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# 12

NORMAL COMBUSTION

will be noted that the flame trace sthus proporttonal to flame velocity' It the ignition point with a well-defined boundary and that the

EXPERIMENT 13 mined by means of theobserved fact (1.61, 1.78) that thefraction of the
BASIC THEORY AND

mass burned is proportional to the fraction of the total pre ssure rise ; that is,

Mb_

M
where

P-Pt Pz-Pt

(l-1)

## M6: mass burned M:total mass of the charge

p,

pressure at the end of combustion pressure at the instant under consideration. If it is assumed that the unburned portion of the charge is compressed adiabatically and is a perfect gas, we can write

h:

: p:

initial

Pressure

## Mt: M - Mu: Fig.linaspherica|-bomb.withcentra|isnition.Ttresphereof

DV"fftu

name

Also,

J,1?"';l*'ift',1'""f;:l""ilTfl:lx?11:i:fr.*'*"'

ru:rt(o\T

-"'r,

constant The motion of a flame in a mixture confined in a chamber of that expnsion of the burned gases notu." is complicated by the fact the unburned part of the charge' For that reason the boundary front moves relative to the ""rpr.tt"t ;lii" unburned charge next to the flame the sum of two movements: is and the obseived flame motion "nurU"i, which the flame moves into the unburned portion- of th.e charge, I"iJ.t pushed i. ti burning uelocity, and the rate at which the flame front isuelocity' Uv the eipansio of the burned gases, called the transport fo*t -F;;;; l-2 snowiUurning, transport, and observed velocity as measured in-the spherical bomb of Fig' 1-l'
v.loclty
Tronsporl e
.=

## p-pt _1_ptvnm"(L\t'' MRTt \Prl Pz- Pt

(1-2)

It is evident from Fig. l-3 that, at any given value of the flame radius r, the value of Iz, depends on the shape of the container and the position of the ignition point. In order to show the influence of container shape and ignition-point location, let us examine two extreme cases. The fist is a sphere of diameter D with central ignition, as used for the experiment of Fig. l-1. In this
ease

vrlocity

l-2. Observed velocity, burning velocity. ttunspott velocity in spherical bomb wilh "n central ignition. 2CO2 starting at l/3 atm, 17'F (t,271.
Fic.
velocily

ratio of burned volume to flame radius; the minimum ratio would be for a container consisting of a long tube with ignition at one end. Here Y,= A(L- r), where ,4 is the croSs-sectional area and Z the lenglh of the
tube.

## gives the maximum possible

o.5
Flom. rodus / bomb rodius

Fk. f-3. Generalized constant-volume containcr; is the ignition point and thc flame radius, Dotted arca represents the unburned
volume.

Figure l-3 illustrates a container through which a spherical ffame front pressure can be deteris pslng. The relation between flame position and

l6

NORMAL COMBUSTION

FLAME PROPAGATION fN

ENGINES

I7

E
x

ct

o d
o

= I

Ttr Nh

3; do
O5 x? SY o.= q>

!-

94 E

-' 68 5d
here.

q
N
I

t(
o

g a1 ox 'g
5bo .i! la !F GO o 'O

'q7 =v

q
cv)

.E=
o :d
>6 !j oO do Ge FO

q
N
I

F.9

ltr =!

a0

velocity are much higher than in a bomb with a quiescent mixture. Effect of operating variables on Flame Travel, Since the losses due to combustion time are a function of piston motion during that time, it is convenient to express the results of combustion-time measurements in terms of crank angle rather than time. Measurements of flame travel have been made from flame-trace photographs such as those shown in Fig. l-7. Results of these measurments are given in Figs. l-8 to l-ll and in Table l-1.

N
'
o

o G
I

;
'.
E 6

E
E

q o
6 il I

I
E

lr

bA

I Swirl

or

less as a whole.

t9

I
o
'-q

Table

l-1.

Summary

of

## Flame-Travel Measurements in CFR L-Head Engine

Crank Degrees for
Value
Degrees

o
E

cl o

oI

Flame Travel

Change,

Varia ble

0-to%
t5

to-9s%, to-95%
42 44 48
39 JI 48 35

Travel

#
t-E
Spark
Piston speed 450 fpm
1200 fpm

z)
)1

Time

------*

t-9

(a) Enginc famc-trace photograph. Thc flamc is phorographcd through a narrow slot in thc cylindcr hcad on a fitm mog at rigbt atrglcs to
thc slot.

## 6 psia 20 psia 0.6 2.0

l5

-9
+11

l8
22

(o)
Relative fuel-air

1.2

t3
33

ratio,

FR

o.7

6l
45

t.5 Film,movng ol rghl onqles lo ois of window Data from Bouchard et al. (1.58).

t5

iu
+10

## Discussion of Flame-Travel Effects in Engines

(b)

Fig. l-7. Flame-lrac photograph and method ofts production. () Engine flam-trace photograph. () The flame is photographed through a narrow slot in the cylinder head on a lm moving at right angles to the slot, as indcated (Bouchard l /,, 1.58).

l.2l) and in engines where the turbulence was varied independently of speed. This relation will be discussed further in the next section. The nearly constant crank angle occupied by the major portion of combustion when speed is varied is one of the most important facts in relation to the question of combustion time. Without this characteristic, sparkignition engines could not run at the very high piston speeds used in some
(1.20, present-day engines.

