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Tool (a) Straight turning Tool (b) Cutting off
Cutter End mill
(c) Slab milling
(d) End milling
FIGURE 8.1 Some examples of common machining processes.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7
Rough surface Chip Shear plane " to Workpiece (a)
Shiny surface Tool face - + Tool Rake angle V Flank Relief or clearance angle Shear angle
Rough surface Chip Primary shear zone - + " to
Tool face Tool Rake angle Flank V Relief or clearance angle Rough surface
FIGURE 8.2 Schematic illustration of a two-dimensional cutting process, or orthogonal cutting. (a) Orthogonal cutting with a well-deﬁned shear plane, also known as the Merchant model; (b) Orthogonal cutting without a well-deﬁned shear plane.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7
Rake angle, Chip Tool d A Workpiece B A O B (a) (b) C ( - ) ( - ) C Vc Vs (90° - ) V (90° - + )
FIGURE 8.3 (a) Schematic illustration of the basic mechanism of chip formation in cutting. (b) Velocity diagram in the cutting zone.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7
5 Shiny (burnished) surface on the tool side of a continuous chip produced in turning. (d) segmented or nonhomogeneous chip.4 Basic types of chips produced in metal cutting and their micrographs: (a) continuous chip with narrow. (b) secondary shear zone at the tool-chip interface. straight primary shear zone. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. (c) continuous chip with built-up edge. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Secondary shear zones Tool Chip Primary shear Workpiece zone Chip Tool Primary shear zone BUE Types of Chips (a) (b) (c) Low shear strain High shear strain (d) (e) FIGURE 8. . and (e) discontinuous chip. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: After M. Shaw.K. and S. 0-13-227271-7 FIGURE 8. Wright. Kalpakjian. P.C. 5th ed.
(c) Surface ﬁnish on 1018 steel in face milling. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Note that some regions in the built-up edge are as much as three times harder than the bulk workpiece. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Inc. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: Courtesy of Metcut Research Associates.Hardness in Cutting Zone Chip 316 Built-up edge 474 661 588 565 492 588 656 372 306 329 325 289 289 Hardness (HK) (b) 331 286 604 371 418 432 684 383 386 589 656 567 578 306 281 261 466 704 361 289 327 587 281 639 565 704512 704 410 734770655 341 297 409 544 503 231 377 229 317 201 266 251 308 Workpiece 230 (a) (c) FIGURE 8.6 (a) Hardness distribution in the cutting zone for 3115 steel. (b) Surface ﬁnish in turning 5130 steel with a built-up edge.
Radius Positive rake (c) 0° rake FIGURE 8. (b) Chip breaker clamped on the rake face of a cutting tool. Source: After G. 5th ed. Most cutting tools now are inserts with built-in chip-breaker features. Note that the chip breaker decreases the radius of curvature of the chip.Chip Breakers Chip breaker Before Chip After Tool Rake face of tool Clamp Chip breaker Tool Workpiece (a) (b) Rake face FIGURE 8. acting as chip breakers. (c) Grooves on the rake face of cutting tools. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. and (d) chip hits tool shank and breaks off. Pearson Education ISBN No. (a) (b) (c) (d) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b) chip hits workpiece and breaks. Boothroyd.7 (a) Schematic illustration of the action of a chip breaker.8 Various chips produced in turning: (a) tightly curled chip. (c) continuous chip moving radially outward from workpiece. 0-13-227271-7 .
Oblique Cutting z Tool c t a Top view Chip o Chip i o i = 15° a Tool i = 0° y i Workpiece x (a) Workpiece (b) (c) i = 30° FIGURE 8. i. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.9 (a) Schematic illustration of cutting with an oblique tool. (c) Types of chips produced with different inclination angles. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b) Top view. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . showing the inclination angle. 5th ed.
Although these tools have traditionally been produced from solid tool-steel bars. they are now replaced by inserts of carbide or other tool materials of various shapes and sizes. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Right-Hand Cutting Tool Sh Side-rake angle. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. + (BR) Nose radius Flank Side-relief angle Toolholder Clamp screw Clamp Insert Seat or shim Axis End-cutting edge angle (ECEA) Side-cutting edge angle (SCEA) Clearance or end-relief angle Axis (a) (b) FIGURE 8. + (SR) an k Ax is Face Cutting edge Back-rake angle. as shown in (b). Pearson Education ISBN No.10 (a) Schematic illustration of a right-hand cutting tool for turning.
must be collinear to balance the forces.11 (a) Forces acting on a cutting tool in two-dimensional cutting. R.Cutting Forces Tool Chip R F Ft Fc V Ft R Workpiece N Fc Chip V Fs Tool Fs Fn N R F Workpiece FIGURE 8. Merchant. (a) (b) Cutting force wtoτ cos (β − α) Fc = R cos (β − α) = sin φ cos (φ + β − α) Friction coefﬁcient Ft + Fc tan α µ = tan β = Fc − Ft tan α Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Note that the resultant forces. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.E. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. (b) Force circle to determine various forces acting in the cutting zone. Source: After M.
