Rural Women and Economic Rights. Bulletín N° 001 • Year 2 • A pril 2012 | Knitting | Poverty

Rural Women and Economic Rights


Bulletín N° 001 • Year 2 • April 2012

The Rural Women and Economic Rights Bulletin has been improved due to the contributions and suggestions of readers, provided in the evaluation survey carried out in December 2011. Now the bulletin contains more pages that include the work experiences of rural women from other areas of the country. The content is richer in analysis and includes research regarding the economic rights of women. Enjoy! In this edition you will find information about the campaign Without economic autonomy there is no true autonomy, an analysis of the meaning of carnival according to the Aymara worldview, the main results of a socioeconomic study of women artisans in Puno, and the experiences of women in Huancavelica and their incursion into knitting, among other topics.

Puno recognizes womens’ economic autonomy

Latest News: Puno recognizes women’s economic autonomy ..... Articles: Carnival in the Aymara area of Puno ............................ Knitters, a dynamic force in the rural economy of Huancavelica ........................................................................ Toward a greater understanding of women artisans in Puno ................................................................................... Knitting stories: I want to be an entrepreneur ......................................... Recommended readings: 2010 National Time Use Survey ..................................... News: Casa de la Mujer Artesana in Google Maps ............... Hand knitted ornaments were used to dance in honor of the Virgin of Candelaria ................................. Artisan women’s work was recognized ....................... Smiles and gratitude on a different 8th of March ... Artisans in Puno will participate in Perú Moda 2012 ................................................................... From Huánuco to Río+20 Earth Summit ....................
Rural Women and Economic Rights Bulletin
Issue 1. Year 2. April 2012 Edition: Alicia Villanueva, Vanessa Laura Translation: Patricia McDonald Visit us on Facebook.

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The campaign Without economic autonomy there is not true autonomy was carried out with the goal of visibilizing the economic contribution of women through their artisan work and un-paid housework. The main conference with three large-scale activities was held on Monday, March 19th, Day of the Artisan. The sensibilization workshop “Women and Economy” was held in the government building of Puno first thing in the morning, beginning with a ceremony for Pachamama (Mother Earth or Tinka in Quechua) and attended by 173 women artisans from around the region. Jennie Dador, director of Manuela Ramos, stated in her main presentation that women must overcome many obstacles along their long road to autonomy. She pointed out that this journey requires minimum conditions in order for it to be successful or a government guarantee that such conditions are generated and enforced. The workshop was attended by Dr. Saúl Bermejo Paredes, Regional Vice President; General Wilman Andía Benavides, IV Mountain Brigade of Puno; Ricardo Alvarez González, Town Hall administrator of Puno; Engineer Lourdes Abarca Fernández, Director of Dircetur Puno, who praised the work of the artisans as income earning agents for their community and family. Following the workshop, artisans bearing signs, posters and banners took to the streets in a colorful parade through the main streets of Puno, generating a positive response from the public, who echoed and cheered their slogans. The march culminated in the atrium of the Cathedral where artisan leaders spoke to their companions emphasizing the importance of women´s work and economic autonomy. Alongside the parade, a presentation called the “Clothesline of Equality” was made in order to gather opinions about the work of artisan women and their economic autonomy. Strategically located just in front of the Municipal building of Puno, the “Clothesline” received over 200 opinions from Puno residents and tourists. Opinions were also received through Facebook during the entire month of March to elicit greater public participation. The campaign was co-organized by Manuela Ramos, the Regional Office of Foreign Trade in Puno and the Artisan Board of Alpaca Knitting. It forms part of the project Access and Improvement of Economic Income of Quechua and Aymara Women Artisans in Puno, funded by the European Union and co-executed by Economists Without Borders.


This publication has been carried out with the technical assistance of the European Union. Contents are the exclusive responsibility of Movimiento Manuela Ramos and in no way reflect the point of view of the European Union.


