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The successful implementation of SMAP would not have been possible without the support and efforts of the Utah Copper Division Smelter Maintenance Department and Plant
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A New Launder Design Procedure
H. R. Green, D. M. Lamb, and A. D. Taylor
The design of slurry launders has usually been based on strictly empirical concepts. An examination of the most common procedures reveals that they do not account for many of the variables that are recognized as significant for slurry transport. These may include flow rate, volume concentration of solids, solids specific gravity, solids size distribution, particle shape, launder geometry, and roughnes of the wetted surface. It was decided to develop a design procedure, which would accomplish two things: First: Take into consideration most of the known significant variables and systematize the procedure to assure
consistent results. Second: Provide a rational basis for examining and utilizing operating data to refine and improve the system. To accomplish this, it was necessary to develop a basic design concept. This concept has been developed through a complex development history, and yet still appears workable and technically sound. That concept may be outlined as follows: First: The solids transport velocity is the fundamental basis for slurry launder design. Second: The stream configuration, hence the launder size, is integrated with the solids transport velocity so that the actual stream velocity exceeds the solids transport velocity. Third: The launder slope is that which will achieve the
Lamb. Many papers have been published regarding the apparent viscosity of solid-liquid suspensions. A nomograph. feet. which is rationally preferable to the Manning equation. is Engineering Supervisor.l was developed to determine the solids transport velocity. Discussion of this paper must be submitted. The above equation was solved for "k" and a tabulation of " k" values for various "n" and "R" values was produced on the HP9820A calculator. based on data given in Taggart's Handbook of Mineral Dressing.. and Ushaped launders. and ~ 0 1 1 0 ~ 5 produced curves for other particle sizes. The solids t r a n s y t velocity E q 1 was derived from an equation by Camp. It was planned to utilize a "slope adjustment factor" to increase the slope to compensate for the apparent viscosity of the slurry. Specifically. On the basis of these data and from examination of several other curves for apparent viscosity of solid-liquid suspensions. 1978. This failure was principally due to the complex relationship of viscosity to the required slope. Errors introduced by this assumption are minimal. These. the symbols and units in Table 2. The resulting mathematics require iterative solutions for several of the unknowns. Flgure I APPARENT VISCOSITY OF SLURRY MINING ENGINEERS MINING ENGINEERING 121 1 . Camp's equation was for the self-cleaning or sediment transport velocity in sewers. 1977.required actual stream velocity. Manuscript. A. For any particular hydraulic radius a correlation exists between the Manning "n" and the roughness value "k". The equations used are shown in Table 1. S. The apparent viscosity-volume concentration curve resulting from Thomas's work is used by many designers of slurry pipe lines where the particle size distribution is controlled. passing). Member SME. All attempts to develop a suitable correction factor failed. is Engineering Specialist. Army Engineers in 1964.6 The mathematical relationship given in the above paper is as follows: n = Manning roughness coefficient. San Francisco. prior to November 30. It was originally planned to utilize a series of charts and nomographs for the design procedure. CO. in duplicate. The necessity of reference to the Moody curves for the Darcy friction factor is avoided by using the Colebrook and white3 equation. It was then decided to revise the entire approach. ~ h o m a s 4 correlated data from a large number of investigators. Bechtel Corporation. D. The mathematical treatment employed in this correlation reduced the scatter considerablv and minimized the effect of particle size and shape. feet. The experimental data which formed the basis of these papers exhibit considerable scatter even though the experiments were carefully conducted. Effective roughness values. also. rectangular. Preprint 78816. CA. The intermediate curves were developed as a function of the ratio of increased particle surface area as the particles became smaller. Further data from a USBM paper by Schack. M.183 m would apply to launder sizes most likely to be encountered. In accordance with the Postal Service Regulations. for various launder surfaces was derived from a family of curves published by the U. k = Effective roughness. The velocity thus