1.

BASIC PHRASES / LES EXPRESSIONS DE BASE
Bonjour Hello / Good day / Good morning Salut /saly/ Hi / Bye Bonsoir Good evening Bonne nuit n nɥi Good night (only said when going to bed) S'il vous plaît / S'il te plaît il v plɛ Please (formal / informal) Je vous en prie. əv pi You're welcome. (formal) / Go ahead. A tout à l'heure t t lœ See you in a little while A demain əmɛ See you tomorrow Excusez-moi ! /ekskyze mwa/ Excuse me! (getting someone's attention) / I'm sorry! (more formal apology) Très bien / mal / pas mal t ɛ ɛ m l p m l Very good / bad / not bad Oui / non i n Yes / no

Au revoir (ə)v Goodbye

Merci (beaucoup) mɛ i ok Thank you (very much) Bienvenu(e) ɛvən Welcome (also You're welcome in Quebec) A plus tard pl t See you later

De rien. ə ɛ You're welcome.

Allons-y! l i Let's go! A bientôt ɛto See you soon Pardon ! p Excuse me! (pushing through a crowd) / Sorry! (stepped on someone's foot) Je vais bien ə ve ɛ I'm fine. Ça va. /sa va/ I'm fine. (informal response to Ça va ?) Tu t'appelles comment ? t t pɛl k m What's your name? (informal) Monsieur, Madame,

Je suis désolé(e) e le I'm sorry

Comment allez-vous ? k m t le v How are you? (formal) Ça va ? /sa va/ How are you? (informal)

Comment vous appelez-vous ? k m v ple v What's your name? (formal) Enchanté(e)

Je m'appelle... ə m pɛl My name is... Mesdames et Messieurs

te Nice to meet you.

Mademoiselle mə ø m m m ɛl Mister, Misses, Miss Tu es d'où ? / Tu viens d'où ? t ɛ t v ɛ u/ Where are you from? (informal) Tu habites où ? /ty abit u/ Where do you live? (informal) Tu as quel âge ? t kɛl How old are you? (informal)

/medam/ /mesjø/ Ladies and gentlemen

Vous êtes d'où ? / Vous venez d'où ? v ɛt v vəne Where are you from? (formal)

Je suis de... / Je viens de... ə ɥi ə ə v ɛ ə I am from...

Où habitez-vous ? /u abite vu/ Where do you live? (formal)

J'habite à... it I live in...

Quel âge avez-vous ? kɛl ve v How old are you? (formal) Parlez-vous français ? / Tu parles anglais ? p le v ɛ t p l lɛ Do you speak French? (formal) / Do you speak English? (informal) Comprenez-vous? / Tu comprends? k p əne v t k p Do you understand? (formal / informal) Pouvez-vous m'aider ? / Tu peux m'aider ? /puve vu mede/ /ty pø mede/ Can you help me? (formal / informal) Tenez / Tiens təne t ɛ Hey / Here (formal / informal) Où est ... / Où sont ... ? ɛ Where is ... / Where are ... ?

J'ai ____ ans. e I am ____ years old.

Je parle allemand. ə p l lm I speak German.

Je ne parle pas espagnol. ə nə p l p ɛ p ɲ l I don't speak Spanish.

Je comprends ək p I understand

Je ne comprends pas ə nə k p p I don't understand

Bien sûr. ɛ Of course.

Comment ? k m What? Pardon?

Je sais ə ɛ I know Voici / Voilà /vwasi/ /vwala/ Here is/are... / There it is.

Je ne sais pas ən ɛ p I don't know Il y a ... / Il y avait... il i il i vɛ There is / are... / There was / were...

