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Table of Contents
1.M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for Tigers'-Intensive Protection and Ecological Status) Aims of M-STrIPES 2.Recent Milestone Initiatives Taken for Conservation of Tiger and Other Wild Animals Financial steps International Cooperation Reintroduction of Tigers Creation of Special Tiger Protection Force (STPF) Recent initiatives Cyberplasm Srinivasa Ramanujan National Science Day 3. Aakash Tablet PC National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NME ICT) Ira and Ira Thing 4.Nuclear Reactors Types of Reactors: Alpha Particle Becquerel (Bq) 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 17 19 19
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Beta particle Curie (Ci) Gray (Gy) 5.‘Hall of Nuclear Power’ Nehru Science Centre Mumbai 6.Nuclear Suppliers Group Zangger Committee 7.Ice Cube: World's largest neutrino observatory completed at South Pole Cherenkov radiation International Commission for Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) 8.INSAT-2E completes 13 years of Successful Operation Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) GSAT-12 Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT - 1) 9.Google Android (Operating Systems) Google Play Facebook Yahoo Amazon.com 10.Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) 11.AGNI –IV Tessy Thomas Agni-V 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 27
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MIRV (Multiple Independently targetable Re-entry Vehicles) ‘AKASH’ MISSILE 12.‘TAL’ TORPEDO Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL), Visakhapatnam 13.International symposium on vaccines Vaccine Grand Challenge Programme (VGCP) 14.Chemical Weapons Convention Key points of the Convention National Authority for Chemical Weapons Convention (NACWC) Agent Orange 15.Perfomax Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) Information Security Education and Awareness (ISEA) Project Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) 16.2G Advantages Disadvantages 3G (Third Generation of Mobile Telephony) 17.Mobile Number Portability (MNP) 18.Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution 19.Malware, Viruses and Spyware 20.Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) 21.Lakshya-1 22.DRDO AEW&CS 23.Rafale edges out Euro fighter 27 28 29 29 29 29 30 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 37 37 37 38
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24.Pralay 25.Mother and Child Tracking System (MCTS) 26.Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants Persistent Organic Pollutant (POPs) International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture All benefit, in many ways: 27.Cloud Computing 28.Operation Ghost Click Botnet DNSChanger Malware 29.Operation Global Blackout 2012 30.Neutrino Pauli Exclusion Principle Aufbau principle Hund's Rule of Maximum Multiplicity 31.Lukoskin Defence Institute of Bio-energy Research (DIBER) Leucoderma or Vitiligo Melanocyte 32.DNA FINGER PRINTING Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD) 33.World Sparrow Day 34.Bacillus thuringiensis 35.Tropical Legumes II 36.REXUS (Rocket-Borne Experiments for University Students) 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 43 43 44 44 44 44 45 45 46 46 47 47 47 47 48
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37.F. Sherwood Rowland 38.Nestlé India Food and Energy 39.St. Martin's Island 40. Mithilanchal belt (Purnea, Araria and Supaul Districts) 41.Jawai Bandh forests 42.Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) 43.Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI) 44.Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever National Institute of Virology 1.M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for Tigers'-Intensive Protection and Ecological Status) Aims of M-STrIPES 2.Recent Milestone Initiatives Taken for Conservation of Tiger and Other Wild Animals Financial steps International Cooperation Reintroduction of Tigers Creation of Special Tiger Protection Force (STPF) Recent initiatives Cyberplasm Srinivasa Ramanujan National Science Day 3. Aakash Tablet PC National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NME ICT) Ira and Ira Thing 4.Nuclear Reactors 48 49 49 52 52 53 53 54 54 55 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 14 15 15 15 16
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1) 9.Nuclear Suppliers Group Zangger Committee 7.‘Hall of Nuclear Power’ Nehru Science Centre Mumbai 6.Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) 17 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 6 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 .Google Android (Operating Systems) Google Play Facebook Yahoo Amazon.Ganesh’s ias Types of Reactors: Alpha Particle Becquerel (Bq) Beta particle Curie (Ci) Gray (Gy) 5.com 10.INSAT-2E completes 13 years of Successful Operation Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) GSAT-12 Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT .Ice Cube: World's largest neutrino observatory completed at South Pole Cherenkov radiation International Commission for Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) 8.