The trends shown in Figs. l-8 through l-l I and in Table l-1 may be explained by what is known about the effects of air motion, pressure, temperature, and chargecomposition on flamevelocity in bombs and tubes. Efiect of Engine Speed on Flame Speed. The most significant effect shown is the fact that the varation in crank angle occupied by flame travel as engine speed changes by a factor of nearly 3 : I is very small (Fig. l-8). This means that ffame speed must increase nearly in proportion to engine speed. As a matter of experience, the highest-speed engines require only slightly greater spark advance than those running at normal or even quite low speed, and even this is mostly due to the increase in combustion time before l0 per cent ffame travel. The increase of flame speed with increasing engine speed is due to the marked effect of turbulence, as has been noted in many bomb experiments

38

## DETONATION AND PREIGNITION

.l

DETONATION
detonation. A calculat in this chapter, shows

39

## iven later ch higher

exPected

E.

(t

than this value. The tY to record the peak w and very local character of the wave'

duration

o r|

; ea
'6i 0.
;iq )e -q a

t-u

.9

o
+

o t

t e

i,>
o

x.=

q
\r
+

6b

l9c Sq

o 3! OL t0

## Croni ongla, deg olc

nl
(\

EE -U a

Pressure-crank-angle diagrams take.with MIT point-by-point.indicator;, by ethyt nitrite' (Sloan en-gire- lzoo rpm, (a) wtoui"io"iion. () Wirh detonation induced Automotive Laboratores.)

Fie.2-5.

CFR

8c

*YO
o0

[P (<
o

d
I

d3
EL

-9
o
o

q
I

oh AF

,o. \-

,o

t3
I

.9

.x
./)

{
d
I

l*

40

## DETONATION AND I'REICNITION

DF]TONATION

has not yet been consumed in the normal llame-front reaction. When detonation occurs, it is because compression o[ the end gas by expansion of the burned part of the charge raises its temperature and pressure to the point where the end gas autoigntes. lf the reaction of autoignition is sufficiently rapid and a sufficient amount of end gas is involved, detonation
can be observed.

detonatron.

neavy

and fficiency

## thereby causing either local melting of the material or softening to such a

causes eroston. Because of objectionable noise, likelihood of preignition, or the possibility of serious damage, detonation is an intportant facf or limiting the outpul

of carburated spark-ignition engines. Without detonation, higher compression ratios could be used, giving higher efficiency and output, or else higher inlet pressures could be used in supercharged engines, giving increased output. These facts account for the continued efforts to discover and to produce fuels that have reduced detonation tendencies (Chapter 4), and to develop cylinder and induction-system designs that reduce the tendency to detonate.
Detonation Theory The Autoignition Theory.*
is due to autoignition
+

End-Gas Reaction and Pressure Waves. The creation of pressure waves by a rapid reaction in a part ofthe gases within a closed space is explained by the fact that the reaction, if it takes place with sufficient rapidity, will take place at nearly constant volume. (Because of the inertia of the gas, an instantaneous reaction would evidently take place at exactly constant volume.) Such a reaction will result in a high local pressure, and the portion of the gas in question will subsequently expand rapidly, sending a pressure wave across the chamber. This pressure wave will be reflected from the walls, and a wave pattern of a type predictable by acoustic theory (2.05) will be established quickly. Calculation of Limiting Local Pressure. In Chapter 5 of Volume I (pp. 109-l12) a fuel-air cycle with progressive burning olach element of the charge at constant pressure is described and illustrated. Figure 2-7 shows a fuel-air cycle where that element of the charge which burns last, burns a1 constant uolume. For this theoretical cycle it is assumed that the end gas is a very small fraction of the charge. This end gas is first compressed by the compression stroke and then by the normal combustion of the maln body of the charge until point 2" is reached, that is, a pressure equal to the maximum pressure of the normal cycle with the temperature of adiabatic compression from point 1. At point 2",letit be assumed, combustion of this small end-gas element occurs instantaneously. Instantaneous combustion also means combustion al conslant uolume. By using the assumptions of the fuel-air cycle, the appropriate thermodynamic chart (C-l and C-4 of Volume I) gives for conditions at the beginning and end of this combustion
process:

p'!;

p';

f Ti'

1520'R 5330"R

It

of the

## t,nd gas, which is that part of the charge which

These values represent high limits for the cycle in question. In an actual detonating cycle, not only is the peak pressure of normal burning lower but also combustion in the end gas can never be quite instantaneous. Both ofthese effects tend to give a peak pressure lower than that calculated for Fig. 2 7. The indicator diagrams of Fig. 2-5 were taken under conditions sinlilar

Ths theory was proposed by Ricardo about 1922 (2.02) and was based on sontc work u,ith an early rapid-contpression lachinc (2 0l ) and on observations with regard to the rclaton of the aLrtoigniton tentperatLtre o[ lLrels and their tendency to detonate At that tin']e ir uas probably not realized that the end gas could aLrtoignitc u,thout giving rse to detonation.