determined was used with Manning charts to determine the launder slope and configuration as though the fluid were water. The equation as H. A family of curves between the adjusted Thomas curve for 320 micrometer particles and the curve for 20 micrometer particles was then constructed. the present procedure is based on the DarcyWeisbach flow equation. It is assumed an average hydraulic radius of 0. Green. AlME Annual Meeting. This adjusted curve was assumed to apply to suspensions having panicles averaging 320 micrometers (50% wt. Denver. Taylor. An apparent viscosity-volume concentration curve for suspensions of 20 micrometer panicles was produced from unpublished data. R = Hydraulic radius. D. Member SME. Table 3. These curves are shown in the Fig. The shape of this curve was similar to Thomas's but exhibited a steeper slope as the concentration increased. R. November 3. Dean. Published "n" values for various types of surfaces and the derived n-k correlation resulted in the approximate "k" values shown in Table 3. is Chief Metallurgical Engineer. Mathematics The discussion which follows concerns the mathematical basis of the launder design procedure for pipe. D. 1 and are used to determine the apparent viscosity of the slurry. this material has been assessed a page charge and is considered advertisement for postal purposes. Member SME. the Thomas curve was adjusted to accelerate the slope increase as the solids concentration becomes greater. The camp2 equation is used for the solids transport velocity. February 1978. G. had slopes steeper than the Thomas curve in the high concentration region.
is developed from the stream geometry and the definition of hydraulic radius. Rectangular. n> 0. and U-Shaped Equation -- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 m m m 13 14 15 m - mlm 16 17 18 mls 1212 AUGUST 1978 SOCIETY OF . The equations listed are derived from the stream geometry and the definition of mean hydraulic depth. g = Acceleration of gravity. dimensionless. f = Darcy friction factor. 2 through 5.04. L f & & I mls mls mls mls mls m m m m Launder S h a ~ Pipe. n S 0.2 S = Specific gravity of particles. the flow is said to be supercritical. Eq.5 U-Shaped. Rectangular. 16 and 18. Eq. The mean hydraulic depth. L. Hydraulic radius. S..5 Pipe. 8 . When constant "B" is 0 . n S 0. 10 through 13. when constant "B" is 0.5 Pipe Rectangular U-Shaped. n> 0. When flow velocities are close to the wave velocity. The Darcy-Weisbach friction factor is usually determined by reference to a family of curves based on the work of F. Dg = Particle diameter. and U-Shaped Pipe. and U-Shaped Pipe. Launders should never be designed with Froude numbers near one. n> 0. Rectangular and U-shaped Pipe Rectangular U-Shaped. 6 through 9. For more efficient use of programmed calculators and computers. when equal to one it is critical. The mean hydraulic depth is equal to the area of the stream cross-section divided by the width at the water surface. respectively. Rectangular. L = Pipe length. D = Pipe diameter. ft/sec. is used to calculate the Darcy friction factor. the Colebrook and White equation. Four times the hydraulic radius is substituted for diameter to adapt the equation to open-channel flow. disturbances can cause extreme wave action and large variations of flow depth.originally expressed by Camp was as follows: V = Velocity. Slope and velocity. Continuity velocity.5 U-Shaped. n S 0. The solids transport velocity in this paper uses 0 . are derived directly from the Darcy-Weisbach flow formula. feet. and U-Shaped Pipe. Eq. When the Froude number is greater than one. Rectangular. Moody. B = Particle motion constant. 14.5 Pipe Rectangular U-Shaped. The Darcy-Weisbach flow equation is usually stated: h = @ C ! D2g in consistent units h = Head low. Eq. Camp stated that.5 U-Shaped. is used to calculate the Froude number. f = Darcy friction factor. TABLE 1 EQUATIONS Equation Number 1 Description Solids Transport Velocity Continuity Velocity Continuity Velocity Continuity Velocity Continuity Velocity Hydraulic Radius Hydraulic Radius Hydraulic Radius Hydraulic Radius Mean Hydraulic Depth Mean Hydraulic Depth Mean Hydraulic Depth Mean Hydraulic Depth Froude Number Darcy Friction Factor Launder Slope Reynolds Number Velocity as a function of R. Rectangular. is the ratio of the flow velocity to the velocity of elementary free-surface waves. and when less than one it is subcritical flow. the calculated velocity is that which will start motion of the particles. Eq. The Froude number. and U-Shaped Pipe. dimensionless. Eq. ft/sec. 8 as the particle motion constant. the calculated velocity is that which will achieve adequate self-cleaning in sewers. dimensionless. V = Flow velocity: g = Acceleration of gravity. 15. is derived from the fundamental continuity equation Q = VA and the geometry of the stream crow section.