Carnival in the Aymara Region of Puno
Verónica Gálvez Condori

Carnival is celebrated in the month of February. According to the Andean calendar, this month is called anata phaxsi, which translates into English as the Month of Play. This concept of play is not the same as that usually defined in dictionaries; rather it is commonly understood as a time of joyfulness for all that Pachamama (Mother Earth) offers through crops, animals or nature. This is the reason why communities and populations celebrate with dances dressed in brightly coloured costumes that are similar to the colours of nature: green, red, pink, etc. In the Aymara communities located around Lake Titicaca people visit each other, dancing from farm to farm. Young women and men clasp hands and dance around freshly planted crops. Older people serve wine or chicha, with streamers wrapped around produce in order to promote the regeneration of seeds. In accordance with the Andean worldview, young people of childbearing age help fertilize the soil and the produce harvested from it. They dance to the beat of quenas and chacallos. Elders say that the sikuri and the zampona must not be played during the rainy season because these instruments summon the cold weather and keep the rain away, and may damage fruits and vegetables that are ripening. In addition to dances, a series of rituals also take place: On Carnival Monday, women from Aymara communities visit the farms. Prior to doing so, four knots are tied around each plot of land to prevent the energy and spirit of fruits and vegetables from escaping. After a plant is harvested, the new shoots are removed and placed in a bundle or incuña. At this point, the entire family gathers around the bundle and participates in a ritual of gratitude for the generosity of Pachamama. Called ch’alla, this ceremony consists of spreading sugar, wine, flowers, blends and

chicha o k’usa (in Aymara), depending on the area. After decorating the farms, women and men joyfully dance around the planted crops. Since ancient time, Aymara people perform ch’alla on farms, cattle, and tools during Carnival as a solemn offering to Pachamama and the Achachilas (guardian hills or Apus) for their help and protection. Meanwhile, in the urban periphery of Puno, buildings are decorated with flowers, balloons and streamers. Rooms are perfumed with incense, especially where commerce takes place. Prayers are made to Pachamama for all the goodness she has invoked and for continued protection through food, health and harmony. It is important to remember an aspect of this festival that has been lost. Traditionally on this day people hug each other wishing for “sumac

qoqo mara” which translates into English as “may it be a good year for crops”, or “may you have all the food you need this year”. In the Andean world, people believe that women, Pachamama and seeds are one and the same and allow for the regeneration of life. Perhaps this is why these rituals are usually led by women due to the relationship to their life cycle. The entire celebration is carried out in gratitude for all that is provided by Mother Nature and her contribution to humans. This festival in the Andean world reveals a way of living in peace and harmony with nature. For the Aymara people, nature is not only a resource: rather, it is a deity that must be respected and only that which is necessary for life is removed. There is a permanent commitment to the protection of nature, to guarantee rebirth and provide products for the next generations and for Mother Earth herself. Women artisans who work with Manuela Ramos share this life concept and worldview. As a result, carnival celebrations during the month of Februrary that involve offerings to Pachamama are of utmost importance.

Without economic autonomy there is no true autonomy.


Knitters, a dynamic force in the rural economy of Huancavelica Juana Pro
“Now I sell each week in the Acobamba fair. I sell my sweaters, scarves and hats. I sell more than last year; people from the community come to my house to make orders…now I have my own money that I manage, I decide…” Mrs. Jessica, Choclococha community, Acobamba province. greater significance is the way in which women have gained control over these resources, progressed in decision-making, income management, productive technology and “discovered” Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for client communication, knowledge of fashion and relationships with other women´s networks. The decision of women to incursion into weaving has meant a break with tradition. They have done so despite the negative reaction of many families in their communities, because “... women are capable of learning the warp technique and, just as men, we weave large garments such as blankets and other garments that are very delicate, such as scarves, in colorful, alpaca fibre with up to 192 thread count. Women are just as intelligent and hard working as men, we raise our families, and with training we are able to do what our husbands do and together produce that same as they do on the farm.” Mrs. Juana Mallqui, knitter from Antaccocha community, province of Huancavelica.

The context
Seven years ago Manuela Ramos began the Casas del Bien-Estar (Houses of Well-Being) in the Huancavelica Region, co-managed by a network of 30 women rural promoters in the provinces of Acobamba, Angaraes and Huancavelica. 90 promoters from different peasant communities were also added to this network. All of these women had received training and began to provide services to women who required information about sexual health and reproductive health, and awareness about diverse types of violences against women. Throughout the years, the promoters have built individual and collective capacities and skills, informing, orienting and training almost 10,000 women to be able to exercise their rights. They have also promoted women´s participation in aspects of coordination and vigilance within their municipalities and in other state institutions such as the Women´s Emergency Centre, Police Station, Justice of peace, and health establishment. A concurrent process is the strengthening of rural women´s economic entrepreneurship as a strategy of citizen´s empowerment, expanding opportunities through technicalproductive training in traditional activities such as guinea pigraising and knitting. Building productive capacities and increasing knowledge and market management have facilitated ways of adding value to production. Consequently, some enterprises have registered an increase in productivity. Of

The importance of visibilizing the work of knitters
Knitting is a millenarian Andean practice that expresses cultural aspects, in this case the culture of Huancavelica, through texture, color, design and iconography. In this region, knitting is an activity traditionally carried out by women and men that demonstrates a characteristic polichromy, mainly preserved by the Choppcca nation (community). Further, one hundred hand knitters comprise ten associations located in different districts of Huancavelica and Acobamba. Loom weavers make up a smaller group organized into seven associations. In the Region, the loom is a very complex masculine activity, producing important garments for individual and family use, and is a significant source of income.