In part of that figure, with detonation, the peak pressure is much higher than in part a, without detonation. Thus the general relation predicted by the calculation is conflrmed. Also, it is evident that the expanslon

36

## DETONATION AND PREIGNITION

maximum pressure of the cycle. At this point the normal cycle shows a smooth change in pressure, while the detonatin-e cycle shows severe pressure fluctuations, indicating a vibratory motion of the gases. Figure 2-3 shows three flame traces taken through a slot window in the cylinder head (see Fi-e. l-7). The upper flame trace is typical of normal combustion, while the lower two are typical of detonating combustion. Again, the diagrams are very similar from ignition to a point gear the end of flame travel. For the detonating diagram the flame slows down for a brief period near the end of the flame travel; this period is followed by a nearly vertical trace, indicating a very high rate of reaction near the end of combustion. ln the lower photograph, vibrations of the gas can be inferred from the motions of incandescent particles near the center of the combus-

have been the same in both cases. must have been local in character and due to pressure waves' ln this figure the maximum wave pressure recorded with detonation was about 620 psia, or 55 per cent higher than the maximum pressure without

## DETONATION 37 The higher pressure that is recorded

in Diagram

tion chamber.
The character of the flame traces of Fig. 2-3 is explained by Fig.2-4, which shows six series of flame photographs taken through a transparent cylinder head while the engine was detonating. In each case the development of a nucleus of ffame ahead of the flame front is evident at a moment when the flame has traversed about two thirds to three fourths of the chamber. It will be noted that after the detonation flame appears, the next photograph shows complete or nearly complete inflammation, indicating the rapidity with which this portion of the charge burns. In series a, b, and c the ffame nucleus of detonation appears to be well separated from the flame front, while in e andf it appears as an excrescence from the front itself. Such variations seem to be characteristic of the process, as is also a wide variation in the sound intensity from cycle to cycle. Often two or more nuclei appear ahead of the ffame front, and sometimes the reaction is so rapid that the development of flame nuclei occurs between eiposures and the chamber appears completely filled with flame in the next picture.* Local Pressures with Detonation. There is much evidence to indicate that the peaks of the pressure waves associated with detonation can be very high. Figure 2-5 shows indicator diagrams taken with an averaging or point-by-point indicator, a being taken without detonation and with detonation brought about by a change in fuel. Again, the diagrams are nearly identical up a point near the end of flame travel. Since there was no change in power, the average pressure on the piston during expansion must
* Some work with photographs taken at ultrahigh speeds [4O,000 to 200,000 frames per second (2.26-2.27)] has been interpreted as indicating that the reactons causing detonation may sonretimes occttr behinclthe flame front, presumably in a part ofthe charge that has been only partially consunred by normal combustion Since in these particular tests mixing of the fuel and air was inconrplete (because ol the use of fuel injection rather than of a prenrixed charge) the reaction that appeared behind the observed flame front probably took place in portions ofthe mixture thal had been surrounded by thc flarle blrt not yet burned. Alternatively, the flanrc front observed nray.' have been the rst stage of the "step reaction" sho\4n ln Fie.

## Fig.2-3. Flame-trace photographs taken by means of the apparatus of Fig, l-7'.(a) No

detonation (normal combuson); () detonation: (c) detonation. Bright spot is the ignirion soark. (Sloan Automotve Labora(ories.)

(c)

2-tt, p. 47).

F o 040 F

DETONATION

47

o60

0056

00

0.t20

r80

O.l40

Lry
Run no

lsooctone: Tt:

l50 'F,

2 30,

Pl= l4.7psio
F Fi o.030 o.40

to8

93

oo75

oo

## Fig.2-1f. Pessure-time record with flame.photographs from the rapid-compression machine

of Fie.2-9. Note two-stagp or step reaction (2.21).

133

o,|o ol30

r46

t56

t72

In the first thee curves the reaction is completed by a process so rapid that the recordifg apparatus is set into rapid vibratory motion. Comparison of the recorded vibration frequency and the computed natural frequency of pressure waves in the
pressure rise completing the process.

ry
Fig.2-10.

Bcnene:

## Tr' l50 "F, r:12 30' P'l4.7psio

from tbe rapid-compression machine of Fig. 2-9.

Pressure-time records

through a glass window forming the lower end, or head, of the combustion cylinder.

with two different fuels. In each record the piston started to move at I and reached the end of its stroke at .8.* Some time after the end of the piston stroke the pressure in each case starts to rise because of chemicl reaction. Presumably the point of maximum pressure is that at which chemicl reaction is complete. The rate of pressure rise, or the slope of the curve at any point, is an indication of the rate of chemical reaction. Although the curves of Fig. 2-10 all indicate'a rapid reaction within our definition of the term, they show quite different characteristics. The upper group shows a period of little pressure rise followed by a rapid
r The seating of the piston at B causes the cylinder head small oscillations in the pessure record at this point.