t mə m k I miss you. Je m'ennuie. ə i le I must go.Comment dit-on ____ en français ? k m it ɛ How do you say ____ in French? Ça ne fait rien. or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor. Also notice that . ə m nɥi I'm bored. Ça m'est égal. animals or children. e ɛ e I'm hungry / I'm thirsty. p o Not a whole lot. e o e I'm hot / I'm cold. / Ne t'en fais pas. This is because there is more than one meaning to "you" in French (as well as in many other languages. do not know well. The formal you is used when talking to someone you just met. Je suis fatigué(e) / Je suis malade. e li e I forgot. / Je m'en fiche. / It's alright. Qu'est-ce que c'est que ça ? kɛ kə ɛ kə What is that? Qu'est-ce qui se passe ? kɛ ki ə p What's happening? J'ai faim / J'ai soif. nə v ɛt p nə t ɛ pa/ Don't worry (formal / informal) Je dois y aller. (informal) Notice that French has informal and formal ways of saying things. J'ai chaud / J'ai froid. relatives. used when speaking to more than one person.) The informal you is used when talking to close friends. ə ne ok n i e I have no idea. ə ɥi tiɡe ə ɥi m l I'm tired / I'm sick. nə ɛ ɛ It doesn't matter. mɛ teɡ l ə m i It's the same to me / I don't care. Qu'est-ce qu'il y a ? kɛ kil i What's the matter? Je n'ai aucune idée. A vos souhaits ! / A tes souhaits ! vo ɛ te ɛ Bless you! (formal / informal) C'est à vous ! / C'est à toi ! ɛt v ɛt t It's your turn! (formal / informal) Tu me manques. ə nɛ p v It's no problem. Bonne chance ! n Good luck! Je vous aime / Je t'aime ə v ɛm ə tɛm I love you (formal & plural / informal) Pas grand-chose.) There is also a plural you. for example. (informal) J'ai oublié. Ne vous en faites pas. Félicitations ! eli it Congratulations! Taisez-vous ! / Tais-toi ! tɛ e v tɛ t Shut up! / Be quiet! (formal / informal) Quoi de neuf ? k ə nœ What's new? Ce n'est pas grave.

â papa. [ø] eu rounded queue. Don't forget to check out my video series on informal French expressions and slang vocabulary at theInformal French tutorial 2. although it must appear in written French. the ne is frequently dropped in spoken French. but in most cases. bleu lait. o [ɔ] aw horloge [ə] uh fenêtre. o. However. ô hôtel sol. beurre chat. e. e . it does not change the pronunciation. château loup. eu rounded fleur. é. To make verbs negative. y riz ee rue. outil eau. [i] ee i. French adds ne before the verb and pas after it. ais eh sœur. midi. ami. pomme. œuf. à. nez. lit. then the e is added in spelling. âne. ê. French Vowels Phonetic General IPA Sample words spelling spellings vie. PRONUNCIATION / LA PRONONCIATION For a more indepth look at French pronunciation. cou. If the word refers to a woman or is spoken by a woman. [ɛ] eh reine ei. â [ɑ] longer grâce. try to theFrench Phonetics tutorial. salade bas. [œ] œu. aile. [y] u rounded usine blé. ai. cloche. yeux. pied er and ez ay jeu. [o] oh escargot. balai. [u] oo ou caillou. jus. shown in parentheses. final [e] ay cahier. et.some words take an extra e. tissu. ah a. [a] ah a. dos. è.

exercice eks exceptionnel. aim. cheval. eim. ceinture. o. oing.prefix is pronounceeen before a vowel. un. the in. suisse ui oreille. front in. lundi. ex + vowel ex + consonant ch (Latin origin) ch (Greek origin) ti + vowel (except é) c + e. cerise [ɑ] is disappearing in modern French. Vowels that do not exist in English are marked in blue. ou Louis ew-ee yuh lui. vin. oin. ein. y. oint. om [ ] uhn [ ] ohn [ ] is being replaced with [ɛ] in modern French In words beginning with in-. en. an. i. cube genou. w oi. y IPA [w] [ɥ] [j] French nasal vowels IPA [ ] [ɛ] Phonetic spelling awn ahn Sample words General spelling gant. am. im. car. banc. dent en. archives k orchestre. um. oui. Otherwise. eng. linge brun. y French Consonants egz examen.genou. ongle. ien. parfum rond. expression sh architecte. Mireille ill. maçon caillou. ym. u g + e. archéologie see s k zh démocratie. French semi-vowels Phonetic Sample General spelling words spelling fois. gingembre . éen un on. or ç c + a. a nasal is only used if the next letter is a consonant. aen pain. being replaced by [a]. i. aon. ain. yn. nation cent. yen. em.