This 15% safety margin is estimated to cover input data inaccuracies and launder construction variation. as in many fluid flow problems. This initial set of data is used as a reference or starting point for the eventual design. plain Vitrified clay tile k. velocity. Procedure The initial launder size is calculated so that the continuity (design) velocity is 1. and physical dimensions may satisfy the requirements of a particular problem.001350 . Meters . it is appropriate to consider the limitations of such a basis. Discussion Having selected the mathematical basis for the flow calculations. TABLE 3 AVERAGE EFFECTIVE ROUGHNESS Launder Material Concrete pipe: Lined Unlined Asbestos-cement pipe Clay drain tile. This launder design system specifies that the Reynolds number must be greater than 5000 and that the Froude number must not be between 0.Reynolds number.002292 .000728 Description rad m m m Arc Cosine Launder diameter Particle diameter Mean hydraulic depth o flow f Froude number Darey-Weisbach friction factor Acceleration of gravity (9. Following a satisfactory slope selection. For pipe launders the flow-depth-to-diameter ratio must be less than one. the effect of varying flow rates in the now-fixed launder can be evaluated.flanged or coupled Cast iron pipe. In launder design. flow depth to diameter ratio. there is no absolute single answer. Entry of a new slope generates anew set of flow data. Entry of this new dimension creates a new set of flow data for analysis. Many combinations of slope. unlined Rolled sections. uncoated Concrete construction: Formed only. 17. the calculated launder size is then adjusted to dimensions consistent with construction tolerance and practice. is stated in one of its many familiar forms. free formed .000728 .001350 .8 mls2) Effective roughness of launder surface Flow depth to launder diameter ratio Flow rate Reynolds' number Hydraulic radius Launder slope Specificgravity of pulp Specificgravity of solids Apparent viscosity of pulp Flow velocity as a Function of R.5. This is done by entering the desired flow rates in the calculations.8 and 1. the slope is adjusted to conform to construction tolerance. The calculation system does not apply to solid-liquid suspensions with solids concentration and particle size such that the slurry exhibits plastic or thixotropic characteristics. The nature of open-channel flow. & f Continuity velocity Solids transport velocity Launder width meter second pascal radian new ton - rad N MINING ENGINEERS MiNlNG ENGINEERING 1213 . extends the conditions that will satisfy a particular problem over that of pipes flowing full under pressure. Eq. The formulae are stated in forms which apply to openchannel flow of liquids. After a satisfactory set of flow data is obtained by entering new dimensions. feed points. This design system permits the evaluation of the flow data associated with the individual variation of physical dimensions and flow rate. unlined Rubber lined Plastic lined Plastic construction.000728 TABLE 2 NOMENCLATURE Wood stave pipe Steel pipe: Plain Rubber lined Plastic lined Plastic pipe: Welded joints Flanged or coupled joints Fibreglass pipe (FRP). again. For each flow rate entered a new set of flow data is generated. Based on the initial set of data.15 times the solids transport velocity. The variety of conditions encountered in open-channel flow is greater than in pipe flow both because of the existence of the free surface and the alternative stages of flow having equal energy. with its free surface. These re.quirements will assure adequate turbulence and avoid the unstable flow conditions associated with near critical flow. The adjustment of diameter. rough joints Wood construction: Smooth planed surface Rough surface Steel construction: Welded sections. The mathematical basis and the design procedure apply only to uniform flow sufficiently remote from junction boxes.001350 .. This one. no finish Float finish Trowel finish Pre-cast. substitutes 4 times the hydraulic radius for diameter. It is assumed that the slumes behave essentially as true liquids. Because of this. it is reasonable to expect that the hydraulic transport of solids in launders would be subject to more uncertainties than in pipes flowing full under pressure. An initial set of flow and launder size data is calculated from usually available information concerning the launder performance requirements. S. and other transitions to produce equilibrium conditions.