## to vibrate, and this

causes the

chamber indicates that these vibrations are gaseous. The lower group of curves (for benzene) shows a pressure rise that has a more uniform rate, without any extremely rapid phase. The latter type ofreaction has been found to be characteristic ofbenzene-air mixtures, which ae well known to be very resistant to detonation in engines. All of the pressure-time curves of Fig. 2-10 are of a type that fits the chain-reaction theory; that is, they all show a reaction rate which increases rapidly with time. In the case of isooctane the chains presumably take more time to start than in the case of benzene, but when they do start, they develop much more rapidly. Flame Photographs of Autoignition. Figure 2-1 I represents a series of frames from motion pictures taken of flame development in the combustion chamber of the rapid-compression machine, correlated with simultaneous pressure record. The most striking feature of these photographs is the fact that, even though the mixture is gaseous and as nearly homogneous as it seems possible to make it, the reaction is extremely nonuniform with respect to position in the chamber. The early stages ofreaction are characterized by the appearance of bright spots at vaious points in the charge. Additional spots appear as the reaction proceeds, while between the spots the gas spontaneously becomes luminous. The luminosity appearing

88

'ftie t'HRt,ll

pHASES

oF

coMBUSTron

g9

## of inconrplete mixing of fuel with air and of incomplete fuel vaporization.

DEFINITIONS

such photographs which show the progress of the spray, the formation of ignition points (1, B) in the spray envelope (where the fuel-air ratio is

In order to simplify the discussion, the following terms are defined: Injection time. The time elapsed between the start of spray into the
cylinder and the end of flow from the nozzle. Injection angle. The crank angle between the start and end of injection. Delay period. The time between start of injection and fust appearance

becomes was

## of flame or pressure rise.

Delay angle. The crank angle corresponding to the delay periodshows that the delay angle based on pressure rise is the same as that based on appearance of flame.

Figure

3-l

se tion to fl the general in the next fram l/1250 sec after ignitio much higher than that
a injection and evaporation were completed.

evident.

er that,

rise is
before

## PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE COMBUSTION PROCESS

High-speed motion pictures of the combustion process in Diesel engines have been made by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and

others (3.1l-3.192) through transparent windows in the cylinder. These photographs show the progress of the fuel spray and the development of flame within the combustion chamber. Figure 3-2 reproduces a series of

## THE THREE PHASES OF COMBUSTION

5678
th; NACA Compression-ignition apparatus. Delay period shorter than injection period;,4
first appearance offlame;
-B is second flame nucleus;

Fig,3-2. High-speed motion pictures taken through the glass-sided combustion chamber of
is

90

COMBUSTION

IN DIESEL

ENGINES

## THE THREE PHASES OF COMBUSTION

9l

Inieclon perod

Fig.

3<.

Pressure-crank angle diagrams showing the three stages of combustion. (a) corre() corresponds to Fig. 3-3 with del ion stage; 2 : period of rapid comge: Dashed line is compression and wi 7 x 178 mm) cylinder, 72O rpm, jacket temp, 150"F (66'C), 0.00025 lbm fuel per stroke (3.14).

must be remembered that each droplet is surrounded by vapor immediately after entering the combustion chamber. It therefore seems to the author that reactions must start in the vapor surrounding the drop surfaces almost simultaneously with the entrance of each drop into the cylinder. This view
Fig. 3-3. Similar to Fig. 3-2, except that delay period is longer than injection period. Numbers indicate degrees before top center; I indictes start of flame 14' btc; injection ends 24" btc (3.14).

The Delay Period. The delay period in Diesel engines, often called the ignition lag, apparently corresponds to the period ofpreminary reactions

that occur prior to the appearance of flame in the autoignition of premixed charges, as discussed in Chapter 2. It has been postulated by som; authorities that the delay period in compression-ignition engines may
include a period of heating the fuel droplets before any chemical reaction occurs (3.21-3.23,3.53, 3.55, 3.56). ln evaluating this theory, however, it

## to Tests. chemical factor

occurs prior

combustion rate of drops is limited by their evaporation rate. Burning rate decreases as the fraction of oxygen in the surrounding air decreases. These observations help to explain that part of Diesel combustion which Bomb
he drops.

108

## DETONATION IN THE DIESEL

ENGINE l(D

O-l (\

.3
h q

six-orifice Dozzles. Distribution of the ffame appears to be good in the case of the 16-orifrce nozz)e, but its poor performance indicates slow mixing, probably because of insufficient spray penetration with consequent slow mixing in the third stage. These results emphasize the enormous influence of mixing and distribution on the combustion process. Ignition Aids. Because of the advntages of a short delay angle, many devices and methods have been proposed or used to shorten the delay and promote easier starting with a particular fuel and engine. Ignition-quality additives such as amyl nitrate (Chapter 4) are effective delay shorteners. Tble 3-3. Efects of Nozde Design, from Figs. 3-16 and 3-17

tr .9

|o AO

.A

I o 6

Nozzle

rype

Delay,

., *?'i#"3"J,0.*
0.008 in.

Crankshaft
Degrees

Max
Pressure,

psi

Approx Max
dpldt psi/deg

a,*

ai

Single-orifice

.9

o c, o

N N

g
.9
I

.;
o I o

o C o

N N

= o
.=

F '

"E
"'6

E t{ .9
E

## in. 0.040 in.

0.02O

Multiorifice

t6
Data from

20 13 13 12 14

20

545 690

745
800 650

89 115 77

A.71

;
0.?9 0.63 0.47

0.t2

30 90 90 45

ret

3.1?.

