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PROJECT REPORT N.T.P.C.

BADARPUR, NEW DELHI

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT (SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENT OF THE COURSE OF B.TECH.) UNDERTAKEN AT N.T.P.C. BADARPUR, NEW DELHI FROM: 13th JUNE to 23rd JULY, 2011

SUBMITTED TO: MR. MANMOHAN SINGH (DY. MANAGER)

SUBMITTED BY: ARCHIT ARORA (IIND YEAR ; ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ; MAHARAJA SURAJMAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY)

TABLE OF CONTENT Certificate Acknowledgement Training at BTPS 1. Introduction NTPC Badarpur Thermal Power Station 2. Electrical Maintenance Division- I HT/LT Switch Gear HT/LT Motors, Turbine & Boilers Side CHP/NCHP 3. Electrical Maintenance Division- II Generator Transformer & Switchyard Protection Lighting EP

4. Control & Instrumentation Manometry Lab .. Protection and Interlock Lab .. Pyrometry Lab Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System

CERTIFICATE

THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT ARCHIT ARORA OF ELCTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL IIND YEAR ; MAHARAJA SURAJMAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY HAS SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED HIS 6 WEEKS OF AT BPTS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING FROM 13TH JUNE TO 23RD JULY

Training In-charge BTPS/NTPC NEW DELHI

ACKNOWEDGEMENT With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to all with whose cooperation and help I have completed my training here. I do extend my heartfelt thanks to Mr. Manmohan Singh for providing me this opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organization. I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of BTPS/NTPC for their co-operation and guidance that helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working under them and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition in me. I would also like to thank the training in charge of Maharaja Surajmal Institute of Technology New Delhi and all the faculty member of Electrical & Electronics department for their effort of constant co-operation. Which has been significant factor in the accomplishment of my industrial training.

Training at BTPS I was appointed to do six-week training at this esteemed organization from 13th June to 23rd July 2011. In these six weeks I was assigned to visit various division of the plant which were 1. Electrical maintenance division I (EMD-I) 2. Electrical maintenance division II (EMD-II) 3. Control and instrumentation (C&I) This six-week training was a very educational adventure for me. It was really amazing to see the plant by your self and learn how electricity, which is one of our daily requirements of life, is produced.

This report has been made by self-experience at BTPS. The material in this report has been gathered from my textbooks, senior student report, and trainer manual provided by training department. The specification & principles are at learned by me from the employee of each division of BTPS.

ABOUT NTPC NTPC, India's largest power company, was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development in India. It is emerging as an Integrated Power Major, with a significant presence in the entire value chain of power generation business. NTPCs core business is engineering, construction and operation of power generating plants. It also provides consultancy in the area of power plant constructions and power generation to companies in India and abroad. NTPC has set new benchmarks for the power industry both in the area of power plant construction and operations. Its providing power at the cheapest average tariff in the country. NTPC ranked 341st in the 2010, Forbes Global 2000 ranking of the Worlds biggest companies. With a current generating capacity of 34,854 MW, NTPC has embarked on plans to become a 75,000 MW company by 2017. POWER GENERATION IN INDIA Presently, NTPC generates power from Coal and Gas. With an installed capacity of 34,854 MW, NTPC is the largest power generating major in the country. It has also diversified into hydro power, coal mining, power equipment manufacturing, oil & gas exploration, power trading & distribution. With an increasing presence in the power value chain, NTPC is well on its way to becoming an Integrated Power Major.

Overall Power Generation Be it the generating capacity or plant performance or operational efficiency, NTPCs Installed Capacity and performance depicts the companys outstanding performance across a number of parametres.

NO. OF PLANTS NTPC Owned Coal Gas/Liquid Fuel Total Owned By JVs Coal & Gas Total 15 7 22 6 28

CAPACITY (MW) 27,535 3,955 31,490 3,364 34,854

Regional Spread of Generating Facilities REGION COAL Northern 8,015 Western 7,520 Southern 4,100 Eastern 7,900 JVs 1,424 Total 28,959

GAS 2,312 1,293 350 1,940 5,895

TOTAL 10,327 8,813 4,450 7,900 3,364

34,854

Operations

In terms of operations, NTPC has always been considerably above the national average. The availability factor for coal based power stations has increased from 89.32% in 199899 to 91.62% in 2010-11, which compares favourably with international standards. The PLF has increased from 76.6% in 1998-99 to 88.29% during the year 2010-11.

The table below shows that while the installed capacity has increased by 73.33% in the last twelve years the generation has increased by 101.39%. DESCRIPTION Installed Capacity Generation UNIT MW MUs 1998-99 2010- 11 % OF INCREASE 17,786 30,830 73.33 1,09,505 2,20,540 101.39

* Excluding JVs and Subsidiaries The table below shows the detailed operational performance of coal based stations over the years. OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF COAL BASED NTPC STATIONS Generation(BU) PLF(%) Availability Factor(%) 2010-11 220.54 88.29 91.62 2009-10 218.84 90.81 91.76 2008-09 206.94 91.14 92.47 2007-08 200.86 92.24 92.12 2006-07 188.67 89.43 90.09 2005-06 170.88 87.52 89.91 2004-05 159.11 87.51 91.20 2003-04 149.16 84.40 88.79 2002-03 140.86 83.57 88.70 2001-02 133.20 81.11 89.09 2000-01 130.10 81.80 88.54 1999-00 118.70 80.39 90.06 1998-99 109.50 76.60 89.36

Turnaround

Capability
NTPC has played an extremely important role in turning around sub-optimally performing stations. The phenomenal improvement in the performance of Badarpur, Unchahar, Talcher and Tanda by NTPC make them our big success stories. Badarpur (705 MW) The expertise in R&M and performance turnaround was developed and built up by NTPC with the operational turnaround of Badarpur TPS through scientifically engineered R&M initiatives. The PLF of the power station improved from 31.94% at the time of the takeover to 86.46% for the year 2007-08.

Unchahar (420 MW) The Feroze Gandhi Unchahar Power Station was taken over by NTPC whereby the cash strapped UPSEB was rescued by the turnaround expertise of NTPC. The remarkable speed and extent of the turnaround achieved can be seen in the table.

Talcher (460 MW) An even more challenging turnaround story was being scripted at the OSEB's old power plant at Talcher. Taken over in June 1995, the table indicates the dramatic gains in the performance of the power plant as a result of NTPCs expertise.

Tanda (440 MW) Tanda Thermal Power Station was taken over by NTPC on the 15 January 2000.The PLF of the power station improved from 21.59% at the time of the takeover to 91.66% for the year 2007-08.

While NTPC bettered PPA commitments, from the viewpoint of capital requirements, turning around such old units is a low cost, high and quick return option. This unprecedented success helped the concerned SEBs and the entire nation in terms of economy and power availability.

The energy conservation parameters like specific oil consumption and auxiliary power consumption have also shown considerable improvement over the years.

Environment

While leading the nations power generation league, NTPC has remained committed to the environment. It continues to take various pro-active measures for protection of the environment and ecology around its projects. NTPC was the first among power utilities in India to start Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) studies and reinforced it with Periodic Environmental Audits and Reviews.

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND MANAGEMENT For NTPC, the journey extends much beyond generating power. Right from inception, the company had a well defined environment policy.

National Environment Policy

The Ministry of Environment and Forests and the Ministry of Power and NTPC were involved in preparing the draft Environment Policy (NEP) which was later approved by the Union Cabinet in May 2006. NTPC Environment Policy

Since its inception NTPC has been at the forefront of Environment management. In November 1995, NTPC brought out a comprehensive document entitled NTPC Environment Policy and Environment Management System. Amongst the guiding principles adopted in the document are the company's pro-active approach to environment, optimum utilisation of equipment, adoption of latest technologies and continual environment improvement. The policy also envisages efficient utilisation of resources, thereby minimising waste, maximising ash utilisation and ensuring a green belt all around the plant for maintaining ecological balance. Environment Management, Occupational Health and Safety Systems NTPC has actively gone for adoption of the best international practices on environment, occupational health and safety areas. The organisation has pursued the Environmental Management System (EMS) ISO 14001 and the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment System OHSAS 18001 at its different establishments. As a result of pursuing these practices, all NTPC power stations have been certified for ISO 14001 & OHSAS 18001 by reputed national and international certifying agencies. Pollution Control Systems While deciding the appropriate technology for its projects, NTPC integrates many environmental provisions into the plant design. In order to ensure that NTPC complies with all the stipulated environment norms, following state-of-the-art pollution control systems / devices have been installed to control air and water pollution: * Electrostatic Precipitators

* Flue Gas Stacks * Low-NOX Burners * Neutralisation Pits * Coal Settling Pits / Oil Settling Pits * DE & DS Systems Cooling Tower * Ash Dykes & Ash Disposal Systems * Ash Water Recycling System * Dry Ash Extraction System (DAES) * Liquid Waste Treatment Plants & Management System * Sewage Treatment Plants & Facilities * Environmental Institutional Set-up Following are the additional measures taken by NTPC in the area of Environment Management:

* Environment Management During Operation Phase * Monitoring of Environmental Parameters * On-Line Data Base Management * Environment Review * Upgradation & Retrofitting of Pollution Control Systems * Resources Conservation * Waste Management * Municipal Waste Management * Hazardous Waste Management * Bio-Medical Waste Management

* Land Use / Bio-diversity * Reclamation of Abandoned Ash ponds * Green Belts, Afforestation & Energy Plantations

CenPEEP

Towards the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission from Indian thermal power plants, NTPC has been promoting and deploying efficient power generation technologies and practices from design stage to operation stage and building local institutional capacities for continuously striving for eco-friendly technologies.

NTPC established Centre for Power Efficiency & Environmental Protection (CenPEEP) in collaboration with USAID with a mandate to reduce GHG emissions per unit of electricity generated by improving the overall performance of coal-fired power plants. The centre functions as a resource centre for acquisition, demonstration and dissemination of stateof-the-art technologies and practices for performance improvement of coal fired power plants for the entire power sector of India. Win- win Approach for Global Climate Change NTPC has adopted a win-win strategy at CenPEEP by achieving synergy between environmental concerns and utility needs. We have initiated the Comprehensive Performance Optimisation Programme thereby successfully balancing the dual objectives of reducing carbon-di-oxide emissions that contribute to climate change and facilitating higher efficiency of power generation.