by trial and error.57 8.78 15.00 28. Calculate velocity as a function of hydraulic radius..331 19.91 9. depending on launder 12. SOCIETY OF .-------. If it is required to determine the operating conditions at other flow rates. or 5. assume another value for the launder dimension and repeat steps 2 through 7..417+06 .20 1. Calculate solids transport velocity (Eq. 3.0870 . and 6. Step 7 is omitted.413 .62 11.64 5..600 'SOLIDS S P E C I F I C CRAVITY *SLURRY S P E C I F I C CRAVITY SLURRY SOLIDS CONCENTRATION WEIGHT X VOLUUE Z *APPARENT VISCOSITY OF SLURRY..I250 . SOLIDS TRANSPORT VELOCITY FT.55 9......37 1.. Calculate the mean hydraulic depth (Eq.I250 . 17).-----..I250 .. If the continuity velocity equals the velocity calculated in step 6. FLOW RATE ADJ.------.2278 . If the continuity velocity is not equal to 1. 6.a235 .58 1.31 14. 11. if not.-------.97 7.15 times the solids transport velocity. go to step 8.433+06 . The calculation sequence for the initial launder size and flow data is: 1.57 16...27 ..631+06 .01 1. 14).08 30. 10500. 15) by trial and error.0233 .61 13.47 5. 6300.TABLE 4 ---------------------------------------------------------------------..-------.470+06 . 10.. depending on launder geometry)..D251 ~0240 . 8.719+06 . 4.63 1. 5. 16). 4. The calculation sequence for launder size adjustment is nearly identical to the initial sequence.I563 DESIGN VELOCITY FT. 1)..00 28..-------. 9. 2 . 11. If the continuity velocity equals 1..15 times the solids transport velocity.486 . Calculate Froude number (Eq.61 5.25 18.. and rectangular launders are reproduced as Tables 4. 1 1.01 11. depending on launder geometry).l-C-T..627+06 ... 6..527+06 . The slope adjustment calculation sequence is different from the first two described above. Calculate Darcy friction factor (Eq.. Then repeat steps 2 through 13 as above..549+06 .74 9. FLOW RATE ADJ.TOR 1 0 . HICRONS ' 9 9 % PASSING $02 P .00 SLOPE IN..a613 . or 13.0242 .0259 . Calculate the Froude number (Eq. PROJECT : X Y .. 3. FLOW RATE ADJ..a230 . .00 28..54 1. go to step 11. PRIMARY INPUT DATA -----------------*LAUNDER SHAPE *FLOW RATE.IFT. RECHTFL COPPUKATIOR-YININC AND IIETALS DIVISIOII SLURRY LAUNDER DESICN PROCRAI! I?. and Darcy friction factor (Eq...558 ..64 5..654+06 . These summaries were produced using Bechtel's Fortran program on a time-share computer. 4.00 30. 7.. SLOPE ADJUSTUENT FLOW RATE ADJ.00 28. Calculate Darcy friction factor.32 8.600 .32 7..? L DATE : 020178 LAUNDER NO: 0 0 4 . 10. 12.I563 .00 30. 6. If the value of the Darcy friction factor assumed in step 6 equals the friction factor calculated in step 9. 1 . 8400.43 7. Usually any adjustment that will result in a higher flow velocity will also result in larger Reynolds and Froude numbers.49 5.------------------. SLOPE ADJUSTMENT FLOW RATE ADJ...--------1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 10500. In this sequence of calculations the launder size and flow rate are fixed. depending on launder geometry).40 9.I250 -1250 . Calculate continuity velocity (Eq..49 1. 8400. or 9.413+06 .00 28. 