Code No: RR410404

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007 OPTICAL COMMUNICATION ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) List out the advantages and disadvantages of optical fiber communication. [5+3] (b) Distinguish between optical fiber communication system and conventional communication system. [4+4] 2. Write short notes on (a) Propagation modes in a single mode step index fiber. (b) Graded index fiber structure with relevant expressions. [8+8]

3. (a) Explain material dispersion, waveguide dispersion & find an expression for material & waveguide dispersions using electromagnetic field theory. [3+3+2+2] (b) An LED operating at 850 nm has a spectral width of 45nm. What is the pulse spreading in ns/ Km due to material dispersion. [6] 4. (a) With respect to LED what is internal quantum efficiency and derive the expression for the lifetime reduction caused by interfacial recombination. [3+5] (b) If the radiative and non radiative recombination lifetimes of the minority carriers in the active region of an LED are 1ns and 100ns, respectively, find the internal quantum efficiency and the bulk recombination lifetime in the absence of self absorption and recombination at the heterojuntion. [4+4] 5. (a) With schematic representation explain the working principle of pin photo detector and obtain the expression for cutoff wavelength. [2+6+2] (b) An APD with multiplication factor of 20 operates at a wavelength of 1.5µm. Calculate the quantum efficiency and the output photo current from the device if its responsivity at this wavelength is 0.6A/W and 1010 photons of wavelength 1.5µm are incident upon it per second. [3+3] 6. A high input impedance type of preamplifier is used in an optical receiver having the bias resistance of 3MΩ estimate, (a) Maximum Bandwidth that can be achieved without equalization if the total capacitance is 5pf. (b) The mean square thermal noise current generated by the impedance RT L (parallel combination of two 3MΩ when the operating temperature is 270 C for unity bandwidth). [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR410404

Set No. 1
[8]

7. (a) Discuss system considerations in point -point optical link.

(b) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using WDM in an optical fiber communication system. [5+3] 8. (a) What is splicing? Explain about fusion splicing? [2+8]

(b) An optical fiber has a core refractive index of 1.5. Two lengths of the fiber with smooth and perpendicular to the core axes end faces area butted together. Assuming the fiber axes are perfectly aligned, calculate the optical loss in decibels at the joint (due to Fresnel reflection) when there is a small air gap between the fiber end faces. [6] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410404

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007 OPTICAL COMMUNICATION ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of guided optical communication lines with that of Microwave systems. [5+3] (b) What are the various elements of an optical communication system? Explain each element in brief. [2+6] 2. (a) An optical fiber has a NA of 0.20 and a cladding refractive index of 1.59. Determine i. The acceptance angle for the fiber in water which has a refractive index of 1.33. ii. Critical angle at the core cladding interface. [4+4] (b) Explain the equations used and also comment on the assumptions made about the fiber. [8] 3. (a) Compare the optical parameters of free space with dispersive & non dispersive mediums. [4+4] (b) List the differences between intramodal & intermodal dispersions. [4+4]

4. (a) With respect to LED what is internal quantum efficiency and derive the expression for the lifetime reduction caused by interfacial recombination. [3+5] (b) If the radiative and non radiative recombination lifetimes of the minority carriers in the active region of an LED are 1ns and 100ns, respectively, find the internal quantum efficiency and the bulk recombination lifetime in the absence of self absorption and recombination at the heterojuntion. [4+4] 5. (a) Draw the schematic of Fabry Perot Resonator Cavity for a laser diode and explain how the optical radiations are generated. [3+7] (b) Draw the LASER diode characteristics. [6]

6. (a) Describe with relevant diagram about the signal path through optical data link via transmitter,fiber and receiver giving the nature of the signal waveform. [10] (b) What is a bit period? The bit frequency of the link is 107 Hz.On the average and one error is encountered in a second, find the value of BER (Bit Error Rate). [2+4] 7. (a) Discuss about the Point to Point Fiber Optic Link and its characteristics with an example? [5+3] 1 of 2

Code No: RR410404

Set No. 2
[5+3]

(b) Explain about the frequency chirping and its effects.