Women’s work days are increased
Economic activities carried out by women who work with the House of Well-Being do not prevent them from carrying out other work in the home and the reproductive sphere. At home, these women continue to carry out various activities, consequently extending their work day. In general, this situation is not resolved equitably. In some cases, profit from the knitter´s production and her position in the market provokes a restructuring of roles at home. Consequently, there is a redistribution of domestic work between other members of the family, including men. Other favorable possibilities exist including the promotion and visibility of women´s production in different spheres (though support from the municipal or regional governments, publicity in a catalogue that displays their products, business networks, trips, etc.), which impacts how this activity is valued by the community and family. Recognition is evident when the community observes the purchase of goods, the transfer of bags of garments, and travel by women to towns beyond Huancavelica, etc.

The Casa del Bien-estar (House of Well-Being) is a space built by women and for women of quality multiple health services, led by promoters specialized in health, legal orientation and economic entrepreneurship for the exercise of their rights. It is aimed toward strengthening the participation of women in decision-making spaces and to providing an organized response to the main problems they face in terms of sexual and reproductive health, violence against women and acess to justice, as well as in income generation.

Without economic autonomy there is no true autonomy.

Some knitters have experienced this process and are now proud of the changes that have occurred in their families. Yet, for the majority of women it remains an issue of constant negotiation.

Knitting is easy...selling is the difficult part
Traditional tastes in knitting have united with modern productive techniques such as design, the use of a diverse color palette, the creation of a catalogue, management and interpretation of technical requirements, and new stitches and improved finishing techniques. Participation in fairs is a significant learning tool used by artisans, as well as training about tastes and tendencies of the local, regional and national markets, sales techniques and product valuation. Progress is being made but new challenges always arise. In 2011 several knitters took the additional step of participating in the business network of Promperu and experienced the intense interrogation of potential clients who laid out their conditions: “Scarves, OK, but chain-stitched…”; “shawls, OK, but knit on a loom...”, “gloves up to the elbow…”. Between December, 2011 and January, 2012, 173 women artisans from the districts of Juli, Mazocruz and Moho, located in the Aymara area, and the district of Vilque, in the Quechua area of Puno, participated in the Socioeconomic and Production Evaluation of Women Artisans in the project Access and Improvement of Economic Income of Quechua and Aymara Women Artisans in Puno.

Sociodemographic districts




Latest developments
Women knitters produce their garments in a complex synchrony of objectives: knitting links the preservation of cultural identity with the creation or recreation of market-oriented designs that are aesthetic and functional. The measurement of time used to produce each garment has been included in production costs and in the suggested selling price, in order to measure individual and collective productive capacity. Women have increased their income by approximately 30 percent, and many have been able to capitalize on their profits investing in fixed assets (for example, looms) and production materials (wool and thread). Some have formed businesses and issue payment receipts, have access to credit and have an increased basic understanding of the value-chain due to direct commercialization (local fairs in Huancavelica, Huancayo and occasionally in Lima, by means of export companies). Strengthening women’s enterprise at the community level has resulted in the contribution to, and in some cases, leadership of communal economic development. Knitters are increasingly recognized as a dynamic economic force in the rural sphere.