6.67 6...37 1..49 1. depending on launder geometry).534 . 10500. LlSGPll *FLOW DEPTH TO LAUNDER DIAMETER RATIO *EFFECTIVE ROUGHNESS OF LAUNDER. 14). Calculate continuity velocity (Eq.. use the friction factor value calculated in step 9 as the assumed value in step 5 and repeat steps 6 through 10. slope. 15 for "f". Calculate launder slope (Eq.a227 .626+06 .00 30.00 28.. At this point the design of the launder is complete.a254 1.723+06 .75 1. 8. 5. The slope is specified and the flow-depth-to-launder diameter ratio is calculated.54 1.84 12. All values based on the slope adjustment have now been determined.L67 .EXPANSIOU Z .61 2 .520 .. 6300 4200.06 8..0221 ..28 5.0228 ..00 16.525+06 .57 5.I563 .73 6. FLOW RATE ADJ. . the calculation sequence noted for slope adjustment is used.. The sequence of calculations for this adjustment is as follows: 1.675+06 . PLOW RATE ADJ. 7.Y. DATA IDENTIFICATION 14 15 and slope may be used to bring the Reynolds and Froude numbers to the desired values.00 30. can be done in any order desired but the sequence noted is the usual one. 2.440 . or 9.. 10. C - PIPE LO500 ..61 8.CLIENT : ARC ENCINEERIhC COIIPANY ENGINEER: HRC. or 5. Calculate hydraulic radius (Eq.752+06 . The above sequence of design steps. 2..-----. 7. 9.a233 ...600 . 7.CENTIPOISES *PRII!ARY INPUT FOR DESICN CALCULATIONS ----------FLOW BATE USGPU LAUNDER DIAUETER INCHES 32. 4. except the reference one. 4200. 10500. 3. 5.. or 13.a251 .00 28. 10500..75 8.DLlL APPLICATION: TAILING LAlfNDBR . 13. The diameter and slope are held constant and the desired flow rate is assigned as step 1.49 1.. 6. Calculate the Reynolds number (Eq. 8. 1).58 1..78 HIGH HIGH HIGH LW O LW O LW O LW O LW O LOU HIGH HIGH LW O LW O LW O LOU DESIGNREFERENCE DIAU 6 DEPTH ADJ. 8400. Calculate mean hydraulic depth (Eq.300 .022L .42 1. FLOW RATE ADJ.73 5. The new diameter and flow-depth-to-launder diameter ratio is used in calculations 2 through 6 and 8 through 10 in the same manner as for the initial calculations.58 5.94 8. Solve Eq. dependingon launder geometry). friction factor.58 5.I250 . Calculate the solids transport velocity (Eq.03 14. SLOPE ADJCSTUENT FLOW RATE ADJ. Design summaries of a typical problem for pipe.65 7.I250 . 12. 8. .I52 . U-shaped.0240 .55 5.. Assume a value for the flow-depth-to-diameter ratio. Assume launder diameter. Assign and input desired value for the launder slope. 11. Calculate hydraulic radius (Eq. 11... 3.00 28.70 1. 10./SEC FLOW DEPTH TO DIAUETER RATIO DEPTH OF FLOW INCHES REYNOLDS NUUBER DARCY FRICTION FACTOR FROUDE NUIIBER DESlGN RISK DESIGN DATA ---.lSEC.599 ... assign a new value to the flowdepth-to-launder diameter ratio and repeat steps 3 through 7.. 6300. . 4200.76 8.l.. 18)..I563 .I19 .------. F t E T SOLIDS PARTICLF S I Z E .. 17). proceed to step 8: if not. 14.I250 . DIAU 6 DEPTH ADJ.-----.. Assume a value for the Darcy friction factor..54 9.397 . 2..34 ITEM -------. 4200.00 28... At this point all values for the initial launder size and flow data have been determined.69 5. Calculate Reynolds number (Eq.
