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# Set No.

Code No.420504
IV-B.Tech. II-Semester Examination April, 2003
ADVANCED DATABASES
1
(Computer Science and Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max.Marks:80
Answer any FIVE questions
All questions carry equal marks
---
1. Explain the following terms clearly.
a) Relation Schema b) Relation Cardinality
c) Fragmentation Schemes d) Derived Horizontal Fragmentation

## 2. Consider the global relations:

PATIENT (NUMBER, NAME, SSN, AMOUNT-DUE, DEPT,
DOCTOR, MED-TREATMENT)
DEPARTMENT (DEPT, LOCATION, DIRECTOR)
STAFF(STAFFNUM, DIRECTOR,TASK)Define their fragmentation as
follows:
a) DEPARTMENT has a horizontal fragmentation by LOCATION, with two
locations: each department is conducted by one DIRECTOR.
b) There are several staff members for each department, led by the department’s
director, STAFFA has a horizontal fragmentation derived from that of
DEPARTMENT and a semi-joint on the DIRECTOR attribute. Which
assumption is required in order to assure completeness? And disjointness?
Give also the reconstruction of global relations from fragments.
3. Discuss on the various steps that are required in Distributed Database design.
4.a) Explain about Operator tree of a Query.
b) Construct the operator tree for the following query:
PJSNUMSLAREA = “NORTH”(SUPPLY JNDEPTNUM = DEPTNUMDEPT)

## 5. Consider a relational database consisting of four relations r1,r2,r3,r4 over the

relation schmesR1(A1, A2, A3, A4) R2(A3, A5, A6), R3(A7, A8, A9, A10) and R4(A4,
A10, A11) respectively.Assume that the following expression (E) is to be optimized
π A1 (σ A11 < 'a ' (π A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 A1 , A1 , A8 , A9 , A10 , A11 (σ ( r3 A10 = (r4 . A10 ) ∧ ( r1 . A 4 = r 4.a 4)(r4 × r3 × r1 )))
Optimize the above relation by giving the various steps.

## 6.a) Explain the properties of transactions.

b) Explain the goals of transaction management
c) Explain distributed transactions with examples.

## 7.a) Explain Centralized controller method for deadlock detection.

b) Explain the tree of deadlock detectors with a neat sketch.

## 8.a) Explain the primary locking approach in detail.

b) Explain write-locks all approach of locking in detail.
*** *** ***
Set No.
Code No.420504
IV-B.Tech. II-Semester Examination April, 2003
ADVANCED DATABASES
2
(Computer Science and Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max.Marks:80
Answer any FIVE questions
All questions carry equal marks
---
1.a) Describe the distributed database management system.
b) Discuss the various features of distributed databases.

## 2.a) Discuss the various levels of distribution transparency.

b) What is an integrity constraint and also explain the integrity constraints using
distributed databases.

## 3.a) Design a horizontal fragmentation for a Bank application.

b) What are the various objectives of Data distribution.

## 5. Consider the following database:

Employees(emp_no,e_name,address,basic_salary)
Projects(p_no,p_name,,p_job)
Parts(part_no,part_name,size)
Use(emp_no,p_no,part_no)
Use the method of optimization of relational algebric operations to optimize the
following expressions.
a) π e _ name (employeesα (σ p _ name"DBMS " ( projects)α work _ on))
b) π e _ name1, p _ name ((( work _ on − π emp _ no , p _ no (use))α projects)α employees)

π part _ no , part _ name ( parts )α (π part _ no (σ p _ name =" DBMS " ( projects)α use)) ∩ π part _ no
c)
(π p _ name ="MIS " ( projects)α use)))
Note : α =
6.a) Describe with examples, the types of problem that can occur in distributed
transactions environment when concurrent excess to the database is allowed.

b) Give the details of a mechanism for concurrency control that can be used to
ensure that the types of problem discussed above cannot occur.