Of the four districts from which information was gathered, Juli has the largest population (23,741 inhabitants) and shows the highest percentage of urban population, 34.4%. The inhabitants of this district have the highest level of study, 14.5% of whom have been able to continue with or complete some type of post secondary education. Economically speaking, 62.1% of the population is considered to be in conditions of poverty. Farming is the main economic activity for half of the population. In Santa Rosa de Mazocruz (6,663 inhabitants), the population is mainly rural (81.6%), and a large percentage has completed only primary education (46.0%). Only 9.6% have some type of post secondary education (including incomplete). In this district, the poverty level reaches 59.1%, and the main economic activity is aplaca raising (76.6%). Moho, the second most populated district (17,042 inhabitants), has educational characteristics similar to those of Mazocruz, although it has the lowest percentage of post secondary education (5.3%). With regard to economic indicators, this district is the poorest (80.9%); three quarters of the population are engaged in farming activities. Vilque, the least populated district (3,123 inhabitants) has similar characteristics to those of the above districts. However, the main difference is a lower poverty level, (around 50.1%) and the main economic activity is farming (70.4 %). In all four districts, the predominant mother tongue is consistent with its corresponding cultural group: Aymara in Juli, Santa Rosa de Mazocruz and Moho; and Quechua in Vilque. The study shows that those beliefs and practices that comprise the Andean religion continue to be practiced in all communities and are carried out during the entire farming or livestock rising cycle in the communities. Almost all women have been born in the district where they currently live and 71.6% of these women are from 21 to 45 years old.


Perceptions and responses from the 14 groups that participated were collected using quantitative (surveys) and qualitative (individual and group interviews) methods.

Without economic autonomy there is no true autonomy.


Toward a greater understanding of the

women artisans in puno
In terms of gender relations, women state that they make decisions regarding household expenses (35.8%), are responsible for housework (70.5%) and participate in social affairs (43.9%), demonstrating that women continue to be linked to domestic activities. However, it is important to emphasize that 26.6% of those interviewed stated that both man and wife are responsible for carrying out household chores. On the other hand, there is a greater number of women who participate in social activities, and an increased level of women`s empowerment in decision-making. Further, men show an increasing tendency toward supporting the involvement of their wives in economic activities, training and other social activities. Finally, in terms of interculturality, only 14.6% of women have even heard of the concept. However, at least 65.0% demonstrate intercultural capacities of respect, tolerance and adaptation. All women have the intercultural capacity of knowedge of

Almost all the women are bilingual: three fourths speak the same mother tongue as the predominant one in the district, Aymara or Quechua, as the case may be, and 92.5% are able to speak, read and write in Spanish. The majority of these women lives in a common law relationship (37.0%) or is married (35.8%). 85% of the artisans interviewed are mothers: 27.0% have one child, 23.1% have two children and 19.7% have more than four children. With regard to level of education, most artisans have a lower level of education than their partners. A large percentage have only a primary education (27.2%) or have completed high school (17.3%) and only 3.5% have completed a program of post secondary study.

a second language and show a desire to learn a foreign language such as English or have access to Internet - the dream of three quarters of women so that they can find out what is going on in the world and be able to offer their products for sale.

Next steps
Results obtained from this study will allow the project (executed by Manuela Ramos and Economists Without Borders and financed by the European Union) to establish strategies that are most suitable for ensuring the achievement of expected results. They will also help the project to benefit women and their families, boosting artisan activity in response to national and international market demands. Source: Final report of participants in the Socioeconomic Evaluation of Quechua and Aymara women. Luis Enrique Rivera Vela. Puno: February 2012.

Socieconomic characteristics of artisan women
52.6% of women artisans have their own dwelling and 28.9% live in the home of their parents. Three fourths of houses have adobe walls, tin roofs and an earth floor (46.8%) or a cement floor (43.4%). Only 60.0% have running water, access to a sewage system and electricity. In the economic sphere, 52.0% of families carry out farming activities, while other significant activities include business (8.1%) and artisan productions (6.9%), the latter occurring mainly in the district of Juli. According to economic income levels and INEI criteria, most families are poor and may even be in a situation of extreme poverty: half of the families have an income of less than S/.200 new soles and only 12.2% of families have income of more than S/.801 new soles. In terms of artisan activity, most women do not yet represent a significant income generating category, except in the case of Juli, which shows a more sustainable income. 50.2% of all women claim that they have no income, while 25.4% claim to have a monthly income lower than S/. 50 new soles, earned in a sporadic manner.

Without economic autonomy there is no true autonomy.

Knitting stories
I want to be an


My name is Martiza Condori. I am from Collini (Pomata, Puno), I am 25 years old and I want to tell you how I became an artisan and what my dreams are. Since I was a little girl I always wanted to be an artisan, but in my village women didn´t knit, only men could work, and I took care of the cattle just like the rest. Until one day in Pomata I saw tourists buying sweaters and miniatures. I began to think why I couldn´t do this as well, so I joined other women and we began to knit. To begin with, the garments weren´t high quality, we would go to the fairs and nothing else. We didn´t earn much money and with what our husbands earned it just wasn´t enough. Then once day I met Manuela Ramos and they trained me in knitting and self esteem. I also learned that women have rights, that by knitting we can earn money and with our work we can maintain our families. Although I only finished grade eleven, with what I have learned I feel as good as a professional. Even my husband tells me to go to the trainings so I can improve. I am happy being a knitter but I dream about becoming an entrepreneur.