Under NTPCs effort for betterment of Indian Power Sector, CenPEEP is also assisting various state electricity utilities in India by demonstration and dissemination of improved technologies and practices. To increase outreach to SEBs, 2 regional centres of CenPEEP have also been established in the Northern Region (Lucknow) and Eastern Region (Patna).This approach has brought significant benefits to the power plants and helped in the reduction of emissions.

Technological Interventions For greater acceptability and assimilation of eco-friendly technologies and practices, methodology of Technology Acquisition, Demonstration and Dissemination has been adopted. Our focus has been on low cost high benefit options. We also involve people from local power stations during demonstration and widespread dissemination. Partners

Inaugurated by US Energy Secretary in 1994, CenPEEP has grown into a pioneer National Resources Centre for introduction of several cost-effective technologies for performance optimisation of power plants and environmental protection in Indian Thermal Power Sector. CenPEEP receives technical support for capacity building from US Agency for International Development (USAID) through U.S. Department of Energys (USDOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Structural Integrity Associates (SI), General Physics, utilities such as Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Reliant Energy, Mirant Corporation and US utility organisations such as EPRI, US Energy Association (USEA), etc. CenPEEP has a unique management structure consisting of advisory board and executive committee. With this structure, it is ensured that initiatives are relevant to meet sectoral needs.

In association with JICA and consortium of Japanese utilities, a joint project was also taken up by CenPEEP for efficiency improvement where technologies such as pump efficiency assessment using Yates meter, leak buster test for air-in-leak quantification,

simplified efficiency evaluations, evaluation of SUS scale, boiler simulation, have been demonstrated.

Impact

CenPEEP has demonstrated performance assessment techniques at several NTPC and 14 State Utilities stations. The tests have demonstrated heat rate improvement potential even in the best run power stations. Many demonstrated techniques and practices have been adopted by the stations. In NTPC alone, over 29 million tones of cumulative CO2 has been avoided since inception of CenPEEP activities. Some of the state utilities have acknowledged CenPEEPs support in reducing their emissions by over 5.8 million tones in a year. Some utilities have acknowledged CenPEEP contribution to their efficiency improvement in submissions before regulators. In effect, it is the largest GHG emission reduction effort in power utilities in India. CenPEP has developed Heat Rate Improvement Guidelines jointly with TVA and circulated it to all the coal fired power stations in India. It regularly publishes Performance Optimiser, a brief on optimisation experiences.

The centre also organises workshops / training programmes to train power sector professionals.

Participant in Asia Pacific Partnership(APP) on Clean Development and Climate

The Ministry of Power (Government of India) and Central Electricity Authority (CEA) have recognised NTPC/CenPEEP as an important agency involved in GHG reduction efforts and the success achieved in this area and have entrusted CenPEEP with technology demonstration activites in Indian Utilities under APP multilateral program. Through demonstration of performance assessment technologies in 3 state utilities, substantial CO2 savings have accrued at 3 Stations of state utilities and a annual potential of

ASH UTILISATION

Sustainable ash utilization is one of the key concerns at NTPC. The Ash Utilization Division (AUD), set up in 1991, strives to derive maximum usage from the vast quantities of ash produced at its coal based power stations. The AUD proactively formulates policies, plans and programmes for ash utilization. It further monitors the progress in these activities and works for developing new segments of ash utilization. Ash Utilization Cell at each station, handles ash utilization activities.

The quality of fly ash produced at NTPCs power stations is extremely good with respect to fineness, low unburnt carbon and has high pozzolanic activity and conforms to the requirements of IS 3812 - 2003-Pulverized Fuel Ash for use as Pozzolana in Cement, Cement Mortar and Concrete. The fly ash generated at NTPC stations is ideal for use in manufacture of Cement, Concrete, Concrete products, Cellular concrete products, Bricks/blocks/ tiles etc. To facilitate availability of dry fly ash to end users, dry fly ash evacuation and storage system have been set up at coal based stations. Further, at NTPC-Rihand facility for loading fly ash into rail wagons has been provided so that fly ash can be transported in bulk quantity through railway network. Such facility is also being provided at all new up coming coal based power stations.

Over the years, the Ash Utilization level has reached from meagre 0.3 million tonne in 1991 - 1992 to 26.03 million tonne in 2010-11.

The various segments of ash utilization currently include Cement, Asbestos Cement products & Concrete manufacturing industries, Land development, Road embankment construction, Ash Dyke Raising, Building Products such as Bricks/ blocks/tiles, Reclamation of coal mine and as a soil amender and source of micro and macro-nutrients in agriculture.

MoEF Notification on Fly Ash

Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Govt. of India vide its notification (amendment) dated 3rd Nov 2009 has made it mandatory:

* Within 100Km radius of a Thermal Power Plant 1. To use Fly Ash based Building products such as cement or concrete, fly ash bricks, blocks, tiles etc. in all construction projects 2. To use Fly Ash in Road or Flyover Embankment construction 3. To use Fly Ash in Reclamation of low lying areas * Within 50Km of a Thermal Power Plant (By Road) 1. To use Fly Ash in back filling of underground and open cast mines * Financial institutions to include a clause in their loan documents for compliance of this notification

Major Projects where Fly Ash has been utilized

* Road Embankment Construction & Filling Works: 1. 67 lakh Cubic Meters (Cu.M) of Pond Ash from NTPC Unchahar Station has been utilized in Allahabad By-pass Road executed by NHAI

2. 20 lakh Cu.M of Pond Ash from NTPC Badarpur Station has been utilized in Noida Greater Noida Expressway 3. About 1.5 lakh Cu.M of Pond Ash from Indraprastha thermal power station has been utilized in 2nd Nizammudin approach road embankment 4. About 5.0 lakh Cu.M of Pond Ash from NTPC Badarpur Station has been utilized in Yamuna Expressway & Badarpur Flyover 5. More than 15 lakh Cu.M of Pond Ash has been used by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) in their Shastri Park rail car depot from NTPC Badarpur Station. * Concrete Works: 1. Fly Ash from NTPC Dadri Station is being utilized in all underground concrete works by DMRC 2. Fly Ash is being utilised by all Ready Mix Concrete (RMC) Plants 3. Fly Ash used by ACC Ltd. in Concrete Road at its RMC Plant in Greater Noida 4. Fly Ash used in Concrete Road from Dehra Jhal to NTPC Dadri * Building Construction Works: 1. Administrative Building of Greater Noida Industrial Development Authority (GNIDA) constructed with Fly Ash Bricks 2. NTPCs own Buildings constructed with Fly Ash Bricks 1. NETRA office at Greater Noida 2. 'D' Type residential quarters at Noida Township 3. Northern Region Headquarter building at Lucknow 4. All Projects and Township construction 3. Private Real Estate Developers in various metro cities viz. Pune, Vishakhapatnam & NCR areas use Fly Ash Bricks for construction of residential complexes * Mine Filling: South Balanda Mine being filled with Ash from NTPC Talcher-Thermal Station.

Developing New Segments of Ash Utilisation

Following Research Studies have been / are being conducted for development of new segments having long term potential of Ash Utilization:

* Railway Embankment: To demonstrate use of ash in construction of railway embankment, research study was carried out in association with Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), New Delhi. The design of railway embankment developed by CRRI was validated by conducting Centrifuge Model Tests at IIT Bombay. Construction of railway embankment for NTPCs Merry Go-Round (MGR) rail track for coal transportation is planned at NTPC Kahalgaon and NTPC Talcher-Kaniha. * Mine Filling: 1. Feasibility Study being conducted at Talcher-Kaniha by M/s Desien for finalising the Techno Economically optimum mode of conveying ash from power plant to Mines on long term basis. Infrastructure shall be created accordingly for filling of mines with Fly Ash from NTPC Talcher- Kaniha. 2. Research study is being done by Central Institute of Mining & Fuel Research (CIMFR), Dhanbad for taking up Technology Demonstration project for Random Filling of Ash from NTPC Ramagundam with Mine Over Burden (OB) at Medapalli Mines. * Pre-stressed Railway Concrete Sleepers: Use of Fly Ash in the manufacture of prestressed Railway Concrete Sleepers demonstrated in association with IIT Kanpur. * Ash based Bituminous Road: Demonstration project for construction of Fly Ash based bituminous roads have been taken up in association with CRRI at NTPC Badarpur and Dadri. * Flux bonded Bricks/Tiles: Research study for use of Fly Ash in Flux bonded bricks/tiles has been conducted at NTPC Ramagundam in association with NIIST Trivandrum. * HDPE Products: Use of fly ash in manufacturing of HDPE products taken up by Vindhyachal through IIT Delhi. * Showcase Projects on use of Ash in Agriculture: Use of fly ash in agriculture, as a soil modifier and source of micro and macro nutrients, has been successfully demonstrated through Show case projects in collaboration with the local farmers under the direct guidance of reputed agriculture institutions/universities. 1. At NTPC Simhadri in association with Annamalai University 2. At NTPC Unchahar in association with N.D University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad (U.P)

3. At NTPC Talcher Thermal in association with Annamalai University 4. At NTPC Vindhyachal in association with Annamalai University 5. At NTPC Dadri in association with Annamalai University

Various crops have been grown and harvested in varying agro-climatic conditions and different soil-crop combinations and following increase in crops yield has been successfully demonstrated:

S.No. Name of Crop 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wheat 16 - 22% Paddy 10 - 15% Sugarcane Banana

Increase in Yields

20 - 25% 25 - 30%

Maize More than 30% Vegetables 10 - 15%

AFFORESTATION Maintenance of ecological balance and a perfect environment has been of utmost importance at NTPC. Environment planning and preservation is an integral part of its project activities. NTPC undertakes afforestation programmes covering vast tracts of land in and around its projects in a concerted bid to counter the growing ecological threat.

The crucial need for conservation and restoration of the degraded ecosystem and preservation of genetic resources of the country led to the enactment of the Wild Life Protection Act (1974) and Forest Act (1980) in addition to legal acts of air, water and environment.

NTPC's Approach

It has been possible to achieve a satisfactory combination of environmental quality and techno-economics through determined efforts at NTPC. Continuous vigilance is maintained to minimise pollution. This is over and above the other environment management programmes that start simultaneously with start of construction activities.

The appropriate afforestation programme for plant, township, green-belt and other sites are designed according to the geographical features. Species are selected on the basis of their adaptability and grouped with local representatives. The growth characteristics, flowering pattern and canopy (spreading nature) are evaluated in their distribution over these sites of afforestation. These considerations not only contribute to the aesthetics but also go a long way in serving as Sinks for the pollutant emission of the power plant. At times, they even combat pollution from other industries in the surrounding area.