.o o
F

ortr

An addition of a few per cent of lubricating oil (which has a relatively low ignition temperature) is said to be similarly effective. Such ignition aids are not yet generally used, probably because a fuel of adequate ignition quality is cheaper than one of poorer quality plus the additive.

a I

.o

lL

## Limitations on Maximum Pressure and Rate of Pressure Rise in Diesel Engines

the stress and vibration produced by a given pressure increase as the rate

of

sure following

106

COMBUSTION

IN

DIESEL ENCINES

107

l!

o
E

J o

## Cronl ongl., de9 olc o t

Fig, !15. Effect of jacket temprature on pressure-{riank angle-diagram. NACA 5 x 7 in. cylinder; 570 rpm; : 14.8; F :0.75. ,4, injection starts, 20'btc; , injection starts, 10" b!c; temprature 150'F (66"C) (Rothrock - - - - jacket temperature 3m'F (149'C);-ld onjacket

.l

the delay period. Thus, supercharging is actually favorable to low rates of pressure rise and to maximum pressures lower in proportion to inlet pressure than is the case th the same engines unsupercharged. As we have seen, the reverse is true for spark-gnition engines. In Diesel engines, therefore, no definite limit to supercharging is st by combustion characteristics. In practice, superchuging limits must be set by the less easily determined characteristics ofreliability and durability. Excessive supercharging reduces these characteristics because of high maximum cylinder pressures and high rates of heat flow. Spray Characteristics. The physical characteristics of the fuel spray in relation to the size, shape, and detail design of the combustion chamber can have an enormous effect on the pressure--crank-angle diagram of Diesel engines. One of the most important and most difficult aspects of the development of a new Diesel engine is that of determining the optimum

0
'=
E

0,

.9

:
I

3E
|r)E6 Ot f, .i !l co
oOE o

o.2

q,

F^ fr;

.9
!
I

.9 .o
.
I

s <jE
ild

8!

d E9

.'
I

,S-v

o g o

o ot o o

; oo

g.d
c9

NE o

'Es

EO

't

spray characteristics from the point of view of power and efficiency without at the same time incurring excessive rates of pressure rise and high ma(imum pressures. The optimum spray characteristics vary with combustion-chamber size and design. Figures 3-16 and 3-17 and Table 3-3 show the effect of a wide variety of spray characteristics with one particular combustion chamber. The start of injection was at l5'before top center in every case. The very poor atomization of the first two nozzles caused a relatively long delay period, probably because of the slow development of very fine droplets' but for the other nszzles the delay tended to remain constant. The maximum rate of pressure rise and the maximum pressure are highest for those nozzles that give the best distribution of the fuel, that is, for the two- and

q
o

I
\o
rrt
00

224

FUEL tNJEcrroN

## FUEL INJECTION FOR DIESEL ENGINES

225

Physical Characteristic

Symbol
d
size

Dimensions

## Cone angle near the nozzle

Average drop diameter

Fraction of drops of a given in the spray envelope Length of the visible spray

L
I

x v

L be

## By using dimensional analysis, we

see

related to the characteristics of the fluid, air, and nozzle in the following way:
o

## that the parameter d can

Spray Formation

Similarly, the ratios x, df D, and yl D will be functions @, , O. , and On of the same group of dimensionless ratios. In this case, in addition to the Reynolds number upDlpg", we have a number covering the influence of surface^tension, yf pu, and also the ratios of air density and viscosity to
those of the fuel.

''

(@*"'

## k'*, ' ' ^"

'

R")

/-))

Symbol

Dimensions

Streanr vcfocity at nozzle exit Fluid viscosity Fluid surface tension Fluid density Air viscosity Air density Nozzlb dianleter Design ra(ios of nozzle

tt

Ll-

## F p" P' DL Rt,..., R,

o"-'

FL-'t

,t-t
I

FL-21

ML- r

The elastic characteristics of the fluid, as expressed by its sonic velocity, probably have littre influence on the charater of the rree sfiay-unae.

The physical characteristics ofa spray are usualry characterizd by one or more of the following measures:

## A'IjI DNSItY: {?tl

Fig. 7-5. Sprays at various air densities. Injection pressure 250 psi (17.6 kg/cmr), orifice diam 0.020 in, (0.51 mm), No. I Diesel oil, see Table 7-t (Lee and Spencer, i.Z3).

226

FUEL INJECTIoN

## FUEL INJECTION FOR DIESEL ENGINES

)11

It is usually more convenient to measure the fluid pressure p upstream from the nozzle orifice than the velocity z. In this case, from Bernoulli's
is ps
NS

permit o
Effect density r density near zero, thejet ofoil does not break up within the length photographed. - The effect of p"lp on drop-size distribution is plotted in Fig. 7-6.Typical values of this ratio in Diesel engines are from 0.015 to 0.05. within this range the effect on drop size appears to be small.

of fuel

(o

bl

Re = ll5O

Re = 73o

o
A30

oo5

olomm

iro
B
q;

I z \' t/

oo5l oo26

\4/

r
o

/t

\ \\ \ \

Potp, o or

## o.ool o.oo2 0003 oo4

Group meon diomeler, in

0.005

(c) tooo

Fig.7-4. Atomization measred by drop counts as a function of density^ratio pJp. Fuel density, 6O lbm/cu ft (960 kg/m); injection pressure 4l4O psi (29O kg/cm2) (Lee'1'52)'

velocity u. In Fig. 7-'l the air density was only one atmosphere. Figure 7-8 compares spray atomization at different Reynolds numbers at an air density more representative of Diesel-engine conditions. Effect of Surface Tension. Figure 7-9 shows sprays with different liquids at identical injection pressures and air densities. Since these liquids differ in all their physical properties (Table 7-l) it is difficult to assign the observed