but it is never made after et. o. plus. lent(e)ment.. and you usually do not pronounce the final consonant. petits enfants after one syllable prepositions: en avion. . casino six ans. and the forms of être. quoi. Intonation usually only rises for yes/no questions. jus. and f as v in these liaisons. soixante (these 3 only!) There are a lot of silent letters in French. final q h vowel + s + vowel x + vowel final x g t zh k silent z z s gomme. jeune que. thème. shortening the syllables and slurring more words. herbe. thym jambe. . slur the two together as if it were one word. bien) after est It is optional after pas. Liaison: French slurs most words together in a sentence... S and x are pronounced as z. beaux arts six. and all other times. je les ai after a preceding adjective: bon ami. it goes down at the end of the sentence. R.. Liaison is always made in the following cases:       after a determiner: un ami. unless that final consonant is C. de n(e) ən dən j(e) te. ganglion maths. F or L (except verbs that end in -r). c(e) que ʃ kə (no e he ch nge of he pronunci ion of he j as well) Stress & Intonation: Stress on syllables is not as heavily pronounced as in English and it generally falls on the last syllable of the word. des amis before or after a pronoun: vous avez. dix. . /yad/ /pad/ / plyd/ je n(e). grecque haricot..g + a. trop fort.      rapid(e)ment. dans un livre after some one-syllable adverbs (très.. Silent e: Sometimes the e is dropped in words and phrases. d as t. u th j qu. so if a word ends in a consonant that is not pronounced and the next word starts with a vowel or silent h. hasard rose. plus d(e). chez l(e) docteur ul by o ʃel dɔk o il y a d(e). falaise. pas d(e). sauv(e)tage pidm m o sous l(e) bureau.

either masculine or feminine. and you may have to repeat the article in some cases. and -ette are usually feminine. Definite Articles (The) Masculine le lit lə li the bed Feminine la pomme l p m the apple Before Vowel l'oiseau /lwazo/ the bird Plural les gants le ɡ the gloves Indefinite Articles (A. An. -tion. For the most part.3. LES ARTICLES & LES DEMONSTRATIFS All nouns in French have a gender. Masc. Those) Masc. NOUNS. Nouns ending in -ure. Plural . These. And articles have to be expressed even though they aren't always in English. Demonstratives are like strong definite articles. -ence. Before Fem. Articles and adjectives must agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify. That. as are nouns ending with a consonant. -ance. but there are some endings of words that will help you decide which gender a noun is. -té. you must memorize the gender. ARTICLES & DEMONSTRATIVES / LES NOMS. Some) Masculine un lit œ li a bed Feminine une pomme np m an apple Plural des gants eɡ some gloves Demonstrative Adjectives (This. -sion. ALPHABET / L'ALPHABET a /a/ b /be/ c /se/ d /de/ e f g h i /i/ ə ɛ ɜ j i s t ɛ /te/ k /ka/ l ɛl u /y/ v /ve/ w x /iks/ y z i ɛk ɛ ləve m ɛm n ɛn o /o/ p /pe/ q /ky/ r ɛ 4. Nouns ending in -age and -ment are usually masculine.

le pèze. comme ça pas mal le livre le crayon le stylo le papier le chien le chat l'argent (m) ɛ /vwala/ /e/ mɛ mɛtn t /sof/ ɛ k m i. 5. 6.Vowel ce lit ə li this/that bed cet oiseau ɛt o this/that bird cette pomme ɛt p m this/that apple ces gants eɡ these/those gloves If you need to distinguish between this or that and these or those. Il y a cinq minutes means five minutes ago. USEFUL WORDS / LES MOTS UTILES It's / That's There is/are and but now especially except of course so so not bad book pencil pen paper dog cat money c'est voilà et mais maintenant surtout sauf bien sûr comme ci. des sous and for job/work: le boulot. For example. Some common slang words for money include: le fric. le pognon. When il y a is followed by a number. while ce litlà is that bed. k m /pa mal/ lə liv lə k ɛ lə tilo lə p p e lə ɛ lə l There is/are Here is/are always often sometimes usually also. it means ago. and -là to the end of the noun for that and those. too again late almost friend (fem) friend (masc) woman man girl boy job / work il y a voici toujours souvent quelquefois d'habitude aussi encore en retard presque une amie un ami une femme un homme une fille un garçon le travail /il i a/ /vwasi/ t v kɛlkə /dabityd/ /osi/ k ət p ɛk /y nami/ œ n mi /yn fam/ œn m /yn fij/ œ lə t v The expression il y a is reduced to y a in everyday speech. ce lit-ci is this bed. you can add -ci to the end of the noun for this and these. SUBJECT PRONOUNS / LES PRONOMS SUJETS Subject Pronouns .

