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1600 Fire Water System and Fire Fighting Equipment

Abstract
This section provides fire water system design details and specifies fire fighting equipment requirements. Preferred equipment locations and designs for various facilities are also included. Contents 1610 Basic Design Philosophy 1611 Single Fire Concept 1612 Firefighting Methods 1613 Use of Water as an Extinguishing Agent 1614 Water Capacity and Rates 1615 Sources of Water 1616 Fire Water Consumption by Process Operation 1617 Fire Water System Impairments 1620 Fire Water System Design 1621 Fire Water Pumps and Drivers 1622 Fire Water Supply Piping/Hose 1623 Fire Water Piping Design 1624 Fire Water Hydrants 1630 Fire Water Equipment 1631 Fire Water Hose 1632 Fire Water Couplings 1633 Fire Water Nozzles 1634 Fire Water Accessories 1635 Incipient Stage Hose Systems 1600-13 1600-7 Page 1600-4

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1636 Fire Water Monitors 1640 Foam Systems 1641 Types of Foam 1642 Foam Systems 1643 Storage and Testing of Foam 1644 Foam Proportioners 1650 Portable Fire Extinguishers 1651 Limitations 1652 Fire Extinguisher Selection 1653 Water Extinguishers 1654 Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers 1655 Dry Chemical Extinguishers 1656 Halogenated Agent Extinguishers (Halon) 1657 Wheeled Units 1660 Fixed Fire Detection, Control and Extinguishing Systems 1661 Fixed Water Spray Systems 1662 Fixed Foam Systems 1663 Fixed Halon Systems 1664 Fixed Dry Chemical Systems 1665 Fixed Carbon Dioxide Systems 1666 Steam 1667 Fire Detection Systems 1668 Combustible Gas Detector Systems 1669 Explosion Suppression 1670 Other Firefighting Equipment 1671 Mobile Fire Fighting Equipment 1672 Fire Station (Plant Protection Office) 1673 Fire Equipment Cabinets 1674 Personnel Protective Equipment 1675 Communication Facilities 1676 Miscellaneous Equipment 1680 Testing and Maintenance 1681 Dry Chemical Extinguishers Inspection/Maintenance 1600-59 1600-52 1600-36 1600-29 1600-23

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1682 Hoses 1683 Fire TrucksPumpers 1684 Fire Water Distribution System 1685 Fire Pumps 1686 Fixed Fire Water Systems 1687 Other Equipment 1690 References and Manufacturers 1691 References 1692 Manufacturers 1600-62

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1610 Basic Design Philosophy


1611 Single Fire Concept
The fire water system and the firefighting equipment in hydrocarbon processing or handling facilities are designed to handle firefighting efforts associated with one major fire at a time. In other words, the design capacity of major firefighting facilities is determined by the largest single fire contingency. However, some system components are sized to handle less significant contingencies. For instance, foam concentrate requirements are usually determined by a tank fire rather than by the worst contingency, which may be a fire in the process area.

1612 Firefighting Methods


Fire extinguishing consists of one or more of the following methods: Quenching (cooling) Smothering (blanketing) Flame suppression (heat absorption) Flame propagation interruption (free radical-chain breaking)

These extinguishing methods are discussed in more detail in Section 610.

1613 Use of Water as an Extinguishing Agent


Water continues to be the most widely used and accepted fire extinguishing material because it is economical and effective. Used properly, it has excellent quenching capabilities, cooling effectiveness, and, for some materials, vapor dispersion characteristics. A gallon of water applied at 50F and entirely vaporized into steam at 212F removes over 9000 BTUs of heat. In a light spray, water cools the surface of hot oils. It may form a froth on viscous oils, which can cool to below the flash point of the fuel, resulting in extinguishment by frothinga special case of quenching. A water spray is also a flame suppressor. It reduces the size and intensity of the flame, and cools and protects materials exposed to flames. Even as a spray, however, water is not usually capable of extinguishing fire in gases or vapors of volatile oils. Water can also be used as a smothering agent, particularly in fighting fires involving liquids heavier than water (e.g., carbon disulfide). The steam generated as fire vaporizes water can displace or exclude air, extinguishing the fire by smothering. Smothering is aided by confining the steam generated to the combustion zone. Flammable materials that are soluble in water (e.g., methyl alcohol) may, in some instances, be extinguished by dilution.

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1614 Water Capacity and Rates


Fire water demand is the maximum rate of water needed at a given time by a single process unit. Thus, the requirements of the largest single-fire contingency determine the capacity and design of major firefighting facilities. Normally, this design is based on the assumption that a single unit will be involved. Where separation of units or hazardous equipment is less than 50 feet (15 meters), the combined area is considered a single fire area. If the design water flow rate for the process unit requiring the largest flow is less than the requirement for the largest tank or group of tanks, the tank protection demand becomes the design basis. See Figure 1600-1 for general design guidelines for new facilities.
Fig. 1600-1 Design GuidelinesDuration and RateNew Facilities Duration and Rate 1-hour supply at 5001000 gpm 2-hour supply at 10002000 gpm Facility Offices, shops, warehouses Single-berth dock Sulfur plant, H2S recovery plant Small processing plants Tankfield areas Pipeline terminals Marketing terminals Refinery tank fields Midsize, 0500 psi process plants Gas plants Multi-berth docks Offshore platforms Integrated, high value, 0500 psi plants Midsize, 5001000 psi process plants Integrated, high-value plants, large quantities of fuel at pressures above 1000 psi

4-hour supply at 20004000 gpm

4-hour supply at 40006000 gpm 6-hour supply at 60008000 gpm

Note: Minimum rate with one section of looped supply piping out of service should be at least 60% of design rate.

The rate and duration of water flow for each plant or facility depends on the amount of hydrocarbon liquid contained in the area and the capability to stop flow of fuel to the area quickly. Flow rates are a function of available pressure, hose diameter, and nozzle diameter. Given a steady supply pressure, flow is not linear for a given set of orifice diameters. For instance, at 200 psig supply pressure, flow through a 1/2-inch orifice is 105 gpm. A 1-inch nozzle flows 420 gpm, and a 2-inch nozzle flows 1680 gpm. Figure 1600-2 provides a chart of pressure supply and orifice diameters.

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Fig. 1600-2 Typical Flow Rates and Pressures for Various Hose Sizes Nozzle Size 3/4-in. ID garden hose and nozzle 1-in. ID hard rubber hose and combination nozzle 1 1/4-in. ID hard rubber hose and combination nozzle 1 1/2-in. fabric covered rubber lined hose, or hard rubber hose and combination nozzle 2 1/2-in. fabric synthetic hose and combination nozzle 3-in. fabric synthetic hose and combination nozzle 4-in. fabric synthetic hose and combination nozzle 5-in. fabric synthetic hose and combination nozzl Flow 7-8 gpm 15-35 gpm 40-60 gpm 60-90 gpm Pressure 30 psi 100 psi 100 psi 100 psi

200 gpm 450 gpm 800 gpm 1300 gpm

100 psi 100 psi 100 psi 100 psi

1615 Sources of Water


Most water that does not contain a significant amount of oil is suitable for fighting fires. After considering all available sources, use the most reliable and most economical source for the primary supply. Integrated, high value process facilities should have a secondary source available as well. Conduct hypothetical drills to practice making connections to the secondary source. Include plans for utilizing all sources of water for extreme emergencies or as backup for the primary source. Public water systems, wells, ponds, canals, rivers, lakes and oceans are sources to consider. In some cases, access roads, piping and inlet hydrants on the fire main, additional valves, and other provisions may be needed to make these water sources usable. Weigh the cost of these additions against the potential value of the water for firefighting. Often these provisions can be made at relatively little cost. (See Figure 1600-1.) Give the same consideration to water storage within the plantreservoirs, cooling tower basins, cooling water storage tanks, and boiler feedwater storage. Drawing on these for fire protection is normally justified. Systems such as cooling water and boiler feedwater systems also include pumping facilities that may be able to serve as supplementary fire systems. Be sure, however, that such use does not create further hazards by depriving vital equipment of needed cooling or process water. Pumper suction connections may be attached to cooling water lines at strategic locations for use by mobile pumpers in fire emergencies. Municipal water systems can be a suitable source of water for fire protection if relatively large quantities of flammable liquids are not processed, handled, or stored in

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the facility. The moderate water pressure (30 to 60 psi) carried in these systems is sufficient if a fire pump is provided or if a fire department pumper is available for boosting pressure. Otherwise, a minimum water pressure of 75 psi is required for incipient stage fire protection (i.e., small hand-held hose lines). For foam application equipment, the minimum pressure requirement is established by the manufacturers of the devices generally 100 psi. A small jockey pump is required to maintain system pressure. Where higher pressure is needed fire department pumpers can be used. Public systems with inadequate water flow may be used to supply storage facilities, which then supply the fire water systems through pumps or by gravity flow.

1616 Fire Water Consumption by Process Operation


Do not use the fire water distribution system to supply regular process utility water requirements (e.g., shell and tube heat exchangers), or for recurring line flushing or product displacement. Use of the fire water system for process purposes must be approved by the plant manager. The time of start and the time of finish and disconnection from the fire system must be recorded. Such use can lead to contamination of the fire water system. Where fire water is provided by municipal water supplies, such use may be prohibited or may require approved backflow prevention devices, such as double check valves.

1617 Fire Water System Impairments


Fire water systems are critical safety systems and should be protected to ensure their availability in an emergency. A fire water system is impaired when a piece of the system is out of service for maintenance or modification. Facilities should have a procedure in place to document when and where any portion of the fire water system is taken out of service for maintenance or modification. One Company facility keeps a map in a central location and marks it when a pump or piece of piping is out of service. In the event of an emergency, responders can quickly check the map to determine the availability of resources. Permits should also be required before any part of the fire water system is taken out of service.

1620 Fire Water System Design


1621 Fire Water Pumps and Drivers
Refer to the Pump Manual for more extensive coverage of pump and system design. Jockey Pumps. For reliable and immediate first aid protection, use a small centrifugal pump (i.e., jockey pump) to maintain fire water system pressure at 125 to 150 psig under low-flow conditions. Jockey pumps are typically installed to run in recirculation mode when not needed to boost fire water system pressure. Systems without jockey pumps need to have surge protection to avoid damaging the piping when the main pumps start.

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Main Fire Pumps. Main fire pumps should be automatically controlled to start whenever there is a demand that reduces system pressure below 100 psig. Pumps should be sized to maintain 100 psi residual pressure at the most distant hydrant, at the system design flow rate. Provide spare pumps for rapid manual or automatic switchover if the primary pump fails. Spare pumps should be diesel-engine driven with independent fuel tanks. Where steam is available, steam driven pumps may be used to supplement the electric and diesel driven units. Each main pump should be piped to allow for performance testing at its design flow rate while isolated from the plant fire water system (see Appendix F). In-line flow meters or orifice plates facilitate periodic testing of the pumps and system fire water flow rates. These devices should be provided for new fire water pump installations. Mobile Pumps. Portable pumps are useful for drafting from open water and pumping into the main supply lines, drafting from open water or from a tank and pumping directly into hose lines, or pumping into hose lines from hydrants on process water or low pressure fire systems. The two most commonly used types of portable pumps are: Trailer pumpers (pump and prime mover on a trailer) that can be towed to position with a car or pickup. They give considerable flexibility for a nominal investment. Their usual capacity is about 500 gpm at 120 psig. These units are also useful in routine plant maintenance for pumping out tanks, sumps, etc., and to control flooding caused by high fire water runoff when fighting major fires. Truck-mounted pumps (fire trucks) that are ready to pump as soon as the truck reaches the fire. They may be front-mounted and engine-driven by an extension to the engine crankshaft, or midship-mounted behind the cab and driven through the main truck transmission. Such trucks usually carry considerable hose and other firefighting equipment. Occasionally, pumping units incorporating their own separate engine drive may be mounted on a truck (see Section 1671).

1622 Fire Water Supply Piping/Hose


Suction Hose. Drafting from open water requires a hard suction hose that will not collapse, an inlet strainer, and a means of removing air (priming) to start the flow. Most fire department pumpers have a gear pump, exhaust ejectors, or manifold-vacuum primer. Although the maximum theoretical suction lift is 34 feet, the practical maximum is about 20 feet. Suction hose should be no longer than necessary and connections must be airtight. Boosting from hydrants or other outlets is most commonly done with 5-inch hard suction hose. With hydrants that have only 2 1/2-inch outlets, multiple (parallel) suction lines are connected between the hydrant and the pumper suction. Regular fire hose is permissible for such a connection if the suction lines are kept short and pressure on the hose is maintained above 10 psig. The suction hose may collapse if pressure drops below 10 psig.

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Permanent Suction Connections. Where drafting from a standing water source (such as a tank or pond) is planned as a regular part of the fire protection procedure, consider installing a permanent suction pipe to a point of easy pumper access. Do not overlook the possibility of the water source freezing or water freezing in the pipe. If in a pond, the suction pipe should usually have a strainer and foot valve. Consider fiberglass or PVC pipe to avoid clogging by marine growth.