NTPC has developed independent Horticulture Department at its projects headed by experienced horticulture officers / supervisors.

Saving existing trees, planting right at the beginning of construction phase, preservation of trees and advice from State Forest Departments and agricultural universities are a few general guidelines followed by NTPC.

Forest Bank

An innovative proposal to create Forest Banks in each state was initiated, wherein the Forest Department of all States / Union Territories should identify land to start plantations under various programmes of the state. Such areas would facilitate any power project of either the state or centre to draw necessary compensatory Afforestation Area against the existing balance in the Forest Bank.

Pollution Control systems While deciding the appropriate technology for its projects, NTPC integrates many environmental provisions into the plant design. In order to ensure that NTPC comply with all the stipulated environment norms, various state-of-the-art pollution control systems / devices as discussed below have been installed to control air and water pollution.

Electrostatic Precipitators: The ash left behind after combustion of coal is arrested in high efficiency Electrostatic Precipitators (ESPs) and particulate emission is controlled well within the stipulated norms. The ash collected in the ESPs is disposed to Ash Ponds in slurry form. Flue Gas Stacks: Tall Flue Gas Stacks have been provided for wide dispersion of the gaseous emissions (SOX, NOX etc) into the atmosphere. Low-NOXBurners: In gas based NTPC power stations, NOx emissions are controlled by provision of Low-NOx Burners (dry or wet type) and in coal fired stations, by adopting best combustion practices. Neutralisation Pits: Neutralisation pits have been provided in the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) for pH

correction of the effluents before discharge into Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) for further treatment and use. Coal Settling Pits / Oil Settling Pits: In these Pits, coal dust and oil are removed from the effluents emanating from the Coal Handling Plant (CHP), coal yard and Fuel Oil Handling areas before discharge into ETP.

DE & DS Systems: Dust Extraction (DE) and Dust Suppression (DS) systems have been installed in all coal
fired power stations in NTPC to contain and extract the fugitive dust released in the Coal Handling Plant (CHP). Cooling Towers: Cooling Towers have been provided for cooling the hot Condenser cooling water in closed cycle Condenser Cooling Water (CCW) Systems. This helps in reduction in thermal pollution and conservation of fresh water. Ash Dykes & Ash Disposal systems: Ash ponds have been provided at all coal based stations except Dadri where Dry Ash Disposal System has been provided. Ash Ponds have been divided into lagoons and provided with garlanding arrangements for change over of the ash slurry feed points for even filling of the pond and for effective settlement of the ash particles. Ash in slurry form is discharged into the lagoons where ash particles get settled from the slurry and clear effluent water is discharged from the ash pond. The discharged effluents conform to standards specified by CPCB and the same is regularly monitored. At its Dadri Power Station, NTPC has set up a unique system for dry ash collection and disposal facility with Ash Mound formation. This has been envisaged for the first time in Asia which has resulted in progressive development of green belt besides far less requirement of land and less water requirement as compared to the wet ash disposal system. Ash Water Recycling System: Further, in a number of NTPC stations, as a proactive measure, Ash Water Recycling System (AWRS) has been provided. In the AWRS, the effluent from ash pond is circulated back to the station for further ash sluicing to the ash pond. This helps in savings of fresh water requirements for transportation of ash from the plant. The ash water recycling system has already been installed and is in operation at Ramagundam, Simhadri, Rihand, Talcher Kaniha, Talcher Thermal, Kahalgaon, Korba and Vindhyachal. The scheme has helped stations to save huge quantity of fresh water required as make-up water for disposal of ash. Dry Ash Extraction System (DAES): Dry ash has much higher utilization potential in ash-based products (such as bricks, aerated autoclaved concrete blocks, concrete, Portland pozzolana cement, etc.). DAES has been installed at Unchahar, Dadri, Simhadri, Ramagundam, Singrauli, Kahalgaon, Farakka, Talcher Thermal, Korba, Vindhyachal, Talcher Kaniha and BTPS. Liquid Waste Treatment Plants & Management System: The objective of industrial liquid effluent treatment plant (ETP) is to discharge lesser and cleaner effluent from the power plants to meet environmental regulations. After primary treatment at the source of their generation, the effluents are sent to the ETP for further treatment. The composite liquid effluent treatment plant has been designed to treat all liquid effluents which originate within the power station e.g. Water Treatment Plant

(WTP), Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU) effluent, Coal Handling Plant (CHP) effluent, floor washings, service water drains etc. The scheme involves collection of various effluents and their appropriate treatment centrally and re-circulation of the treated effluent for various plant uses. NTPC has implemented such systems in a number of its power stations such as Ramagundam, Simhadri, Kayamkulam, Singrauli, Rihand, Vindhyachal, Korba, Jhanor Gandhar, Faridabad, Farakka, Kahalgaon and Talcher Kaniha. These plants have helped to control quality and quantity of the effluents discharged from the stations. Sewage Treatment Plants & Facilities: Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) sewage treatment facilities have been provided at all NTPC stations to take care of Sewage Effluent from Plant and township areas. In a number of NTPC projects modern type STPs with Clarifloculators, Mechanical Agitators, sludge drying beds, Gas Collection Chambers etc have been provided to improve the effluent quality. The effluent quality is monitored regularly and treated effluent conforming to the prescribed limit is discharged from the station. At several stations, treated effluents of STPs are being used for horticulture purpose. Environmental Institutional Set-up: Realizing the importance of protection of the environment with speedy development of the power sector, the company has constituted different groups at project, regional and Corporate Centre level to carry out specific environment related functions. The Environment Management Group, Ash Utilisation Group and Centre for Power Efficiency & Environment Protection (CENPEEP) function from the Corporate Centre and initiate measures to mitigate the impact of power project implementation on the environment and preserve ecology in the vicinity of the projects. Environment Management and Ash Utilisation Groups established at each station, look after various environmental issues of the individual station. Environment Reviews: To maintain constant vigil on environmental compliance, Environmental Reviews are carried out at all operating stations and remedial measures have been taken wherever necessary. As a feedback and follow-up of these Environmental Reviews, a number of retrofit and up-gradation measures have been undertaken at different stations. Such periodic Environmental Reviews and extensive monitoring of the facilities carried out at all stations have helped in compliance with the environmental norms and timely renewal of the Air and Water Consents. Up gradation & retrofitting of Pollution Control Systems: Waste Management Various types of wastes such as Municipal or domestic wastes, hazardous wastes, BioMedical wastes get generated in power plant areas, plant hospital and the townships of projects. The wastes generated are a number of solid and hazardous wastes like used oils & waste oils, grease, lead acid batteries, other lead bearing wastes (such as garkets etc.), oil & clarifier sludge, used resin, used photo-chemicals, asbestos packing, e-waste, metal scrap, C&I wastes, electricial scrap, empty cylinders (refillable), paper, rubber products, canteen (bio-degradable) wastes, buidling material wastes, silica gel, glass wool, fused lamps & tubes, fire resistant fluids etc. These wastes fall either under hazardous wastes category or non-hazardous wastes category as per classification given in Government of

Indias notification on Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 1989 (as amended on 06.01.2000 & 20.05.2003). Handling and management of these wastes in NTPC stations have been discussed below. Advanced / Eco-friendly Technologies NTPC has gained expertise in operation and management of 200 MW and 500 MW Units installed at different Stations all over the country and is looking ahead for higher capacity Unit sizes with super critical steam parameters for higher efficiencies and for associated environmental gains. At Sipat, higher capacity Units of size of 660 MW and advanced Steam Generators employing super critical steam parameters have already been implemented as a green field project. Higher efficiency Combined Cycle Gas Power Plants are already under operation at all gasbased power projects in NTPC. Advanced clean coal technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) have higher efficiencies of the order of 45% as compared to about 38% for conventional plants. NTPC has initiated a techno-economic study under USDOE / USAID for setting up a commercial scale demonstration power plant by using IGCC technology. These plants can use low-grade coals and have higher efficiency as compared to conventional plants. With the massive expansion of power generation, there is also growing awareness among all concerned to keep the pollution under control and preserve the health and quality of the natural environment in the vicinity of the power stations. NTPC is committed to provide affordable and sustainable power in increasingly larger quantity. NTPC is conscious of its role in the national endeavour of mitigating energy poverty, heralding economic prosperity and thereby contributing towards Indias emergence as a major global economy. Lay out of Employees

NTPC BADARPUR

Installed capacity Derated Capacity Location Coal Source

720 MW 705 MW

New Delhi Jharia Coal Fields

Water Source Agra Canal Beneficiary States Unit Sizes Delhi

3X95 MW

2X210 MW Units Commissioned Unit I- 95 MW - July 1973 Unit II- 95 MW August 1974 Unit III- 95 MW March 1975 Unit IV - 210 MW December 1978 Unit V - 210 MW - December 1981 International Assistance Ownership of BTPS was transferred to NTPC with effect from 01.06.2006 through GOIs Gazette Notification.

ELECTRICITY FROM COAL Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded with the help of wagon tipplers in the C.H.P. this coal is taken to the raw coal bunkers with the help of conveyor belts. Coal is then transported to bowl mills by coal feeders where it is pulverized and ground in the powered form. This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold mixture P.A fan. This fan takes atmospheric air, a part of which is sent to pre heaters while a part goes to the mill for temperature control. Atmospheric air from F.D fan in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air. Water from boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum . Water from the drum passes through the down comers and goes to the bottom ring header. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace.

Due to heat density difference the water rises up in the water wall tubes. This steam and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is sent to super heaters for super heating. The super heaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is super heated (540 degree Celsius) and finally it goes to the turbine. Fuel gases from the furnace are extracted from the induced draft fan, which maintains balance draft in the furnace with F.D fan. These fuel gases heat energy to the various super heaters and finally through air pre heaters and goes to electrostatic precipitators where the ash particles are extracted. This ash is mixed with the water to from slurry is pumped to ash period. The steam from boiler is conveyed to turbine through the steam pipes and through stop valve and control valve that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. Stop valves and controls valves are located in steam chest and governor driven from main turbine shaft operates the control valves the amount used. Steam from controlled valves enter high pressure cylinder of turbines, where it passes through the ring of blades fixed to the cylinder wall. These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on the disc secured in the turbine shaft. The second ring turns the shaft as a result of force of steam. The stationary and moving blades together.