je tu ə /ty/ I You (informal) He She One nous /nu/ We You (formal and plural) They (masc. Future Tense of être .) They (fem. On can be translated into English as one. the people. while vouvoyer means to use vous or be formal with someone.) vous /vu/ ils /il/ elles ɛl il /il/ elle ɛl on Il and elle can also mean it when they replace a noun (il replaces masculine nouns. Tutoyer means to use tu or be informal with someone.to be I am You are He is She is One is je suis tu es il est elle est on est ə ɥi t ɛ il ɛ ɛl ɛ nɛ etɛ t etɛ il etɛ ɛl etɛ netɛ We are You are They are They are nous sommes vous êtes ils sont elles sont n v il ɛl m ɛt Past tense of être . or you.to be I was You were He was She was One was j'étais tu étais il était elle était on était We were You were They were They were nous étions vous étiez ils étaient elles étaient n et /vu zetje/ il etɛ ɛl etɛ Je and any verb form that starts with a vowel (or silent h) combine together for ease of pronunciation. they. TO BE & TO HAVE / ETRE & AVOIR Present tense of être /ɛtʀ/ . Tutoyer and vouvoyer are two verbs that have no direct translation into English. we. and elle replaces feminine nouns) instead of a person's name. or to someone you don't know or who is older. or close friends and relatives. Vous is used when speaking to more than one person. Notice there are two ways to say you. 7. Tu is used when speaking to children. Ils and elles can replace plural nouns as well in the same way. animals.to be I will be You will be He will be je serai tu seras il sera t ə ə e ə We will be nous serons n You will be They vous serez ils seront v ə ə e il ə il ə .

the tu forms of verbs that begin with a vowel contract with the pronoun: tu es = t'es ɛ . i i very common to use on (plus 3rd person singular conjugation) to mean we instead of nous. COMMON EXPRESSIONS WITH AVOIR AND ETRE Avoir and être are used in many common and idiomatic expressions that should be memorized: avoir chaud avoir froid avoir peur avoir raison avoir tort v v v v v t pœ ɛ o to be hot to be cold to be afraid to be right to be wrong ɛt ə ət ət être en retard ɛt ɛt être en avance n v être de retour être d'accord être sur le ɛt ɛt k lə to be back to be late to be early to be in agreement to be about to .to have I have You have He has She has One has j'ai tu as il a elle a on a t il ɛl n vɛ t vɛ il vɛ ɛl vɛ n vɛ o e t o il o ɛl o no e We have You have They have They have nous avons vous avez ils ont elles ont n v /vu zave/ il ɛl Past tense of avoir .to have I had You had He had She had One had I will have You will have He will have She will have One will have j'avais tu avais il avait elle avait on avait j'aurai tu auras il aura elle aura on aura We had You had They had nous avions vous aviez ils avaient elles avaient n v /vu zavje/ il ɛl vɛ vɛ Future tense of avoir .She will be One will be elle sera on sera ɛl ə ə will be They will be elles seront ɛl ə Present tense of avoir /avwaʀ/ . e c.to have We will have You will have They will have They will have nous aurons vous aurez ils auront elles auront n v o o e il o ɛl o In spoken French. In ddi ion. u = t'as .