Perfomax Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) Information Security Education and Awareness (ISEA) Project Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) 16.Mobile Number Portability (MNP) 18.AGNI –IV Tessy Thomas Agni-V MIRV (Multiple Independently targetable Re-entry Vehicles) ‘AKASH’ MISSILE 12. Viruses and Spyware 20. Visakhapatnam 13.‘TAL’ TORPEDO Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL).Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution 19.International symposium on vaccines Vaccine Grand Challenge Programme (VGCP) 14.2G Advantages Disadvantages 3G (Third Generation of Mobile Telephony) 17.Chemical Weapons Convention Key points of the Convention National Authority for Chemical Weapons Convention (NACWC) Agent Orange 15.Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) 27 27 27 27 28 29 29 29 29 30 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 37 7 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 .Malware.Ganesh’s ias 11.
Cloud Computing 28.Lukoskin Defence Institute of Bio-energy Research (DIBER) Leucoderma or Vitiligo Melanocyte 32.Mother and Child Tracking System (MCTS) 26.Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants Persistent Organic Pollutant (POPs) International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture All benefit. in many ways: 27.Pralay 25.Ganesh’s ias 21.World Sparrow Day 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 43 43 44 44 44 44 45 45 46 46 47 47 8 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 .Operation Global Blackout 2012 30.Rafale edges out Euro fighter 24.Neutrino Pauli Exclusion Principle Aufbau principle Hund's Rule of Maximum Multiplicity 31.Operation Ghost Click Botnet DNSChanger Malware 29.DRDO AEW&CS 23.Lakshya-1 22.DNA FINGER PRINTING Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD) 33.
BIO-TECHNOLOGY & ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 3 (Preliminary) .Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) 43.REXUS (Rocket-Borne Experiments for University Students) 37. Mithilanchal belt (Purnea.F. Sherwood Rowland 38.Jawai Bandh forests 42.Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever National Institute of Virology • 47 47 48 48 49 49 52 52 53 53 54 54 55 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY.Ganesh’s ias 34. M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for Tigers'-Intensive Protection and Ecological Status) 9 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 .Nestlé India Food and Energy 39. Martin's Island 40. Araria and Supaul Districts) 41.St.2012 1.Bacillus thuringiensis 35.Tropical Legumes II 36.Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI) 44.
This system has been developed by the Wildlife Institute of India in collaboration with the Zoological Society of London and the National Tiger Conservation Authority. Project Tiger and Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats for enhancing the capacity and infrastructure of the States for providing effective protection to wild animals. International Cooperation 1. viz. Aims of M-STrIPES Assist in Effective Patrolling & Protection Evaluate Status & Trends of Carnivores & Ungulates at Regular Intervals Monitor Habitat Change Evaluate Human Pressures Generate Reports to Provide Quantitative Information for Management Effectiveness Assessment and Decision Making 2.Ganesh’s ias A new software monitoring system to improve the effectiveness of all surveillance and ante-poaching interventions in the Project Tiger Reserve areas called “Monitoring system for Tigers’ Intensive Protection and Ecological status” (M-STrIPES) has been launched in Apr 2010 by Union Ministry of Environment and Forests. apart from a protocol on tiger conservation with China. 10 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . India has a Memorandum of Understanding with Nepal on controlling trans-boundary illegal trade in wildlife and conservation. Recent Milestone Initiatives Taken for Conservation of Tiger and Other Wild Animals Financial steps Financial and technical help is provided to the States under various Centrally Sponsored Schemes.