7 45 41.G.81 39 303 168 328 0. Note that at high rake angles.012 Feed (in. A negative thrust force has important implications in the design of machine tools and in controlling the stability of the cutting process. Thomsen.6 40 35.. the thrust force is negative.11 48 360 283 390 0. Pearson Education ISBN No.-lb/in3 Fc (lb) Ft (lb) ×103 ) us uf 380 224 320 209 111 254 102 214 112 102 232 71 195 94 101 232 68 195 75 120 V = 90 ft/min./rev) (N) 15° 400 250 TABLE 8.25 µ β Fc Ft ut 1. Source: After S.1 0.475 in.1 642 21..58 30 384 326 415 0.05 46 370 273 400 1.53 57 1.64 33 416 385 450 0.83 62 in. α +10 V φ γ 197 17 3.1 Data on orthogonal cutting of 4130 steel.4 -10 400 16.7 1186 25 2. α φ ◦ 25 20.Cutting Data mm/rev 200 0 0. tool: cemented carbide. ut (in. 0-13-227271-7 .4 400 19 3.010 0. Kobayashi and E.5 3.. tool: high-speed steel. uf /ut (%) 35 48 52 62 150 10° 100 Ft (lb) 50 20° 25° 0 30° 0 35° 40° 0 2200 0.002 0.2 ! = 5° 0.56 1. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.9◦ 35 31. us 292 266 249 225 342 312 289 uf 108 124 107 103 108 103 96 uf /ut (%) 27 32 30 31 24 25 25 FIGURE 8. w = 0.0025 γ µ β 2.55 1.006 0.5 2.95 44 329 217 356 0.51 27 356 263 385 in.008 0.46 56 1.3 800 TABLE 8.9 637 19 3.06 1..037 in. w = 0. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.9 to = 0.1 to = 0.32 1.54 57 1.5 1160 22 3.2 Data on orthogonal cutting of 9445 steel.12 Thrust force as a function of rake angle and feed in orthogonal cutting of AISI 1112 cold-rolled steel.004 0.
0-13-227271-7 (N) . Thomsen. regardless of the magnitude of the normal stress.13 (a) Shear force and (b) normal force as a function of the area of the shear plane and the rake angle for 85-15 brass. Kobayashi and E. Note that the shear stress in the shear plane is constant.G.000 psi 2 3 4 5 As (in2 x 10-3) (a) 0 6 400 = 20° to 40° 0 1 mm2 2 3 1200 320 280 240 Ft (lb) 800 200 (N) 160 120 80 40 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 As (in2 x 10-3) (b) 6 20° 25 800 30 35 40 400 0 1 mm2 2 3 1200 FIGURE 8. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Source: After S. indicating that the normal stress has no effect on the shear ﬂow stress of the material.Shear Force & Normal Force 320 280 240 200 Fs (lb) 160 120 80 40 0 0 1 = 50. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.
1).4. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note that. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. the shear stress reaches a maximum and remains at that value (a phenomenon known as sticking.Shear Stress on Tool Face Tool face Sliding Tool " Stresses on tool face Tool tip Flank face Sticking ! FIGURE 8.14 Schematic illustration of the distribution of normal and shear stresses at the tool-chip interface (rake face). 5th ed. whereas the normal stress increases continuously toward the tip of the tool. see Section 4. 0-13-227271-7 .
nu mi Alu m 220 210 0 20 10 (! .( 8. 60 (8. Eq . (8. Pearson Education ISBN No.20)] α β φ = 45 + − 2 2 ◦ Mizuno [Eqs.23] φ = α for φ = 15◦ for α > 15◦ α < 15◦ Shaffer [Eq. (8. Kobayashi. # (deg.) 2 Co ppe r FIGURE 8.) Eq . (8.15 (a) Comparison of experimental and theoretical shear-angle relationships.Shear-Angle Relationships 50 Shear angle.") (a) 30 40 50 60 (b) Merchant [Eq. More recent analytical studies have resulted in better agreement with experimental data.21)] φ = 45◦ + α − β Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: After S. 20 ) Mild steel "=0 40 20 0 ! = 10 µ=0 30 0.) 40 30 20 10 0 230 Tin Lead 21 ) # (deg.5 50 1 70 (deg. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .22)-(8. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. (b) Relation between the shear angle and the friction angle for various alloys and cutting speeds.
4-1.5-1.2-3.25 for dull tools.8-9.4 Cast irons 1.15-0.7-9.5 Stainless steels 3. TABLE 8.2 High-temperature alloys 3.6 0.9-6.3 1.0-4.0 Copper alloys 1.2 1.6 1.4 Titanium alloys 3.4-3.1-3. multiply the energy by 1.5 1.5 Refractory alloys 3. 0-13-227271-7 .3 Approximate Speciﬁc-Energy Requirements in Machining Operations Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. corrected for 80% eﬃciency.5 ∗ At drive motor.8 1.5 0.4-0.1-1.0-3. Pearson Education ISBN No.8-2.6-5. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.1 Magnesium alloys 0.6-2.1 1.0-5.Speciﬁc Energy Speciﬁc Energy∗ Material W-s/mm3 hp-min/in3 Aluminum alloys 0.1 0.1-1.15-0.3-8.2 Nickel alloys 4.3 0. 5th ed.9 Steels 2.
8 1.6 0. 0-13-227271-7 Energy (%) FIGURE 8. 400 700 0 .4 0. and chip as a function of the cutting speed. 5th ed. particularly as speed increases. Note that the rake-face temperature is higher than that at the ﬂank surface.2Y f T= ρc 3 V to K FIGURE 8. (b) temperature along the tool-chip interface.18 Proportion of the heat generated in cutting transferred to the tool. Note that most of the cutting energy is carried away by the chip (in the form of heat). workpiece. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Source: After G.1 Typical temperature distribution in the cutting zone.0 Fraction of tool-chip contact length measured in the direction of chip flow (b) (a) 1.) 300 0.048 . Note the severe temperature gradients within the tool and the chip.5 1.0055 in. Source: After B.0 1. Trigger.5 Local temperature at tool-chip interface (°F) 2000 1100 Work material: AISI 52100 Annealed: 188 HB Tool material: K3H carbide Flank surface temperature (°F) 1300 450 400 360 38 °C 130 80 30 Workpiece 300 1000 900 800 200 Feed: 0. l Too ece kpi or W Chip Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials./rev (0.040 .2 0. and that the workpiece is relatively cool.14 mm/rev) 500 1200 1000 800 600 400 0 20 0 500 FIGURE 8.008 .5 600 00 Chip 600 Temperatures in Cutting Temperature (°C) 1400 mm 0 0.T.016 .056 Distance from tool tip (in. Pearson Education ISBN No.032 .Vieregge. Cutting speed °C 0 65 0 Tool V 1200 1100 50 =5 ft/ m i n 550 ft/m in 1800 1600 1400 650 70 0 700 3 900 00 700 600 500 600 . Chao and K.2 Temperature distribution in turning as a function of cutting speed: (a) ﬂank temperature.J.024 .