You were early. On est de retour. He will be tired tonight. It is Monday. They will be (in the act of) studying. 8. You were wrong. Nous sommes lundi. J'ai froid. Vous aviez tort. Elles étaient sur le point de partir. CARDINAL NUMBERS / LES NOMBRES CARDINAUX Zero Zéro e o . Ils seront en train d'étudier. Elle sera d'accord. I'm cold. We will be hungry later. Vous étiez enrhumé. You had a cold. They are hot. QUESTION WORDS / LES INTERROGATIFS Who What Why When Where How How much / many Which / what Qui Quoi Pourquoi Quand Où Comment Combien Quel(le) /ki/ /kwa/ p k k /u/ k m k ɛ kɛl 9. Il aura sommeil ce soir.avoir faim avoir soif avoir sommeil avoir honte avoir besoin de avoir l'air de avoir l'intention de avoir envie de avoir de la chance v v v v v ə v v v v ɛ to be hungry to be thirsty mɛ to be sleepy to be ashamed ɛ ə to need to look like. We/you/they/the people are back. You were right. They were about to leave. They were afraid yesterday. She will agree. Ils ont chaud. Elles avaient peur hier. Tu avais raison. Elle a de la chance ! She's lucky! Nous aurons faim plus tard. seem to intend to point de être en train de être enrhumée nous + être (un jour) p ɛ ə ɛt t ɛ to be in the act ə of ɛt me to have a cold ɛt œ to be (a day) t ə ɛ ɛt vi ə to feel like əl to be lucky Je suis en retard! I'm late! Tu étais en avance.

One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen Twenty Twenty-one Twenty-two Twenty-three Thirty Thirty-one Thirty-two Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy (Belgium & Switzerland) Seventy-one Seventy-two Eighty (Belgium & Switzerland) Eighty-one Eighty-two Ninety (Belgium & Switzerland) Un Deux Trois Quatre Cinq Six Sept Huit Neuf Dix Onze Douze Treize Quatorze Quinze Seize Dix-sept Dix-huit Dix-neuf Vingt Vingt et un Vingt-deux Vingt-trois Trente Trente et un Trente-deux Quarante Cinquante Soixante Soixante-dix Septante Soixante et onze Soixante-douze Quatre-vingts Octante Quatre-vingt-un Quatre-vingt-deux Quatre-vingt-dix Nonante œ /dø/ t k t ɛk /sis/ ɛt ɥit nœ /dis/ /duz/ t ɛ k t kɛ ɛ i ɛt i ɥit i nœ vɛ vɛt e œ vɛ ø vɛ t t t t teœ t t ø k t ɛk t t t i ɛpt t te t k t əvɛ kt t k t əvɛ tœ k t əvɛ ø k t əvɛ i n n t .

and pronounced thus: 01 36 55 89 28 = zéro un. their final consonants are not pronounced.00 in English. trente-six. 8. 1. vingt-huit. when the numbers 5. Also. 03. 6. or 06 and 07 for cell phones. Belgian and Swiss French useseptante and nonante in place of the standard French words for 70 and 90 (though some parts of Switzerland usehuitante for 80 and octante is barely used anymore).Ninety-one Ninety-two One Hundred One Hundred One Two Hundred Two Hundred One Thousand Two Thousand Million Billion Quatre-vingt-onze Quatre-vingt-douze Cent Cent un Deux cents Deux cent un Mille Deux mille Un million Un milliard k t əvɛ k t əvɛ tœ ø ø tœ /mil/ /dø mil/ mil mil French switches the use of commas and periods. ORDINAL NUMBERS / LES NOMBRES ORDINAUX first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth twentieth twenty-first thirtieth premier / première deuxième / second troisième quatrième cinquième sixième septième huitième neuvième dixième onzième douzième vingtième vingt et unième trentième . beginning with 01. or 05 depending on the geographical region. They are written two digits at a time.00 would be 1. 04. 02. and 10 are used before a word beginning with a consonant. quatre-vingt-neuf. Phone numbers in France are ten digits. cinquante-cinq.