8. (a) Discuss with the aid of suitable diagram the measurement of dispersion in optical fibers using frequency domain measurement technique with pulsed laser source. [3+5] (b) Describe what is meant by equilibrium mode distribution and cladding mode stripping with regard to transmission measurements in optical fibers. [4+4] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410404

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007 OPTICAL COMMUNICATION ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Differentiate between the optical fibers and the conventional coaxial cables. [4+4] (b) List the applications and advantages of optical fibers. [3+5]

2. (a) Explain group delay and mode delay factor with reference to single mode fibers showing the relevant graph. [4+4] (b) A multimode step index fiber has a relative refractive index difference of 1% and a core refractive index of 1.5. The number of modes operating at a wavelength of 1.3µ meter is 1100. Estimate the diameter of the fiber core?[8] 3. (a) Explain in detail about the chromatic dispersion in the fiber & derive the expression for the phase velocity, group velocity using electric field distribution along the fiber. [2+6] (b) For the fiber it is given that , at λ=800 nm, λ2 (d2 n1 /dλ2 )=0.015.The R.M.S spectral width of the light sources is 40nm at this wavelength. Determine i. Material dispersion parameter ii. R.M.S pulse broadening/km due to material dispersion [4+4]

4. (a) With respect to LED what is internal quantum efficiency and derive the expression for the lifetime reduction caused by interfacial recombination. [3+5] (b) If the radiative and non radiative recombination lifetimes of the minority carriers in the active region of an LED are 1ns and 100ns, respectively, find the internal quantum efficiency and the bulk recombination lifetime in the absence of self absorption and recombination at the heterojuntion. [4+4] 5. (a) Draw the responsivity and quantum efficiency curve as a function of wavelength for pin photodiodes constructed of different materials and give comment on it. [3+4] (b) A pin photodiode on average generates one electron hole pair per incident photons at a wavelength of 0.8µm. Assuming all the electrons are collected, Calculate i. the quantum efficiency of the device ii. its maximum possible band gap energy iii. the mean output photocurrent when the received optical power is 10−7 W [3+3+3] 1 of 2

Code No: RR410404

Set No. 3
[8] [8]

6. (a) What are the requirements of an optical receiver? Using a flow chart explain the receiver design. [4+4] (b) Derive an expression for receiver sensitivity. 7. (a) Discuss system considerations in point -point optical link.

(b) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using WDM in an optical fiber communication system. [5+3] 8. (a) Explain about Adhesive splicing? (b) Explain about Multiple splices? ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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Code No: RR410404

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007 OPTICAL COMMUNICATION ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Bring out a brief historical development of optical fiber communication. [6]

(b) Draw the block schematic of a general communication system and explain about each block. [4+6] 2. (a) Explain field distribution for lower order modes in a symmetrical wave guide (b) Explain mode theory for circular wave guides. [6+10]

3. (a) Explain in brief Rayleigh scattering mechanisms. What are the two important factors on which the scattering of glass depends? [5+3] (b) Derive the equation for the Rayleigh scattering component and attenuation in dB/Km due to fundamental Rayleigh scattering in SiO2 . [8] 4. (a) With respect to LED what is internal quantum efficiency and derive the expression for the lifetime reduction caused by interfacial recombination. [3+5] (b) If the radiative and non radiative recombination lifetimes of the minority carriers in the active region of an LED are 1ns and 100ns, respectively, find the internal quantum efficiency and the bulk recombination lifetime in the absence of self absorption and recombination at the heterojuntion. [4+4] 5. (a) What are the requirement of photo detector and why photodiode is preferred in fiber optic communication systems? [4+4] (b) Outline the reasons for the adoption of the materials and devices used for photo-detection in optical fiber communications. [8] 6. A high input impedance type of preamplifier is used in an optical receiver having the bias resistance of 3MΩ estimate, (a) Maximum Bandwidth that can be achieved without equalization if the total capacitance is 5pf. (b) The mean square thermal noise current generated by the impedance RT L (parallel combination of two 3MΩ when the operating temperature is 270 C for unity bandwidth). [8+8] 7. (a) Discuss system considerations in point -point optical link. [8]

(b) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using WDM in an optical fiber communication system. [5+3] 1 of 2

Code No: RR410404 8. (a) Explain intermodal and intramodal dispersion.

Set No. 4
[4+4]

(b) Compare and contrast the measurement of dispersion using time domain and frequency domain measurement technique [4+4] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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