﬁned by Π(x ) =

is sampled at 25 samples per second. Determine the Z-transform of f(kT) for

0 k 8.

1

0

1

if |x | ≤ otherwise

2

[16]

2. Explain the procedure for discretization of continuous time state space equations.

3. Consider the state equation

A

X = AX + Bu

W here,

=

1

4 3 B = 2 0

1

[16]

Investigate its controllability and transform the given equation into the controllable

canonical form.

[16]

4. Show that the transfer function U(s) / E(s) of the PID controller shown below.

) ) = K o

U

(s

E

(s

T 1 + T 2

T

1

1 +

T 1 T 2 · s (T 1 + T 2 ) + T 1 + T 2

1

Assume the gain k is very large compared with unity, or k >>1as shown in the

ﬁgure 4

[16]

Figure 4

5. Explain the steps involved in the pole placement design by state feedback for multi

input system.

[16]

6. (a) State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance

index.

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[6]

Code No: RR322204

Set No. 3

(b)

Let f (X) = -x 1 x 2 and let g(X) =x 2 + x 2 2 1. What are the potential candi- dates for minima of f subject to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points

[10]

1

1

2 ,

2 and 2 , - 2 actually provide the minima.

1

1

1

7. (a) Explain the concepts of variational calculus.

(b) Explain the formulation of Variational Calculus using Himiltonian method.

 [8+8] 8. (a) Explain the input decoupling zeros and output decoupling zeros. [6]

(b) Obtain minimal diﬀerential operator realization of T(s) given below. Further, convert the D.O. form to the state space form.

T (s ) =

s

+1

s

2

2

s

s

+2

s 2 +1

2

s +3

s 2 +1

⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

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[10]

Code No: RR322204

Set No. 4

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

(a)

1. Obtain the Z-transform of

1

i. f 1 (t) = a (1 e at ) where ‘a’ is a constant

ii.

f 2 (t) = 9k 2 k 1 2 k + 3

k 0

(b) Show that z k (k 1)

(k h + 1) a k h =

(

h !) z

(

z a )

h+1 .

[4]

[4]

[8]

2. A second order multivariable system is described by the following equation

x 1 (k + 1) x 2 (k + 1)

y 1 (k ) )

2 (k

y

=

=

2

5

1 / 2 1

x

x

)

2 (k )

1 (k

+

2

1

0

1 x 2 (k )

x 1 (k ) + 0

0

1

0

4

0

2 0

1

3

0

2

u

u

u

1 (k )

2 (k

3 (k

)

)

u

u

u

1 (k )

2 (k

3 (k

)

)

Convert the state variable model into a transfer function model.

[16]

3. State and explain the conditions for stability, instability and critical stability in terms of weighting sequence g(kT) of a linear time invariant discrete time control

system.

[16]

 (a) 4. Give the advantage of using w transformation for the design of discrete data systems. (b) What can you say about root sensitivity of a system with dead beat resp onse?

[8+8]

0

A = 3

1

0

0

2

5. For the state equation X = AX ,

12 7 6 Find the initial condition vector X(0) which will excite only the mode corresponding

to the eigen value with the most negative real part.

[16]

6. State and explain the minimum - time problems. Describe its performance

index.

Let f (X) = -x 1 x 2 and let g(X) =x 2 + x 2 2 1. What are the potential candi- dates for minima of f subject to the constraint g=0?. Show that the points

(a)

(b)

[6]

1

1

2 ,

2 and 2 , - 2 actually provide the minima.

1

1

1

[10]

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Code No: RR322204

Set No. 4

 (a) 7. Derive the fundamental necessary condition of variational calculus. (b) Given x˙ = −x + u ; x(0) = x 0 , x(2) =x 1 Find u* that minimizes 2 J = (x 2 + u 2 )dt . 0 [8+8] (a) 8. With step by step procedure explain the controllable realization algorithm. (b) Obtain observable state space realization for the following transfer matrix T(s). Is it minimal?

T (s ) =

(

s 2)( s +1)

( s 1) 2

s

1

s

2

s

( s 1)

1

(

s 1) 2

0

1

s

1

⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

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[8+8]