where f is the feed (in mm/rev or in./rev) and d is the depth of cut. Pearson Education ISBN No. 8. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. See also Fig. and the depth of cut in turning is equivalent to the width of cut in orthogonal cutting. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials./rev) Depth of cut (mm or in.) Chip Tool FIGURE 8. 8. Note that feed in turning is equivalent to the depth of cut in orthogonal cutting (see Fig.Terminology in Turning Feed (mm/rev or in. 5th ed.19 Terminology used in a turning operation on a lathe.2). 0-13-227271-7 .42.
08-0. (d) thermal cracking on rake face. (e) ﬂank wear and built-up edge.Rake face Crater wear depth (KT) Flank wear Rake face Tool R Nose radius Flank wear Crater wear Depth-of-cut line Tool Wear Taylor tool life equation: VBmax VB Flank face Flank face Depth-of-cut line (a) Rake face Flank wear Flank face Rake face Crater wear Flank face VTn = C (b) (c) Thermal cracking BUE Flank face Rake face TABLE 8.1-0. 5th ed.2-0. (a) Flank wear.7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.4 Range of n values for various cutting tools.5-0. Source: Courtesy of Kennametal. (b) crater wear. (c) chipped cutting edge.20 Examples of wear in cutting tools.5 0. 0-13-227271-7 High-speed steels Cast alloys Carbides Ceramics 0. Pearson Education ISBN No. Inc. (d) (e) FIGURE 8. (f) catastrophic failure (fracture).2 0. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.15 0.
21 Effect of workpiece microstructure on tool life in turning.4 he ro id ize d a. e.Effect of Workpiece on Tool Life 120 Tool life (min) 80 40 0 100 300 500 700 900 Cutting speed (ft/min) Hardness (HB) 265 As cast 215 As cast 207 As cast Annealed 183 Annealed 170 Ferrite 20% 40 60 97 100 (a) Pearlite 80% 60 40 3 _ 50 a m/min 100 150 200 250 e b c d Tool life (min) 80 60 40 20 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Cutting speed (ft/min) 90 100 Sp rrite ite-fe Pearl sitic Marten 0. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b) steels. (a) Ductile cast iron. (b) FIGURE 8.1 0. Pearson Education ISBN No. Note in both ﬁgures the rapid decrease in tool life as the cutting speed increases. 5th ed. with identical hardness. 0-13-227271-7 .3 0.2 m/s 0. c. Tool life is given in terms of the time (in minutes) required to reach a ﬂank wear land of a speciﬁed dimension. d. b.
See also Eq.000 300 Cutting speed (ft/min) 1500 1800 2100 2400 Temperature (°F) Work material: Heat-resistant alloy Tool material: Tungsten carbide Tool life criterion: 0. Pearson Education ISBN No. Takeyama and Y. (0. (b) Relationship between measured temperature during cutting and tool life (ﬂank wear). 5th ed. speed variable Speed constant.024 in. Murata. (8.6 0.6 mm) flank wear (b) (a) FIGURE 8.Tool-Life Curves m/min 300 100 Tool life (min) Tool life (min) High-speed steel 50 300 3000 400 200 100 60 40 20 10 6 4 2 1 0. Source: After H. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.2 800 °C 1000 1200 1400 Feed constant.30).22 (a) Tool-life curves for a variety of cutting-tool materials. Note that high cutting temperatures severely reduce tool life. 0-13-227271-7 . feed variable Ce y Cast allo 20 10 5 ram ic n Ca rbid e 1 100 1000 5000 10. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. The negative inverse of the slope of these curves is the exponent n in tool-life equations.
T.16. Trigger and B.15 Chip Flank face Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Compare this pattern with the temperature distribution shown in Fig.23 Relationship between craterwear rate and average tool-chip interface temperature in turning: (a) high-speed-steel tool.3 0.4 0.4 1. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.K.5 0. (c) C5 carbide.500 Crater wear rate (in3/min x 10-6) 20 10 a °C 700 900 b c 1100 mm3/min 0.5 0. (b) C1 carbide. Wright. 0-13-227271-7 FIGURE 8.4 0.15 0. 8. Crater wear TABLE 8.J. . Note that crater wear increases rapidly within a narrow range of temperature.5 Allowable average wear lands for cutting tools in various operations. Operation Turning Face milling End milling Drilling Reaming Allowable Wear Land (mm) High-Speed Steels Carbides 1.4 0.23 Interface of chip (left) and rake face of cutting tool (right) and crater wear in cutting AISI 1004 steel at 3 m/s (585 ft/min).3 0. Source: Courtesy of P.15 Tool Wear Rake face 0 0 800 1200 1600 2000 Average tool-chip interface temperature (°F) FIGURE 8. Source: After K. Chao. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Note how the crater-wear pattern coincides with the discoloration pattern. Discoloration of the tool indicates the presence of high temperature (loss of temper).30 0.
15 ar r we e Crat r wea ank Fl 0. This technique has been developed as a means for continuously and indirectly monitoring wear rate in various cutting processes without interrupting the operation.005 0.004 0. Dornfeld.002 0.S. mm .030 0.040 0. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and acoustic emission (noise generated during cutting) as a function of machining time.050 0.05 0 1000 500 0 10 50 20 30 40 Elapsed machining time (min) 60 FIGURE 8.A. Source: After M.003 0.Acoustic Emission and Wear 1.5 0 Mean RMS (mV) 0. 5th ed.1 0.5 1.25 Relationship between mean ﬂank wear. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 Maximum crater depth mm Mean flank wear in.0 0.020 0. maximum crater wear.001 0 0. Lan and D. in.010 0 1500 0.