2. The importance of continuing the ban on trade of body parts of tigers was emphasized. for restricting such captive populations to a level supportive only to conserving wild tigers. Reintroduction of Tigers 1. with directions to Parties with operations breeding tigers on a commercial scale. India intervened for retaining the Decision 14.2009 (Progress made on restricting captive breeding operations of tigers etc.10. The policy initiatives announced by the Finance Minister in his Budget Speech of 29. 4. Nepal and the Russian Federation. Special advisories issued for in-situ build up of prey base and tiger population through active management in tiger reserves having low population status of tiger and its prey. contains action points relating to tiger 11 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . which was held from 3rd to 15th June. and eliminate stockpiles of Asian big cats body parts and derivatives.).2. reintroduction of tigers / tigresses have been done.69 dealing with operations breeding tigers on a commercial scale. India made an intervention appealing to China to phase out tiger farming. As a part of active management to rebuild Sariska and Panna Tiger Reserves where tigers have become locally extinct. A Global Tiger Forum of Tiger Range Countries has been created for addressing international issues related to tiger conservation.Ganesh’s ias 2. 3. The resolution was adopted as a decision with minor amendments. Based on India’s strong intervention during the 58th meeting of the Standing Committee of the CITES at Geneva from 6th to 10th July. interalia.2008. 2009.65 within 90 days with effect from 20. During the 14th meeting of the Conference of Parties to CITES. During the 15th meeting of the Conference of Parties. Further. the CITES Secretariat issued notification to Parties for submitting reports relating to compliance of Decisions 14.69 and 14. 2007 at The Hague. India introduced a resolution along with China. Creation of Special Tiger Protection Force (STPF) 3.
an online tiger crime data base has been launched.00 crore provided to the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) for raising. Since then. 93 lakhs each has been released to Corbett. stepping up protection etc. viz. 12 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . Steps are being taken for involvement of Non-Governmental Experts the ongoing all India tiger estimation.Ganesh’s ias protection. Implementing a tripartite MOU with tiger States. linked to fund flows for effective implementation of tiger conservation initiatives. besides launching ‘M-STrIPES’ for effective field patrolling and monitoring. 2. 50. arming and deploying a Special Tiger Protection Force. 5. Chief Ministers of States having tiger reserves affected by left wing extremism and low population status of tiger and its prey addressed for taking special initiatives. the proposal for the said force has been approved by the competent authority for 13 tiger reserves. Special crack teams sent to tiger reserves affected by left wing extremism and low population status of tiger and its prey. 3. Rapid assessment of tiger reserves done. 4. with scope for involving local people like the Van Gujjars. 4. 6. Rs. and Generic Guidelines for preparation of reserve specific Security Plan has been evolved. Ranthambhore & Dudhwa Tiger Reserve for creation of STPF during 2008-09. implementation of the tripartite MOU. Chief Ministers of tiger States addressed at the level of the Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Environment and Forests on urgent issues. creation of the Tiger Conservation Foundation. Steps taken for modernizing the infrastructure and field protection. the guidelines of the STPF have been revised for deploying forest personnel in place of Police as an option-II. 7. Recent initiatives 1. Based on the one time grant of Rs. In collaboration with TRAFFIC-INDIA.
Providing special assistance for mitigation of human-tiger conflicts in problematic areas. 14. 15. 9. 12. yeast and mammalian cells to carry out device like functions. Issue of tiger farming and trafficking of tiger body parts discussed at the level of Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Environment and Forests with the Chinese Authorities. would combine advanced microelectronics with latest research in biomimicry -.technology inspired by nature. The micro-robot. Action initiated for using Information Technology to strengthen surveillance in tiger reserves. 13 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . 13. 11. Cyberplasm harnesses the power of synthetic biology at the cellular level by integrating specific gene “parts” into bacteria. besides constituting State level Coordination Committee for redressing the administrative problems.As an outcome of the fourth Trans-border Consultative Group Meeting held in New Delhi. Steps have taken for the independent Monitoring and Evaluation of tiger reserves. apart from providing incentives.Initiatives taken for improving the field delivery through capacity building of field officials. "Cyberplasm". a joint resolution has been signed with Nepal for biodiversity / tiger conservation. 10. Special independent team sent to Similipal for assessing the status.Action taken for amending the Wildlife (Protection) Act to ensure effective conservation. Cyberplasm It is a micro-scale biohybrid robot developed using principles of synthetic biology.Ganesh’s ias 8.