1623 Fire Water Piping Design


Pressure Requirements
For small incipient stage hoses with fog nozzles, required nozzle pressures vary from 60 to 75 psig. For 1 1/2-inch and larger fog/straight stream nozzles and large straight stream nozzles, nozzle pressures can be up to 100 psig or greater. A 3/4inch garden hose can be used at 30 psig or more. Foam nozzles are designed to operate between 50 and 100 psig. Most foam eductors require at least 75 psig. To provide these nozzle pressures and allow for friction loss in hoses, hydrant pressures under flow conditions should be between 75 psig and 135 psig. For hazards that require over 2000 gpm flow, the minimum hydrant pressure under flow conditions should be 100 psig. Distribution lines and fire pumps should be designed so that static (shutoff) pressure is no more than 50 psig above the pressure at rated flow. Hoses are difficult to handle under low flow (hence high pressure) conditions. Static hydrant pressures of more than 150 psig are undesirable. When high pressures (above 150 psi) do exist at low flow, incipient stage hose should be no larger than 1 1/4 inch so that the average person can safely handle the first nozzle opened on the line. Here are a few rules of thumb for estimating pressure drop: Pressure drop for 1 1/2-inch hose is between 1 and 30 psig, depending on the nozzle size. Larger nozzle sizes yield large flow rates and accompanying high pressure drop. Common nozzle sizes are 1/4-inch through 3/4-inch. Pressure drop for 2 1/2-inch hose varies between 1 psig (5/8-inch nozzle) and 25 psig (1 1/4-inch nozzle). The same holds true for larger sizes. Deluge guns or monitors add 5 to 10 psig pressure drop.

Distribution System
Materials. Steel pipe should be used aboveground. Underground piping systems should be constructed of steel, cement-lined steel, or high-density polyethylene (Plexco). Concrete is acceptable, but seldom economical except in large diameters. Underground steel pipe should be externally coated for corrosion protection. Highdensity polyethylene coating is preferred; double tape wrap is acceptable. Internal lining may be justified for salt water systems. In some areas, local approval agencies may require compliance with the requirements of NFPA 24, Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances. Requirements should be

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determined early in the design stage of the project, as they affect material selection and other design specifications. Plexco high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe is a Chevron product that should be considered for new underground fire water systems. HDPE does not corrode, resists accumulation of scale, and is very ductile and lightweight. HDPE pipe allowable working pressure must be reduced at temperatures over 73F; therefore, it should be used only in buried installations. Burial also provides protection from fire and mechanical damage. Refer to Section 400 of the Piping Manual for information on pressure rating, hydrotesting, and installation requirements for HDPE pipe. Fiberglass pipe has been used on offshore platforms due to the highly corrosive environment found there. Based on fire tests, fiberglass manufacturers strongly recommend fireproofing some or all of a fiberglass piping system. Where the system is dry (normally not filled with fire water), fiberglass pipe and fittings should have fireproofing. Wet systems need fireproofing only around the fittings, where leaks are most likely. All material used must be rated for the maximum pressure the system will reach, including test pressure. Choice of material will also be influenced by crushing strength, susceptibility of joints to leakage and ground settlement expected. The Piping Manual discusses water pipe for use in plant piping systems. Refer to the Coatings Manual for information on internal and external linings. Layout and Size. In climates where freezing does not occur, aboveground installation of steel fire water distribution lines has the advantages of low first cost and ease of inspection and repair. Pipe lines should be routed to minimize fire or mechanical damage. In cold climates, distribution lines should be buried below the frost line. Recommended depth of cover in feet for fire water systems in the U.S. is given in Figure A-8-1.1 of NFPA 24. When possible, fire water mains should be arranged in loops around process facility and tankfield areas. Shutoff valves should be located to allow isolation of system segments for maintenance while still providing water for all facilities. The minimum water rate with a section of pipe out of service should be at least 60 percent of the design rate at design pressure for that area. See Figure 1600-3 for a typical layout. A 4-inch minimum fire water header should be provided in each process facility area to serve incipient stage hose stations. Branch lines to hose stations should be 2 inches minimum. Fire water mains and headers looping the facilities should not be less than 8 inches in diameter. Laterals supplying single hydrants or monitors should not be less than 6 inches in diameter. In fire water systems using salt water, the pipe diameter should be increased one size to allow for deposits and scale buildup. Valves. High performance-type butterfly valves, gate valves, and post-indicator style valves are recommended for block valves in fire water distribution systems. They should provide reasonably tight shutoff and use sealing materials that do not swell or deteriorate with age. Good shaft and shaft attachment design is desirable to prevent broken shafts. Because many valves will be buried and, therefore, will be

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Fig. 1600-3 Typical Looped Fire Water Distribution System

expensive to maintain, durable valves requiring little maintenance are desirable. See the Piping Manual for additional guidance.

1624 Fire Water Hydrants


Hydrants are necessary to supplement ready-connected incipient stage hoses and monitors for major protection of large risks. Required flow rates depend on the risk and the number of 2 1/2-inch hose streams required to control a fire of maximum anticipated extent and duration. Hydrant Selection. Hydrant selection for a particular installation depends on whether freezing temperatures are expected. In all but freezing climates, hydrant outlets are normally valved individually aboveground. Commercial hydrants with a 4 1/2-inch pumper suction connection permit easier hookup to a foam pumper truck. This type of hydrant may be advisable for locations anticipating foam require-

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ments. In freezing climates, install the commercial, dry-barrel hydrant. See Figure 1600-4 and the manufacturer list at the end of this section.
Fig. 1600-4 Types of Fire Hydrants Courtesy of International Fire Service Training Assoc. IFSTA

Hydrant risers should be designed to avoid damage from frost heave. Each 2 1/2inch outlet should be individually valved, so that hoses can be controlled separately. Hydrant Location. Locate hydrants for the main system at least 50 feet from buildings or other important structures to be protected. Hydrants should be near enough to fire hazard areas to permit the total flow required for a major fire. Unless portable booster pumps are available, no hose line should exceed 500 feet in length. In process facilities, space hydrants so that any fire risk area is within reach of two hydrants by hoses of 250 feet maximum length. Generally, this means that hydrants should be placed on each street corner of a facility and, if the distance between hydrants is more than 300 feet, another hydrant should be placed in the middle. In tankfields, locate hydrants so that all parts of the shell of each tank are within reach of a stream from a hose not longer than 500 feet. Note that radiant heat from a fire may prevent connection to hydrants within 70 to 100 feet of an impoundment or drainage area. Outlets. The normal main system hydrant should have one 4 1/2-inch outlet and may also have one or two 2 1/2-inch outlets. Where water and personnel, either Company or public, are plentiful, and in high-value facilities, you may want additional 4 1/2-inch and 2 1/2-inch outlets on each hydrant. Note that coupling size is

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not the same as hose size. For example, 5-inch hose can be fitted with 4 1/2-inch couplings. Because it provides versatility, at least one 4 1/2 inch diameter outlet is desirable on commercial hydrants. A large hose may be readily connected for maximum flow rate, and you can use adapters to attach smaller diameter hoses for smaller fires or crews. This is a departure from past practices of providing a manifold of several 2 1/2 inch outlets connected in parallel to provide flow rates equivalent to one 5-inch outlet. Five-inch outlets are also most convenient for low-pressure (less than 100 psig) fire water systems that are meant to be connected to mobile (portable) pumps and pumper trucks. Hydrant Valves. Shop- or field-fabricated hydrants should have composition disc globe valves for tight shutoff and easy opening without tools. Use angle valves wherever possible. Usually, the pipe inlet on valves at hose connections is a size larger than the nominal hose size; that is, 2 inches by 1 1/2 inches for 1 1/2-inch hose, and 3 inches by 2 1/2 inches for 2 1/2-inch hose. Pacific, Walworth, Crane and other manufacturers produce acceptable valves. Consult Volume 2 of the Piping Manual for more information. Commercial hydrants are invariably equipped with replaceable composition valves. Valves with composition discs or other parts should always be fully open when in use to avoid damaging the disc and seat; they should never be used to throttle the flow. Threads. Hydrants and other outlets for fire hose should have threaded connections that permit interconnection with the fire equipment of adjacent plants and local public agencies. Use National Hose Threads for 1 1/2-inch, 2 1/2-inch, and 4 1/2inch fire hose in the absence of other interconnection criteria. Hydrant Inspection and Servicing. Hydrants require periodic inspection and servicing to be sure they will function during an emergency. Valves may not operate, hose attachment threads may be damaged or leaks may develop. Refer to Appendix E for Inspection and Servicing Checklists.

1630 Fire Water Equipment


1631 Fire Water Hose
A 2 1/2-inch hose operating at 100 psi nozzle pressure with a 1 1/8-inch nozzle discharges at about 250 gpm. A 2 1/2-inch combination nozzle designed for portable use delivers between 150 and 200 gpm, depending on the stream pattern. See Figure 1600-2 for flow rates and pressures for various hose types. Hoses used for maintenance purposes should be tested per Section 1682 before being returned to fire protection service. Hoses unsuitable for fire protection may be used for utility service, providing the couplings are marked to differentiate such hoses from those dedicated to fire protection.

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Various types and sizes of fire hose are designed for specific uses. Three types are described here: All-synthetic. All-synthetic hose prevents premature hose deterioration from severe abrasion or contact with oil, acids, chemicals, etc. It is also immune to mildew and rot. Its weight is comparable to cotton warp-synthetic fiber hose, and it can be supplied with either single or double jackets. This hose is recommended for general use when durability is a primary concern. Larger diameter hose is becoming widely accepted due to the lower pressure drop. Purchase larger diameter 1 3/4-inch and 3-inch synthetic hose to replace, 1 1/2-inch and 2 1/2-inch cotton hose, respectively, when replacement hose is needed. Reuse 1 1/2-inch and 2 1/2-inch brass end couplings whenever possible. Cotton warp-synthetic fiber filler. This type of hose is not recommended due to high maintenance and replacement costs. Neoprene or plastic cover jacket. This is a single-jacket cotton/synthetic hose with an oil-resisting Neoprene or plastic cover. The hose is designed for protection against oil, acids, grease, and other deteriorating agents. It is immune to mildew and rot. It is tested to 300 psi. This hose is typically used for 1 1/4-inch hard rubber first aid hose service. To minimize friction losses, 5-inch hose is now being used to carry water to and from pumpers.

1632 Fire Water Couplings


Couplings for 1 1/2-inch, 1 3/4-inch, 2 1/2-inch and 3-inch hose should be of the rounded ear (rocker lug) type designed to slide over obstructions without catching. Note Use 1 1/2-inch couplings for 1 1/2-inch and 1 3/4-inch hose. Use 2 1/2-inch couplings for 2 1/2-inch and 3-inch hose. The most common and preferred material is brass. Although aluminum couplings are preferred due to their light weight, they should be used only in fresh water systems and in a noncorrosive atmosphere. Corrosion may occur when dissimilar metals are connected. Use plastic couplings only for light-duty, non-firefighting purposes.

1633 Fire Water Nozzles


Hose stored on carts, trucks, or elsewhere should have at least one nozzle for every 250 feet of hose. Combination monitor nozzles are desirable in large facilities. It is usually necessary to manifold more than one 2 1/2-inch stream into such nozzles, because the typical flow is 500 gpm or more. Refer to Figure F-4 (Appendix F) for typical nozzle diameters and flow rates.

Straight Stream Playpipe Nozzles


Straight stream nozzles (see Figure 1600-5) are used infrequently. They are only needed for long-range high pressure, high-density water stream cooling, such as for cooling LPG vessels from a distance.

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Combination Straight Stream/Fog


Combination nozzles are most often used in fire, gas, dispersion, flushing, and personnel protection situations (see Figure 1600-6). Good quality nozzles are required for the protection of firefighting personnel. It is important to have a good supply of extra nozzles available.
Fig. 1600-5 Straight Stream Playpipe Nozzle Courtesy of Akron Co. Fig. 1600-6 Combination Straight Stream/Fog Nozzle Courtesy of Akron Co.

Combination nozzles are available in three types: Twist-to-adjust nozzles. The nozzle barrel is twisted to adjust between straight and fog streams. This type of nozzle is recommended for incipient stage. Pistol grip nozzles. These make hose handling easier and less tiring. Because of expense, these nozzles are generally limited to use on fire apparatus by fire brigades. Non-pistol grip nozzles with bail. A straight barrel nozzle with a handle (bail) used to vary the stream (see Figure 1600-7).

Special Purpose Nozzles


Special electrical equipment fog nozzles are available for fighting electrical fires with water (see Figure 1600-8). It is advisable to de-energize the circuit prior to attempting extinguishment. Use of CO2 is preferred to water or dry chemical because less cleanup is required. Extension nozzles and cellar nozzles are available for use through windows, under the floor, under docks, etc. (see Figure 1600-9).

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Fig. 1600-7 Adjustable Fog Nozzle Courtesy of Akron Co.

Fig. 1600-8 Fixed Pattern for Electrical Fires Courtesy of Akron Co.

Fig. 1600-9 Cellar Nozzle Courtesy of Akron Co.

Monitor Nozzles
Monitors are high-capacity water users and their use must be controlled. Using combination nozzles of 500 gpm capacity on monitors is usually adequate. (See Figures 1600-10 and 1600-11 for examples of monitor nozzles.) Additional straight stream and stack nozzles should be available for occasional long-range stream needs. Use multi-gallonage nozzles only when it is important to conserve water.