Effect of Reynolds Number. Figures 7-7 and 7-8 show that increasing the Reynolds number, upDlpg", increases the tendency of the fuel jet to break up into small elements. The variable used to change the Reynolds number was the oil pressure upstream from the nozzle, which varies the

Re = 4600 Flg,,7-7. Effect of Reynolds number (injection pressure varied) on spray formation. Orifice diam 0.008 in. (O.22 mm); air density I atm; distance from nozAe 3 in. (79 mnr); No. I Diesel oil, see Table 7-l (Lee and Spencer, 7.23).

in. Re = 23OO
tb per sq

## (d) 4OOO 4ooo

lb tb per sq in

spray differences to any one term in Eq. 7-5. However, the alcohol and water sprays have nearly the same density and Reynolds number, so that the difference in their spray patterns are largely attributable to the effect of surface tension on the termyf pu of Eq. 7-5. Evidently the fact that th suface tension of alcohol is about one third that of water (see Table 7- I ) is responsible for the far finer atomization of the alcohol spray. In the range of Diesel oils used in practice, differences in surface tension are negligible. Effect of Nozzle Design on Spray Characteristics. Figure 7-10 shows various nozzle designs investigated by the NACA. The plain-orifice and

e m r

z
o
-l

z
Go solne

Ethyl olcohol

## Diesel fuel No. 2

Lubricoling oil

Fig. 7-9; Sprays with various liquds, Injeclion pressure 1500 psi (106 kg/cm'z); orifice diam 0.020 in. (0.51 mm); air density nozde 5 in. (127 mm). See Table 7-l for other data (Lee and Spencer, Z.23).

I atm;

distance from

o
t

:.
@

F's :
CE <=' a6'

; o
9Z :. 6'! oo ff q g
@

EF
-. o 3N

,J -@

:. o J

86'
J N

?. :
T
o
=. I

q. d

r! |.

so

o o ='

z
o o

:S
qf

o -l

rll

t!

FA
!!

g,
'f

J9 p='

e
?
!LF o

!!

z a z r

9,
@

232

FUEL INJECTION

## FUEL INJECTION FOR DIESEL ENGINES

4Q

233

oo
o( )o8n, no lzte

O.l5

mm

/ \

=20

'v

lt I
//
o

/ 4

\ \

ozc

ozzle
I

t
14 olm Sproys from o ploi nozzle; orfce domefer, 0.O60 in.; orifice lnqlh, O.l8O in. I olm 6 olm 14 olm Sproys from o pinlle nozzle wilh lhe volveslem mof ion limiled lo 0.046 in.

or

## 0.ool o oo2 0.oo3 0.oo4 0.oo5

Group meon diometer, in,

0.006

(a)

Hord sproys

Fig. 7-r3. Atomization as a function of nozzle diameter, plain nozzles, hard sprays. lnjection pressure 3913 psi (275 kglcm2). Reynolds number is pioportional to nozzle lm (z.sz).

lolm

l4olm

## Sproys from o cenlrifugol nozztE

() sott sptoys

4. Divided combustion chambers can usually be made to give satisfactory performance with a single nozzle. Inlet-induced swirl is not necessary with divided chambers. 5. Spray duration at full load should not exceed about 30 crank degres. 6' Multiple injections, such as those caused by needle bunce, sould be avoided as far as possible. 7. As for the effects of different physical characteristics of the fel on

Fig.7-ll.

OO5 _4t20

OIO

Ol5
|

mm

;3
>: OO oo

,/
/1
o

K
-v0

l-

- Plo -2280

trrl ol n Drov
s

tlll

lb per sq-i t.

S
0 006

Pilot Injection

## o ool o oo2 003 0,oo4 0 005 Group meon diomeiel, in

as recorded by drop-size counts

## from hard (plain) and soft (centrifugal)

In an attempt to secure the advantages of a small fuel quantity during the delay period without sacrifice in over-all performance, numerous systems of pilot injection have been proposed. Pilot injecton is defined as injection of a small fraction of the fresh fuel early in the injection period,
the remainder of the fuel being injected as in conventional injection systems.

## sprays (Lee, 7.52).

3t2

ENGINE MATERIALS

STRUCTIJRAL MATERIALS

313

(b)

a
o

\{.) -({
(e)

X
g6

;
30 ,i
?o

g3

o4

q5

g6 Slress cycles

t0

o7

g9

(o) Monel melol, dB:63 kg/mm2 (bl O.l87"C-steet,qA= 47kq/mm2 (c) Nictret,or= 53 k9/mm2 (d) Refined Durol, or: 46kq/mm2 (e) Pure oluminum, oa=17kg/mm2 (l) pine wood,qB =17kg/mmz

Fig. 9-3,

S-\

diagrams (lower limit of test points) for various materials in evesed bending, o is the ultimate tensile stress (Matthaes, 9.202).