It is believed this approach will enable the micro-robot to be extremely sensitive and responsive to the environment it is put into. a creature found mainly in the Atlantic Ocean. who with almost no formal training in pure mathematics. number theory. as well as artificial muscles that use glucose as an energy source to propel. 1729 is the natural number known as the Hardy–Ramanujan number. the Government of India declared in Dec 2011 to celebrate Ramanujan's birthday as 'National Mathematics Day' every year on 22 December and declared 2012 as the 'National Mathematical Year'.Ganesh’s ias The aim is for Cyberplasm to have an electronic nervous system. Srinivasa Ramanujan He was an Indian mathematician. In recognition of his contribution to mathematics. made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysis. Cyberplasm will be designed to mimic key functions of the sea lamprey. It is the smallest number expressible as the sum of two cubes in two different ways. infinite series and continued fractions. Future uses could include the ability to swim unobtrusively through the human body to detect a whole range of diseases. Hardy. "eye" and "nose" sensors derived from mammalian cells. In 1986. the National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC) requested the Government of India to designate February 28 as National Science Day. According to the English mathematician G." The Man Who Knew Infinity: A Life of the Genius Ramanujan is the biography of Srinivasa Ramanujan written in 1991 by Robert Kanigel. National Science Day National Science Day is celebrated in India on February 28 each year to mark the discovery of the Raman Effect by Indian physicist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman on 28 February 1928. 14 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 .H. Ramanujan was in the same league as mathematicians like Euler and Gauss in terms of natural genius.
The focal theme for 2012 National Science Day is “Clean Energy Options and Nuclear Safety” 3. This is to enhance their self-learning skills and develop their capabilities for on-line problem solving and to work for: creation of knowledge modules with right contents to address to the personalized needs of learners. a Mumbai-based company. 2009. ARM 11 processor and 256 MB RAM running under the Android 2. Ira and Ira Thing They are the two tablet PCs which support 23 Indian languages. The tablet was officially launched as the Aakash in New Delhi on 5 October 2011. National Mission on Technology (NME ICT) Education through Information and Communication The mission was launched in Feb. the NCSTC announced institution of the National Science Popularization awards for recognizing outstanding efforts in the area of science communication and popularization.Ganesh’s ias Subsequently. certification of competencies of the learners. Aakash Tablet PC The Aakash is an Android-based tablet computer produced by British company DataWind.2 operating system. the first NSD (National Science Day) on 28 February 1987. The Aakash is a low-cost tablet computer with a 7-inch touch screen. 15 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . It is manufactured by the India-based company Quad. and to develop and maintain the database having profile of human resources. They are launched by Wishtel. acquired through formal or non-formal means. It has the objective of ensuring connectivity of the learners to the ‘World of Knowledge’ in cyberspace and to make them ‘Netizens’. at a new production centre in Hyderabad under a trial run of 100.000 units. It has two universal serial bus (USB) ports and delivers high definition (HD) quality video. They will operate on the Google Android ecosystem.
heavy water. 16 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . transfers the heat to another working medium through a heat exchanger and then returns to the reactor. and liquid metals such as sodium. Fuel elements: A reactor core may contain from tens to hundreds of these fuels sub-assemblies. In the fast reactors where fast neutrons are utilized for fission. It consists of pipes through which the coolant is pumped. which are usually put together and called as sub-assemblies or bundles. When passing through the reactor cores.Ganesh’s ias Ira was designed as per the specifications of the Indian Institute of Technology Rajasthan. graphite. The same material used for moderator can be used for the reflectors in the case of thermal reactors. pins etc. nickel. as part of the low-cost computing devices project under the National Mission of Education through the ICT and sponsored by the Ministry of Human Resources. heavy and light water. The solid fuel material is fabricated into various small shapes. In some reactors the fuel materials and moderator materials are intimately mixed together.. Nuclear Reactors A nuclear reactor is a system where a controllable nuclear fission chain reaction can be maintained. held in a fixed geometrical pattern. beryllium and certain organic compounds. 4. the coolant picks up the heat. Reflector: The reflector reduces the leakage of neutrons by reflecting back the neutrons escaping from the core. Gases. pellets. The principal parts of reactor are The core: is the main part containing the nuclear fuel. The Cooling System: This system removes the heat released from the reactor core. The moderator should be well distributed within the fuel zone or core. molybdenum and stainless steel reflectors are used. Moderator is used in thermal reactor to slow down the neutrons as the fuel has high fission cross-section for low energy neutrons. plates. Materials used as moderators include ordinary water. Moderator: The moderator is a material that has the ability to slow down neutrons quickly and which at the same time has little tendency to absorb neutrons.