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Fig. 1600-10 Multi-gallonage Nozzle Courtesy of Akron Co.

Fig. 1600-11 Fixed Monitor Nozzle Courtesy of National Foam

Portable Monitor Nozzles


Nozzles for portable monitors (see Figure 1600-12) should be the same as for the fixed monitors. In some large plants, portable monitors with capacities of 1000 to 2000 gpm are part of the available firefighting equipment.

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Fig. 1600-12 Portable Monitor Nozzle Courtesy of Akron Co.

1634 Fire Water Accessories


Examples of useful accessories are as follows: Wyes. Use a wye with a 2 1/2-inch inlet by 2 1/2-inch outlets when using a 2 1/2-inch hose line inlet and splitting to two 2 1/2-inch lines at the point of use (see Figure 1600-13). Several wyes are usually required. Internal clapper valves are recommended in the wyes. When using 1 3/4-inch and 3-inch hoses acquire appropriately sized wyes. Aluminum wyes may be used in fresh water service because they are light and easier to handle than brass. Reducers. These are used to reduce the 2 1/2-inch hydrant outlet to 1 1/2 inches when a single hose line is needed. Other sizes, such as 3-inch to 1 3/4inch, should be stocked where applicable. Hose clamps, hose coupling wrenches, adapters, hose holders, etc., should be standard equipment.

1635 Incipient Stage Hose Systems


Incipient stage hose reels generally mean the permanently connected small hose in the immediate vicinity when a fire starts (see Figure 1600-14). Incipient stage hose requires relatively small flow. Because ready-connected incipient stage hoses are intended for use by one person, the rate of application for each hose is necessarily limited. Incipient stage hoses are to be used only to fight small, incipient stage fires. They do not provide adequate protection for a larger fire.

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Fig. 1600-13 Ball Valve Wye Courtesy of Akron Co.

Fig. 1600-14 FIrst Aid Hose Reel Courtesy of Herbert S. Hiller

Ordinarily, a hose line discharging 60 gpm at 100 psi is the maximum that can be safely handled by one person under all conditions. One person can, however, safely handle smaller hose at higher pressures, such as 1-inch hose at 150-175 psi. Handling of smaller hose, (1 1/4-inch and below), is similar to handling garden hose. Soft, collapsible hose is somewhat more difficult to handle. In soft hose storage devices listed by a nationally recognized laboratory, such as Underwriters' Laboratories (UL) or Factory Mutual (FM), the water control valve can be opened before the hose is pulled out. This results in water at the nozzle as soon as all the kinks are removed. When hose is fully extended, a hand pull releases a pin, allowing water to enter the hose. With other types, the water cannot be turned on until after the hose is pulled out to the ground, because expansion of the hose when the water is turned on may make the hose extremely difficult to move. Location. Locate incipient stage hoses near all risks to be protected, but not where they would be unduly exposed to a potential fire. Incipient stage hose stations should normally be located not closer than 20 feet from the equipment or location being protected. Where volatile flammable liquids are handled, locate hoses so that more than one water stream could be applied to any location when using a maximum of 100 feet of 1-inch, 1-1/4-inch, or 1-1/2-inch hose. Greater lengths are difficult for one person to handle. Provide incipient stage fire equipment in and around process units, near pumps and important manifolds (particularly where frequent blind-changing is necessary), at loading racks (except those handling penetration asphalt), and in or around most buildings.

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Types and Sizes of Hose. Incipient stage hose may be 3/4-inch garden hose, 1-inch or 1 1/4-inch ID two-braid Neoprene-covered hose, 1 1/2-inch cotton hose, or synthetic fiber jacketed rubber-lined hose. Garden hose is suitable protection for low hazard occupancies such as offices, laboratories, storage areas containing little or no flammable liquids, shop areas, etc. Pressure on the hose should be limited to 30 to 75 psi. Inicipient stage fire hose must be of a size easily handled by one person under any expected line pressure. Where pressure on the nozzle does not exceed about 100 psi at any time, hose up to and including 1 1/4 inches can be used satisfactorily. Where nozzle pressures exceed 100 psi, it is desirable to limit inci-pient stage hose to 1 inch, or to reduce the pressure. Short lengths of 1-1/2-inch hose (not over 100 feet) can be laid out by pulling on the nozzle. Pulling longer lengths from one end might put an excessive strain on the couplings. Additional people are required to handle long lengths of 1-1/2-inch hose; it then ceases to be first aid equipment. Incipient stage 1 1/2-inch fire hose is normally synthetic fiber jacketed. It is stored flat, and must be laid out without kinks before water will reach the nozzle. Time and space are required for this operation. Because of these disadvantages, 1 1/4inch hose reels are normally recommended for incipient stage hose stations. The smaller hose is usually hard and full flow is immediately available at the nozzle when the valve is opened, even when it is stored on reels or in loops. Take no more hose than you will need from the storage place. Comparing 1 1/4-inch hose with 1 1/2- inch hose during first response, the speed and ease of handling 1 1/4-inch hose frequently more than offsets the lower water flow rate. For large facilities or areas where the potential for large fires is higher, it may be justified to install 1 1/2-inch preconnected hose stations in addition to incipient stage hose reels. Providing 1 1/2-inch hose stations reduces the time required for firefighters to connect hose and begin to cool and contain a fire. Hose stations should at least 50 feet away from the fire area of concern and should be used by teams of firefighters rather than by one person, as is incipient stage hose. Nozzles. Each incipient stage hose should have a nozzle attached. In general, nozzles should be adjustable so that they can discharge a spray or straight stream and can be shut off. Garden hose should have a common garden hose nozzle with variable stream pattern and shutoff. A 3/4-inch nozzle delivers about 7 gpm at 30 psi nozzle pressure. Adjustable fog nozzles with a full range of patterns and shutoff should be provided for all 1-inch and larger first aid hoses. These nozzles should be of the type that directs a portion of the water into the spray cone, giving a solid spray pattern. This feature is particularly important for personnel protection, such as for closing a valve within a fire area. The increased amount of water in the cone helps to move the flame away from the nozzle and decrease the amount of radiant heat transmitted through the spray. Valves. It is essential to use a valve that does not leak for hydrant valves and valves on 1 1/4-inch and 1 1/2-inch first aid hoses, both hard rubber and synthetic. It is even more important that the valve be opened easily without the aid of wrenches or

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other tools. Ball valves with Neoprene seats and angle valves with composition disks are reliable in these services. To reduce friction loss and to prevent damage to valve parts, valves should always be fully opened when in use. Threads. Hydrant and hose threads should be compatible with those used by the local public fire department that might respond to a fire. Provide adapters where necessary. The following hose threads should be specified unless in conflict with local custom or regulations: 1-inch Straight Iron Pipe Thread 1 1/2-inch and larger National Hose Thread

Method of Storage. Garden hose can be stored on a live reel, hung in loops over a saddle, or coiled in a box. Normally, 1 1/4-inch hose should be stored on a live reel (see Figure 1600-14). Acceptable manufacturers and models are shown at the end of this section. Figure 1600-15 shows the piping arrangement for freezing climates where the valve cannot be located in a heated area. Synthetic 1 1/2-inch and 1 3/4-inch hose is normally stored in accordion folds in a box for protection against the weather. You can also store it in a double roll (both hose couplings on the outside) on a reel. In severe, cold climates it may be desirable to provide heated storage for incipient stage hoses.

1636 Fire Water Monitors


In high-risk, high-value facilities, where fire control personnel is limited because of operating activities, consider using monitors as a combination incipient stage and fire-control device. (Refer to Standard Drawing GB-S1007 in the Standard Drawings section.) Monitors may be either fixed or portable. Fixed monitors can be installed to protect a specific risk within a plant or for more general coverage where personnel availability is limited. Two fixed monitors may be requiredone on each sideto adequately protect a single risk in adverse wind conditions. Portable monitors can be strategically located around the facility. During a fire they can be quickly moved and connected by hose to the nearest hydrant. Due to the wide variation in flow rates and ranges that can be obtained from monitors, each installation must be designed for the specific risks and conditions involved. Monitors discharge large volumes of water and have good straight stream range. Discharge can be controlled by the type and size of adjustable nozzle or diameter of straight stream nozzle. A 1-inch diameter nozzle at 100 psi has a flow of about 300 gpm with a range of 140 to 150 feet when the wind is less than 5 mph. Beyond this distance the stream loses its continuity, but water is thrown somewhat further in the form of heavy rain, which is easily carried away by the wind. In adverse winds (10 mph or more), the range may be shortened as much as 40%. The effective range of spray patterns is about 40 feet at 500 gpm and 100 psi nozzle pressure, to about 125 feet at 100 psi with straight stream.

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Fig. 1600-15 Valve Box for Freezing Climates

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Monitor nozzles are not designed to be the primary water flow shutoff. The block valve at the monitor must be closed when the monitor is not in use. To reduce friction loss and to prevent damage to valve parts, the block valve should always be opened wide when in use. A persuader should be provided at each block valve to increase the handle moment arm. Some Company locations use an Inbal diaphragm valve on fire water monitors. These valves are operated using a small quarter turn valve to vent the diaphragm, allowing full flow through the monitor in a fraction of the time required to open a gate valve. To assure an adequate stream, locate monitor nozzles 40 to 75 feet from the hazard to be protected. Also consider the supply of water to the area and the drainage conditions. (See the Civil and Structural Manual, Section 500, and Section 1300 of this manual.) Elevated monitors may be needed to protect elevated structures containing fire hazardous equipment (see Figure 1600-16). Monitors on Pickup Trucks. In some locations, monitors with foam capability are mounted on pickups. These are effective because they can be moved easily.

1640 Foam Systems


1641 Types of Foam
Foam is a blanketing agent consisting of an aggregate of gas-filled or air-filled bubbles that can float on an oil surface. It prevents its contact with air, cools the surface and inhibits (or suppresses) the formation of vapor. It is used primarily for extinguishing liquid pool fires. Foam is effective on any liquid hydrocarbon at temperatures up to the boiling point of water. Applying foam to hydrocarbons heated above the boiling point of water may cause frothing and slopovers. Foam, being largely water, is also an effective quenching agent for fires in ordinary combustible materials. Details concerning foam requirements, application rates and expansion ratios are given in NFPA 11, Foam Extinguishing Systems; NFPA 11A, High Expansion Foam Systems; and NFPA 11B, Synthetic Foam and Combined Agent Systems. Foam types and application equipment are described in this section. The Fire Protection Staff is available to provide recommended types, brands, and application rates. The differences between fluoroprotein foam, aqueous film forming foam (AFFF), and multipurpose foam concentrates are not significant in extinguishing most fires. Selecting a foam is primarily an economic decision. Foam is expensive to purchase and to store. For facilities that store both hydrocarbons and alcohol, and oxygenated fuels over 15% by volume, consider purchasing a multipurpose foam to use on both alcohol and hydrocarbon-type liquid fires, and avoid storing two types of foam. In all cases, standardize on 3% concentrates, so common proportioning equipment can be used regardless of type or brand. Foam is also available in 1% concentrate, but this requires special metering equipment. Where weight or volume limitations exist, 1% concentrate may be preferable.

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Fig. 1600-16 Elevated Fire Water Monitor Courtesy of Elkhart Brass Manufacturing Co.

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Chemical Foam. Chemical foam is now obsolete. Chemical foam systems and supplies should be dismantled and scrapped. Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF). AFFF concentrates are based on fluorinated surfactants plus foam stabilizers, and are diluted with water to a 3% or 6% solution. Use of 3% concentrate is recommended to reduce the amount kept in inventory. The foam acts as a barrier to exclude air or oxygen and to develop an aqueous film on the fuel surface that can suppress the evolution of fuel vapors. AFFF is especially effective on relatively thin layers of flammable liquid, such as spills. AFFF is effective on pooled hydrocarbons and was originally designed for fires requiring quick knockdown for rescue, such as aircraft or tank vehicle accidents, and for use on aircraft carriers. Fluoroprotein Foam. Fluoroprotein foam is the most common type of mechanical foam. Concentrates are diluted with water to a 3% or 6% solution. Use of 3% foam concentrate is recommended to reduce the amount kept in inventory. Fluoroprotein foam was derived from protein foam concentrates to which small amounts of fluorochemical surfactants were added, similar to those used in AFFF foam agents, but in much lower concentrations. These foams generally have very good heat stability and resist burnback (decomposition of the foam from fire exposure, allowing the fire to regain area as the foam breaks down). Film Forming Fluoroprotein (FFFP). FFFP combines the quick knock-down quality of AFFF with the holding power of protein foam. It can be used where either AFFF or protein foams are required. Alcohol-Resistant Foam. Alcohol-resistant (ARC) foams are suitable for use on fires in water soluble and certain flammable or combustible liquids, and in solvents that are destructive to regular foams, such as alcohols (greater than 15% of volume in hydrocarbon, such as gasohol), ketones, etc. Alcohol-resistant foam concentrates are available in a 3% or 6% solution. Use of 3% solution is recommended to reduce the amount kept in inventory. This type of foam has an insoluble barrier in the bubble structure that resists breakdown at the interface of the fuel and foam blanket. All-Purpose foam. This type combines the properties of AFFF (or fluoroprotein) and alcohol-resistant (polar fuel) concentrates, and is also available in a 3% or 6% solution. Use of 3% concentrate is recommended to reduce the amount kept in inventory. All-purpose foam is the most expensive type of foam. Its cost is about 50% more than other types, so its use needs to be justified. High-Expansion Foam. High expansion (synthetic detergent) foam, when used with high expansion foam generators, produces a large volume of air bubbles, the film of which has little water. Consequently, this type of foam suppresses fire by the displacement of air. Because of its very low specific gravity, it is most effective in

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enclosed spaces where foam mass can be built up and is not carried away by wind or air currents. High-expansion foam is used for fires in laboratories, aircraft hangers, paint shops, and other enclosed buildings.