you must drop it before adding the -ième. such as le lundi= on Mondays. Days of the week are all masculine in gender and they are not capitalized in writing. But if a number ends in an e. MONTHS OF THE YEAR / LES MOIS DE L'ANNEE . Listen to the l'heure & la date : l'emploi du temps mp3 and try the cloze (fill-in-the-blank) exercise from French Listening Resources. except to express something that happens habitually on a certain day. 10.The majority of numbers become ordinals by adding -ième. 11. Listen to the la téléphone : un message mp3 and try the cloze (fill-in-the-blank) exercise from French Listening Resources. After a q. you must add a u before the -ième. And an f becomes a v before the ième. DAYS OF THE WEEK / LES JOURS DE LA SEMAINE Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday day week today yesterday tomorrow next last day before yesterday day after tomorrow the following day the day before lundi mardi mercredi jeudi vendredi samedi dimanche le jour la semaine aujourd'hui hier demain prochain / prochaine dernier / dernière avant-hier après-demain le lendemain la veille lœ i m i mɛ k ə i ø i v ə i /samdi/ im lə l (ə)mɛn o ɥi ɛ əmɛ p ɛ p ɛn ɛ ne ɛ nɛ v tɛ p ɛ mɛ lə l əmɛ l vɛ Articles are not used before days.

such as in May. 12. SEASONS / LES SAISONS Summer Fall Winter Spring l'été l'automne l'hiver le printemps /lete/ lot n livɛ lə p ɛt in the summer in the fall in the winter in the spring en été en automne en hiver au printemps nete not n nivɛ o p ɛt 13." With dates. the ordinal numbers are not used. except for the first of the month: le premier mai but le deux juin.January February March April May June July August September October November December month year decade century millennium janvier février mars avril mai juin juillet août septembre octobre novembre décembre le mois l'an / l'année la décennie le siècle le millénaire ve ev i e m v il mɛ ɥɛ ɥi ɛ /u(t)/ ɛpt kt n v e lə m l l ne /deseni/ lə ɛkl milenɛ To express in a certain month. use en before the month as in "en mai. DIRECTIONS / LES DIRECTIONS on the left on the right straight ahead à gauche à droite tout droit goʃ d w /tu d w North South East le nord le sud l'est lə n lə lɛ t Northeast Northwest Southeast le nord-est le nord-ouest le sud-est lə n ( )ɛ t lə n ( ) ɛ t ɛt . Also note that months are all masculine and not capitalized in French (same as days of the week).

noir foncé remain masculine even if they describe a feminine noun. and compound adjectives: bleu clair. marron. rose. Remember to place the color adjective after the noun. WEATHER / LE TEMPS QU'IL FAIT What's the weather like? It's nice bad cool cold warm.West l'ouest l ɛt Southwest le sud-ouest ɛt 14. such as adjectives that also exist as nouns:orange. COLORS & SHAPES / LES COULEURS & LES FORMES Red rouge on vɛ /blø/ v lɛ v lɛt l m n o e te i i l n vɛ t square circle triangle rectangle oval cube sphere cylinder cone octagon box light dark le carré le cercle le triangle le rectangle l'ovale le cube la sphère le cylindre le cône l'octogone la boîte clair / claire foncé / foncée k e ɛ kl t i ɛkt v l /kyb/ ɛ ilɛ /kon/ kto n /bwat/ klɛ e l l Orange orange Yellow jaune Green vert / verte Blue bleu / bleue Purple violet / violette White blanc / blanche Brown Black Pink Gold Silver Gray brun / brune marron noir / noire rose doré / dorée argenté / argentée gris / grise Some adjectives of color do not change to agree with gender or number. hot cloudy beautiful mild stormy sunny Quel temps fait-il ? Il fait bon Il fait mauvais Il fait frais Il fait froid Il fait chaud Il fait nuageux Il fait beau Il fait doux Il fait orageux Il fait soleil kɛl t ɛ til il ɛ il ɛ m ve il ɛ ɛ il ɛ il ɛ o il ɛ n il ɛ o il ɛ il ɛ il ɛ lɛ . 15.