## Fig.9-f. Fatiguefailureof automobilecrankshaft. A:startof fractureinfillet;B:"beach

marks" typical ofcrack progress under intermittent operaton; C: lineoffinal suddenfailure. (Corttesy L.ssell.s and A.ssociales, Inc., Woltham, Mass.)

o90
.E eo
=

Figure 9-3 shows lower boundaries of S-N plots for various materials. that three of these materials (steel, pure aluminum, and wood) show a definite endurance limit ot fatigue limit,* that is, a stress below which failure does not occur even after 108 or lOe cycles. This type of curve js characteristic of most ferrous metals but is not typical for the common nonferrous metals, including the alum.inum alloys. For materials that do not show a definite fatigue limit of this kind, the nominal fatigue limit is taken as the no-failure stress at an arbitrary number of cycles, usually 108. Thus, according to Fig. 9-3 the fatigue limits for these particular specimens are as follows:

It will be noted

670
o
.at^\

Fatigue Limit

b60
I

Material

kg/mm2

ksi'
38.2 35.5
27.O

350
o
,o

\3

.-g

## . StEiFunores r Univ, of lll a Univ of lll.

30
to3 ga
n5

Enduronce lmit

a. b. c. d. e. I
+

Monel metal Steel (low carbon) Nickel Aluminum (Dural) Aluminum (pure) Wood (pine)

27 25 19 t2 .5 4
7

## 17.0 10.6 5.7

o6

Cycles lo foilure

+ These

## The symbol ksi stands for thousands of will be so used

lig.9

2. S-N diagrarn for steels of varying tensile strength. Each point records the failure of one specimen in thc rotatng-beam lest (Almen,9.205).

## two terms are used interchangeably throughout the literature in English.

ENGINE MATERIALS

the various types of cast Figure 9-25 shows -typical -i"t1t:,t^t::t1t"^t-of is an important iron. Maintenance ot the approprrate - mlcrostructure .t.-.ttt in quality control of this material'

ALUMNUM y5
ALUMINUM
specifications and physical and chemical characteristics of aluminum alloys suitable for usL in internal e.00, section Outstanding characteristics

'4st46o,t9seth of
on

;J:f#t#r:'j
i:

3 and

[8|fJt::r:"i]n'.t,onor

3. 4'

^1. 2.

## die casting), forging, and machining

In

5. Good bearing characteriscs against steel or iron. Disadvantages, for most purposes, include: 6. High thermal expansion coefficient 7. Low hardness 8. Adverse effects of high temperature on strength (Fig. 9_9) 9' cost of raw material(somewhat higher tnan"iron oi'carn

lt:r"Tt.
I

engines, characteristics l-5 make aruminum especially suitabre for cylinder heads, and bearing surfaces, in spite oi'airualnt"g.,
s than 6_in. (152_mm) bore use cast-

steer).

3l}'"'.',"J:l

"tiulo,'lll*.r

co,,n.

This adv_antage is especially impor (uslng oil or water circulation) is operation, as in aircraft and Diese forged (see Chapter ll).
Where light.engine weight

aluminum is used for cvlinder These are usually brrt , "arg with forged aluminum heads and
(c) Peorlilc molleoble
BHN . 163 -2O7
rron

## acourtesy : Molleoble Founders Socly

MAGNESIUM
Fig. 9-25. Typical cast-iron microstructures'

## in Tables i:i ii'g.

46

ENGINE DESIGN

II

ENCINE ILLUSTRATIONS

441

Fig.11-12. 1983 Caterpillaf 3306 six-cylinder truck engine, 638 cu in. (10.5 liters). Bore 4.75 in., stroke 6.0 in. Typical heavy-duty supercharged and aftercooled Diesel engine' Open (DI)
combustion chamber, water-cooled aftercooler. Sturdy, simple design. See also Tables l1-1. (Courtesy Caterpillar Tractor Company )

l0-8 and

6 V engine, 1983. Usually turbosupercharged, with geareach cylinder operating with very high oment balanced by counterweights on camshafts. Four poppct exhaust valves. Made with 6, 8, 12, and l6 cylinders. See also Tables l0-8 and ll-1. (Courtesy General Motors Corporation, Defioit Diesel Allson Division.)
series 71

ENCINE DESIGN

II

-_

__i_r3,_o,'

-|l) l

Fig.

ll-19. Fai

## to the ctegory exhaust/inlet por connected to main crankshaft by a train

steel frame. Introduced 1965

Special leatures:

of

## heavy spur gears. Nodular-iron crankshaft, welded

in'I-, V-8, and V-12 versions. See also Tables (C o ur t e s y Fai r ba nk s- M or se, I nc.)

l0-ll

and

lt-8.
453

ttl
i

I
i,

474

ENGTNE DESIGN

tI
2. No
3.

CYLINDER

DESIGN

475

ii

ti ti

lil

il, llll
ri,,

2. Separation of functions of heat flow and load-carrying (Fig' Il-26c and Volume I, Fig. 8-7) 3. Use of separate cylinder heads on en-bloc cylinder assemblies 4. Combined with I to 3, substitution of aluminum for iron. This device
is not generally used for authoito be worth deve aircraft engines indicates tions of heavy loads and rapid heat flow.
s

portion of the cylinder head, or barrel down as far as the position of the piston rings at bottom center, should be unfinned. Fins should be oriented in the direction of air ffow.