1642 Foam Systems


Fixed Systems
Fixed foam systems should be justified based on a risk evaluation. However, semifixed systems are frequently warranted for large storage tanks, especially for lowflash products. The Tank Manual has a section covering the design of fire protection for large tanks and outlines the Company position on semi-fixed systems for storage tanks. The basic design requirements given in NFPA 11 should be followed.

Foam Hose Reels


Sixty-gallon foam hose reels are sometimes placed at strategic locations in process areas that have a higher risk of spill fires. See Figure 1600-17. Foam is very useful in process areas for controlling and extinguishing fires: Fires at low points where hydrocarbons collect (e.g., sumps and trenches) Fires on offshore platforms Spill fires

Portable Foam Units


Sixty-gallon portable foam hose stations may be considered for large pump stations, for process areas, or at tank truck loading racks. Large foam trailers, fire trucks, etc., are discussed in Section 1670 of this manual.

Fixed Foam Units


Fixed foam units generally consist of a monitor with an educting nozzle (flows between 350 and 500 gpm) and a 20-minute supply of AFFF or all-purpose foam. Higher volume (greater than 500 gpm) monitors are also available.

1643 Storage and Testing of Foam


Inventory
Foam storage should be adequate to handle the largest anticipated need. This may be a seal fire on the largest tank, a reasonable spill fire, or a fully involved tank fire. The latter typically requires substantially greater amounts of foam. Depending on the size, location, and layout of the facility, foam storage to handle such a fire may not be justified. However, it is prudent to have a plan for emergency backup supplies. This can consist of on-site storage or sources immediately available (within 24 hours) from suppliers or through mutual aid agreements. See Manufacturers list at the end of this section.

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Fig. 1600-17 Foam Hose Reel Courtesy of Herbert S. Hiller

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Testing
Foam samples should be tested annually for quality. Reliable testing of foam insures its effectiveness during an emergency situation. Testing is performed as a free service by major foam manufacturers such as National Foam, Ansul, 3M, and Angus. Testing frequency varies depending on how and where the foam is stored. The manufacturer, as a free service, will test the foam sample for pH, specific gravity, sedimentation, and quality. If the sample fails one of these tests, the manufacturer performs a fire test at a nominal fee. Contact the specific foam manufacturer for details on sending samples. Anti-foam agents may be used following foam system performance tests to reduce the amount of water needed to flush away spent foam.

Storage
Store foam in a container properly designed for bulk storage. Protect the containers from extreme weather conditions. The temperature should not exceed 100F for long periods of time. Do not store different types of foam (e.g., AFFF and fluoroprotein) in the same container. Listed below are the three basic types of storage categories and their corresponding recommended test frequencies. Inside Storage. Foam stored indoors in the original shipping containers and kept within the manufacturer's recommended storage temperature range (usually 35 to 100F) needs to be tested at least once every three years. Some jurisdictions may have adopted NFPA 11 as a legal requirement. This recommends annual testing (Chapter 5-3.5). However, foam deterioration is extremely slow if stored indoors. Apparatus Storage. Foam stored in active firefighting equipment (i.e., fire trucks, hose reels, portable foam tanks, etc.) where dilution is possible needs to be tested at least annually, and more frequently if dilution is suspected. Outside Storage. Foam stored outside in the original containers needs to be tested once every year. The preferred storage is indoors under controlled environmental conditions. This eliminates the chance of dilution and minimizes temperature degradation, which destroys the quality of the foam. In addition, indoor storage decreases the frequency of testing and has resulted in foam storage life of 20 years or more, which in turn reduces costs. Foam should not be stored outside in freezing climates. Following are additional foam storage tips: Rotate foam storage containers so that old foam is used before new foam. In smaller facilities such as marketing terminals and small chemical plants, the foam in one hose reel should be used for fire training once a year. The foam in the reels not used for training should be tested on an annual basis.

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If more than one container of foam has the same batch number, then only one sample from the batch needs to be taken, provided all containers are stored under the same conditions. Some larger facilities may want to test their own foam. Contact the foam manufacturer's local supplier for details on testing procedures.

1644 Foam Proportioners


To apply foam to a small spill or fire, you need a foam proportioner; that is, an inline eductor (or eductor-type nozzle), a pickup tube, and a container of foam. Normally a fire truck or equipment carrier has foam proportioners. See Figure 1600-18.
Fig. 1600-18 Pickup Tube Proportioner Courtesy of National Foam

1650 Portable Fire Extinguishers


Portable fire extinguishers include both self-contained fire extinguishing equipment that can be carried by one person and wheeled units that can be handled by one or two people (refer to NFPA 10, Portable Fire Extinguishers). Portable extinguishers are used in the following situations: To provide the primary means of extinguishment where piped water is unavailable To quickly extinguish small fires where they are better adapted, quicker, or less messy than water (e.g., small CO2 extinguishers in laboratories or computer rooms) To supplement hose lines where a combination of cooling and another control method is needed

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1651 Limitations
Portable fire extinguishers are incipient stage equipment. They are designed for fires of limited size, and their period of discharge is short. Different fire extinguishers are not equally effective on all kinds of fires. When choosing a fire extinguisher, consider the type of fire that may occur and the nature of the process or occupancy. As with all incipient stage equipment, portable fire extinguishers have limited effectiveness unless trained personnel are present when the fire starts.

1652 Fire Extinguisher Selection


General guidelines for selecting portable fire extinguishers are given in Figure 1600-19.
Fig. 1600-19 Fire Extinguisher Selection GUIDELINE FOR SELECTING PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Class A Ordinary Combustible Hazards Piped water not available or where portable extinguisher is legally required 2 1/2 gallon stored-pressure water. If freezing conditions are expected, add anti-freeze chemicals or use multipurpose dry chemical extinguishers. Multipurpose dry chemical may be considered for some warehouse facilities and offices where lightweight fire extinguishers are desirable for easier handling. Class B Flammable Liquids and Gases Hazards All outdoor hazards (e.g., loading racks, process plants) Light indoor hazards (e.g., laboratories, computer rooms) Kitchens/deep fat fryers Dry chemical Carbon dioxide Multipurpose dry chemical Class C Electrical Hazards Heavy electrical machinery (e.g., motors, transformers) Delicate electrical and electronic equipment (e.g., telephone exchanges, computers) Carbon dioxide, or dry chemical. Dry chemical requires clean up; others do not. Carbon dioxide. (Dry chemical is an effective agent but difficult to clean up and may damage the equipment.)

Location
Locate portable fire extinguishers near the risk to be protected, but not so close that they can become involved in the fire. The suggested distance is between 20 feet and 50 feet. From any grade level point in a process plant, the maximum horizontal distance to a dry chemical extinguisher should not exceed 50 feet. In multi-level

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structures and elevated platforms containing processes with an associated risk of fire, a dry chemical extinguisher should be located on each level, near the stairway landing, and in other logical areas if the travel distance exceeds 50 feet. Where possible, place extinguishers near doors or other accessways so that a fire is not likely to occur between approaching personnel and extinguishers. Extinguisher locations should be conspicuous, clearly marked, and visible from several directions. Do not place equipment, supplies, or other material in front of extinguishers that might conceal them or impede access to them. Small extinguishers with gross weight less than 40 pounds should be located at a convenient height with the top not more than five feet above the floor. Extinguishers with gross weight greater than 40 pounds (except wheeled types), should be installed with the top of the extinguisher not more than 3 1/2 feet above the floor. The clearance between the bottom of the extinguisher and the floor should be at least four inches. Do not set extinguishers on the floor or ground because of the increased chance of bottom corrosion.

1653 Water Extinguishers


The superior cooling capacity of water over other extinguishing agents makes it particularly effective on fires involving ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper, fabrics, or rubber. Water extinguishers furnish a convenient, effective, and economical way to provide a small stream of water under limited pressure for locations where piped water is not justified. Water extinguishers do not require extensive cleanup after use and they are noncorrosive to electronic circuitry, both of which are characteristic of dry chemical extinguishers. Stored-Pressure Water Extinguishers. These extinguishers contain water stored under air pressure of about 100 psi. They are manufactured with a capacity of 1 1/2 to 33 gallons of water. For offices, the 2 1/2-gallon size is recommended because it is easy to handle. A pressure gage indicates the internal pressure. Stored-pressure water extinguishers are operated in a vertical position by opening a valve at the top of the extinguisher; the water is expelled by internal pressure. The stream has a 12to 15-foot range. Intermittent flow can be controlled by the valve on most types. Antifreeze Additives. When water extinguishers are subject to freezing weather, add antifreeze (calcium chloride) to the water to lower the freezing point However, do not use calcium chloride antifreeze additives in extinguishers with stainless steel shells, as stainless steels are subject to chloride corrosion attack. Extinguishers with stainless steel shells should be winterized according to the manufacturer's instructions.

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As a guideline, dissolve the following amounts of calcium chloride in sufficient water to fill a 2 1/2-gallon extinguisher:
Approximate Freezing Temperature 10F 0F -10F -20F -30F -40F Amount of Calcium Chloride 5 lb 6 lb 4 oz 7 lb 6 oz 8 lb 2 oz 9 lb 2 oz 10 lb

This table is based on granulated 75% calcium chloride (free from magnesium chloride). Individual recharges are marketed by most fire extinguisher manufacturers.

1654 Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers


Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas, liquified under high pressure. It vaporizes when released, resulting in a smothering action on the fire by excluding the air (oxygen) needed for combustion.

Caution

The concentration of CO2 needed to extinguish fire will not support life.

It is safe to discharge a CO2 extinguisher in a room, but then ventilate the room to assure safe levels of oxygen. A CO2 extinguisher is well suited for indoor use where winds or drafts do not affect the discharge of the gas. Carbon dioxide extinguishers (see Figure 1600-20) are preferable to water or dry chemical extinguishers where water damage and fouling of delicate electrical, electronic, or laboratory equipment cannot be tolerated or where cleanup is a consideration.
Fig. 1600-20 Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguisher

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Carbon dioxide extinguishers are designed to be carried to the fire. You discharge them from the vertical position toward the base of the flame by opening the control valve at the top of the extinguisher. If the extinguisher is tilted, the total contents cannot be discharged. To prevent accidental discharge, most types have a locking pin that must be removed before you can operate the valve. Because the unit discharges a gas readily dispersed by wind, you need to hold the discharge horn within a few feet of the fire. Carbon dioxide extinguishers are manufactured in sizes ranging from 2 to 25 pounds capacity; however, the 5-, 10-, and 15-pound sizes are the most widely used. Smaller sizes discharge for about 15 seconds, while larger sizes discharge for about 30 seconds. The discharge can be stopped and started at will on most types by operating the control valve. These extinguishers are suitable for installations where the temperature is between -40 and 120F.

1655 Dry Chemical Extinguishers


Five basic types of dry chemical extinguishing agents are available. The first three are the most widely accepted. Sodium bicarbonate base Potassium bicarbonate base (Purple K) Monoammonium phosphate base (multipurpose chemical) Potassium chloride base Urea-potassium bicarbonate base

Do not convert an extinguisher to use a chemical other than the one for which it was designed. Conversion voids the UL label, as does using a chemical other than that specified on the extinguisher nameplate. OSHA standards require compliance with manufacturer's instructions on the extinguisher nameplate and thus prohibit conversion. Sodium bicarbonate chemical. Sodium bicarbonate was the original dry chemical extinguishing agent. The chemical currently available is a mixture consisting primarily of sodium bicarbonate with various additives to improve flow and storage characteristics. Chief among the additives is a silicone polymer. It is used to prevent moisture absorption and consequent caking of chemical. Water repellency obtained by coating the particles of dry chemical with a silicone polymer makes the use of dry chemical compatible with foam and/or water spray. The chemical has a medium particle size of 25 to 35 microns. Because particle size has a definite effect on extinguishing efficiency, it is important to use quality chemicals. The extinguishing effectiveness of dry chemical is due primarily to its ability to interrupt the propagation of flame. It also acts as a shield from heat radiation. Its electrical resistivity is high, and it is nontoxic. This agent may be used for extinguishing fires involving flammable liquids, gases and electrical equipment. It is not effective in extinguishing deep-seated fires in ordinary combustibles. Potassium bicarbonate chemical. Potassium bicarbonate chemical is more effective than sodium bicarbonate and monoammonium phosphate chemicals for extin-