Ganesh’s ias lithium.e. Protective Shield: The fission reaction is accompanied by emission of radiation like α. control rods containing strong neutron absorbers such as cadmium or boron. we must be able to control the amount of heat produced. It is also possible to control a reactor by increasing or decreasing its size. β and γ. Types of Reactors: Nuclear reactor may be classified according to the velocities of the neutrons which cause fission as thermal reactors and fast reactors. Exposure to these radiations is dangerous.. Thermal Reactors: A reactor where the fission is mainly caused by the capture of thermal i. (Increasing the size reduces the leakage of neutrons and vice versa). thus control the rate of the chain reaction and power level. a combination of moderator level control and neutron absorber rods are used. potassium etc.025eV is called thermal reactor. The Control System: The control system is designed to control the number of neutrons. can serve as coolants. Hence some reactors are controlled by varying the level of moderator. slow neutrons of energies up to 0. In a reactor. To slow down the neutrons. In order to protect the persons working near the reactor from these harmful radiations the reactor is enclosed in steel and concrete which are capable of stopping these radiations. The heat produced depends upon the number of fissions taking place per second in the reactor. some moderator is used. These neutron absorbing control rods when lowered into the reactor absorb the neutrons to reduce the neutron population and when raised allow the rise in number of neutrons. sensing elements that measure the number of neutrons in the reactor. Since the fission is 17 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . This arrangement of protection is called Radiation shielding. In the heavy water moderated reactors like Candu. and other devices to regulate the position of the control rods.. which in turn depends upon the number of neutrons present in the reactor. Fast Reactors: A reactor where fission is brought about by fast neutrons with energies more than 1000eV is called a fast reactor. This system includes a number of devices.
coolant. The exhaust steam from turbine is condensed and the condensate is sent back to the reactor core through a feed pump. potassium. the steam is generated in the core itself. MAPS. Pressurized water reactor (PWR): 18 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 .Ganesh’s ias caused by the fast neutrons with high energy moderator is not used in fast reactors. FBTR. Liquid metal cooled reactor . Research Reactors: These reactors are mainly used for research purpose.. TAPS. Graphite reactors and heavy-water reactors . Boiling Water Reactor (BWR): In this reactor the enriched uranium oxide is used as the fuel and light water is used as the coolant and moderator. lithium etc. The reactor pressure vessel has to be strong and is enclosed in concrete containment vessel to prevent hazard from the failure of the pressurised circuit. This is a thermal reactor.g. etc.liquid metals like sodium.. Apsara etc. E. The steam produced is fed directly to turbine. Helium etc. are used as coolants. RAPS etc. PFBR. Gas Cooled Reactor . The water is circulated by a pump and the water boils in the reactor vessel itself.g. In Tarapur Atomic power station two BWRs are used for power generation of 210MWe each. are used as coolants. Reactors are classified according to secondary features as the type of moderator.gas like CO2. Reactor classification based on purpose: Power Reactors: The reactors used for generating electrical power.they use graphite and heavywater respectively as moderators. Kamini. In BWR. Another pump is used for recirculating the coolant in the reactor vessel before converting to steam. E.