MAIN GENERATOR Maximum continuous KVA rating Maximum continuous KW Rated terminal voltage Rated Stator current Rated Power Factor Excitation current at MCR Condition Slip-ring Voltage at MCR Condition Rated Speed Rated Frequency Short circuit ratio Efficiency at MCR Condition Direction of rotation viewed Phase Connection Number of terminals brought out

24700KVA 210000KW 15750V 9050 A 0.85 lag 2600 A 310 V 3000 rpm 50 Hz 0.49 98.4% Anti Clockwise Double Star 9( 6 neutral and 3 phase)

MAIN TURBINE DATA

Rated output of Turbine Rated speed of turbine Rated pressure of steam before emergency Stop valve rated live steam temperature Rated steam temperature after reheat at inlet to receptor valve Steam flow at valve wide open condition Rated quantity of circulating water through condenser 1. For cooling water temperature (degree Celsius) 1.Reheated steam pressure at inlet of interceptor valve in kg/cm^2 ABS 2.Steam flow required for 210 MW in ton/hour 3.Rated pressure at exhaust of LP turbine in mm of Hg THERMAL POWER PLANT

210 MW 3000 rpm 130 kg/cm^2 535 degree Celsius 535 degree Celsius 670 tons/hour 27000 cm/hour 24,27,30,33 23,99,24,21,24,49,24.82 68,645,652,662 19.9,55.5,65.4,67.7

A Thermal Power Station comprises all of the equipment and a subsystem required to produce electricity by using a steam generating boiler fired with fossil fuels or befouls to drive an electrical generator. Some prefer to use the term ENERGY CENTER because such facilities convert forms of energy, like nuclear energy, gravitational potential energy or heat energy (derived from the combustion of fuel) into electrical energy. However, POWER PLANT is the most common term in the united state; While POWER STATION prevails in many Commonwealth countries and especially in the United Kingdom. Such power stations are most usually constructed on a very large scale and designed for continuous operation. Typical diagram of a coal fired thermal power station 1. Cooling water pump 2. Three-phase transmission line 3. Step up transformer 4. Electrical Generator 5. Low pressure steam 6. Boiler feed water pump 7. Surface condenser 8. Intermediate pressure steam turbine 9. Steam control valve 10. High pressure steam turbine 11. Deaerator Feed water heater 12. Coal conveyor 13. Coal hopper 14. Coal pulverizer 15. boiler steam drum 16. Bottom ash hoper 17. Super heater 18. Forced draught(draft) fan 19. Reheater 20. Combustion air intake 21. Economizer 22. Air preheater

23. Precipitator 24. Induced draught(draft) fan 25. Fuel gas stack The description of some of the components written above is described as follows: 1. Cooling towers Cooling Towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambivalent web-bulb air temperature. Cooling tower use evaporation of water to reject heat from processes such as cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries, Chemical plants, power plants and building cooling, for example. The tower vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 meters tall and 100 meters in diameter, or rectangular structure that can be over 40 meters tall and 80 meters long. Smaller towers are normally factory built, while larger ones are constructed on site. The primary use of large , industrial cooling tower system is to remove the heat absorbed in the circulating cooling water systems used in power plants , petroleum refineries, petrochemical and chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industrial facilities . The absorbed heat is rejected to the atmosphere by the evaporation of some of the cooling water in mechanical forced-draft or induced draft towers or in natural draft hyperbolic shaped cooling towers as seen at most nuclear power plants. 2.Three phase transmission line Three phase electric power is a common method of electric power transmission. It is a type of polyphase system mainly used to power motors and many other devices. A Three phase system uses less conductor material to transmit electric power than equivalent single phase, two phase, or direct current system at the same voltage. In a three phase system, three circuits reach their instantaneous peak values at different times. Taking one conductor as the reference, the other two current are delayed in time by one-third and two-third of one cycle of the electrical current. This delay between phases has the effect of giving constant power transfer over each cycle of the current and also makes it possible to produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric motor. At the power station, an electric generator converts mechanical power into a set of electric currents, one from each electromagnetic coil or winding of the generator. The current are sinusoidal functions of time, all at the same frequency but offset in time to give different phases. In a three phase system the phases are spaced equally, giving a phase separation of one-third one cycle. Generators output at a voltage that ranges from hundreds of volts to 30,000 volts. At the power station, transformers: step-up this voltage to one more suitable for transmission. After numerous further conversions in the transmission and distribution network the power is finally transformed to the standard mains voltage (i.e. the household voltage). The power may already have been split into single phase at this point or it may still be three phase. Where the step-down is 3 phase, the output of this transformer is usually star connected with the standard mains voltage being the phase-neutral voltage. Another system commonly seen in North America is to have a delta connected secondary with a

center tap on one of the windings supplying the ground and neutral. This allows for 240 V three phase as well as three different single phase voltages( 120 V between two of the phases and neutral , 208 V between the third phase ( known as a wild leg) and neutral and 240 V between any two phase) to be available from the same supply. 3.Electrical generator An Electrical generator is a device that converts kinetic energy to electrical energy, generally using electromagnetic induction. The task of converting the electrical energy into mechanical energy is accomplished by using a motor. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, , water falling through the turbine are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps, compressors and other shaft driven equipment , to 2,000,000 hp(1,500,000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines. Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators, which produce electricity. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in Boilers or steam generators as they are sometimes called. Electrical power station use large stem turbines driving electric generators to produce most (about 86%) of the worlds electricity. These centralized stations are of two types: fossil fuel power plants and nuclear power plants. The turbines used for electric power generation are most often directly coupled to their-generators .As the generators must rotate at constant synchronous speeds according to the frequency of the electric power system, the most common speeds are 3000 r/min for 50 Hz systems, and 3600 r/min for 60 Hz systems. Most large nuclear sets rotate at half those speeds, and have a 4-pole generator rather than the more common 2-pole one. Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. The turbine normally consists of several stage with each stages consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam into kinetic energy into forces, caused by pressure drop, which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator, which produces the electrical energy. 4.Boiler feed water pump A Boiler feed water pump is a specific type of pump used to pump water into a steam boiler. The water may be freshly supplied or retuning condensation of the steam produced by the boiler. These pumps are normally high pressure units that use suction from a condensate return system and can be of the centrifugal pump type or positive displacement type. Construction and operation Feed water pumps range in size up to many horsepower and the electric motor is usually separated from the pump body by some form of mechanical coupling. Large industrial condensate pumps may also serve as the feed water pump. In either case, to force the

water into the boiler; the pump must generate sufficient pressure to overcome the steam pressure developed by the boiler. This is usually accomplished through the use of a centrifugal pump. Feed water pumps usually run intermittently and are controlled by a float switch or other similar level-sensing device energizing the pump when it detects a lowered liquid level in the boiler is substantially increased. Some pumps contain a two-stage switch. As liquid lowers to the trigger point of the first stage, the pump is activated. I f the liquid continues to drop (perhaps because the pump has failed, its supply has been cut off or exhausted, or its discharge is blocked); the second stage will be triggered. This stage may switch off the boiler equipment (preventing the boiler from running dry and overheating), trigger an alarm, or both. 5. Steam-powered pumps Steam locomotives and the steam engines used on ships and stationary applications such as power plants also required feed water pumps. In this situation, though, the pump was often powered using a small steam engine that ran using the steam produced by the boiler. A means had to be provided, of course, to put the initial charge of water into the boiler(before steam power was available to operate the steam-powered feed water pump).the pump was often a positive displacement pump that had steam valves and cylinders at one end and feed water cylinders at the other end; no crankshaft was required. In thermal plants, the primary purpose of surface condenser is to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. By condensing the exhaust steam of a turbine at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, the steam pressure drop between the inlet and exhaust of the turbine is increased, which increases the amount heat available for conversion to mechanical power. Most of the heat liberated due to condensation of the exhaust steam is carried away by the cooling medium (water or air) used by the surface condenser. 6. Control valves Control valves are valves used within industrial plants and elsewhere to control operating conditions such as temperature,pressure,flow,and liquid Level by fully partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compares a set point to a process variable whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions. The opening or closing of control valves is done by means of electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic systems 7. Deaerator A Dearator is a device for air removal and used to remove dissolved gases (an alternate

would be the use of water treatment chemicals) from boiler feed water to make it noncorrosive. A dearator typically includes a vertical domed deaeration section as the deaeration boiler feed water tank. A Steam generating boiler requires that the circulating steam, condensate, and feed water should be devoid of dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones and dissolved or suspended solids. The gases will give rise to corrosion of the metal. The solids will deposit on the heating surfaces giving rise to localized heating and tube ruptures due to overheating. Under some conditions it may give to stress corrosion cracking. Deaerator level and pressure must be controlled by adjusting control valves- the level by regulating condensate flow and the pressure by regulating steam flow. If operated properly, most deaerator vendors will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0.005 cm3/L) 8. Feed water heater A Feed water heater is a power plant component used to pre-heat water delivered to a steam generating boiler. Preheating the feed water reduces the irreversible involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system.[4] This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feed water is introduces back into the steam cycle. In a steam power (usually modeled as a modified Ranking cycle), feed water heaters allow the feed water to be brought up to the saturation temperature very gradually. This minimizes the inevitable irreversibilitys associated with heat transfer to the working fluid (water). A belt conveyor consists of two pulleys, with a continuous loop of material- the conveyor Belt that rotates about them. The pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. Conveyor belts are extensively used to transport industrial and agricultural material, such as grain, coal, ores etc.

9. Pulverizer A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in a fossil fuel power plant. 10. Boiler Steam Drum Steam Drums are a regular feature of water tube boilers. It is reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes in the water-tube boiler. They store the steam generated in the water tubes and act as a phase separator for the steam/water mixture. The difference in densities between hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the hotter-water/and saturated steam into steam drum. Made from high-grade steel (probably stainless) and its working involves temperatures 390C and pressure well above 350psi (2.4MPa). The separated steam is drawn out from the top section of the drum. Saturated steam is drawn off the top of the drum. The steam will re-enter the furnace in through a super heater, while the saturated water at the bottom of steam drum flows down to the mud-drum /feed water drum by down comer tubes accessories include a safety valve, water level indicator and fuse plug. A steam drum is used in the company of

a mud-drum/feed water drum which is located at a lower level. So that it acts as a sump for the sludge or sediments which have a tendency to the bottom.