05 2 0. especially in turning and boring. shaping Milling Broaching Reaming Turning. 5th ed.8 32 0.20 8 0. boring Drilling Advanced machining Chemical machining Electrical-discharge machining Electron-beam machining Laser machining Electrochemical machining Finishing processes Honing Barrel finishing Electrochemical grinding Grinding Electropolishing Polishing Lapping Superfinishing Average application Less frequent application µm 50 µin.5 Surface Finish FIGURE 8. 9.5 500 6.012 1 0.27). Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. drawing Roller burnishing Machining Planing. 0-13-227271-7 .3 250 3.6 63 0.2 125 1.40 16 0.Roughness (Ra) Process Rough cutting Flame cutting Snagging (coarse grinding) Sawing Casting Sand casting Permanent mold casting Investment casting Die casting Forming Hot rolling Forging Extruding Cold rolling. (See also Fig. 2000 25 1000 12. Note the wide range within each group.025 0.26 Range of surface roughnesses obtained in various machining processes. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.10 4 0.
Note that at small depths of cut. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. the rake angle can effectively become negative.Surfaces in Machining FIGURE 8.27 Surfaces produced on steel in machining. Workpiece Machined surface Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. burnishing it. Source: J. Pearson Education ISBN No. as observed with a scanning electron microscope: (a) turned surface. the tool may simply ride over the workpiece surface. Black and S. and (b) surface produced by shaping. In such cases.28 Schematic illustration of a dull tool in orthogonal cutting (exaggerated). (a) (b) Increasing depth of cut Tool FIGURE 8. 0-13-227271-7 . instead of cutting. Ramalingam.T.
(a) Manganese-sulﬁde inclusions in AISI 1215 steel. Source: Courtesy of Ispat Inland Inc. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Inclusions in Free-Machining Steels (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 8. (c) Manganese sulﬁde with lead particles as tails in AISI 12L14 steel. resulfurized freemachining steels. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) Manganese-sulﬁde inclusions and glassy manganese-silicate-type oxide (dark) in AISI 1215 steel.29 Photomicrographs showing various types of inclusions in low-carbon. 5th ed.
Hardness of Cutting Tools °C 95 90 85 Hardness (HRA) 80 100 300 500 700 Cera mics 70 Ca rb ide s 65 60 55 45 40 35 30 25 20 HRC Ca 75 70 65 60 55 r bo n to Ca ol st a llo ys 50 d pee h-s Hig ste e ls FIGURE 8. els ste 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Temperature (°F) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.30 Hardness of various cutting-tool materials as a function of temperature (hot hardness). Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. The wide range in each group of tool materials results from the variety of compositions and treatments available for that group. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .
1 <1 310-410 45-60 4000-4500 0.36-0. 0-13-227271-7 .14-0.13 95 1300 2400 13 4.31 Volume of hard phase (%) 7-15 Melting or decomposition temperature ◦ C 1300 ◦ F 2370 Thermal conductivity.34-1.Tool Materials TABLE 8.5 are generally lower.5 <5 850 125 3500 0. except impact strength.35-8 in.6 Typical range of properties of various tool materials.000-15.8 Single Crystal Diamond∗ 7000-8000 HK 6900 1000 1350 < 0. W/mK 30-50 Coeﬃcient of thermal expansion.000 0.22 — 1400 2550 17 Ceramics 91-95 HRA 2750-4500 400-650 345-950 50-135 < 0.5-9 6-8. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.79-1.-lb 12-70 Modulus of elasticity GPa 200 6 psi ×10 30 Density kg/m3 8600 3 lb/in 0.34-1.8 — 4-6.24 7-11 310-450 45-65 5500-5800 0.29-0.2 <2 820-1050 120-150 3500 0.35 3-12 520-690 75-100 10.5 7. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Carbides Property Hardness Compressive strength MPa 4100-4500 3 psi ×10 600-650 Transverse rupture strength MPa 2400-4800 3 psi ×10 350-700 Impact strength J 1. ×10−6 /◦ C 12 ∗ The values for polycrystalline diamond High-Speed Steel 83-86 HRA Cast Alloys 82-84 HRA 1500-2300 220-335 1380-2050 200-300 0.13 95 700 1300 500-2000 1.31 10-20 — — — WC 90-95 HRA 4100-5850 600-850 1050-2600 150-375 0.54 70-90 1400 2550 42-125 TiC 91-93 HRA 3100-3850 450-560 1380-1900 200-275 0.16 100 2000 3600 29 Cubic Boron Nitride 4000-5000 HK 6900 1000 700 105-200 < 0.2-0. which is higher. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.25 3-11 — — 8000-8700 0.5-4.
31 Effect of cobalt content in tungsten-carbide tools on mechanical properties.5 1250 85. compressive and transverserupture strength (kg/mm2) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 sv ra n T e rs HRA 92.4 1750 88. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note that hardness is directly related to compressive strength (see Section 2.6)]. (4.8) and hence.7 1000 750 t ur e e . inversely to wear [see Eq. 0-13-227271-7 Vickers hardness (HV) Co mp res sive Ha stre r dn ngth es s 90.Properties of Tungsten-Carbide Tools Wear (mg).5 1500 .ru p s t r e n gt h r Wea 0 5 10 15 20 25 Cobalt content (% by weight) 500 30 FIGURE 8. Pearson Education ISBN No.6. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and (b) wing lockpins. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: Courtesy of Valenite.Inserts Toolholder Clamp screw Clamp Insert Seat or shim (a) Insert Lockpin Seat Shank (b) (c) FIGURE 8.32 Methods of mounting inserts on toolholders: (a) clamping. which are secured with side screws. Pearson Education ISBN No. (c) Examples of inserts mounted using threadless lockpins.
Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Negative with land and hone Positive with hone Negative with land Negative honed Negative sharp Positive sharp Increasing edge strength FIGURE 8. 5th ed.34 Edge preparations for inserts to improve edge strength. Source: Courtesy of Kennametal. Source: Courtesy of Kennametal. 0-13-227271-7 . Strength refers to that of the cutting edge shown by the included angles. Inc.Insert Strength Increasing strength 100° 90° 80° 60° 55° 35° Increased chipping and breaking FIGURE 8.33 Relative edge strength and tendency for chipping and breaking of inserts with various shapes. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Inc.
Source: After Sandvik Coromant. Note that.35 Relative time required to machine with various cutting-tool materials. machining time has been reduced by two orders of magnitude. with indication of the year the tool materials were introduced. within one century.7 0.5 High-speed steel Cast cobalt-based alloys Cemented carbides Improved carbide grades First coated grades First double-coated grades First triple-coated grades Functionally graded triple-coated 1900 !10 !20 !30 !40 !50 !60 !70 !80 !90 !00 Year FIGURE 8. Pearson Education ISBN No.5 1 0. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Historical Tool Improvement 100 Carbon steel Machining time (min) 26 15 6 3 1. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. FIGURE 8.37 Multiphase coatings on a tungsten-carbide substrate.36 Wear patterns on high-speed-steel uncoated and titanium-nitride-coated cutting tools.Coated Tools Rake face Tool TiN coated Uncoated TiN TiC + TiN Al2O3 TiN Al2O3 TiN Al2O3 TiC + TiN Carbide substrate Flank wear FIGURE 8. Inserts with as many as 13 layers of coatings have been made. Coating thicknesses are typically in the range of 2 to 10 µm. Note that ﬂank wear is lower for the coated tool. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Three alternating layers of aluminum oxide are separated by very thin layers of titanium nitride. Source: Courtesy of Kennametal. 5th ed. Inc. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.
.1 through 8.38 Ranges of properties for various groups of cutting-tool materials.Properties of Cutting Tool Materials Diamond.) Tungsten-carbide insert Braze Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride or diamond layer Carbide substrate Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. cubic boron nitride Hot hardness and wear resistance Aluminum oxide (HIP) Aluminum oxide + 30% titanium carbide Silicon nitride Cermets Coated carbides Carbides HSS Strength and toughness FIGURE 8. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. (See also Tables 8. 0-13-227271-7 FIGURE 8.39 Construction of polycrystalline cubicboron-nitride or diamond layer on a tungsten-carbide insert.5.
requires skilled labor. labor skill required depends on hole location and accuracy speciﬁed. versatile.13 Skiving: 0. Variety of shapes involving contours.05 0. Internal surfaces or proﬁles.025 Boring Drilling 0. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. requires skilled labor. and slots.15 Sawing 0.Characteristics of Machining Process Turning Characteristics Turning and facing operations are performed on all types of materials.08-0. low production rate. 5th ed.25 Planing 0. Pearson Education ISBN No. high production rate. wide variety of tooling.7 General characteristics of machining processes. Flat surfaces and straight contour proﬁles on relatively small workpieces. low production rate. ﬂat surfaces. Straight and contour cuts on ﬂats or structural shapes. costly tooling. requires only low skilled labor. labor skill required depends on part shape. high production rate.05-0. labor skill required depends on part shape. labor skill required depends on part shape. requires boring and reaming for improved accuracy.025-0.13-0.025-0. suitable for low-quantity production. but medium to high rates can be achieved with turret lathes and automatic machines. low to medium production rate. requiring less skilled labor. stiﬀness of boring bar is important to avoid chatter.13 Broaching 0. and contours with good surface ﬁnish. Flat surfaces and straight contour proﬁles on large surfaces. External and internal ﬂat surfaces. not suitable for hard materials unless the saw has carbide teeth or is coated with diamond. 0-13-227271-7 . Commercial tolerances (±mm) Fine: 0. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Round holes of various sizes and depths. suitable for low-quantity production. slots.8 TABLE 8.075 Milling 0. with characteristics similar to those produced by turning.13 Shaping 0.13 Rough: 0.05-0.
5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Depth of cut Feed. Pearson Education ISBN No.40 Variety of machining operations that can be performed on a lathe. f Tool (b) Taper turning (c) Profiling Lathe Operations (a) Straight turning (d) Turning and external grooving (e) Facing (f) Face grooving (g) Cutting with a form tool (h) Boring and internal grooving (i) Drilling Workpiece (j) Cutting off (k) Threading (l) Knurling FIGURE 8. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.
Tool Angles Side rake angle (RA) Back rake angle (BRA) End cutting-edge angle (ECEA) Rake face Wedge angle Shank Nose radius Nose angle Side relief angle (SRA) (a) End view End relief angle (ERA) Flank face Side cutting-edge angle (SCEA) (c) Top view FIGURE 8. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .19. 8. as shown in Fig. 5th ed.41 Designations and symbols for a right-hand cutting tool. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.8 General recommendations for tool angles in turning. (b) Side view Material Aluminum and magnesium alloys Copper alloys Steels Stainless steels High-temperature alloys Refractory alloys Titanium alloys Cast irons Thermoplastics Thermosets Back rake 20 5 10 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 High-speed steel Side End Side Side and end rake relief relief cutting edge 15 10 12 8-10 10 20 5 10 0 0 12 8 5 5 5 5 5 5 20-30 20-30 10 8 5 5 5 5 5 5 15-20 15-20 5 5 15 15 15 5 15 15 10 10 Back rake 0 0 -5 -5-0 5 0 -5 -5 0 0 Side rake 5 5 -5 -5-5 0 0 -5 -5 0 15 Carbide inserts End Side Side and end relief relief cutting edge 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 20-30 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 15-20 5 15 15 15 15 45 15 5 15 10 15 TA B L E 8. The designation “right hand” means that the tool travels from right to left. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.