1996. KAMINI (Kalpakkam Mini Reactor) It is a research reactor at Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research in Kalpakkam. Alpha Particle A positively charged particle ejected spontaneously from the nuclei of some radioactive elements. In this way.Ganesh’s ias PWRs keep water under pressure so that it gets heat. It is identical to a helium nucleus that has a mass number of 4 and an electrostatic charge of +2. Its first criticality was on October 29. It has low penetrating power and a short range (a few centimeters in air). or how many atoms in the material decay (or disintegrate) in a given time period. KAMINI was the first reactor in the world designed specifically to use uranium-233 fuel. which refers to the amount of ionizing radiation released when an element (such as uranium) spontaneously emits energy as a result of the radioactive decay (or disintegration) of an unstable atom. and fueled with uranium233 metal produced by the irradiation of thorium in other reactors. KAMINI is cooled and moderated by light water. but does not boil. The most energetic alpha particle will generally fail to penetrate the dead layers of cells covering the skin. and can be easily stopped by a sheet of paper. Radioactivity is also the term used to describe the rate at which radioactive material emits radiation. Alpha particles are hazardous when an alpha-emitting isotope is inside the body. India. Water from the reactor and the water in the steam generator that is turned into steam never mix. most of the radioactivity stays in the reactor area. 19 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . Becquerel (Bq) One of three units used to measure radioactivity. It produces 30 kW of thermal energy at full power.
1 Ci is equal to 37 billion (3. A negatively charged beta particle is identical to an electron.Ganesh’s ias As such. which is equal to an absorbed dose of 1 Joule/kilogram. As such. so 1 Ci also equals 37 billion (3. Large amounts of beta radiation may cause skin burns. while a positively charged beta particle is called a positron. known as the "absorbed dose. water. The curie is named for Marie and Pierre Curie.7 x 1010) Bq equals 1 curie (Ci). who discovered radium in 1898.7 x 1010) Bequerels (Bq)." which reflects the amount of energy that radioactive sources (with any type of ionizing radiation) deposit in materials (e. Beta particles may be stopped by thin sheets of metal or plastic. tissue.7 x 1010) disintegrations per second. air) through which they pass. and beta emitters are harmful if they enter the body.g.. Beta particle A charged particle (with a mass equal to 1/1837 that of a proton) that is emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive element during radioactive (or disintegration) of an unstable atom. Curie (Ci) One of three units used to measure the intensity of radioactivity in a sample of material. for example). 1 Bq represents a rate of radioactive decay equal to 1 disintegration per second. Gray (Gy) One of the two units used to measure the amount of radiation absorbed by an object or person. This value refers to the amount of ionizing radiation released when an element (such as uranium) spontaneously emits energy as a result of the radioactive decay (or disintegration) of an unstable atom. A curie is also a quantity of anyradionuclide that decays at a rate of 37 billion disintegrations per second (1 gram of radium. and 37 billion (3. One gray (Gy) is the international system of units (SI) equivalent of 100 rads. An absorbed 20 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 .
‘Hall of Nuclear Power’ It is India’s first-ever permanent exhibition on nuclear power dedicated to the nation at Nehru Science Centre Mumbai. transportation.Ganesh’s ias dose of 0. Nuclear Suppliers Group NSG is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the export and re-transfer of materials that may be applicable to nuclear development and by improving safeguards and protection on existing materials. Nehru Science Centre Mumbai Nehru Science Centre is the largest Science Centre in India.01 Gy means that 1 gram of material absorbed 100 ergs of energy (a small but measurable amount) as a result of exposure to radiation. its basics. The centre opened its first semi-permanent exhibition `Light & Sight' in 1977 followed by the world's first ever Science Park in 1979. which include extensive information about nuclear power generation. It one of the largest science centers in Asia. etc. 6. food irradiation technology. Nations already signatories of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)saw the need to further limit the export of nuclear equipment. security. The test demonstrated that certain non-weapons specific nuclear technology could be readily turned to weapons development. it talks about the non-power application which includes nuclear medicines. during the International Year of the child. It covers almost all the aspects of nuclear energy. It is celebrating its silver jubilee. fuel processing. nuclear waste and its management. safety. is a constituent unit of National Council of Science Museums (NCSM). productions. which demonstrated that nuclear technology transferred for peaceful purposes could be misused. Also. 21 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . 5. materials or technology. The NSG was created following the explosion in 1974 of a nuclear device by a non-nuclear-weapon State (India). The permanent exhibition on nuclear power is a proud addition to the Nehru Science Centre in its silver jubilee year.