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guishing fires involving flammable liquids and gases. Its physical properties are similar to those of sodium bicarbonate chemical. Potassium bicarbonate, commonly known as Purple K, is recommended for new major oil handling facilities. It is also suitable for use on fires involving electrical equipment. This agent is not effective in extinguishing deep-seated fires in ordinary combustibles. Multipurpose dry chemical. Multipurpose dry chemical (principally monoammonium phosphate) is effective in controlling and extinguishing fires involving flammable liquids and gases, ordinary combustible materials, and electrical equipment. It is recommended where piped water is not available, where freezing conditions are expected, or where a combination of different classes of hazards exists. It has physical properties similar to the sodium bicarbonate chemical and is more effective on flammable liquid fires. However, this type of extinguisher is corrosive to electronic circuitry. Warning: Do not mix multipurpose dry chemical with either sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate or urea-potassium bicarbonate dry chemical. A chemical reaction can occur that generates CO2 and other gases, causing a pressure buildup that could rupture the extinguisher. Potassium chloride chemical. Potassium chloride chemical is seldom used. It has about half the effectiveness of potassium bicarbonate chemical in extinguishing fires involving flammable liquids or gases. Potassium chloride chemical is not recommended for use where it could contact major equipment made of materials subject to chloride stress corrosion cracking, such as stainless steels. Urea-potassium bicarbonate chemical. Urea-potassium bicarbonate chemical was developed in the late 1960's and was first listed by Underwriters' Laboratories in 1972. Its increased effectiveness compared to potassium bicarbonate is due to its decrepitation when heated by the flame of a fire. It becomes a mass of much smaller particles, which increases its extinguishing effectiveness. The additional cost, however, is not normally justified. Only a few manufacturers are currently marketing an approved fire extinguisher using this chemical. Dry chemical extinguisher types. Dry chemical extinguishers are manufactured in two types: Cartridge-operated. Cartridge-operated dry chemical extinguishers have a replaceable cartridge of compressed carbon dioxide (CO2), usually located outside the chemical container (see Figure 1600-21). Nitrogen cartridges are available for low temperature use. To operate the extinguisher, a valve or puncture mechanism releases the gas in the small cylinder into the larger container. The flow of chemical is controlled by another valve, usually located at the end of the discharge hose. Stored-pressure. The stored-pressure (rechargeable) type is similar to the cartridge type, except that the chemical container is under full pressure all the time. Nitrogen or dry air is usually used as the pressuring medium. A gage on the unit indicates the pressure in the chemical container. A lever or trigger operates the single valve that controls the flow of chemical. Stored-pressure types with disposable shells are available in the smaller sizes. They are manufactured with and without gages and operate like the rechargeable types.

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Fig. 1600-21 Cartridge-Operated Dry Chemical Extinguisher Courtesy of Ansul Fire Protection

Applications of dry chemical extinguishers. Cartridge-operated extinguishers with mild steel shells are recommended for protection of oil handling facilities except as noted below. Low temperature (nitrogen) cartridges should be used when ambient temperatures at extinguisher locations drop below 10F for extended periods. Applications where the stored-pressure (rechargeable) extinguishers can be considered as acceptable substitutes for cartridge-operated extinguishers are: Protection of low risk occupancies (e.g., garages). Locations not subject to vibration or humidity. These conditions may cause dry chemical packing, making the extinguisher unreliable. Installation where refilled cartridges are difficult to obtain. Installation where only one or two small extinguishers are needed (e.g., service stations). The disposable-shell type is also suitable for this application. Installation where appearance is particularly important (e.g., public assembly).

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Use of dry chemical extinguishers. Dry chemical extinguishers are designed to be carried to the fire. Details of operation vary, depending on whether the unit is the cartridge type or the stored-pressure type. Most models of both types of extinguishers have a locking pin or seal to prevent accidental discharge, which must be removed or released before the unit can be operated. Both types of dry chemical extinguishers are made in a variety of sizes containing from 2 to 30 pounds of chemical. The larger sizes have a range of 20 to 25 feet and discharge for about 20 seconds under normal conditions, but the flow of chemical can be controlled by opening and closing the valve. The flow should never be throttled by partially opening the valve.

1656 Halogenated Agent Extinguishers (Halon)


The manufacture of Halon was eliminated as of January 1, 1994, due to its adverse effect on the earth's ozone layer. Use of this agent should be carefully considered and should be restricted to only those applications where other agents would not be suitable, such as critical electronic facilities. See Section 1663.

1657 Wheeled Units


In addition to small size extinguishers that are carried by one person, extinguisher units are available in larger sizes, mounted on two-wheeled carts (see Figure 1600-22). These larger units have 10 to 20 times the capacity of hand extinguishers. They are intended for use on fires beyond the capacity of hand units or where larger fire control capacity must be handled by fewer people. Wheeled dry chemical extinguishers with 50 feet of hose should be located on accessible concrete pads. Primary coverage is for pump groups and fired process heaters in flammable or combustible liquid service. Each process unit should have at least one wheeled dry chemical extinguisher. More than one may be warranted where obstructions could cause difficulties in moving the extinguisher. In some areas, 350-pound units may be justified. Also available are special purpose wheeled extinguishers with 33 gallons of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF). These may be useful where a limited foam extinguishing capability is needed, such as at remote locations where piped water is not available and an unusual risk of spill fire exists.

1660 Fixed Fire Detection, Control and Extinguishing Systems


1661 Fixed Water Spray Systems
Refer to NFPA 15, Water Spray Fixed Systems, for additional information. Water in spray form is more effective than straight streams, especially on burning surfaces and on surfaces to be cooled.

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Fig. 1600-22 Wheeled Fire Extinguisher Units Courtesy of Ansul Fire Protection

In most places, water spray streams can be applied with hand-directed nozzles on hoses or monitors after a fire starts. However, fixed sprays are justified in some facilities. Conditions that may justify fixed sprays include: Process vessels containing 2500 gallons or more of flammable liquid under pressure, and where monitor streams cannot reach all exposed surfaces above the normal liquid level

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Mechanical equipment containing liquids above their auto-ignition temperature or that are volatile and located under other high-value equipment Where pumps are handling hydrocarbons above 600F or above their auto-ignition temperature Where high-value, long-delivery, critical pumps are located under other highvalue equipment, such as air coolers Critical surfaces such as valves, manifolds, headers, etc., where large volumes of high temperature hydrocarbons are processed and where effective cooling is required Where critical equipment is located on offshore production platforms, such as wellhead production and compression equipment areas Where critical equipment resides in unattended facilities or where firefighting personnel may not be immediately available Where sprays are used as an alternative to fireproofing for structural members or critical instrument cables

Water spray systems should be tested at least quarterly to verify that the system is working properly, that nozzles are not plugged, and that coverage is adequate. See Section 1686.

Fixed Water Spray Requirements


The possible variables encountered during fires with flammable liquids or gases in petroleum handling facilities make precise calculations difficult. Volume, pressure, and temperature of the materials being handledas well as the structural configuration involved and weather conditionsare all factors that influence water application rates. Other factors to consider include available water supply, drainage capacity, and dispersion of flammable or possibly toxic materials. The following sections give recommendations for minimum water application rates (densities) for fixed water spray systems.

Spray Systems for Pumps


Pumps and other devices that handle flammable liquids or gases should have the shafts, packing glands, connections, and other critical parts enveloped in directed water spray at a density of not less than 0.5 gpm per square foot of area covered (see Figure 1600-23). For a given nozzle the area covered equals the area of the nozzle's circle of coverage at the pump centerline. This assumes a horizontal circular pattern of spray coverage at pump centerline. Interference from piping may require that one or more spray nozzles be located higher or lower than the normal 4 or 5 feet above pump centerline. Narrow-angle nozzles have a long reach. Wide-angle nozzles have a short reach and wide coverage.

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Fig. 1600-23 Spray System for Pumps

Lateral lines coming off the top of the header minimize most nozzle plugging problems. Other recommended features are main lines sloped to drain and a flush valve at the end of each main line.

Spray Systems for Vertical Vessels


Water should be applied to vessels at a rate of not less than 0.25 gpm per square foot of exposed uninsulated surface. To ensure adequate coverage, the horizontal distance between nozzles must be close enough to permit meeting of spray patterns. The vertical distance between nozzles may be as much as 12 feet, provided rundown is expected. Nozzles should be no more than 4 to 6 feet from the vessel.

Spray Systems for Spheres or Vessels


Water sprays on spheres or horizontal cylindrical vessels should be capable of discharging 0.25 gpm per square foot of surface area of the upper half of the vessel.

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The main components of spray systems for horizontal vessels are shown in Figure 1600-24. Lateral lines coming off the top of the header eliminate most nozzle plugging problems. Lines sloped to drain and a flush valve are also desirable design features.
Fig. 1600-24 Water Spray System for Horizontal Drums

Surfaces of the lower half are not always wetted by water rundown from above; additional coverage may be required by hand-held hoses or monitors if the vessel is likely to be less than half full of liquid. Grading and drainage out from under vessels are important factors to minimize heat input to the lower vessel surface. Water sprays are not effective in providing cooling for high-velocity, jet-impinging fires. The velocity of jetting gases blows the water spray droplets away from the vessel shell. For LPG storage vessels, water monitors are required in addition to sprays. Refer to API 2510A for additional information.

Deluge Systems for Spheres


Deluge systems, or high-capacity water spray systems, are preferred on LPG storage spheres. A density coverage of 0.25 gpm per square foot of surface area above the equator is recommended. For example, about 1600 gpm of fire water would be required to adequately protect one 65-foot diameter sphere. The main components of a water deluge system are shown in Figure 1600-25 and are listed here:

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An adequate water supply line to the top of the sphere, terminating in an openended pipe that spills the water onto the top of the sphere. Weir box for even distribution of water over the top of the sphere, or two or three water distributor rings spaced above 2 feet apart to further distribute flow over the sphere surface. Provide drain holes to prevent retention of rain water. A valve and drain line in the water line located at least 50 feet from the sphere. This is normally a quick-opening (quarter turn) manual valve, but could be operated by a fire detector in unattended locations. This valve could be an Inbal diaphragm valve (see Section 1636). The valve must be located away from the drainage path from the sphere.

Fig. 1600-25 Deluge System for Spheres

Structures and Miscellaneous Equipment


Where projections such as manway flanges, pipe flanges, support brackets, or vessel legs obstruct water spray coverage, (including rundown on vertical surfaces), additional deflectors or nozzles may be needed to maintain the wetting pattern on pressure-holding surfaces.

Nonmetallic Electrical Cable and Tubing Runs


Open cable trays/conduit banks (unfireproofed) may be protected by fixed sprays when there is potential for fire exposure, such as above hot-oil pumps or near furnaces. The preferred protection is to route critical control and power wiring away from fire risk areas. Where routing outside a fire risk area is not feasible, use

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properly installed sprays instead. An application rate of .30 gpm per square foot of projected area is recommended.

System Components
Components of a fixed water spray installation should be standardized to provide an interchangeable system. Systems may be operated automatically or manually, depending on the anticipated degree of hazard. Equipment exposed to corrosive atmospheres should be constructed of corrosionresistant materials or covered with protective coatings to minimize corrosion. Pipe, tubing, and fittings should be designed to withstand a working pressure of not less than 175 psi. Include a strainer and full-flow bypass in the system.

Nozzle Selection
Nozzles producing a solid cone spray pattern are effective for most fire control and surface cooling applications. However, flat spray or other patterns may be more suitable for certain applications. Select a nozzle with an angle of discharge and capacity at the pressure available that gives the needed density on the surface, considering the distance to the nozzle mounting location. Spray nozzles are manufactured in a variety of configurations. Take care to ensure proper application of the nozzle type. Distance of throw or location of the nozzle from the surface is limited by the nozzle discharge characteristics. Select nozzles that are not easily obstructed by debris, sediment, sand, rust deposits, etc., in the water. The nozzle orifice size should be at least 3/8 inch. Use the largest practical nozzle size. Installing a few large nozzles is preferable to installing a greater number of smaller nozzles. Nozzles with no internal parts are less likely to plug. Include approved strainers with full capacity bypass and flushout connections where debris may cause plugging problems. See the manufacturer list at the end of this section. Stainless steel nozzles are recommended. However, brass and other materials are available.

Water Supplies
The type of water used is important. Fresh water has the advantage of less plugging and corrosion than salt water. If salt water is used, a fresh water flush is recommended. The water supply flow rate and pressure should be able to maintain water discharge at the design rate and duration for all systems designed to operate simultaneously. Allow for the flow rate of hose streams and other fire protection water requirements when determining the maximum water demand for fixed sprays. Manual control valves or remote actuation point should be located at least 50 feet from the hazard and identified to ensure accessibility during an emergency. When

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system actuation is automatic, provide manual overrides. Consider using an Inbal diaphragm valve, described in Section 1636, to actuate fixed water spray systems. The water supply should be from reliable sources, such as Company hydrant systems, connections to city water systems, fire pumps, or fire department connections for mobile pumpers. The total water supply necessary for these installations will vary considerably. See Figure 1600-1.

Size of System
Protect separate fire areas with separate spray systems. Keep single systems as small as is feasible.

Separation of Fire Areas


Typical fire areas are: Operating sections that can be shut down independently of other sections Offshore platform modules Process sections such as distillation, exchanger banks, manifolds, or reactor sections Natural fire breaks (such as pipeways)

Refer to Section 1300 for more information.