4200.-------. 4200. 10500.. 6300.--------.... 8400.68 1.. : 1234 : 020178 NO: 0 0 6 CORPO1:ATIOI:-!!I!:IlCl AND L'CTALS D I I ' I S I O I I SLI!RRY L A U I I C E R L E S I G K PnocP..-------ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10500. 10500. FLOW DEPTH TO WIDTH RATIO DEPTH OF FLOW INCHES REYNOLDS NUHBER DARCY FRICTION FACTOR FROUDE NUHBER DESIGN RISK HIGH HIGH LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW HIGH HIGH Loll LOU LOIJ LOV D E S I G N DATA ITEM --.76 1. F L O U RATE A D J ./SEC. WIDTH.. 10500.. SLOPE ADJUSTHENT F L O l i R A T E ADJ.51 1.62 1. DEPTH ADJ.....80 1.../FT.12 DATA I D E N T I F I C A T I O N ------------------DESICN REFERENCE UIDTH.PRIHARY I N P U T FOR D E S I G N C A L C U L A T I O N S JOB NO DATE LAUIIDEP.. 6300... FLOW RATE A D J ./SEC. 8400. 10500..-----..55 1.. DEPTH ADJ.... SLOPE ADJUSTMENT SLOPE ADJUSTMENT FLOW RATE A D J I FLOW RATE A D J ...TI WEIGllT I VOLUME X 'APPARENT V I S C O S I T Y O F S L U R R Y .-----. C E N T I P O I S E S *PRIMARY I N P U T FOR D E S I C N C A L C U L A T I O N S ----------FLOW RATE USGPH LAUNDER WIDTH INCHES SLOPE IN. 10500..-------./SEC... S L O P E ADJUSTMENT FLOW RATE A D J . D E P T H ADJ.IERINC CO!IPANY CLIENT ENGINEER: HRC. APPLICATION: TAILING L A U N D E R ~ ~~ TABLE 5 ..-.. PLOY RATE A D J .95 1. FLOW DEPTH TO WIDTH RATIO DEPTH OF FLOW INCHES ----------REYNOLDS NUMBER DARCY FRICTION FACTOR FROUDE MUHBER DESICN RISK HIGH HIGH HIGH LO11 LOU LOW LOW HIGH LOW LOW LOU LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW ---...DlIL T A I L I N G LAUNDER APPLICATIO!!: P R I H A R Y I N P U T DATA *LAUNDER S H A P E *FLOW R A T E . FLOW RATE A D J . SOLIDS TRANSPORT VELOCITY FT.71 1. -----. DESIGN VELOCITY FT. P R I K A R Y I N P U T DATA U-SHAPED 10500 . IIICRONS '99% PASSING 50% PASSING * S O L I D S S P E C I F I C CRAVITY 'SLURRY S P E C I F I C G R A V I T Y SLURRY S O L I D S C O N C E N T R A ... SLOPE ADJUSTHENT FLOW RATE A D J . 4200.B E C H T E L C O R P O R A T I O N . W I D T H .. 6300.------ DATA I D E N T I F I C A T I O N ------------------- FLOW RATE A D J ./FT.71 1. 10500. FLOW RATE A D J ...-O N . SLOPE ADJUSTMENT FLOW BATE A D J ... C E N T I P 0 I S E S . FLOW RATE A D J .00443 ' E F F E C T I V E ROUGHNES S O L I D S P A R T I C L E S I Z E .33 1.. 4200..-. FLOW R A T E A D J . WIDTH.45 1.---- -------. 8400.600 ..66 1.66 1. FLOU B A T E ADJ.60 1..h!% TABLE 6 D E S I G N DATA SOLIDS TRANSPORT VELOCITY FT-ISEC. F E E T S O L I D S P A R T I C L E S I Z E ..12 1.. FLOW RATE USGPM LAUUDEB WIDTH INCHES SLOPE IN..-----. 9 10 II 12 13 14 IS I 6 11 MINING ENGINEERS MINING ENGINEERING 1215 ... HICRONS '99% PASSING 5 0 1 PASSING 'SOLIDS S P E C I F I C CRAVITY *SLURRY S P E C I F I C C R A V I T Y SLURRY S O L I D S C O N C E N T R A T I O N WEIGHT 1 VOLUME 1 *APPARENT V I S C O S I T Y OF S L U R R Y .DIIL ~. u s c p n 'FLOW D E P T H T O LAUNDER U I D T H R A T I O * C F F E C T I V E ROUGHNESS OF LAUNDER.. FLOW RATE A D J .M I N I N G AND I i E T A L S D I V I S I O N SLURRY LAUNDER D E S I G N PROGRAM ----J O B NO : 1234 P R O J E C T : XYZ E X P A N S I O N : 020178 DATE : ABC E N G I N E E R I N G COtIPANY CLIENT LAUNDER NO: 0 0 5 E N C I N E E R : HRC .. D E P T H A D J .01 1... BI:Cl!TEL ---------------------------------------------------------------------P R O J E C I : XYZ EXPANSION : ABC ENCI!. DESICN VELOCITY FT. FLOW RATE A D J .