Ft is the thrust or feed force (in the direction of feed). f Tool (b) FIGURE 8. showing depth of cut. Fc is the cutting force. Pearson Education ISBN No. Cutting speed is the surface speed of the workpiece at the tool tip. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and Fr is the radial force that tends to push the tool away from the workpiece being machined.11 for a two-dimensional cutting operation.42 (a) Schematic illustration of a turning operation. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. f. 8. d. f (a) Feed. and feed. Compare this ﬁgure with Fig. (b) Forces acting on a cutting tool in turning.Turning Operations N Workpiece Do N Fc Ft Fr d Chuck Df Tool Feed. 5th ed.
030 FIGURE 8. are generally in the range of 0.10 3000 2000 Cutting speed (ft/min) mm/rev 0. 0-13-227271-7 .004 Uncoated carbides 0.008 0. The higher ranges are for coated carbides and cermets.9 Approximate Ranges of Recommended Cutting Speeds for Turning Operations Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.30 0. and 600 ceramics 1000 Cermets Coated carbides 300 m/min 150 100 50 500 300 200 0. f .50 0.).Cutting Speeds for Turning 0. 900 Cubic boron nitride. Pearson Education ISBN No.0060.75 Cutting Speed Workpiece Material m/min ft/min Aluminum alloys 200-1000 650-3300 Cast iron.43 The range of applicable cutting speeds and feeds for a variety of cutting-tool materials.5 in. diamond. d./rev) 0. gray 60-900 200-3000 Copper alloys 50-700 160-2300 High-temperature alloys 20-400 65-1300 Steels 50-500 160-1600 Stainless steels 50-300 160-1000 Thermoplastics and thermosets 90-240 300-800 Titanium alloys 10-100 30-330 Tungsten alloys 60-150 200-500 Note: (a) The speeds given in this table are for carbides and ceramic cutting tools.020. (b) Depths of cut. (c) Feeds. Speeds for diamond tools are signiﬁcantly higher than any of the values indicated in the table./rev).5-12 mm (0. are generally in the range of 0.040 in. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.15-1 mm/rev (0. TABLE 8.20 0.012 Feed (in. 5th ed.020 0. Speeds for high-speed-steel tools are lower than indicated.
showing various major components. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: Courtesy of Heidenreich & Harbeck. Pearson Education ISBN No.44 General view of a typical lathe.Lathe Tool post Spindle (with chuck) Headstock assembly Spindle speed selector Cross slide Clutch Feed selector Apron Split nut Feed rod Chip pan Clutch Compound rest Carriage Ways Dead center Tailstock quill Tailstock assembly Handwheel Longitudinal & transverse feed control Bed Lead screw FIGURE 8.
(b) a typical turret equipped with ten cutting tools. 0-13-227271-7 .CNC Lathe CNC unit Chuck Round turret for OD operations Drill Multitooth cutter Tool for turning or boring Reamer Individual motors Drill End turret for ID operations Tailstock (a) (b) FIGURE 8. these machines have higher power and spindle speed than other lathes in order to take advantage of advanced cutting tools with enhanced properties.45 (a) A computer-numerical-control lathe. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. with two turrets. some of which are powered. Pearson Education ISBN No.
46 Typical parts made on computer-numerical-control machine tools.938") 85. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.8 mm (2") 23.462") 98.375") 32 threads per in.092") Material: Titanium alloy Number of tools: 7 Total machining time (two operations): 5.4 mm (2.876") 67.25 minutes (a) Housing base Material: 52100 alloy steel Number of tools: 4 Total machining time (two operations): 6. 5th ed.6 mm (9.094") Material: 1020 Carbon Steel Number of tools: 8 Total machining time (two operations): 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.9 mm (3.32 minutes (b) Inner bearing race 53.8 mm (0.2 mm (2.4 mm (3.41 minutes (c) Tube reducer FIGURE 8.5 mm (3.Typical CNC Parts 87.7 mm (3. 78.654") 235.275") 50. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Typical Production Rates Operation Rate Turning Engine lathe Very low to low Tracer lathe Low to medium Turret lathe Low to medium Computer-control lathe Low to medium Single-spindle chuckers Medium to high Multiple-spindle chuckers High to very high Boring Very low Drilling Low to medium Milling Low to medium Planing Very low Gear cutting Low to medium Broaching Medium to high Sawing Very low to low Note: Production rates indicated are relative: Very low is about one or more parts per hour. TABLE 8.10 Typical production rates for various cutting operations. 0-13-227271-7 . medium is approximately 100 parts per hour. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. very high is 1000 or more parts per hour.
5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.47 Schematic illustration of the components of a vertical boring mill. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Boring Mill Cross-rail Tool head Workpiece Work table Bed Column FIGURE 8.
Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. and because chips tend to break up easily. 5th ed.49 Various types of drills and drilling operations. . (b) Crankshaft drills.Drills Tang Taper shank Point angle Drill diameter Tang drive Body diameter clearance Flutes Helix angle Neck Straight shank Shank length Flute length Body Overall length (a) Chisel-point drill Margin Lip Lip-relief angle Chisel-edge angle Clearance diameter Shank diameter Web Chisel edge d an L FIGURE 8. Drills with chip-breaker features are also available.48 Two common types of drills: (a) Chisel-point drill. Pearson Education ISBN No. they are suitable for producing deep holes. The function of the pair of margins is to provide a bearing surface for the drill against walls of the hole as it penetrates into the workpiece. 0-13-227271-7 FIGURE 8. These drills have good centering ability. Drills with four margins (double-margin) are available for improved drill guidance and accuracy. Countersinking Counterboring Center drilling Core drilling Step drilling (b) Crankshaft-point drill Gun drilling Reaming Drilling High-pressure coolant Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.