## 7.a) Explain the rules for basic timestamp mechanism?

b) Explain the “ignore absolute write rule ".
c) Explain the timestamp mechanism with an example.

## 8.a) Explain the requirements used in site-to-site protections.

b) Explain the merits and demerits of user identifications.
c) Explain enforcing authorization rules in detail.
*** *** ***
Set No.
Code No.420504
IV-B.Tech. II-Semester Examination April, 2003 3
ADVANCED DATABASES
(Computer Science and Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max.Marks:80
Answer any FIVE questions
All questions carry equal marks
---
1.a) Give the difference between Global database administration and local database
administrator.
b) Explain the reference architecture for distributed database with neat sketch
diagram.

2. Explain the distribution transparency for read only application and update
application with example.

## 3.a) Design a Vertical Fragmentation or a library databases.

b) Compare Top-Down an Bottom-Up approaches in the design of Data distribution.

## 4.a) Define Operator Graph.

b) Draw the simplified version of operator graph for the following query:
PJEMP,NAME(EMP JNDEPTNUM=DEPTNUMSLMGRNUM=373DEPT)OF
(SLSAL>35000EMP JNDEPTNUM=DEPTNUMSLMGRNUM=373DEPT))

## 5. Give a detailed account of steps involved in optimizing the following queries

using SQL query optimization strategies.
a) SELECT e_name
where e_no in
(SELECT e_no
from work_in
where p_no=
(select p_no
from projects
where p_name =’DBMS’))
ORDER BY e_name
b) SELECT e_name, basic_salary
FROM employees
WHERE deptno=3 and basic_salary >
FROM employees
WHERE deptno=5)
ORDER BY e_name
c) SELECT e_name,job_status , basic_salary
FROM employees
WHERE (deptno,basic_salary) IN
(SELECT deptno,basic_salary
FROM employees
WHERE e_name = ‘A.SARKAR’)
(Contd…2)
Code No.420504 -2- Set No.3

6.a) Explain the term ‘ non-blocking protocol’ and explain why the two-phase commit
protocol is not a non-blocking protocol.
b) Discuss how the three–phase commit protocol is a non-blocking protocol in the
absence of complete site failure.

7.a) Explain the derivation of potential global dead lock cycle from local wait for
graph.
b) Explain the methods for dealing with dead lock in DDBs systems.
c) Write a short note on false dead locks.

## 8.a) Explain the operation of non-blocking protocol at network partition.

b) Explain primary site approach and majority site approach in detail.

## *** *** ***

Set No.
Code No.420504
IV-B.Tech. II-Semester Examination April, 2003 4
ADVANCED DATABASES
(Computer Science and Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max.Marks:80
Answer any FIVE questions
All questions carry equal marks
---
1.a) Discuss the various types of communication networks.
b) Explain the ISO/OSI Reference Architecture with neat sketch diagram.

2. What is a fragmentation and also explain the different types of data fragmentation
with example.

## 3.a) Distinguish between non-redundant and redundant allocation.

b) Write briefly on the measure of costs and benefits of fragment allocation.

## 5. Consider the following query:

Select e.eid,d.did,p.projid from emp e, dept d, proj p where e.sal=50000 and
d.budget > 20000 and e.eid=d.did and d.projid=p.projid.
Assume that employee salaries are uniformly distributed in the range 10009 and
110008 and that project budgets are uniformly distributed in the range 10000 to
30000. There is a clustered index on sal for emp, a clustered index on did for dept
and a clustered index on projid for proj.
a) List all the one-relation, two-relation, and three-relation subplans considered in
optimizing the query.
b) Show the plan with the least estimated cost for this query.

## 6. Write short notes on:

a) Transaction rollback
b) Check points
c) Deferred database modification.

## 7.a) Explain the features of concurrency control algorithms.

b) Explain the primitive and non-primitive methods for deadlock preventions.

8.a) Discuss the reliability and concurrency control with respect to non-redundant
database.
b) Discuss the reliability and concurrency control with respect to redundant
database.