Drainage
It is important to make provisions for drainage of water or foam solution that is likely to be discharged into an a fire area. Drainage capacity should allow for the expected amount of spilled oil. See Section 1400 and the Civil and Structural Manual, Section 500, for more detail on this subject. Automatic Sprinkler Systems. In manned process facilities, sprinkler systems are generally not automatic. However, in offices, laboratories, and warehouses, automatic heat-actuated systems are commonly used. Sprinkler system design should follow NFPA 13. Multi-story living quarters on offshore facilities should be sprinklered. Such systems are normally fresh water packed with provision for salt water makeup if the system is activated. The need for actuation of systems to transmit an alarm to a fire station is based on local code requirements and whether the facility is manned continuously. The more usual method is to notify the local fire department by phone.

1662 Fixed Foam Systems


Fixed foam equipment is seldom recommended for use in the Company except on large floating roof hydrocarbon storage tanks (over 120 feet in diameter), as covered in the Tank Manual, and for special situations such as manifold pits or onboard tank vessels. NFPA 11, Low Expansion Foam and Combined Agent

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Systems, provides further information on this subject. A discussion on foam as an extinguishing agent is included in this section of the manual.

1663 Fixed Halon Systems


Halons are vaporizing liquids that chemically inhibit combustion by interrupting flame propagation similarly to dry chemical. The two most widely used Halons are Halon 1301 and Halon 1211. Their installation and use is discussed in NFPA 12A and 12B, respectively. Based on the discovery that Halon can harm ozone in the atmosphere, as of January 1, 1994, Halon can no longer be legally produced in this or any other developed country. No new Halon systems should be installed.

Halon Alternatives
Some Halon substitutes have received EPA approval as part of the Significant New Alternatives Program (SNAP) and are listed in Figure 1600-26. These products require significant redesign of existing fixed suppression equipment. Approved substitutes require storing and dispensing from 1.7 to 10 times the volume of Halon 1301. A substance that allows simple exchange of gas in existing storage cylinders does not exist. This list is changing, and information is quickly obsolete. Contact the CRTC Fire & Process Safety Team for the latest information on acceptable Halon alternatives. The National Fire Protection Association will also provide guidance in NFPA 2001. Note that we require UL and FM approval of specific applications for all substitute extinguishing systems. One brand of Halon substitute, Inergen, is a mixture of inert gases, nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide. Releasing large volumes of Inergen reduces oxygen in air, which extinguishes the fire. However, carbon dioxide is maintained at an optimum lower level that stimulates, rather than depresses, breathing in humans and other animals. Therefore, it is not necessary to evacuate people from the area prior to release, as required with CO2 extinguishing systems. Inergen systems should be designed by experts familiar with calculating the correct volume of release. Other EPA-approved replacement gases are true suppressants like Halon, but require higher concentrations in air than Halon. The substitutes for Halon in Figure 1600-26 do not cause ozone depletion (ODP = 0), but substitutes can have other potential effects on the atmosphere. These effects are related to the length of time they require to break down in the atmosphere. Products with longer atmospheric life could contribute to global warming and may be regulated in the future. Low global warming-potential products are preferred.

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Fig. 1600-26 Halon Substitutes EPA-Approved Halon Replacement Gases


Agent Chemical Name FM-200 Heptafluorpropane CF3CHFCF3 Great Lakes Chemical (317) 497-6206 31 to 42 Years Low Inergen 52% Nitrogen, 40% Argon, 8% Carbon Dioxide Ansul Fire Protection (916) 676-3344 Not Applicable None Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide CO2 FE-13 PFC-410 Trifluoromethane CHF3 Perfluorobutane C4F10

Manufacturer Atmospheric Life Global Warming Potential Allowed Discharge Time Design Concentration Halon: 5% Storage Space Required Advantages

Many Not Applicable None

E. I. DuPont Co. (302) 992-2177 235 Years High

3M Fire Protection (612) 736-6055 500-10,000 Years Likely to be High 10 Seconds to 95% Discharge 6% - 8% Unknown Lowest storage pressure.

10 Seconds to 95% Discharge 7% 1 Square Foot One Cylinder Lowest volume and pressure replacement. Lowest cost to convert from Halon. Low global warming potential.

60 Seconds to Design Concentration 34% to 50% 9 Square Feet Nine Cylinders Consists of naturally occurring gases. Can be substituted for carbon dioxide with greater margin of safety. Only commercial formula that does not release high concentrate of HF breakdown products. Requires very high storage pressure. Hardware cost higher. Not a true fire suppressant gas. Requires most storage space.

60 Seconds to Design Concentration 34 to 75% 6 Square Feet Six Cylinders Consists of naturally occurring gases. Cheapest replacement gases.

10 Seconds to 95% Discharge 14% 2 Square Feet Two Cylinders Lowest cost true fire suppressant replacement gas available.

Greater number of distributors and hardware vendors.

Disadvantages

Most expensive for gas replacement, so accidental trips and test runs more expensive.

Must have safeguards to prevent suffocation. Extra hardware for time delays, etc. makes it the highest priced alternative initially.

Requires high storage pressure. Hardware cost higher than for other suppressant gas. May be restricted to conditional use by EPA.

Allowed by EPA only when others proved not to work due to global warming potential.

Existing Fixed Halon Systems


Removal of existing Halon systems is not required. Maintaining an existing system could be expensive, however, especially if false alarms and unnecessary releases occur. If a supplier can be found, lost Halon can be replaced, but replacement is costly. Existing Halon extinguishing systems should be evaluated to determine if they can be eliminated without significant increased risk of fire loss. The Halon can then be stockpiled for critical uses. In occupied areas that are manned 24 hours per day by personnel trained in incipient stage firefighting, a fixed system may not be necessary. Devices used to trigger the release of Halon can easily be converted to manual audible alarms and control board alarms.

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Most Halon releases to the atmosphere are caused by false alarms. Consider converting retained Halon systems to manual discharge to minimize the potential for inadvertent releases. As with all electronics, instrumentation systems for fire protection have improved greatly in the past few years, and this is a good time to review and possibly upgrade them.

1664 Fixed Dry Chemical Systems


Fixed dry chemical systems may be installed to protect an area of unusual hazard where the powder would not cause additional damage or where other media would be substantially less effective. Systems can be installed either inside or outside and should be designed in accordance with NFPA 17, Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems. Consider the effects of wind for outdoor systems. A disadvantage of fixed dry chemical systems is that they must achieve extinguishment with one discharge, or the fire will continue unabated. Consultation with the CRTC Fire & Process Safety team is recommended before proceeding with the design for these systems.

1665 Fixed Carbon Dioxide Systems


Carbon dioxide (CO2) extinguishes almost entirely by smothering, although it does have a negligible cooling effect of about 100 BTU per pound. Liquid carbon dioxide is stored under pressure in steel cylinders. When the valve on the cylinder opens, the rapid expansion of the liquid into gas produces a refrigerating effect, which solidifies part of the carbon dioxide to a snow. This snow soon sublimes into gas, absorbing heat from the burning material or surrounding atmosphere. The gas extinguishes fire by reducing the oxygen content of surrounding air below the flammable limit of the fuel. Unless this concentration of gas is maintained for an extended period, carbon dioxide does not normally extinguish fires in materials that smolder or produce glowing embers, such as paper and wood. Its greatest effectiveness is on flammable liquid fires that do not involve material that might cause a reflash after the CO2 has dissipated. It is especially suitable for laboratories. It also has wide application in the protection of delicate electrical and electronic equipment, where cleanup after extinguishment is an important consideration. Carbon dioxide is clean and leaves no residue to damage the equipment. It extinguishes by reducing (diluting) the oxygen in air to a level that does not sustain combustion.

Warning CO2 will not sustain life. It cannot be used safely in closed manned facilities unless warning alarms are sounded and personnel are either evacuated before the CO2 is released or use self-contained breathing apparatus. Carbon dioxide systems should be designed in accordance with NFPA 12, Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems. Consult the CRTC Fire & Process Safety team before designing any new fixed CO2 systems in the Company.

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1666 Steam
Steam should not be considered a fire control agent. Unlike water sprays, steam is not effective in cooling or protecting fire-exposed equipment to prevent further damage. However, because of its availability in most process plants, it provides an economical way to prevent some types of small fires. It is especially useful in preventing ignition of leaks in hot equipment such as furnace header boxes, where the leak is not serious but can be stopped only with a shutdown. It is also effective in preventing ignition of flange leaks by reducing the amount of air available at the leak and by dispersing and diluting the leaking material. When used to prevent ignition, steam can be applied continuously to small leaks for extended periods without damage to the equipment or objectional residue. Steam can be applied at known troublesome leak points, such as a heat exchanger flange. A ring of pipe (with small holes) can be temporarily installed to create a ring of steam around the flange and effectively prevent ignition of a leak until permanent repairs can be accomplished. Steam is generally provided for controlling tube rupture fires in process furnaces or heaters. A commonly accepted rate is 2 lb/hr/ft3 of firebox volume. Refer to the Fired Heater and Waste Heat Recovery Manual. Hand-held, unbonded steam lances not in contact with piping have ignited leaks when static electricity accumulated on the lance and subsequently discharged.

1667 Fire Detection Systems


Fire or smoke detection systems are desirable in installations where a fire might go undetected for considerable time, or in gas, oil or petrochemical facilities with significant public exposure or potential environmental impact. In some areas, detection systems may be required by the authority having jurisdiction (e.g., local fire department). Consider fire detection systems in places such as unattended critical producing facilities, driver-operated truck-loading facilities, high-value computer facilities, storage areas for vital records, and facilities where personnel sleep adjacent to operating facilities. Fire detection devices may be actuated by fixed temperature or rate of temperature rise, by smoke or ionized particles in the air, or by the radiation emitted by flames. When selecting a detector for a specific application, consider the location of probable fire, whether immediate flame or smoldering is likely, and the precision with which the location of a fire could be pinpointed. Detectors can be made to sound an alarm locally or at a remote location, shut down and depressurize equipment (e.g., pumps and compressors), close valves, shut down ventilating systems, discharge extinguishing agent or perform other operations. All fire detection and alarm systems except those detectors having parts that destruct on exposure (as by melting), should be tested periodically by causing them to actuate. Develop a suitable test program for each unit to assure that detectors, alarms, and other intended functions will operate should a fire occur. Test detectors at least every six months or more often depending on the location and the environment to which the device is exposed. Maintain test records and correct any deficiencies immediately.

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Following are descriptions of the most common types of fire detection equipment. See Figure 1600-27 for comparisons of various detectors. Additional guidance can be found in Sections 2100 and 2200 for computer room applications.
Fig. 1600-27 Fire Detectors Type Fusible Link Advantages Needs no electricity Highly reliable Low unit cost Reliable and simple Effective indoors Low unit cost Disadvantages Very slow Heat must impinge Applications Outdoors/indoors Equipment isolation and shut down Suppression system Indoors/enclosed areas

Fixed Temperature Heat Detectors Rate of Rise Heat Detectors

Slow Affected by wind

Self-adjusting to temperature Actuated by convected heat Variations of day/night and Heat must impinge summer/winter Affected by wind Can detect rapidly growing fire more quickly Low unit cost Early warning Smoldering fires Low unit cost Early warning of smoldering fire Low unit cost High speed Moderate sensitivity Manual self-test through the window Moderate unit cost Highest speed Highest sensitivity Automatic self-test Moderate unit cost Moderate speed Moderate sensitivity Low false alarm rate High speed High sensitivity Low false alarm rate Wide temperature range Automatic self-test Easily contaminated limited environment Affected by weather Smoke must be contained Limited to indoor use Affected by temperature Subject to false alarms due to myriad of IR sources in industrial environment No automatic self-test Subject to false alarms from few identifiable source Blinded by thick smoke Limited operating temperature range Limited self testing High unit cost Thick smoke reduces range High unit cost

Indoors/enclosed areas

Smoke Ionization

Indoors, offices, computer rooms, electrical rooms Indoors, offices Ordinary combustible fires only Indoors/enclosed areas

Smoke Photoelectric

Infrared (IR)

Ultraviolet (UV)

Outdoors/indoors

Dual Detector IR & IR

Outdoors/indoors

Dual Detector IR & UV

Outdoors/indoors Critical equipment shutdown, isolation Suppression system

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Flame Detectors
Ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) flame detectors react to radiation emitted from the flame. They must be located so the detector can see the flame directly. Detectors must be shielded from external sources of ultraviolet or infrared radiation such as welding arcs, lightning, or radiating black bodies (e.g., hot engines, manifolds, and hot vessels) to minimize false alarms. Their field of vision usually covers a larger area than heat detectors, but they do not detect a smoldering fire as quickly as some smoke detectors. Flame detectors are not affected by air flow characteristics and do not depend on the heat of combustion or the amount of smoke liberated. Flame detectors are suitable for inside or outside use. Where false alarm sources cannot be avoided and false alarms must be minimized, consider using combination UV/IR detectors.

Heat Detectors
Heat detecting devices fall into two categoriesthose that respond when the detection element reaches a predetermined temperature (fixed-temperature types) and those that respond to an increase in temperature at a rate greater than some predetermined value (rate-of-rise types). Preferred types combine both the fixed-temperature and rate-of-rise principles. Heat detecting devices can also be categorized as the spot-pattern type, in which the thermally sensitive element is a compact unit covering a small area, or the line-pattern type, in which the element is a continuous wire or heat-sensitive tube.