007) 2100-4300 250-500 Titanium alloys 6-20 20-60 0. Selection of speeds and feeds also depends on the speciﬁc surface ﬁnish required.) (0.001) 0.000 800-3000 Magnesium alloys 45-120 150-400 0.000 500-1500 Thermoplastics 30-60 100-200 0.005) 6400-12.) Aluminum alloys 30-120 100-400 0.060 in.13 (0.001) 0.025 (0.) (0.000 400-1500 Steels 20-30 60-100 0.Speeds and Feeds in Drilling Feed.012) 4300-12.18 (0.5 in. 5th ed.001) 0.060 in.000 1100-3000 Copper alloys 15-60 50-200 0. TABLE 8.001) 0.012) 6400-25.010) 3200-12.004) 4300-12.001) 0. speeds and feeds should be reduced.001) 0.30 (0.001) 0.010 (0.25 (0./rev) Spindle speed (rpm) Drill Diameter Drill Diameter Workpiece 1.10 (0.012) 9600-25. Pearson Education ISBN No.30 (0. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.000 800-1500 Thermosets 20-60 60-200 0.0004) 0.025 (0.025 (0. 0-13-227271-7 . Surface Speed Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.30 (0.5 mm Material m/min ft/min (0.012) 4300-6400 500-800 Stainless steels 10-20 40-60 0.006) 1300-4300 150-500 Cast irons 20-60 60-200 0.025 (0.11 General recommendations for speeds and feeds in drilling.30 (0.000 500-1500 Note: As hole depth increases.025 (0. mm/rev (in.5 in.15 (0.001) 0.) (0.025 (0.5 mm 12.5 mm 12.5 mm 1.025 (0.025 (0.
0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.50 Terminology for a helical reamer. Primary relief angle FIGURE 8. Heel Cutting edge Flute Hook angle (a) (b) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Chamfer angle Land Chamfer relief Tap Nut Rake angle FIGURE 8. Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) illustration of tapping of steel nuts in high production.51 (a) Terminology for a tap.Reamers and Taps Chamfer angle Chamfer length Radial rake Margin width Chamfer relief Land width Helix angle.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.10.52 Typical parts and shapes produced by the machining processes described in Section 8. Pearson Education ISBN No.Typical Machined Parts (a) (b) Stepped cavity (c) Drilled and tapped holes (d) (e) (f) FIGURE 8. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.
v. (c) Schematic illustration of cutter travel distance. lc. to reach full depth of cut. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. d.Conventional and Climb Milling D Cutter tc N f v Workpiece Conventional Climb milling milling (a) (b) lc d D d Cutter v Workpiece l (c) FIGURE 8. feed per tooth. (b) Slab-milling operation.53 (a) Illustration showing the difference between conventional milling and climb milling. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. f. 0-13-227271-7 . showing depth of cut. 5th ed. tc and workpiece speed. chip depth of cut. Pearson Education ISBN No.
lc Insert f Workpiece v D l d Cutter w lc Cutter Machined surface f Workpiece v l v w
FIGURE 8.54 Face-milling operation showing (a) action of an insert in face milling; (b) climb milling; (c) conventional milling; (d) dimensions in face milling.
End cutting-edge angle Corner angle
Peripheral relief (radial relief)
Axial rake, 1
FIGURE 8.55 Terminology for a facemilling cutter.
End relief (axial relief)
Radial rake, 2
Insert Undeformed chip thickness Depth of cut, d f Feed per tooth, f Lead angle
FIGURE 8.56 The effect of lead angle on the undeformed chip thickness in face milling. Note that as the lead angle increases, the undeformed chip thickness (and hence the thickness of the chip) decreases, but the length of contact (and hence the width of the chip) increases. Note that the insert must be sufﬁciently large to accommodate the increase in contact length.
FIGURE 8.57 (a) Relative position of the cutter and the insert as it ﬁrst engages the workpiece in face milling, (b) insert positions at entry and exit near the end of cut, and (c) examples of exit angles of the insert, showing desirable (positive or negative angle) and undesirable (zero angle) positions. In all ﬁgures, the cutter spindle is perpendicular to the page.
Re-entry Exit Cutter Milled surface
Desirable Cutter (a) (b) (c)
(a) Straddle milling
(b) Form milling
Cutting Speed Workpiece Material m/min ft/min Aluminum alloys 300-3000 1000-10,000 Cast iron, gray 90-1300 300-4200 Copper alloys 90-1000 300-3300 High-temperature alloys 30-550 100-1800 Steels 60-450 200-1500 Stainless steels 90-500 300-1600 Thermoplastics and thermosets 90-1400 300-4500 Titanium alloys 40-150 130-500 Note: (a) These speeds are for carbides, ceramic, cermets, and diamond cutting tools. Speeds for high-speed-steel tools are lower than those indicated in this table. (b) Depths of cut, d, are generally in the range of 1-8 mm (0.04-0.3 in.). (c) Feeds per tooth, f , are generally in the range of 0.08-0.46 mm/rev (0.003-0.018 in./rev).
FIGURE 8.58 Cutters for (a) straddle milling; (b) form milling; (c) slotting; and (d) slitting operations.
TABLE 8.12 Approximate range of recommended cutting speeds for milling operations.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Boothroyd. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: After G.59 (a) Schematic illustration of a horizontal-spindle column-and-knee-type milling machine.Milling Machines Head Overarm Column Arbor Column Workpiece T-slots Work table Saddle Workpiece Saddle T-slots Knee Base Work table Knee Base (a) (b) FIGURE 8. 5th ed. (b) Schematic illustration of a vertical-spindle column-and-knee-type milling machine. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.
The heavy lines indicate broached surfaces.60 (a) Typical parts ﬁnished by internal broaching. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Inc. (c) a vertical broaching machine. (c) Courtesy of Ty Miles. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Broaching (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 8. Source: (a) and (b) Courtesy of General Broach and Engineering Company. Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) Parts ﬁnished by surface broaching. 0-13-227271-7 .
Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) Terminology for a broach.61 (a) Cutting action of a broach.Broaches Rake or hook angle Chip gullet Pitch Land Backoff or clearance angle Tooth depth Cut per tooth Workpiece (a) FIGURE 8.62 Terminology for a pull-type internal broach. Root radius (b) Semifinishing teeth Front pilot Roughening teeth Finishing teeth Pull end Rear pilot Follower diameter FIGURE 8. Root diameter Shank length Cutting teeth Overall length Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. showing various features. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. typically used for enlarging long holes.
0-13-227271-7 .64 (a) High-speed-steel teeth welded on a steel blade. (b) Carbide inserts brazed to blade teeth.Saws and Saw Teeth Back edge Tooth spacing Tooth face Tooth back (flank) Tooth back clearance angle Gullet depth Tooth rake angle (positive) Raker tooth Tooth set Straight tooth Width FIGURE 8. Wave tooth (a) (b) M2 HSS 64-66 HRC Electron-beam weld FIGURE 8. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.63 (a) Terminology for saw teeth. staggered to provide clearance for the saw blade to prevent binding during sawing. (a) Carbide insert Flexible alloy-steel backing (b) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b) Types of saw teeth. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.
65 (a) Schematic illustration of gear generating with a pinion-shaped gear cutter. (c) Gear generating with a rack-shaped cutter. using a pinion-shaped cutter. (c) (d) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. DeGarmo. (b) Schematic illustration of gear generating in a gear shaper.P. (d) Three views of gear cutting with a hob. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. note that the cutter reciprocates vertically. Source: After E. 0-13-227271-7 .Gear cutter Base circle Pitch circle Cutter spindle Spacer Gear blank Pinion-shaped cutter Gear blank (b) Gear teeth Gear Manufacture Pitch circle (a) Base circle Top view Gear blank Hob Rack-shaped cutter Hob Gear blank Gear blank FIGURE 8. 5th ed.
Note that the machine has two spindle heads and three turret heads. each with its own holder. making the machine tool very ﬂexible in its capabilities. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.66 A horizontal-spindle machining center.Machining Centers Tool storage Tools (cutters) Tool-interchange arm Traveling column Spindle Spindle carrier Computer numerical-control panel Index table Pallets Bed FIGURE 8. Pearson Education ISBN No. Ltd. 1st Turret head 2nd Turret head 1st Spindle head FIGURE 8.. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.67 Schematic illustration of a computer numerical-controlled turning center. Tool magazines in such machines can store as many as 200 cutting tools. 2nd Spindle head 3rd Turret head Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: Courtesy of Hitachi Seiki Co. equipped with an automatic tool changer. Source: Courtesy of Cincinnati Machine.
capable of accommodating workpieces of different shapes and sizes. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.68 Schematic illustration of a reconﬁgurable modular machining center. Koren. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Reconﬁgurable Machines Magazine unit Rotational motion Arm unit Functional unit Rotational motion Linear motion Linear motion Bed unit Base unit Arm unit FIGURE 8. and requiring different machining operations on their various surfaces. Source: After Y.
0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Source: After Y. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.69 Schematic illustration of assembly of different components of a reconﬁgurable machining center. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Koren.Reconﬁgurable Machining Center (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 8.
Cutting off finished part. Internal grooving with a radius-form tool Form tool Bearing race 6. inclined bar picks up bearing race 4. Finish boring of internal groove and rough boring of internal diameter 5.Machining of Bearing Races Tube Form tool 1. Finish turning of outside diameter 2. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Internal grooving with form tool and chamfering FIGURE 8. Boring and grooving on outside diameter 3. 5th ed.70 Sequences involved in machining outer bearing races on a turning center. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.
showing its major components. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology.Hexapod Hexapod legs Spindle Cutting tool Workpiece (a) (b) FIGURE 8. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. (b) Closeup view of the cutting tool and its head in a hexapod machining center.71 (a) A hexapod machine tool.
4 20.4 -0.0 -0.6 22.4 0.8 21.0 1.0 20.0 10-1 V 10-1 V FIGURE 8. Joints dissipate energy. the higher the damping. Cast iron 0 1000 2000 10-5 s (a) 3000 4000 Epoxy/graphite 0 1000 2000 10-5 s (b) 3000 4000 FIGURE 8.72 Chatter marks (right of center of photograph) on the surface of a turned part. 0-13-227271-7 .73 Relative damping capacity of (a) gray cast iron and (b) epoxy-granite composite material.2 21.2 0. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.6 -2.4 0. 5th ed.8 0.2 0. Increasing damping Bed only Bed + carriage Bed + headstock Bed + carriage + headstock Complete machine FIGURE 8. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Chatter & Vibration 1.8 0. Peters. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: After J. Source: Courtesy of General Electric Company.74 Damping of vibrations as a function of the number of components on a lathe.8 -1. thus. The vertical scale is the amplitude of vibration and the horizontal scale is time.2 -1. the greater the number of joints.
Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. The range between the two optimum speeds is known as the high-efﬁciency machining range. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note that there is an optimum cutting speed for both cost and time.Total cost Cost per piece Machining cost Tool-change cost Nonproductive cost Tool cost Cutting speed (a) High-efficiency machining range Machining Economics Time per piece Total time Machining time Tool-changing time Nonproductive time Cutting speed (b) FIGURE 8. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. respectively. and (b) time per piece in machining.75 Qualitative plots showing (a) cost per piece.
(b) CAD model of rough machining of the putter outer surface. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Case Study: Ping Golf Putters FIGURE 8. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . (c) rough machining on a vertical machining center. Pearson Education ISBN No. the operation was paused to take the photo. Inc.76 (a) The Ping Anser® golf putter. Source: Courtesy of Ping Golf. as normally the cutting zone is ﬂooded with a coolant. (d) machining of the lettering in a vertical machining center. 5th ed.
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