0. McGraw-Hill.. 4Thomas. and Kilpatrick. 1975. 1948. K. J. Vicksburg.. C. The described design procedure is an advance in the state-of- the-art of slurry launder design. John Wiley. 1945. May. and Molloy.. p. June. G. 20.. 20-35. Bechtel Corporation Internal Paper. no problem with memory shortage if a shared time computer is utilized. New York. U. New York.Conclusion While the procedures described sound slightly formidable on first reading. S. Further refinements. 267-277. A. . familiarity with them will demonstrate that the principles are straightforward and logical. G. 1963. New York.. 29. C. 3-299. D. p. . There is... p. C. Vol. R. Chilton. Wisler. 1965. There has not been sufficient operating experience with launders designed according to this procedure to guarantee the accuracy of the individual factors with a high degree of confidence. Bureau of Mines. W. 5th ed... S. F. Vol. S. without major revision. Journal of Colloid Science.. o Mineral Dressing. of course. John Wiley. U. jolt? AUGUST 1978 SOCIETY O F . H. 1957. Use of these programs has demonstrated that the necessary design calculations are accomplished quickly and easily. "Transport Characteristics of Suspensions: VIII A note on the Viscosity of Newtoniad Suspensions of Uniform Spherical Particles". H. R15334.. T. 'A Guide to Hydraulic Design of Launders". Engineers Handbook. that are anticipated as the system is used. Nearly all of the available memory (429 registers) was used for a program covering one launder geometry. however. This procedure was first programmed for the Hewlett Packard HP 9820A programmable calculator. C. as further data become available. 286. Those who plan to program this procedure will find that a machine with more memory will be idvantageous. Handbook . 4th ed. 1942. Bechtel has written programs for the Hewlett Packard HP 9820A programmable calculator and also in Fortran for use on a time share computer. 6"~~draulic Design Criteria". Dean. is amenable to optimization.. Hydraulics. D. Chemical . S. 191. g ~ o c h e r B. Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station. he calculations are extremely tedious to complete with a hand calculator. M. but the mathematics presented in this paper will allow anyone with similar facilities to produce his own prigrams with little difficulty. "Velocities in Tailing Launders".. 1964. SSchack. d a m . Miss. can result in a better and better tool for the engineer charged with slurry launder design. The system..."Minimum Velocities for Sewers". N. S ~ i n gH. The Bechtel programs are confidential.Journal of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers. pp. and Woodburn. "Measurement and Nature of the Apparent Viscosity of Water Suspensions of Some Common Minerals". References l ~ a g g a r t A. 7 ~ e r r yR.
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