11. Super Heater A Super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam generated by the boiler again increasing its thermal energy and decreasing the likelihood that it will condense inside the engine. Super heaters increase the efficiency of the steam engine, and were widely adopted. Steam which has been superheated is logically known as superheated steam; non-superheated steam is called saturated steam or wet steam; Super heaters were applied to steam locomotives in quantity from the early 20th century, to most steam vehicles, and so stationary steam engines including power stations. 12. Economizers Economizer, or in the UK economizer, are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption, or to perform another useful function like preheating a fluid. The term economizer is used for other purposes as well. Boiler, power plant, and heating, ventilating and air conditioning. In boilers, economizer are heat exchange devices that heat fluids , usually water, up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of the fluid. Economizers are so named because they can make use of the enthalpy and improving the boilers efficiency. They are a device fitted to a boiler which saves energy by using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used the fill it (the feed water). Modern day boilers, such as those in cold fired power stations, are still fitted with economizer which is decedents of Greens original design. In this context they are turbines before it is pumped to the boilers. A common application of economizer is steam power plants is to capture the waste hit from boiler stack gases (flue gas) and transfer thus it to the boiler feed water thus lowering the needed energy input , in turn reducing the firing rates to accomplish the rated boiler output . Economizer lower stack temperatures which may cause condensation of acidic combustion gases and serious equipment corrosion damage if care is not taken in their design and material selection. 13. Air Preheater Air preheater is a general term to describe any device designed to heat air before another process (for example, combustion in a boiler). The purpose of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas which increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat lost in the fuel gas. As a consequence, the flue gases are also sent to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower temperature allowing simplified design of the ducting and the flue gas stack. It also allows control over the temperature of gases leaving the stack. 14. Precipitator An Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such As air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices, and

can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air steam. ESPs continue to be excellent devices for control of many industrial particulate emissions, including smoke from electricity-generating utilities (coal and oil fired), salt cake collection from black liquor boilers in pump mills, and catalyst collection from fluidized bed catalytic crackers from several hundred thousand ACFM in the largest coal-fired boiler application. The original parallel plate-Weighted wire design (described above) has evolved as more efficient ( and robust) discharge electrode designs were developed, today focusing on rigid discharge electrodes to which many sharpened spikes are attached , maximizing corona production. Transformer rectifier systems apply voltages of 50-100 Kilovolts at relatively high current densities. Modern controls minimize sparking and prevent arcing, avoiding damage to the components. Automatic rapping systems and hopper evacuation systems remove the collected particulate matter while on line allowing ESPs to stay in operation for years at a time. 15. Fuel gas stack A Fuel gas stack is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called fuel gases are exhausted to the outside air. Fuel gases are produced when coal, oil, natural gas, wood or any other large combustion device. Fuel gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake combustion air. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such as particulates matter, carbon mono oxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall, up to 400 meters (1300 feet) or more, so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater aria and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by governmental environmental policies and regulations. When the fuel gases exhausted from stoves, ovens, fireplaces or other small sources within residential abodes, restaurants , hotels or other stacks are referred to as chimneys.

EMD I Electrical Maintenance division I


I was assigned to do training in Electrical maintenance division I 15th June to 18th June 2011.

Electrical maintenance division 1 It is responsible for maintenance of: 1. 2. 3. 4. Boiler side motors Turbine side motors Outside motors Switchgear

1. Boiler side motors: For 1, units 1, 2, 3 1.1D Fans 2.F.D Fans 3.P.A.Fans 4.Mill Fans 5.Ball mill fans 6.RC feeders 7.Slag Crushers 8.DM Make up Pump 9.PC Feeders 10.Worm Conveyor 11.Furnikets 2 2 2 3 3 3 5 2 4 1 4 in in in in in in in in in in in no. no. no. no. no. no. no. no. no. no. no.

For stage units 1, 2, 3 1.I.D Fans 2.F.D Fans 3.P.A Fans 4.Bowl Mills 5.R.C Feeders 6.Clinker Grinder 7.Scrapper 8.Seal Air Fans 9.Hydrazine and Phosphorous Dozing 2 in no. 2 in no. 2 in no. 6 in no. 6 in no. 2 in no. 2 in no. 2 in no. 2 in no. 2/3 in no.

1. COAL HANDLING PLANT (C.H.P) 2. NEW COAL HANDLING PLANT (N.C.H.P) The old coal handling plant caters to the need of units 2,3,4,5 and 1 whereas the latter supplies coal to units 4 and V.O.C.H.P. supplies coal to second and third stages in the advent coal to usable form to (crushed) form its raw form and send it to bunkers, from where it is send to furnace. Major Components 1. Wagon Tippler: - Wagons from the coal yard come to the tippler and are emptied here. The process is performed by a slip ring motor of rating: 55 KW, 415V, 1480 RPM. This motor turns the wagon by 135 degrees and coal falls directly on the conveyor through vibrators. Tippler has raised lower system which enables is to switch off motor when required till is wagon back to its original position. It is titled by weight balancing principle. The motor lowers the hanging balancing weights, which in turn tilts the conveyor. Estimate of the weight of the conveyor is made through hydraulic weighing machine. 2. Conveyor: - There are 14 conveyors in the plant. They are numbered so that their function can be easily demarcated. Conveyors are made of rubber and more with a speed of 250-300m/min. Motors employed for conveyors has a capacity of 150 HP. Conveyors have a capacity of carrying coal at the rate of 400 tons per hour. Few conveyors are double belt, this is done for imp. Conveyors so that if a belt develops any problem the process is not stalled. The conveyor belt has a switch after every 25-30 m on both sides so stop the belt in case of emergency. The conveyors are 1m wide, 3 cm thick and made of chemically treated vulcanized rubber. The max angular elevation of conveyor is designed such as never to exceed half of the angle of response and comes out to be around 20 degrees. 3. Zero Speed Switch:-It is safety device for motors, i.e., if belt is not moving and the motor is on the motor may burn. So to protect this switch checks the speed of the belt and switches off the motor when speed is zero. 4. Metal Separators: - As the belt takes coal to the crusher, No metal pieces should

go along with coal. To achieve this objective, we use metal separators. When coal is dropped to the crusher hoots, the separator drops metal pieces ahead of coal. It has a magnet and a belt and the belt is moving, the pieces are thrown away. The capacity of this device is around 50 kg. .The CHP is supposed to transfer 600 tons of coal/hr, but practically only 300-400 tons coal is transfer 5. Crusher: - Both the plants use TATA crushers powered by BHEL. Motors. The crusher is of ring type and motor ratings are 400 HP, 606 KV. Crusher is designed to crush the pieces to 20 mm size i.e. practically considered as the optimum size of transfer via conveyor. 6. Rotatory Breaker: - OCHP employs mesh type of filters and allows particles of 20mm size to go directly to RC bunker, larger particles are sent to crushes. This leads to frequent clogging. NCHP uses a technique that crushes the larger of harder substance like metal impurities easing the load on the magnetic separators. MILLING SYSTEM 1. RC Bunker: - Raw coal is fed directly to these bunkers. These are 3 in no. per boiler. 4 & tons of coal are fed in 1 hr. the depth of bunkers is 10m. 2. RC Feeder: - It transports pre crust coal from raw coal bunker to mill. The quantity of raw coal fed in mill can be controlled by speed control of aviator drive controlling damper and aviator change. 3. Ball Mill: - The ball mill crushes the raw coal to a certain height and then allows it to fall down. Due to impact of ball on coal and attraction as per the particles move over each other as well as over the Armor lines, the coal gets crushed. Large particles are broken by impact and full grinding is done by attraction. The Drying and grinding option takes place simultaneously inside the mill. 4. Classifier:- It is an equipment which serves separation of fine pulverized coal particles medium from coarse medium. The pulverized coal along with the carrying medium strikes the impact plate through the lower part. Large particles are then transferred to the ball mill. 5. Cyclone Separators: - It separates the pulverized coal from carrying medium. The mixture of pulverized coal vapour caters the cyclone separators. 6. The Tturniket: - It serves to transport pulverized coal from cyclone separators to pulverized coal bunker or to worm conveyors. There are 4 turnikets per boiler. 7. Worm Conveyor: - It is equipment used to distribute the pulverized coal from bunker of one system to bunker of other system. It can be operated in both directions.

8. Mills Fans: - It is of 3 types:

Six in all and are running condition all the time. (a) ID Fans: - Located between electrostatic precipitator and chimney. Type-radical Speed-1490 rpm Rating-300 KW Voltage-6.6 KV Lubrication-by oil (b) FD Fans: - Designed to handle secondary air for boiler. 2 in number and provide ignition of coal. Type-axial Speed-990 rpm Rating-440 KW Voltage-6.6 KV (c)Primary Air Fans: - Designed for handling the atmospheric air up to 50 degrees Celsius, 2 in number And they transfer the powered coal to burners to firing. Type-Double suction radial Rating-300 KW Voltage-6.6 KV Lubrication-by oil Type of operation-continuous 9. Bowl Mill: - One of the most advanced designs of coal pulverizes presently manufactured. Motor specification squirrel cage induction motor Rating-340 KW Voltage-6600KV Curreen-41.7A Speed-980 rpm Frequency-50 Hz No-load current-15-16 A NCHP 1. Wagon Tippler:Motor Specification (i) H.P 75 HP (ii) Voltage 415, 3 phase (iii) Speed 1480 rpm (iv) Frequency 50 Hz (v) Current rating 102 A

2. Coal feed to plant:Feeder motor specification (i) Horse power 15 HP (ii) Voltage 415V,3 phase (iii) Speed 1480 rpm (iv) Frequency 50 Hz