Fusible Links
Fusible links are made of low melting point materials designed to vent pneumatic systems as the fire melts the link. Fusible fittings that fit standard tubing systems are available as well. These fittings are filled with a low melting point material. Fusible links should not be covered or painted. See the manufacturer list at the end of this Section.

Smoke Detectors
Photoelectric detection of smoke has been employed for many years, particularly where the type of fire anticipated generates a substantial amount of smoke before temperature changes are sufficient to actuate a heat detection system. Three forms of photoelectric detectors are in common use: the spot-type detector, the line-type detector, and the sampling detector. Each type measures the change in current resulting from partial obscuring by smoke of a photoelectric beam between a receiving element and a light source. An alarm is tripped when this obscuration reaches a critical value. The refraction type operates on the principle of reflection of a light source into a photoconductive cell by means of smoke particles. A small chamber, open to the atmosphere, contains a light source and a photoconductive cell. These are arranged so that the beam of light from the light source does not impinge upon the photoconductive cell. When a sufficient quantity of smoke particles enters the chamber, the smoke particles reflect light into the photoconductive cell. This changes the resistance of the cell, and a signal is obtained.

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The ionization type of fire detector consists of an assembly of ionization chambers, an electronic tube, and related parts. When product-of-combustion particles, which are larger than air molecules and may be invisible, enter one of the ionization chambers, they absorb or interfere with the alpha radiation produced by a radioactive source. This interference with the normal ionization process in the detector is employed to produce a signal.

1668 Combustible Gas Detector Systems


Fixed combustible gas detectors sample the atmosphere continuously or periodically and give warnings if preset levels of combustible gas or vapor are present. The alarm signal may be located away from the sampling point, and usually is actuated at a concentration of 20% of the lower flammable limit. Combustible gas detectors also can be used to shut down equipment or to actuate an alarm at a preset concentration, such as 20% (or 0.2 on a 0-1 scale) of the lower flammable limit for alarm and 60% of the lower flammable limit for shutting down equipment. Alarm and shutdown settings should be separated by 40% to minimize occurrence of false trips. Interposing relays can be connected to start or stop ventilating fans or release inert gas. Some detection systems have a sensing element at each sample location, and others draw a sample through tubing to a central sensing point. Most fixed and portable combustible gas detectors operate on the principle that a rise in temperature of a wire causes a corresponding increase in its electrical resistance. These instruments usually employ a heated platinum wire filament, frequently coated with a catalyst, that causes combustion of the gas or vapor sample. The heat from the combustion is directly proportional to the concentration of gas or vapor present in the sampling chamber. The heat raises the temperature of the filament, and at the same time increases its electrical resistance. The filament is one arm of a Wheatstone bridge, which provides a means for measuring change in resistance. The change is indicated by an electrical meter. Most systems are calibrated to give reasonably accurate readings for common hydrocarbons, but they can be calibrated more accurately for a specific gas or vapor. Because of varying characteristics, instruments should be used only for the type of service recommended by the manufacturer. Be sure to follow the manufacturer's instructions. Periodic checking of the instrument ensures reliable operation. For sample draw-type instruments, minor variations in the flow of samples aspirated to the detecting unit do not materially affect the operation of these instruments, but clogging of sample lines, flame arrestors, and filters makes them inoperative. Take care to regularly inspect them and keep them free from obstructions. Fixed combustible gas detectors are recommended only for locations that are partially or wholly unattended, locations where the consequences of an undetected leak may be serious, and locations where required by the authority having jurisdiction. Typical applications for combustible gas detectors include:

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Air intakes for building pressurization systems and gas turbines. These detectors should alarm at 20% lower flammable limit (LFL) and shut down the air intake at 60% LFL. Cooling towers to monitor for process exchanger leaks. (Other methods can be used also.) Pumps and compressor areas, particularly when enclosed.

It is desirable for gas detection systems to operate on DC power supplies. Systems operated on AC power supplies should be equipped with automatic switchover devices to ensure continuous system energization. Otherwise, systems installed in a fail-safe manner will generate unwarranted alarms or shutdowns.

Inspection and Testing


Routine inspection and testing of combustible gas detection systems is recommended and should be included in the normal maintenance program. Remove and clean diffusion sensor head flame arrestors periodically per the manufacturer's instructions. Most recommend air or soap and water because trapped vapors can affect operation. Also, many solvents contain chemicals (e.g., silicon) that may poison detector elements. Check and adjust alarm set points and instrument calibration routinely. Check the manufacturer's recommendations for specific maintenance and testing requirements.

1669 Explosion Suppression


Suppression of explosions is possible under certain conditions, because a short but significant period of time elapses before destructive pressures develop. If conditions are right, it is possible to use the time available to operate a suppression system. Effective use of the rate of pressure rise to suppress an explosion requires three major considerations in the design of suppression systems: 1. The explosion must be detected in its incipient stage to allow time for operation of the suppression equipment. Due to the relatively short time available, detection and suppression must be automatic, with provisions to discriminate between an explosion and ambient variables that normally exist. The mechanism for dispersing the extinguishing agent must operate at extremely high speed to fill the enclosure completely within milliseconds after detection of the explosion. The detection must automatically actuate to assure no time lag. The extinguishing agent must be dispersed in a very fine mist form at rapid speed, normally through the use of an explosive release mechanism. The extinguishing agent is normally a liquid compatible with the combustion process to be encountered. Factors involved in the suppression mechanism are the same as those for fire extinguishingcooling, inerting, blanketing, and combustion inhibiting.

2.

3.

Explosion suppression systems are not in general use in the petroleum industry, but they may be considered for the protection of high-hazard, high-value operations

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where an explosion would have very serious consequences and normal methods of fire protection are not adequate. Explosion suppression systems are more commonly encountered in dust handling processes (Gilsonite, coal, or grain). NFPA 69, Explosion Prevention Systems, provides further information on this subject.

1670 Other Firefighting Equipment


1671 Mobile Fire Fighting Equipment
Fire Trucks. Facilities with a well designed fire water system maintained at 125 to 150 psig may not need a pumper truck. Only in special cases are pumpers needed, such as to supply high rates of proportioned foam, to boost water pressure when necessary or to control pressure to hand-held fire hose lines. Foam proportioning units are used with semifixed foam systems for fighting tank fires and to supply hand lines for fighting fires in process areas, pump manifolds, pipe trenches, tank truck loading racks (TTLRs), or other locations where spills and fire may occur. A fire water pumper may be required for facilities with only low pressure fire water systems. Also, large gallonage monitors (sizes 1000 to 2000 gpm), which are specialized pieces of equipment used only in infrequent situations, may need a pumper to provide the required monitor pressure. For example, a 1500 gpm pumper can supply a 2000 gpm monitor. Fire trucks should have the following features: Pumper capacity of 1000 to 1200 gpm. Larger units require special justification due to a special chassis and nonstandard cab. 1000-gallon foam concentrate tank. Automatic foam proportioning system for foam proportioning. Refer to NFPA 1901 for guidance in selecting and specifying a fire truck, or discuss with a member of the CRTC Fire & Process Safety team.

Foam Trailers. A foam trailer with a 500-gpm monitor and 300 gallons of foam concentrate can deliver foam for 20 minutes. Large trailers can store more concentrate and deliver foam to a fire for a longer time. A foam concentrate trailer with proportioning capability, hoses, nozzles, etc., may be a suitable alternative to a foam pumper fire truck. Twin agent units. These consist of pressurized AFFF (foam) and dry chemical units mounted on a skid unit in a small truck. Twin agent units are effective in quick fire control. This system can be operated by one person. Skid units are preferred because they can be easily moved when replacement trucks are purchased. A generic pumper truck specification is available from the CRTC Fire and Process Safety Team.

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1672 Fire Station (Plant Protection Office)


The fire station (or plant protection office) serves several functions and is a focal point for large-facility fire fighting organizations. The station is the communications base to which fires are reported. The fire station needs to have an enclosed area for storing the fire truck, foam truck, and trailer-mounted pumper as well as hoses, nozzles, gear for the firefighter (boots, bunker coats, hats, gloves, selfcontained breathing apparatus units) and other equipment needed in emergencies. Normally, this equipment is mounted on mobile fire fighting apparatus that can be driven to the fire site. The station may also contain facilities for repairing hoses and nozzles and for refilling extinguishers and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units. The station should be as centrally located as practical, but safely away from the plant so that it will not be inaccessible, damaged, or involved in fires or explosions. See Figure 1300-2 in Section 1300 for spacing recommendations.

1673 Fire Equipment Cabinets


Fire equipment cabinets may be justified at strategic locations around a facility. Typical cabinet contents include: Two 50-foot lengths of 2 1/2-inch hose Four 50-foot lengths of 1 1/2-inch hose One 2 1/2-inch combination nozzle Two 1 1/2-inch combination nozzles Two to four 5-gallon containers of foam concentrate One educting-type 1 1/2-inch foam nozzle Two 30-pound dry chemical extinguishers One 2 1/2-inch by 1 1/2-inch gated wye Two hose wrenches

1674 Personnel Protective Equipment


The purpose of this section is to assist operating facilities in developing local work clothing programs. Following are criteria to assist in defining levels of risk of exposure to flash fire commensurate with existing operating areas. This section should be the basis for designating appropriate fire resistant (FR) clothing for regularly assigned operating and maintenance personnel. Guidance on the use of fire resistant clothing should also be developed to cover other personnel. Local management is responsible to evaluate needs for and justifying fire resistant clothing. Refer to recommendations in Figure 1600-28 as a guide.

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Fig. 1600-28 Recommendations for Use of Fire Resistant Clothes Recommendation Use of fire resistant clothing is encouraged Area Refinery and chemical processing Offshore production platforms with compression, fired equipment and power generation Gas processing and compression Major pump/pipeline stations LPG handling and storage Major tank storage areas Major wharf handling flammables Loading/unloading trucks and rail cars Repair of hydrocarbon piping/equipment, on and off site Well hot oil servicing Small, low pressure process areas Laboratories handling flammables Pilot plants Smaller tank storage areas Drilling and production well site operations Offshore platforms with separation Marketing terminals (except truck loading) Small docks and piers General purpose/liquid warehouses Offices, shops, and off-plot areas Laboratories handling non-flammables Vapor-free equipment

Evaluate need for fire resistant clothing(1),(2)

Fire resistant clothing is considered unnecessary(2)

(1) Work areas should be evaluated to determine need for fire resistant clothing, based on operating conditions and history of accidental releases and fires. (2) Regular work clothes will generally suffice for these areas. Unique circumstances should be evaluated.

General
Hard hats and gloves are normally a part of each firefighter's personal equipment. Anyone who may be called on to help fight fires is urged to bring these items when responding to a fire alarm. Arrangements should also be made to transport any storehouse stock of these items to the scene of a large fire.

Fire Resistant Clothing


Recent incidents in the Company and in the industry have led us to review and update our guidance on the use of fire resistant clothing. Guidance documents have been developed to assist each operating company to develop local policies regarding the use of fire resistant clothing by employees, contractors, and visitors, and the use of firefighters' turnout clothing. Exposure to flash fires, when vapor-air mixtures ignite, cause burn injuries to exposed skin. Skin covered by clothing is less likely to be burned in a flash fire than is exposed skin. However, neither normal clothing nor fire resistant clothing totally prevent burn injuries because they provide minimal insulating protection from the heat of burning gases in a flash fire.

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Cotton or wool fabrics typically minimize the burn from a flash but are likely to ignite and cause serious burn injuries. Synthetic fabrics, e.g., polyester or nylon, provide less protection, and are also likely to ignite. Such materials also melt in a flash fire and may adhere to the skin and further increase the severity of the burn injury. The benefit of fire resistant clothing is that it prevents further injury because it does not melt or ignite in a flash fire. Fire resistant clothing is not required for incipientstage fire response. In a review of certain fire resistant materials, differences were found in comfort, moisture absorption, abrasion resistance, and resistance to damage during laundering. Differences in properties are important in wearing comfort and durability. To ensure maximum employee acceptance, take care in making selections from products currently available. Current acceptable materials include Kermel, Kevlar, and Nomex III.

Fire Retardant Cotton


Fire retardant cotton was reviewed and tested by one refinery. It was found to lose much of its fire retardant property after several launderings. Shrinkage problems were also experienced. Manufacturers claim that improved material will not lose significant fire retardant properties after laundering. Test data on this claim is conflicting. At prolonged fire exposures (>3.5 seconds), the fire retardant cotton produces significant amounts of off-gases and hot vapors as a result of the FR treating. These off-gases can create additional risk for the wearer. In addition, tests at one Company facility indicate that the lower initial cost of the FR cotton garments does not compensate for the shorter life of the garment.

Turnout Clothing
Full firefighters' turnout clothing is recommenced for those fighting fires beyond the incipient stage. An incipient stage fire is defined by OSHA as a . ..fire which is in the initial or beginning stage and which can be controlled or extinguished by portable fire extinguishers, Class II standpipe (1-1/2" fire hose) or small hose system without the need for protective clothing or breathing apparatus. Turnout clothing is mandatory for trained fire brigade members. Turnout clothing includes helmet with face shield, coat, trousers, gloves, and insulated firefighters' boots. Turnout clothing is also recommended for any personnel who enter the hot zone. For example, an operator asked to assist the brigade in closing a valve should have firefighters' turnout clothing. The hot zone is the area too close to the fire for comfort because of radiant heat. No employee should be permitted to wear turnout clothing and engage in firefighting unless they have received the training required by OSHA 29 CFR 1910.156.