you must say dixhuit heures trente... The word pile /pil/ is also a more informal way of saying précise (exactly. Il fait humide Il fait lourd Il fait du vent Il fait du brouillard Il neige Il pleut Il gèle Il grêle Il fait ____ degrés. Listen to the le climat: le temps dans les Alpes mp3 and try the cloze (fill-in-the-blank) exercise from French Listening Resources. une heure deux heures midi minuit trois heures et quart une heure précise quatre heures précises midi (minuit) et demi six heures et demie sept heures moins le quart cinq heures vingt onze heures moins dix du matin de l'après-midi du soir kɛl œ ɛ til il ɛ nœ ø œ /midi/ minɥi t œ ek nœ p e i k t œ p ei mi i (minɥi) e əmi i œ e əmi ɛt œ m ɛ lə k ɛk œ vɛ œ m ɛ i m tɛ ə l p ɛmi i Official French time is expressed as military time (24 hour clock. For example. sharp).. /il ɛ mi il ɛ l il ɛ v il ɛ il nɛ /il plø/ il ɛl il ɛl il ɛ ə e Il pleut des cordes il plø de ko d i common expre ion me ning it's pouring. TIME / LE TEMPS QUI PASSE What time is it? It is. And remember that France uses Celcius degrees. when reporting time with the 24 hour system. one o'clock two o'clock noon midnight a quarter after three one o'clock sharp four o'clock sharp twelve thirty six thirty a quarter to seven five twenty ten fifty in the morning/AM in the afternoon/PM in the evening/PM Quelle heure est-il ? Il est. if it is 18h30. .humid muggy windy foggy snowing raining freezing hailing It is ____ degrees. 16.) You can only use regular numbers.. etc. and not demi. quart. Il caille /il kaj/ or ça caille /sa kaj/ is slang for it's freezing.

FAMILY & ANIMALS / LA FAMILLE & LES ANIMAUX Family Relatives Parents Grandparents Mom Stepmother/Mother-inLaw Dad Stepfather/Father-inLaw Daughter Son Sister la famille des parents /famij/ p Niece Nephew Grandchildren p mɛ m m ɛlmɛ pɛ /papa/ opɛ /fij/ /fis/ œ əmi œ ɛl œ ɛl i ɛ əmi ɛ o ɛ Dog Cat Puppy Kitten le chien / la chienne (m) / (f) le chat / la chatte (m) / (f) le chiot le chaton ɛ ɛn t o t la nièce le neveu les petitsenfants nɛ n(ə)vœ p(ə)ti p(ə)tit i p(ə)ti i p ɛ m ɛn i œl i œl p el ɲe eli tɛ m e les parents p les grandsparents la mère / maman la bellemère le père / papa le beaupère la fille le fils Granddaughter la petite-fille Grandson Godfather Godmother Godson Goddaughter Distant Relatives Single Married Separated Divorced Widower Widow le petit-fils le parrain la marraine le filleul la filleule des parents éloignés célibataire marié(e) séparé(e) divorcé(e) veuf veuve la sœur la demiHalf/Step Sister sœur la belleSister-in-Law sœur Stepdaughter/Daughter.la bellein-Law fille Brother le frère le demiHalf/Step Brother frère le beauBrother-in-Law frère Stepson/Son-in-Law Twins (m) Twins (f) Uncle ep e iv vœ vœv e le beau-fils /bo fis/ les jumeaux les jumelles l'oncle mo mɛl kl .Listen to the l'heure & la date : l'emploi du temps mp3 and try the cloze (fill-in-the-blank) exercise from French Listening Resources. 17.

Slang words for people and pets: The entire family Grandma Grandpa Children Kid Woman Man /tut la smala/ /meme/ mémé / mamie /mami/ /pepe/ pépé / papi /papi/ des gosses gɔ un gamin / une g mɛ gamine /gamin/ toute la smala une nana /nana/ ip Sister la frangine Brother le frangin Son Aunt le fiston tata / tatie f f fi ɔ /tata/ /tati/ ɔɔ /kabo/ kleb /minu/ in ɛ Uncle tonton Dog Cat le cabot / clébard le minou un mec / type / mɛk gars g Listen to the animaux : chien ou chat ? mp3 and try the cloze (fill-in-the-blank) exercise from French Listening Resources. . Listen to the la famille : ma famille mp3 and try the cloze (fillin-the-blank) exercise from French Listening Resources.Aunt Grandmother Grandfather Cousin (f) Cousin (m) Wife Husband Woman Man Child (m) / (f) Girl Boy la tante la grandmère le grandpère la cousine le cousin la femme le mari la femme l'homme un enfant / une enfant la fille le garçon t t mɛ pɛ /kuzin/ k ɛ /fam/ m i /fam/ m Pig Rooster Rabbit Cow Horse Duck Goat Goose Sheep Lamb le cochon le coq le lapin la vache le cheval le canard la chèvre l'oie le mouton l'agneau l'âne la souris k k k l pɛ v (ə)v l k n ɛv /wa/ m t ɲo n i /fij/ Donkey Mouse Le gendre d i no her word for on-in-law.