## 4. Fins should be as deep and as closely spaced as possible, considering

liii
1i

material under condi-

ii
rll:

lii

## A final method the'tread arrangement, Fig. I

eliminate
(2 crankshafts) and

Problem is to
opposed-piston relatively costly

the material and manufacturing process used' The large air-cooled aluminum fins on their cylinder aircraft engin and spaced as close as 0.20 in. heads as dee (2.5 mm)' However, such finning (5 mm) with ustified only for engines of very ad to be ma high specific output.

Air-Cooled Cylinder Design As previously stated, air.cooling is impractical for cylinders larger than about 6-in. (150-mm) bore. The substitution of cooling fins for water jackets usually involves sep-

## casestheboresarenitridedtoincreasetheirwearresistance(10'844,10.847' 10.850-10.854, ll.30l), Fins on these barrels may be integrally mchined,

desie[ (eft) givis priority to gas flow considerations. Exhaust port compromises ffow fbr the sa-ke of cooling the valve. Head-f n area is over ffty times piston area, with cast fins. Late versions had machined fuls with even larger area. (Courtesy Wright Aeronaut ical Corp.)

I"i"t p".t

Fig.ll-27. Cylinder head, inlet and exhaust ports of Wright "Cyclone" aircraft

engine.

IIr
I

For engines cylindei bar frnned castwith cooling systems. The basic principles involved are:
6.

i
I
t

## rolled on the barrel (see Figs. l1-7,

the exhaust side "uPwind."

## Air flow should

ll-8, and 1l-27). be directed at right angles to the cylinder axis, with

## to the consist either of a Y m rings Pressed or

Y fins aPPed

ill tti
i:il
lLri ilL,l

l.

llil il,l

Cooling fins must be placed as close as possible to the critical sources of heat input, including especially: exhaust-valve seats, exhaust ports, spaces between ports and valves, spark-plug bosses, and exhaust-port bridges of 2-cycle engines.

In the past, various types of applied finning have been used on cylinder heads. Aii flow parallel to the cylinder axis has also been used. Experience has shown these methods to be inferior to finning integral with the cylinder head and to flow in the radial direction.

il

J:it ill

490

ENGINE DESIGN

II

CONNECTING RODS

491

geometry of piston motion is different from that of the master rod and varies

with the angle chosen between the planes intersecting the crankpin and the link pin and the center line of the master rod, that is, the link-pin angle. With this angle the same as the V angle, the stroke will be the same as that of the master rod, but the top center will come at a crank angle not quite at crank alignment with the cylinder axis. With the link-pin angle such that the top center of the link-rod piston will coincide with the top center of the crank, the stroke will be longer than in the master-rod cylinder. Either system gives satisfactory engine performance, provided the compression ratio is held constant by suitable positioning of cylinders with respect to the crankshaft axis. The design of first-class forked or articulated connecting rods requires
great attention to the minimizing of stress concentrations. It is best carried out with the help of experimental stress analyses, including the brittlelacquer technique. Good designs of forked rods will be found in ref. 10.848. For good articulated-rod design see refs. 10.41 and 10.46. Radial-Engine Rods. In the master-rod system generally used in radial aircraft engines (Fig. l1-34), link-pin angles are equal to cylinder angles, and schedules ofpiston position versus crank angle for the link rods differ from each other and from that of the master rod. These differences are nol

rHS 9,4:i
E=+

gs: 9i
u6 ..;

9..E

=v E' -;
3 x

_Qo9 d

tr

H E# -.2

\$gE -HY * gE
E
6@

is

8:t
E

gE\$

281

great enough

to

## affect cylinder performance measurably, provided the

E:a,S >tsv PE
>J o q?;':! F' ;.E -^*: i E E b

6i-r

compression ratio in all cylinders is held the same by proper positioning of the link pins in the master rod. ln spite of this fact, some designers have gone to more complex systems for the sake of symmetrical piston motion (Fig. I I - I 8 and refs. 10.75, 10.76). In view of the great success of the masterrod system in high-performance aircraft engines, the symmetrical designs seem both unnecessary and undesirable. .In any master-and-link-rod system, the gas and inertia forces on the link-rod elements introduce bending moments on the master rod which can be quite large (ll.60l). The bending strength of the master rod must be considered accordingly. Figure ll-34b shows an improvement in the design of the connectingrod system for a large radial aircraft engine, arrived at largely through stress-coat analysis (ref. 11.102). The improved design is stronger, simpler, and lower in cost than the earlier one. Connecting-Rod Proportions. Tables ll-l through ll-8 show successful ratios of rod length to crank radius, LlR,rangingfrom 3.0 to 5.0. Within these limits, this ratio seems to be dictated by space considerations, including the relative importance of low engine height and the question of intrference with the cylinder bore. The latter factor accounts for the fact that LIR tends to vary in the same sense as stroke-bore ratio. Bolt diameters for the bearing caps, Bf b, are in the rangeof ,t5 of the bore for two bolts and somewhat less with four bolts. The crankpin bearing width/diam ratio, w,f P, can be as small as 0.23. An average figure seems to be about 0.4.

gEE\
d-E

E'E
& ':E 8o I ctrd
^'-6 4F o =..==

E.E

PgE *9 P

Fn 6@-

-ul 5

:E

b6E ';P

:8E .iF. 1g
.*.F ltttr

r6t
F

608

TECHMQI,JES

609

ights at a

## Dynamometer Speed Conftols

Speed Measurement