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OSHA 29 CFR 1910.156 (e)(2)(iii) states in part: 1. Body protection shall be coordinated with foot and leg protection to ensure full body protection for the wearer. This shall be achieved by one of the following methods: a. Wearing of a fire-resistive coat meeting the requirements of paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section in combination with fully extended boots meeting the requirements of paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (e)(2)(iii) of this section; or Wearing of fire-resistive coat in combination with protective trousers, both of which meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section.

b.

2.

The performance, construction, and testing of fire-resistive coats and protective trousers shall be at least equivalent to the requirements of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standard NFPA No. 1971-1975, Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting. (See Appendix D to Subpart L) with the following permissible variations from those requirements: a. Tearing strength of the outer shell shall be a minimum of 8 pounds (35.6 N) inany direction when tested in accordance with paragraph (2) of Appendix E; and The outer shell may discolor but shall not separate or melt when placed in a forced air laboratory oven at a temperature of 500F (260C) for a period of five minutes. After cooling to ambient temperature and using the test method specified in paragraph (3) of Appendix E, char length shall not exceed 4.0 inches (10.2 cm) and after-flame shall not exceed 2.0 seconds.

b.

Turnout gear can be located on fire apparatus such as a fire truck or headquarters/equipment truck. It can also be carried in a pickup truck or located in control centers or field operations offices. Trained operations and maintenance personnel can use turnout gear stored in control centers to enter a hot zone or spill area. The OSHA regulation calls for yearly training for fire brigade members and quarterly training for such members expected to perform interior or confined space firefighting. More comprehensive training is required for firefighting leaders.

Proximity Suits
Facilities that have a trained fire brigade may justify having two or three proximity (heat-reflecting) suits available for rescue or for unusually difficult approaches, such as for closing valves or similar fire control actions. Only persons with adequate training and supervision should be permitted to wear these specially designed suits. Use the suits only for those conditions approved by the manufacturer.

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Medical Equipment
First aid kits should be available so that small burns and scratches can be treated promptly. Stretchers, body burn kits, blankets, and other items for first aid treatment should be available at large fires. An emergency medical technician (EMT) should be available during emergencies to treat serious injuries. Supervisors should understand the procedure for obtaining an ambulance. This procedure should be prearranged.

Handheld Combustible Gas Indicators


Flammable vapors may be released outside the fire area from broken lines, unburned liquid, or other sources. A combustible gas indicator can help to detect the extent and spread of such vapors to determine the hazard involved. Indicators can also determine hazards from flammable liquids or gases that may remain after a fire has been extinguished. Since this equipment is normally available in areas where large quantities of flammable liquids are handled, it does not have to be provided for fire use exclusively. Providing an indicator to the scene of a fire should be included in prefire planning. Do not permit personnel to enter an area containing a flammable vapor-air mixture.

Breathing Apparatus
Because firefighters must sometimes enter smoky areas, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBAs) should be available. This equipment is normally available at facilities for operational or emergency use. Plans for getting this equipment to the scene of a fire should be a part of the prefire planning. SCBAs are required for interior fire fighting.

1675 Communication Facilities


Coordination of the numerous activities involved in controlling a large fire requires a reliable means of communication. This is best accomplished with a dedicated emergency radio channel that provides rapid communication. Communications between the incident commander (see Section 400) and the division or sector commanders in charge of the various phases of fire control can be accomplished by messenger, portable two-way radio, or field telephone. Messengers should always be available to maintain contact with people outside the reach of other means of communication, but make full use of any telephone or radio equipment available. You can also use automobiles that are radio-equipped for operational reasons. Many pieces of public fire equipment and most police cars are radioequipped. These facilities are frequently available for summoning additional equipment from remote locations and for communication between units.

1676 Miscellaneous Equipment


Emergency Lighting Equipment
Normal lighting is frequently lost in a fire area. If firefighting occurs at night, portable generators and floodlights are essential. Lighting the fire area is required,

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particularly in the latter phases of a fire when most of the flame has been extinguished but much salvage and cleanup work remains to be done. Adequate lighting helps reduce accidents during these periods. A Crouse-Hinds type ADE-14 series with a 505 wheel base is a good portable light fixture for an emergency source. If portable generators producing 120-volt current are not readily available in the desired capacity. You can use welding generators as a source of power for emergency lighting. Power for 120-volt incandescent lamps (500-watt, 500/RS-Rough Service type) can be obtained from the auxiliary power tap on some generators (1000 watt), or from the main generator by adjusting the voltage regulator. Automobile and truck headlights may also serve as a temporary source of emergency lighting, but these are less satisfactory for many uses because they are so directional.

Hand Tools
Shovels may be needed at the time of a fire for controlling drainage, removing debris, and similar uses. Pry bars and axes are occasionally needed to gain access to buildings and to provide additional ventilation for a burning building. These and other basic mechanical tools, such as pipe wrenches or valve handle persuaders, are normally available because of regular operating and maintenance requirements.

Ladders
Large installations should have ladders that can reach the roof of most buildings and tanks. Ladders that may be used during a fire should be able to safely hold more than one person at a time.

Heavy Equipment
Earth moving equipment (front-end loaders, backhoes, bulldozers) and other heavy equipment may be useful at fires involving tanks and oil wells. They can be used to raise diversionary or impounding walls and to remove debris. Front-end loaders are particularly useful to construct an earthen fire stop for tankfield or main pipeway fires. Supervisors should know where such equipment can be obtained on short notice. This information should be included in the pre-fire plan. Exercise caution at a spill; heavy equipment is an ignition source. Beware of the following: Vapor clouds Buried piping Firefighting equipment temporarily placed in normally unobstructed areas.

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1680 Testing and Maintenance


1681 Dry Chemical Extinguishers Inspection/Maintenance
Refer to Appendix E and NFPA 10 for detailed inspection and maintenance procedures, checklists, and record keeping procedures.

1682 Hoses
Visually inspect hoses monthly and after each use by following these guidelines: Look for cuts, abrasions, burns, or other damage. Check couplings for free rotation, thread damage, and gasket damage. Check aluminum couplings for corrosion and apply a protective coating after each use as recommended by supplier. Dry out thoroughly before storing if other than synthetic hose. When storing hose, fold in different places than previously folded.

Testing and Maintenance


Test hose annually with water to 150 psi or 50 psi above normal working pressure, whichever is higher. Replace cotton hose with synthetic when replacement is needed. Synthetic hose is longer wearing, mildew-resistant and does not need to be dried out before storing. Reuse end couplings whenever possible. Maintain a record of hose inspections and tests. One method is to stamp a number on a coupling on each length of hose and maintain a complete history on each length by number. Following are guidelines for testing and maintaining hoses: Test any hose that appears damaged. Replace damaged or out-of-round coupling. Lubricate coupling and threads with graphite. Replace any damaged, cracked or dried-out gaskets. Provide gaskets for each female coupling and hand tighten connections.

1683 Fire TrucksPumpers


Refer to Appendix E for maintenance and inspection checklists.

Annual Test
Fire trucks shall be recertified annually per NFPA 1901. Annual performance tests (minimum of one hour) of the water pump are conducted with a minimum of 10 feet (3 meters) suction lift through 20 feet (6 meters) of suction hose with a strainer attached. Refer to IFSTA Specification No. 106 for

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guidance in conducting a performance test. This specification may be obtained from the CRTC Fire & Process Safety team. Tests of proportioned foam solution shall be conducted to verify proportioning rates (refer to NFPA 11C).

Weekly Inspection
Inspect to assure that all equipment is in place and is properly maintained. Check batteries to ensure they are charged. Test drive vehicles to ensure they are roadworthy and can be positioned effectively at appropriate locations throughout the facility in response to fire.

Daily Inspection
Run truck engines for 15 minutes, or until operating temperature is reached, to ensure that water trapped in the crankcase evaporates. Keep fuel tanks full and check engine oil, water, and battery.

1684 Fire Water Distribution System


The fire water distribution system should be pressure tested at least once a year, and after major repairs, to 50 psig above the maximum pump discharge pressure. During these tests, determine the actual flowing pressure at various discharge rates at representative locations. Draw flow performance curves and compare them with pervious flow tests to detect signs of obstruction or restriction. Test block valves by opening or closing them about once every three months. Periodically flush out water line dead ends and hydrants. Conduct a flow test of the main headers every five years.

1685 Fire Pumps


Conduct a load test on each fire pump monthly at rated speed and discharge pressure to check condition of the pump, bearings, and shaft sealing. The suction and discharge valves should be set correctly and pressure gages should be accurate. The pump area should be clean and well drained. Conduct a performance test in each fire pump annually at full rated pumping capacity to verify the pump condition and that the suction line is not obstructed. Draw a pump performance curve and compare it with the field curve established when the pump was first installed (see Appendix F) and manufacturer's curve. Correct any deficiencies promptly. A smaller (jockey) pump is advisable to maintain system pressure during periods of low demand. It should be sized to supply two first aid hose streams plus allowance for leakage (typically about 250 gpm). See Appendix F, Fire Pump Inspection and Testing.

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1686 Fixed Fire Water Systems


All new installations should be flow tested with water to ensure that nozzle layout, discharge pattern, and overall performance is adequate. When practicable, the maximum number of systems that may be expected to operate in a fire should be tested simultaneously to ensure adequate water supply. Open the main supply header flush valves at the start of testing. Test water spray systems at least quarterly to ensure reliability. Note that no leakage or misalignment problems have been experienced as a result of testing or using water sprays over hot pumps. The rain-like drops of water do not quench localized areas; thus are less risk than hose streams. Where sprays are to be tested on painted surfaces, discoloration from rust and pipe deposits can be minimized by testing during local rainfall or by wetting the surface with clean fire water before testing. A deluge system can be pickled to remove rust and silica from piping and storage vessels. Pickling solution is generally a low concentration of passivated hydrochloric acid, and sometimes hydrofluoric acid. Remember to flush piping well after treatment is finished. Refer to Appendix E for inspection and annual servicing checklists.

1687 Other Equipment


Monitors
Refer to Appendix E for inspection and annual maintenance checklists.

Hose Reels/Boxes
Refer to Appendix E for inspection checklists.

Hydrants
Refer to Appendix E for inspection and servicing checklists.

Foam Proportioners
Foam proportioners are susceptible to plugging and must be kept clean. Wash thoroughly after each use, inspect the internal parts and foam proportioning orifice, and dry thoroughly before storing.

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1690 References and Manufacturers


1691 References
American Petroleum Institute (API)
API 2021 API 2510A Guide for Fighting Fires In and Around Petroleum Storage Tanks Fire-Protection Considerations for the Design and Operation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Storage Facilities

Chevron References
Civil and Structural Manual Fired Heater and Waste Heat Recovery Manual Piping Manual Pump Manual Tank Manual

CUSA Standard Drawings


GB-128461 GA-128462 GD-S99633 GD-S99643 GB-S1007 Deluge System Spray System Hose Reels Fire Hose Box Fire Monitor

International Fire Service Training Association (IFSTA)


IFSTA 106 Introduction to Fire Apparatus Practices (available from IFSTA Headquarters, Customer Services, Fire Protection Publications, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, Phone (405) 624-5723)

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)


NFPA 10 NFPA 11 NFPA 11A NFPA 11B NFPA 11C NFPA 12 NFPA 12A NFPA 12B Portable Fire Extinguishers Low Expansion Foam and Combined Agent Systems Medium and High-Expansion Foam Systems Synthetic Foam, Combined Agent Systems Mobile Foam Apparatus Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishing Systems

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NFPA 13 NFPA 13A NFPA 15 NFPA 17 NFPA 20 NFPA 24 NFPA 69 NFPA 194 NFPA 291 NFPA 1901 NFPA 1961 NFPA 1962 NFPA 1971

Installation of Sprinkler Systems Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Sprinkler Systems Water Spray Fixed Systems Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems Installation of Centrifugal Fire Pumps Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances Explosion Prevention Systems Fire Hose Connections Fire Flow Testing and Marking of Hydrants Automotive Fire Apparatus Fire Hose Care, Maintenance and Use of Fire Hose Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)


OSHA 29 CFR 1910.156, Fire Brigades

United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)


Montreal Protocol

1692 Manufacturers
Anti-Foam Agents Fire Pumps G. E. Silicones (800) 643-0642 Hale Fire Pump Co. (215) 825-6300

Fire Resistant Clothing Cairns & Brother, Inc. (201) 473-1357 Foam Supplies National Foam (215) 363-1400 Ansul (715) 735-7411 3M (612) 736-6055 National Foam (215) 363-1400 Cajun/Swagelok Fittings (216) 467-0200 Dooley-Tackaberry (713) 479-6321 Herbert S. Hiller Corp (504) 736-0030

Foam Systems Fusible Fittings Hose Reels

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Hydrants/Valves Monitors/Nozzles

American-Darling (205) 325-7856 Akron Brass Co. (216) 264-5678 Elkhart Brass Mfg. Co. (219) 295-8330 Ansul Fire Protection (715) 735-7411 BETE Fog Nozzle Inc. (800) 235-0049

Portable Fire Extinguishers Water Spray Nozzles

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