3. Conveyors:10A, 10B 11A, 11B 12A, 12B 13A, 13B 14A, 14B 15A, 15B 16A, 16B 17A, 17B 18A, 18B 4. Transfer Point 6 5. Breaker House 6. Rejection House 7. Reclaim House 8. Transfer Point 7 9. Crusher House 10. Exit The coal arrives in wagons via railways and is tippled by the wagon tipplers into the hoppers. If coal is oversized (>400 mm sq) then it is broken manually so that it passes the hopper mesh. From the hopper mesh it is taken to the transfer point TP6 by conveyor 12A ,12B which takes the coal to the breaker house , which renders the coal size to be 100mm sq. the stones which are not able to pass through the 100mm sq of hammer are rejected via conveyors 18A,18B to the rejection house . Extra coal is to sent to the reclaim hopper via conveyor 16. From breaker house coal is taken to the TP7 via Conveyor 13A, 13B. Conveyor 17A, 17B also supplies coal from reclaim hopper, From TP7 coal is taken by conveyors 14A, 14B to crusher house whose function is to render the size of coal to 20mm sq. now the conveyor labors are present whose function is to recognize and remove

any stones moving in the conveyors . In crusher before it enters the crusher. After being crushed, if any metal is still present it is taken care of by metal detectors employed in conveyor 10. SWITCH GEARIt makes or breaks an electrical circuit. 1. Isolation: - A device which breaks an electrical circuit when circuit is switched on to no load. Isolation is normally used in various ways for purpose of isolating a certain portion when required for maintenance. 2. Switching Isolation: - It is capable of doing things like interrupting transformer magnetized current, interrupting line charging current and even perform load transfer switching. The main application of switching isolation is in connection with transformer feeders as unit makes it possible to switch out one transformer while other is still on load. 3. Circuit Breakers: - One which can make or break the circuit on load and even on faults is referred to as circuit breakers. This equipment is the most important and is heavy duty equipment mainly utilized for protection of various circuits and operations on load. Normally circuit breakers installed are accompanied by isolators 4. Load Break Switches: - These are those interrupting devices which can make or break circuits. These are normally on same circuit, which are backed by circuit breakers. 5. Earth Switches: - Devices which are used normally to earth a particular system, to avoid any accident happening due to induction on account of live adjoining circuits. These equipments do not handle any appreciable current at all. Apart from this equipment there are a number of relays etc. which are used in switchgear. LT Switchgear It is classified in following ways:1. Main Switch:- Main switch is control equipment which controls or disconnects the main supply. The main switch for 3 phase supply is available for tha range 32A, 63A, 100A, 200Q, 300A at 500V grade. 2. Fuses: - With Avery high generating capacity of the modern power stations extremely heavy carnets would flow in the fault and the fuse clearing the fault would be required to withstand extremely heavy stress in process. It is used for supplying power to auxiliaries with backup fuse protection. Rotary switch up to 25A. With fuses, quick break, quick make and double break switch fuses for 63A and 100A, switch fuses for 200A, 400A, 600A, 800A and 1000A are

used. 3. Contractors: - AC Contractors are 3 poles suitable for D.O.L Starting of motors and protecting the connected motors. 4. Overload Relay: - For overload protection, thermal over relay are best suited for this purpose. They operate due to the action of heat generated by passage of current through relay element. 5. Air Circuit Breakers: - It is seen that use of oil in circuit breaker may cause a fire. So in all circuits breakers at large capacity air at high pressure is used which is maximum at the time of quick tripping of contacts. This reduces the possibility of sparking. The pressure may vary from 50-60 kg/cm^2 for high and medium capacity circuit breakers. HT SWITCH GEAR:1. Minimum oil Circuit Breaker: - These use oil as quenching medium. It comprises of simple dead tank row pursuing projection from it. The moving contracts are carried on an iron arm lifted by a long insulating tension rod and are closed simultaneously pneumatic operating mechanism by means of tensions but throw off spring to be provided at mouth of the control the main current within the controlled device. Type-HKH 12/1000c Rated Voltage-66 KV Normal Current-1250A Frequency-5Hz Breaking Capacity-3.4+KA Symmetrical 3.4+KA Asymmetrical 360 MVA Symmetrical Operating Coils-CC 220 V/DC FC 220V/DC Motor Voltage-220 V/DC 2. Air Circuit Breaker: - In this the compressed air pressure around 15 kg per cm^2 is used for extinction of arc caused by flow of air around the moving circuit . The breaker is closed by applying pressure at lower opening and opened by applying pressure at upper opening. When contacts operate, the cold air rushes around the movable contacts and blown the arc. It has the following advantages over OCB:i. Fire hazard due to oil are eliminated. ii. Operation takes place quickly. iii. There is less burning of contacts since the duration is short and consistent.

iv. Facility for frequent operation since the cooling medium is replaced constantly. Rated Voltage-6.6 KV Current-630 A Auxiliary current-220 V/DC 3. SF6 Circuit Breaker: - This type of circuit breaker is of construction to dead tank bulk oil to circuit breaker but the principle of current interruption is similar o that of air blast circuit breaker. It simply employs the arc extinguishing medium namely SF6. the performance of gas . When it is broken down under an electrical stress. It will quickly reconstitute itself Circuit Breakers-HPA Standard-1 EC 56 Rated Voltage-12 KV Insulation Level-28/75 KV Rated Frequency-50 Hz Breaking Current-40 KA Rated Current-1600 A Making Capacity-110 KA Rated Short Time Current 1/3s -40 A Mass Approximation-185 KG Auxiliary Voltage Closing Coil-220 V/DC Opening Coil-220 V/DC Motor-220 V/DC SF6 Pressure at 20 Degree Celsius-0.25 KG SF6 Gas Per pole-0.25 KG

4. Vacuum Circuit Breaker: - It works on the principle that vacuum is used to save the purpose of insulation and it implies that pr. Of gas at which breakdown voltage independent of pressure. It regards of insulation and strength, vacuum is superior dielectric medium and is better that all other medium except air and sulphur which are generally used at high pressure. Rated frequency-50 Hz Rated making Current-10 Peak KA Rated Voltage-12 KV Supply Voltage Closing-220 V/DC Rated Current-1250 A Supply Voltage Tripping-220 V/DC Insulation Level-IMP 75 KVP Rated Short Time Current-40 KA (3 SEC) Weight of Breaker-8 KG

EMD II Electrical Maintenance division II


I was assigned to do training in Electrical maintenance division II 20th June to 25th June 2011.

Generator and Auxiliaries Generator and Auxiliaries Generator Fundamentals Fundamentals The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy is carried out by the Generator. This Chapter seeks to provide basic understanding about the working principles and development of Generator. Working Principle The A.C. Generator or alternator is based upon the principle of electromagnetic induction and consists generally of a stationary part called stator and a rotating part called rotor. The stator housed the armature windings. The rotor houses the field windings. D.C. voltage is applied to the field windings through slip rings. When the rotor is rotated, the lines of magnetic flux (viz magnetic field) cut through the stator windings. This induces an electromagnetic force (e.m.f.) in the stator windings. The magnitude of this e.m.f. is given by the following expression. E = 4.44 /O FN volts 0 = Strength of magnetic field in Webers. F = Frequency in cycles per second or Hertz. N = Number of turns in a coil of stator winding F = Frequency = Pn/120 Where P = Number of poles n = revolutions per second of rotor. From the expression it is clear that for the same frequency, number of poles increases with decrease in speed and vice versa. Therefore, low speed hydro

turbine drives generators have 14 to 20 poles where as high speed steam turbine driven generators have generally 2 poles. Pole rotors are used in low speed generators, because the cost advantage as well as easier construction.

Development The first A.C. Generator concept was enunciated by Michael Faraday in 1831. In 1889 Sir Charles A. Parsons developed the first AC turbo-generator. Although slow speed AC generators have been built for some time, it was not long before that the high-speed generators made its impact. Development contained until, in 1922, the increased use of solid forgings and improved techniques permitted an increase in generator rating to 20MW at 300rpm. Up to the out break of second world war, in 1939, most large generator;- were of the order of 30 to 50 MW at 3000 rpm. During the war, the development and installation of power plants was delayed and in order to catch up with the delay in plant installation, a large number of 30 MW and 60 MW at 3000 rpm units were constructed during the years immediately following the war. The changes in design in this period were relatively small. In any development programme the. Costs of material and labour involved in manufacturing and erection must be a basic consideration. Coupled very closely with these considerations is the restriction is size and weight imposed by transport limitations. Development of suitable insulating materials for large turbo-generators is one of the most important tasks and need continues watch as size and ratings of machines increase. The present trend is the use only class "B" and higher grade materials and extensive work has gone into compositions of mica; glass and asbestos with appropriate bonding material. An insulation to meet the stresses in generator slots must follow very closely the thermal expansion of the insulated conductor without cracking or any plastic deformation. Insulation for rotor is subjected to lower dielectric stress but must withstand high dynamic stresses and the newly developed epoxy resins, glass and/or asbestos molded in resin and other synthetic resins are finding wide applications. Generator component This Chapter deals with the two main components of the Generator viz. Rotor, its winding & balancing and stator, its frame, core & windings. Rotor The electrical rotor is the most difficult part of the generator to design. It revolves in most modern generators at a speed of 3,000 revolutions per minute. The problem of guaranteeing the dynamic strength and operating stability of such a rotor is complicated

by the fact that a massive non-uniform shaft subjected to a multiplicity of differential stresses must operate in oil lubricated sleeve bearings supported by a structure mounted on foundations all of which possess complex dynamic be behavior peculiar to themselves. It is also an electromagnet and to give it the necessary magnetic strength the windings must carry a fairly high current. The passage of the current through the windings generates heat but the temperature must not be allowed to become so high, otherwise difficulties will be experienced with insulation. To keep the temperature down, the cross section of the conductor could not be increased but this would introduce another problems. In order to make room for the large conductors, body and this would cause mechanical weakness. The problem is really to get the maximum amount of copper into the windings without reducing the mechanical strength. With good design and great care in construction this can be achieved. The rotor is a cast steel ingot, and it is further forged and machined. Very often a hole is bored through the centre of the rotor axially from one end of the other for inspection. Slots are then machined for windings and ventilation. Rotor winding Silver bearing copper is used for the winding with mica as the insulation between conductors. A mechanically strong insulator such as micanite is used for lining the slots. Later designs of windings for large rotor incorporate combination of hollow conductors with slots or holes arranged to provide for circulation of the cooling gas through the actual conductors. When rotating at high speed. Centrifugal force tries to lift the windings out of the slots and they are contained by wedges. The end rings are secured to a turned recess in the rotor body, by shrinking or screwing and supported at the other end by fittings carried by the rotor body. The two ends of windings are connected to slip rings, usually made of forged steel, and mounted on insulated sleeves. Rotor balancing When completed the rotor must be tested for mechanical balance, which means that a check is made to see if it will run up to normal speed without vibration. To do this it would have to be uniform about its central axis and it is most unlikely that this will be so to the degree necessary for perfect balance. Arrangements are therefore made in all designs to fix adjustable balance weights around the circumference at each end. Stator Stator frame: The stator is the heaviest load to be transported. The major part of this load is the stator core. This comprises an inner frame and outer frame. The outer frame is a rigid fabricated structure of welded steel plates, within this shell is a fixed cage of girder built circular and axial ribs. The ribs divide the yoke in the compartments through which hydrogen flows into radial ducts in the stator core and circulate through the gas coolers housed in the frame. The inner cage is usually fixed in to the yoke by an arrangement of

springs to dampen the double frequency vibrations inherent in 2 pole generators. The end shields of hydrogen cooled generators must be strong enough to carry shaft seals. In large generators the frame is constructed as two separate parts. The fabricated inner cage is inserted in the outer frame after the stator core has been constructed and the winding completed. Stator core: The stator core is built up from a large number of 'punching" or sections of thin steel plates. The use of cold rolled grain-oriented steel can contribute to reduction in the weight of stator core for two main reasons: a) There is an increase in core stacking factor with improvement in lamination cold Rolling and in cold buildings techniques. b) The advantage can be taken of the high magnetic permeance of grain-oriented steels of work the stator core at comparatively high magnetic saturation without fear or excessive iron loss of two heavy a demand for excitation ampere turns from the generator rotor.