2010 National Time Use Survey

After more than 50 years of demanding and achieving their rights, women today are increasingly becoming protagonists of the public sphere. However, this is not the case in the private sphere where asymmetrical power structures are almost the same as those of un-paid domestic work. In May 2011, the Ministry of Women and Social Development, MIMDES, (now the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations, MIMP) and the National Institute of Statistics and Information of Peru (INEI, for its acronym in Spanish) released the main results of the 2010 National Time Use Survey (ENUT, for its acronym in Spanish). The ENUT established an important baseline for studying gaps in the distribution of women and men´s time use by allowing for a measure of the overall workload - domestic and remunerated work carried out by both – in order to calculate the economic value of women´s contribution to the country as domestic work. This survey was applied to all family members from 12 years old or more, of the 4,580 selected dwellings in urban and rural areas of the entire country during the period

of December 15th to December 30th, 2010.

Differences that generate poverty*
In the entire country, men spend 15 hours doing housework while women spend over 35 hours in this type of work. When calculating overall work, which means housework plus paid work, women work 8.42 hours more than the total working time of men. In conclusion, women work one day more than men each week. These results allow us to observe other differences. For example, while women in urban areas spend more than 23.34 hours per week on housework than men, in rural areas there is a difference of 26.58 hours. In this same period, work carried out by women caring for people with a disability represents an average of 16.47 hours, while it represents only 8.55 hours for men. Consequently, women spend almost twice the amount of time in this activity as men. The only housework activity where men spend more time than women is home repair and maintenance. In urban areas, men spend 1.22 hours more than women on this type of

Without economic autonomy there is not true autonomy.

household work; in rural areas they spend more than 2.16 hours. It is relevant to mention that women always spend more time on housework than men in a similar position in the same family group, regardless of the family structure and role held by women (grand-daughter, daughter, wife or grandmother). This issue shows the persistence of stereotypes linked to a traditional division of labour in families, as well as intragender and generational gaps. Further, the excessive work burden does not allow women any free time. This is an obstacle for women´s personal development because it does not allow time for training, social participation, recreation and rest, among other activities. Men, on the other hand, have more free time due to this sexual division of labour. The intersection of data with socioeconomic level also shows a direct relationship between poverty and an increase in household work. When in poverty, not only do women have more children to take care of, they may also lack support from another person, electric appliances, and the challenges of basic services. However, statistics show that the condition of poverty does not substantially affect time spent by men on housework. The 2010 Peru ENUT, supported by Manuela Ramos, UNFPA and UN Women, is a source of valuable information.
*Source: php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1707 :peru-encuesta-nacional-de-uso-del-tiempo-2010confirma-que-las-mujeres-trabajan-mas-que-loshombres&catid=45:dgm-prensa&Itemid=395 Download the 2010 National Survey of Time Use (ENUT) from: DIRECCIONES/DGM/ENCUESTA_NACIONAL_DE%20 USO_DEL_TIEMPO2010.pdf

Casa de la Mujer Artesana in Google Maps
Tourists and potential buyers will have easy access to knit products offered in the store of the Casa de la Mujer Artesana in Puno, thanks to the fact that it now has it´s own map in Google Maps. With this tool, information related to our stores (address, hours and website) will be visible from cell phones, laptops or computers with internet connection around the globe. Another benefit offered by Google Maps is that it locates the exact street or route necessary for one to get to the store from any part of Puno without getting lost. Further, clients may rate the store, post photos and make comments about the service, the price and the quality of our products.

Hand knitted ornaments used for dances in honor of the Virgin of Candelaria
Art, culture and handicrafts came together to produce beautiful pins, earrings, rings and hat ornaments hand-knitted in alpaca fiber, worn by the group of guests from Morenada San Martín in the most recent Festival of the Virgin of Candelaria. Skilled Puno women artisans, trained by

se knitted ornaments from alpaca fiber. They spared no effort in order to produce beautiful articles in honor of the patron saint of the city.
The results could not have been better. The knitted flowers attracted the attention of dancers from other groups participating in the contest and the general public during the important veneration held in honor of mother Candelaria. Upon seeing them, many women exclaimed: “How pretty, I want one just like it!”. This was the first time ornaments accompanied the costumes worn in the festival, thus revaluing local products (alpaca fiber) and handicrafts (hand knitted by women).