places. If a noun ends in -eu or -eau. books. some irregular . Connaître can be translated several ways into English: Tu connais le film. bal. Je connais ton frère. TO KNOW PEOPLE & PLACES / CONNAITRE & SAVOIR connaître-to know people /kɔnɛtʀ/ connais connais connaît k nɛ k nɛ k nɛ connaissons connaissez connaissent k nɛ k nɛ e k nɛ savoir-to know facts /savwaʀ/ sais sais sait ɛ ɛ ɛ savons savez savent v /save/ /sav/ Connaître is used when you know (are familiar with) people. Les Enfants ? Have you seen the film. détail. There are. But there are some exceptions: If a noun already ends in an -s. we know (are familiar with) Grenoble. we've been to Grenoble. add an x. I know your brother. landau.18. Some nouns ending in -ou add an -x instead of -s. change it to horse(s) aux. movies. FORMATION OF PLURAL NOUNS / LA FORMATION DES NOMS PLURIELS To make a noun plural. knee(s) Exceptions: festival. pou. You know where Grenoble is located. Les Enfants? Tu connais Lyon ? Have you ever been to Lyon? Tu connais la tartiflette ? Have you ever eaten tartiflette? 19. joujou. bleu. food. le bus le bateau le cheval le genou Plural les bus les bateaux les chevaux les genoux If a masculine noun ends in -al or -ail. chandail all add s. bus(es) boat(s) Sing. There are only seven nouns ending in -ou that add -x instead of -s: bijou. caillou. Connaissez-vous Grenoble ? Do you know (Are you familiar with) Grenoble? / Have you ever been to Grenoble? Oui. and savoir is used when you know facts. add nothing. carnaval. I know that your brother is named John. pneu. Yes. When savoir is followed by an infinitive it means to know how. of course. There is another form of savoir commonly used in the expressions que je sache that I know (of) and pas que je sachenot that I know (of). nous connaissons Grenoble. etc. chou. Je sais que ton frère s'appelle Jean. genou. you usually add an -s (which is not pronounced). They know how to swim. Ils savent nager. / Yes. Tu sais où Grenoble se trouve. hibou.

because it agrees with mère and not the possessor (his or her). Their cousins are Dutch. le ciel (sky) . and un jeune homme (a young man) -des jeunes gens (young men). but our sister is single. Our brother is married.des yeux (eyes). POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES / LES ADJECTIFS POSSESSIFS Masc. Remember that adjectives agree with the noun in gender and number. 20. This is my mother and my father. C'est ma mère et mon père. n'est-ce pas ? Your uncle is an architect. When a feminine noun begins with a vowel. Ma amie is incorrect and must be mon amie.it is only the article that changes pronunciation (le. isn't he? Leurs cousines sont néerlandaises. His grandmother is a widow.exceptions: un œil (eye) . My parents are divorced. ma /ma/ ta /ta/ sa /sa/ notre n t votre v t leur lœ Plural mes mɛ tes tɛ ses ɛ nos /no/ vos /vo/ leurs lœ Possessive pronouns go before the noun. not the possessor! Sa mère can mean his mother or her mother even though sa is the feminine form. l' to les). even though amie is feminine. Ce sont vos petits-enfants ? These are your grandchildren? Mes parents sont divorcés. All other nouns are pronounced the same in the singular and the plural . . Ton oncle est architecte.les cieux (skies). you must use the masculine form of the pronoun for ease of pronunciation. Sa grand-mère est veuve. mais notre sœur est célibataire. My Your His/Her/Its Our Your Their mon m ton t son notre n t votre v t leur lœ Fem. la. Notice that the only time the pronunciation will change in the plural form is for masculine nouns that change -al or -ail to -aux and for the irregular forms. Notre frère est marié.

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