Stator Windings Each stator conductor must be capable of carrying the rated current without overheating. The insulation must be sufficient to prevent leakage currents flowing between the phases to earth. Windings for the stator are made up from copper strips wound with insulated tape which is impregnated with varnish, dried under vacuum and hot pressed to form a solid insulation bar. These bars are then place in the stator slots and held in with wedges to form the complete winding which is connected together at each end of the core forming the end turns. These end turns are rigidly braced and packed with blocks of insulation material to withstand the heavy forces which might result from a short circuit or other fault conditions. The generator terminals are usually arranged below the stator. On recent generators (210 MW) the windings are made up from copper tubes instead of strips through which water is circulated for cooling purposes. The water is fed to the windings through plastic tubes. Generator Cooling System The 200/210 MW Generator is provided with an efficient cooling system to avoid excessive heating and consequent wear and tear of its main components during operation. This Chapter deals with the rotor-hydrogen cooling system and stator water cooling system along with the shaft sealing and bearing cooling systems. Rotor Cooling System The rotor is cooled by means of gap pick-up cooling, wherein the hydrogen gas in the air gap is sucked through the scoops on the rotor wedges and is directed to flow along the ventilating canals milled on the sides of the rotor coil, to the bottom of the slot where it takes a turn and comes out on the similar canal milled on the other side of the rotor

coil to the hot zone of the rotor. Due to the rotation of the rotor, a positive suction as well as discharge is created due to which a certain quantity of gas flows and cools the rotor. This method of cooling gives uniform distribution of temperature. Also, this method has an inherent advantage of eliminating the deformation of copper due to varying temperatures. Hydrogen Cooling System Hydrogen is used as a cooling medium in large capacity generator in view of its high heat carrying capacity and low density. But in view of its forming an explosive mixture with oxygen, proper arrangement for filling, purging and maintaining its purity inside the generator have to be made. Also, in order to prevent escape of hydrogen from the generator casing, shaft sealing system is used to provide oil sealing. The hydrogen cooling system mainly comprises of a gas control stand, a drier, an liquid level indicator, hydrogen control panel, gas purity measuring and indicating instruments, The system is capable of performing the following functions : Filling in and purging of hydrogen safely without bringing in contact with air. Maintaining the gas pressure inside the machine at the desired value at all the times. Provide indication to the operator about the condition of the gas inside the machine i.e. its pressure, temperature and purity. Continuous circulation of gas inside the machine through a drier in order to remove any water vapour that may be present in it. Indication of liquid level in the generator and alarm in case of high level. Stator Cooling System The stator winding is cooled by distillate. Which is fed from one end of the machine by Teflon tube and flows through the upper bar and returns back through the lower bar of another slot? Turbo generators require water cooling arrangement over and above the usual hydrogen cooling arrangement. The stator winding is cooled in this system by circulating demineralised water (DM water) through hollow conductors. The cooling water used for cooling stator winding calls for the use of very high quality of cooling water. For this purpose DM water of proper specific resistance is selected. Generator is to be loaded within a very short period if the specific resistance of the cooling DM water goes beyond certain preset values. The system is designed to maintain a constant rate of cooling water flow to the stator winding at a nominal inlet water temperature of 40 deg.C.

Rating of 95 MW Generator Manufacture by Bharat heavy electrical Limited (BHEL) Capacity - 117500 KVA Voltage - 10500V Speed - 3000 rpm Hydrogen - 2.5 Kg/cm2 Power factor - 0.85 (lagging) Stator current - 6475 A Frequency - 50 Hz Stator wdg connection - 3 phase Rating of 210 MW Generator Capacity - 247000 KVA Voltage (stator) - 15750 V Current (stator) - 9050 A Voltage (rotor) - 310 V Current (rotor) - 2600 V Speed - 3000 rpm Power factor - 0.85 Frequency - 50 Hz Hydrogen - 3.5 Kg/cm2 Stator wdg connection - 3 phase star connection Insulation class - B

TRANFORMER A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling with out requiring relative motion between its parts. It usually comprises two or more coupled windings, and in most cases, a core to concentrate magnetic flux. An alternating voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core, which includes a voltage in the other windings. Varying the relative number of turns between primary and secondary windings determines the ratio of the input and output voltages, thus transforming the voltage by stepping it up or down between circuits. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage,_low-current form and back again, the transformer greatly reduces energy losses and so enables the economic transmission of power over long distances. It has thus shape the electricity supply industry, permitting generation to be located remotely from point of demand. All but a fraction of the worlds electrical power has passed trough a series of transformer by the time it reaches the consumer.

Basic principles

The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer consisting of two windings of zero resistance around a core of negligible reluctance. A voltage applied to the primary winding causes a current, which develops a magneto motive force (MMF) in the core. The current required to create the MMF is termed the magnetizing current; in the ideal transformer it is considered to be negligible, although its presence is still required to drive flux around the magnetic circuit of the core. An electromotive force (MMF) is induced across each winding, an effect known as mutual inductance. In accordance with faradays law of induction, the EMFs are proportional to the rate of change of flux. The primary EMF, acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage, is sometimes termed the back EMF. Energy losses An ideal transformer would have no energy losses and would have no energy losses, and would therefore be 100% efficient. Despite the transformer being amongst the most efficient of electrical machines with ex the most efficient of electrical machines with experimental models using superconducting windings achieving efficiency of 99.85%, energy is dissipated in the windings, core, and surrounding structures. Larger transformers are generally more efficient, and those rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 95%. A small transformer such as plug-in power brick used for low-power consumer electronics may be less than 85% efficient. Transformer losses are attributable to several causes and may be differentiated between those originated in the windings, some times termed copper loss, and those arising from the magnetic circuit, sometimes termed iron loss. The losses vary with load current, and may furthermore be expressed as no load or full load loss, or at an intermediate loading. Winding resistance dominates load losses contribute to over 99% of the no-load loss can be significant, meaning that even an idle transformer constitutes a drain on an electrical supply, and lending impetus to development of low-loss transformers. Losses in the transformer arise from: Winding resistance Current flowing trough the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors. At higher frequencies, skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed, a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. For a given core material, the loss is proportional to the frequency, and is a function of the peak flux density to which it is subjected. Eddy current Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors, and a solid core made from such a material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn trough out its entire length. Eddy currents therefore circulate with in a core in a plane normal to the flux, and are responsible for resistive heating of the core material. The eddy current loss is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and inverse square of the material thickness. Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic material, such as the core, causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with each cycle of the magnetic field, an effect known as magnetostriction. This produces the buzzing sound commonly associated with transformers, and in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible cores. Mechanical losses In addition to magnetostriction, the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic field between primary and secondary windings. These incite vibration with in near by metal work, adding to the

buzzing noise, and consuming a small amount of power. Stray losses Leakage inductance is by itself loss less, since energy supplied to its magnetic fields is returned to the supply with the next half-cycle. However, any leakage flux that intercepts nearby conductive material such as the transformers support structure will give rise to eddy currents and be converted to heat. Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans, oil pumps or water-cooler heat exchangers design to remove heat. Power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer

Rating of transformer Manufactured by Bharat heavy electrical limited No load voltage (hv) - 229 KV No load Voltage (lv) -10.5 KV Line current (hv) - 315.2 A Line current (lv) - 873.2 A Temp rise - 45 Celsius Oil quantity -40180 lit Weight of oil -34985 Kg Total weight - 147725 Kg Core & winding - 84325 Kg Phase - 3 Frequency - 50 Hz

C&I (CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION)


I was assigned to do training in control and instrumentation from 27th June 2011 to 23rd July 2011.

CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION This division basically calibrates various instruments and takes care of any faults occur in any of the auxiliaries in the plant. It has following labs: 1. 2. 3. 4. MANOMETRY LAB INTERLOCK NAD PROTECTION LAB PYROMETRY LAB FURNACE SAFETY AND SUPERVISION SYSTEM

This department is the brain of the plant because from the relays to transmitters followed by the electronic computation chipsets and recorders and lastly the controlling circuitry, all fall under this. MANOMETRY LAB TRANSMITTERS It is used for pressure measurements of gases and liquids, its working principle is that the input pressure is converted into electrostatic capacitance and from there it is conditioned and amplified. It gives an output of 4-20 ma DC. It can be mounted on a pipe or a wall. For liquid or steam measurement transmitters is mounted below main process piping and for gas measurement transmitter is placed above pipe. MANOMETER Its a tube which is bent, in U shape. It is filled with a liquid. This device corresponds to a difference in pressure across the two limbs.

BOURDEN PRESSURE GAUGE Its an oval section tube. Its one end is fixed. It is provided with a pointer to indicate the pressure on a calibrated scale. It is of 2 types: (a) Spiral type: for Low pressure measurement. (b) Helical Type: for High pressure measurement. PROTECTION AND INTERLOCK LAB INTERLOCKING It is basically interconnecting two or more equipments so that if one equipments fails

other one can perform the tasks. This type of interdependence is also created so that equipments connected together are started and shut down in the specific sequence to avoid damage. AN ANNOUCATION SYSTEM is provided with almst all equipments for their safety and protection aftera certain fixed vaue is crossed the announcation starts and also bulbs start flashing to give warning to the operator. Also the systems trips if no action is taken after annoucation and values keep on increasing.. For protection of equipments tripping are provided for all the equipments. Tripping can be considered as the series of instructions connected through OR GATE. When a fault occurs and any one of the tripping is satisfied a signal is sent to the relay, which trips the circuit. The main equipments of this lab are relay and circuit breakers. Some of the instrument uses for protection are: 1. RELAY It is a protective device. It can detect wrong condition in electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities flowing under normal and faulty conditions. Some of the electrical quantities are voltage, current, phase angle and velocity. 2. FUSES It is a short piece of metal inserted in the circuit, which melts when heavy current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit. Usually silver is used as a fuse material because: a) The coefficient of expansion of silver is very small. As a result no critical fatigue occurs and thus the continuous full capacity normal current ratings are assured for the long time. b) The conductivity of the silver is unimpaired by the surges of the current that produces temperatures just near the melting point. c) Silver fusible elements can be raised from normal operating temperature to vaporization quicker than any other material because of its comparatively low specific heat.

MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER They are used with combination of the control circuits to. a) Enable the staring of plant and distributors. b) Protect the circuit in case of a fault. In consists of current carrying contacts, one movable and other fixed. When a fault occurs the contacts separate and are is stuck between them. There are three types of - MANUAL TRIP - THERMAL TRIP - SHORT CIRCUIT TRIP ROTECTION AND INTERLOCK SYSTEM 1. HIGH TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT

For high tension system the control system are excited by separate D.C supply. For starting the circuit conditions should be in series with the starting coil of the equipment to energize it. Because if even a single condition is not true then system will not start. 2. LOW TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT For low tension system the control circuits are directly excited from the 0.415 KV A.C supply. The same circuit achieves both excitation and tripping. Hence the tripping coil is provided for emergency tripping if the interconnection fails.

PYROMETRY LAB 1. LIQUID IN GLASS THERMOMETER Mercury in the glass thermometer boils at 340 degree Celsius which limits the range of temperature that can be measured. It is L shaped thermometer which is designed to reach all inaccessible places. 2. ULTRA VIOLET CENSOR This device is used in furnace and it measures the intensity of ultra violet rays there and according to the wave generated which directly indicates the temperature in the furnace. 3. THERMOCOUPLES This device is based on SEEBACK and PELTIER effect. It comprises of two junctions at different temperature. Then the emf is induced in the circuit due to the flow of electrons. This is an important part in the plant. 4. RTD (RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR) It performs the function of thermocouple basically but the difference is of a resistance. In this due to the change in the resistance the temperature difference is measured. In this lab, also the measuring devices can be calibrated in the oil bath or just boiling water (for low range devices) and in small furnace (for high range devices).

FURNACE SAFETY AND SUPERVISORY SYSTEM This lab has the responsibility of starting fire in the furnace to enable the burning of coal. For first stage coal burners are in the front and rear of the furnace and for the second and third stage corner firing is employed. Unburnt coal is removed using forced draft or induced draft fan. The temperature inside the boiler is 1100 degree Celsius and its height is 18 to 40 m. It is made up of mild steel. An ultra violet sensor is employed in furnace to measure the intensity of ultra violet rays inside the furnace and according to it a signal in

the same order of same mV is generated which directly indicates the temperature of the furnace. For firing the furnace a 10 KV spark plug is operated for ten seconds over a spray of diesel fuel and pre-heater air along each of the feeder-mills. The furnace has six feeder mills each separated by warm air pipes fed from forced draft fans. In first stage indirect firing is employed that is feeder mills are not fed directly from coal but are fed from three feeders but are fed from pulverized coalbunkers. The furnace can operate on the minimum feed from three feeders but under not circumstances should any one be left out under operation, to prevent creation of pressure different with in the furnace, which threatens to blast it.

Control and Instrumentation Control and Instrumentation Measuring Instrumentsments In any process the philosophy of instrumentation should provide a comprehensive intelligence feed back on the important parameters viz. Temperature, Pressure, Level and Flow. This Chapter Seeks to provide a basic understanding of the prevalent instruments used for measuring the above parameters. Temperature Measurement The most important parameter in thermal power plant is temperature and its measurement plays a vital role in safe operation of the plant. Rise of temperature in a substance is due to the resultant increase in molecular activity of the substance on application of heat; which increases the internal energy of the material. Therefore there exists some property of the substance, which changes with its energy content. The change may be observed with substance itself or in a subsidiary system in thermodynamic equilibrium, which is called testing body and the system itself is called the hot body. Expansion Thermometer Solid Rod Thermometers a temperature sensing - Controlling device may be designed incorporating in its construction the principle that some metals expand more than others for the same temperature range. Such a device is the thermostat used with water heaters

Rod Type Thermostat

The mercury will occupy a greater fraction of the volume of the container than it will at a

low temperature. Under normal atmospheric conditions mercury normally boils at a temperature of (347C). To extend the range of mercury in glass thermometer beyond this point the top end of a thermometer bore opens into a bulb which is many times larger in capacity than the bore. This bulb plus the bore above the mercury, is then filled with nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas at a sufficiently high pressure to prevent boiling at the highest temperature to which the thermometer may be used. Mercury in Steel the range of liquid in glass thermometers although quite large, does not lend itself to all industrial practices. This fact is obvious by the delicate nature of glass also the position of the measuring element is not always the best position to read the result. Types of Hg in Steel Thermometers are: Bourdon Tube Most common and simplest type (Refer Fig. 71) Spiral type More sensitive and used where compactness is necessary Helical Type Most sensitive and compact. Pointer may be mounted direct on end of helix Which rotates, thus eliminating backlash and lost motion? Linkages, which only allow the pointer to operate over a selected range of pressure to either side of the normal steam pressure. (Refer Fig No.77) Dewrance Critical Pressure Gauge Measurement of Level Direct Methods Sight Glass' is used for local indication on closed or open vessels. A sight glass is a tube of toughened glass connected at both ends through packed unions and vessel. The liquid level will be the same as that in the vessel. Valves are provided for isolation and blow down. "Float with Gauge Post" is normally used to local indication on closed or open vessels. "Float Operated Dial" is used for small tanks and congested areas. The float arm is connected to a quadrant and pinion which rotates the pointer over a scale. Bourden Pressure Gauge a Bourdon pressure gauge calibrated in any fact head is often connected to a tank at or near the datum level. "Mercury Manometer" is used for remote indication of liquid level. The working principle is the same as that of a manometer one limp of a U-tube is connected to the tank, the other being open to atmosphere. The manometer liquid must not mix with the liquid in the vessel, and where the manometer is at a different level to the vessel, the static head must be allowed in the design of the manometer. 'Diaphragm Type' is used for remote level indication in open tanks or docks etc. A pressure change created by the movement of a diaphragm is proportional to a change in liquid level above the diaphragm. This consists of a cylindrical box with a rubber or plastic diaphragm across its open end as the level increases .the liquid pressure on the

diaphragm increases and the air inside is compressed. This pressure is transmitted via a capillary tube to an indicator or recorder incorporating a pressure Measuring element. Sealed Capsule Type The application and principle is the same as for the diaphragm box. In this type, a capsule filled with an inert gas under a slight pressure is exposed to the pressure due to the head of liquid and is connected by a capillary to an indicator. In some cases the capsule is fitted external to the tank and is so arranged that it can be removed whilst the tank is still full, a spring loaded valve automatically shutting off the tapping point. Air Purge System This system provides the simplest means of obtaining an indication of level, or volume, at a reasonable distance and above or below, the liquid being measured. The pressure exerted inside an open ended tube below the surface of a liquid is proportional to the depth of the liquid The Measurement of Flow Two principle measurements are made by flow meters viz. quantity of flow and rate of flow. 'Quantity of flow' is the quantity of fluid passing a given point in a given time, i.e. gallons or pounds. Rate of flow' is the speed of. a fluid passing a given point at a given instant and is proportional to quantity passing at a given instant, i.e. gallons per minute or pounds per hour. There are two groups of measuring devices: Positive, or volumetric, which measure flow by transferring a measured quantity of fluid from the inlet to the outlet. Inferential, which measures the velocity of the flow and the volume passed is inferred, it being equal to the velocity times the cross sectional area of the flow. The inferential type is the most widely used.

Measurement of Fluid Flow through Pipes: "The Rotating Impeller Type" is a positive type device which is used for medium quantity flow measurement i.e., petroleum and other commercial liquids. It consists of Two fluted rotors mounted in a liquid tight case fluid flow and transmitted to a counter. Rotating Oscillating Piston Type This is also a positive type device and is used for measuring low and medium quantity flows, e.g. domestic water supplies. This consists of a brass meter body into which is fitted a machined brass working chamber and cover, containing a piston made of ebonite. This piston acts as a moving chamber and transfers a definite volume of fluid from the inlet to the outlet for each cycle. Helical Vane Type For larger rates of flow, a helical vane is mounted centrally in the body

of the meter. The helix chamber may be vertical or horizontal and is geared to a counter. Usually of pipe sizes 3" to 10" Typical example is the Kent Torrent Meter. Turbine Type this like the helical Vane type is a inference type of device used for large flows with the minimum of pressure drop. This consists of a turbine or drum revolving in upright bearings, retaining at the top by a collar. Water enters the drum from the top and leaves tangentially casings to rotate at a speed dependent upon the quantity of water passed. The cross sectional area of the meter throughout is equal to the area of the inlet and outlet pipes and is commonly used on direct supply water mains, Combination Meters this is used for widely fluctuating flows. It consists of a larger meter (helical, turbine or fan) in the main with a small rotary meter or suitable type in a bypass. Flow is directed into either the main or bypass according to the quantity of flow by an automatic valve. By this means flows of 45 to 40,000 gallons per hour can be measured. Measurement of Fluid Flow through Open Channels: The Weir If a fluid is allowed to flow over a square weir of notch, The height of the liquid above the still of the weir, or the bottom of the notch will be a measure of the rate of flow.

A formula relates the rate of flow to the height and is dependent upon the design of the Venturi Flumes The head loss caused by the weir flow meter is considerable and its construction is sometimes complicated, therefore the flume is sometimes used. The principle is same as that of venture except that the rate of flow is proportional to the depth of the liquid in the upstream section. It consists of a local contraction in the cross section of flow through a channel in the shape of a venturi. It is only necessary to measure the depth of the upstream section which is a measure of the rate of flow. This may be done by pressure tapping at the datum point or by a float in an adjacent level chamber. Pressure Difference Flow meters These are the most widely used type of flow meter since they are capable of measuring the flow of all industrial fluids passing through pipes. They consists of a primary element inserted in the pipeline which generates a differential pressure, ^he magnitude of which is proportional to the square of the rate of flow and a secondary element which measures this differential pressure and translates it into terms of flow. (Refer fig. 79).