Movimiento Manuela Ramos, were in charge of making the-

Artisan women’s work recognized
Evarista Pacco Jove, president of the Quechuayllu Organization from the district of Azángaro, and Yolanda Apaza Apaza, leader of the Alpaca Wool organization from the district of Lampa, were recognized by the Regional Government of Puno in the International Women´s Day celebrations for their work as artisans.
Bothwomen participated in the Project “Puno Artisans improve the Quality of Life”, executed by Manuela Ramos and financed by the La Caixa Foundation from Spain.
This project is now a year and a half underway in five

provinces of the northern area of the Puno Region. So far, 1300 women have participated in the project, gaining skills in artisan work and hand knitting. 500 of these women already generate export quality artisan work, obtaining an additional income that benefits their families and provides individual and collective economic autonomy. Although these women were trained in 2 needle knitting techniques, they have also discovered and developed new personal skills, such as leadership and self esteem through working for the benefit of women in their area.

Without economic autonomy there is not true autonomy.

Artisans from Puno to participate in Peru Moda 2012
Victoria Mayta (Azángaro) and Candelaria Quino (Pilcuyo) are the two artisans from Puno who will visit Lima to participate in the fifteenth fashion fair, Perú Moda, to be held from April 26th to 28th in the Jockey Club Convention Centre of Peru where over 400 companies will display their products. During the International Women´s Day awareness campaign that formed part of the project, Puno Artisan´s improve their Quality of Life (La Caixa Foundation), in addition to heartfelt smiles, the women of Puno responded with spoken gratitude: Continue demanding women´s rights! Thank you for this recognition! A hug for you! Beginning very early in the morning, project participants walked through the streets of the Altiplano city and visited the main public institutions, handing out purple ribbons and balloons with the slogan Without economic autonomy there is no true autonomy. In many public and private institutions, this activity was the only tribute received by workers for the 8th of March. The artisans considered the experience to be unusual for the city. The campaign culminated in the participation of Mayte Romero, head of the project in Puno, on local TV (TVUNA and Channel 51), who publically endorsed the conference.

Smiles and gratitude on a different 8th of March

The artisans will present their latest collection of new designs created in 100% alpaca and baby alpaca. They will also display accessories for women, garments for girls and boys and a large variety of knit toys in cotton and cotton/ alpaca fibres. Peru Moda provides the artisans with an opportunity to take orders and/or make contact with potential national and international buyers. With income earned from textile production, many of these women are taking control of their future and demonstrating to their families and communities that change is possible. Manuela Ramos accompanies the process undertaken by the artisans, who were trained and advised in knitting and business management, and personal development and technical assistance as part of the project: Access and improvement of Economic Income of Quechua and Aymara Women Artisans in Puno, with the support of the European Union, and Artisans of Puno improve their Quality of Life, financed by La Caixa Foundation of Spain.

From Huanuco to the Río Summit+20
REPEM, the Network of Popular Edcuation among Women, will participate in the Rio+20 Earth Summit, offically called the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development to be held from July 20th to 22nd in Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, carrying women´s voices from rural popular urban sectors from Guatemala, Nicaragua, Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Paraguay. In preparation for this Summit, a workshop was organized in Bogota (Colombia) for the ten leaders, members of the Latin American Working Group on Gender and Economy, REPEM, who will carry out similar projects in their own countries. Elina Verde Estrada, winner of the National Competition “this is how it’s done” in 2009, and subsequently a member of the Latin American Working Group on Education, Gender and Economy, will be in charge of

the workshops in Peru. The first workshop she holds will be in her own department of Huanuco, of course! She has been able to coordinate with different regional authorities to obtain the support necessary to carry out this project. She is hopeful that these workshops will be held in the provinces of Huanuco, Lima and Puno. We are confident that contributions taken by Repem to Rio+20 will be important for women due to the fact that they deal with the issues of work and care-giving ethics.

Date: Thursday April 26th to Saturday April 28th. Place: Jockey Club of Perú (Monterrico) Stand Number: 87 and 88.

Without economic autonomy there is not true autonomy.

This publication has been made with the technical assistance of the European Union. The contents are the exclusive responsibility of Manuela Ramos and in no way do they represent the point of view of the European Union.

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