Germany. 7. 22 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 .. Japan. Switzerland.S.Ganesh’s ias Zangger Committee The Zangger Committee was formed in the early 1970s to establish guidelines for implementing the export control provisions of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Members of the Ice Cube Collaboration are about 40 affiliated institutions located in the U. Sweden. Barbados. New Zealand. The list of controlled items developed by the Zangger Committee is known as the Trigger List because export of those items triggers International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. they turn into energetic charged particles called muons. Ice Cube is supported largely by the National Science Foundation and led by the University of Wisconsin-Madison. When neutrinos collide with the nuclei of oxygen atoms in the ice. Canada. emitting radiation in the process. moving in the same direction. they radiate a shock wave of blue Cherenkov radiation visible to Ice Cube’s photo detectors. Belgium. Because these muons (and other debris from the collision) are moving faster than light can travel through ice. Ice Cube: World's largest neutrino observatory completed at South Pole It is a neutrino telescope constructed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station completed in 2010. Cherenkov radiation It is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium. which then turn back rapidly to their ground state. The charged particles polarize the molecules of that medium. and the United Kingdom.
ICNIRP is independent from industry in both membership and funding. is a multi purpose satellite for telecommunication. whether professionally involved with non-ionizing radiation protection or with a personal interest. It was controlled from Master Control Facility at Hassan. Launched on April 3. at no cost to the recipient. In carrying out their voluntary work for the Commission they do not represent either their countries of origin or their institutes. the first such lease from an Indian satellite. INSAT-2E was positioned at 83 deg East longitude in the geostationary orbit. WHO. International Commission for Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) ICNIRP is a nonprofit making body and is legally registered as such in Germany. wherever possible. 1999 by the European Ariane-5 launcher. for example. ILO. ICNIRP's information and advice is provided. 23 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . It is named after Russian scientist Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov. IRPA and EUROSKIN. ICOH. 8. the last of the five satellites in the INSAT-2 series. INSAT-2E completes 13 years of Successful Operation INSAT-2E. INSAT-2E was built with a planned mission life of 12 years and continued to function beyond its mission life. television broadcasting and meteorological services. ICNIRP seeks to provide a service of information provision or advice to all persons.Ganesh’s ias The characteristic blue glow of nuclear reactors is due to Cherenkov radiation. ICNIRP works in close collaboration with many health protection related agencies both national and international. the 1958 Nobel Prize winner who was the first to characterize it rigorously. including. ICNIRP's members are independent experts in the scientific disciplines necessary for non-ionizing radiation protection. 11 communication transponders of 36 MHz bandwidth onboard INSAT-2E satellite were leased to International Telecommunication Satellite Organisation (INTELSAT).
Telemedicine and for Village Resource Centres (VRC). it initiated a major revolution in India’s communications sector and sustained the same later. INSAT-4A. INSAT-3E. Extended C and Kubands provides services to telecommunications. weighs about 1410 kg at lift-off. GSAT-12 It is the latest communication satellite built by ISRO. INSAT-3A. GSAT-12 is configured to carry 12 Extended C-band transponders to meet the country's growing demand for transponders in a short turn-around-time.C17. The satellite weighing around 1850 kg is slated for launch by PSLV-C19 (XL) during 2012 into a 536 km orbit with 25 days repetitivity with an added advantage of 12 days inner cycle for Coarse Resolution ScanSAR mode. The satellite would be used for disaster prediction and agriculture forestry. television broadcasting. The 12 Extended C-band transponders of GSAT-12 will augment the capacity in the INSAT system for various communication services like Teleeducation. This satellite can see through clouds and fog. It was launched from Sriharihota by the PSLV. 9. INSAT-4CR. INSAT space segment consists of 24 satellites out of which 10 are in service (INSAT-2E. day and night. INSAT-3C. weather forecasting. GSAT-8 and GSAT-12). and the high resolution pictures and microwave imaging could also be used for defence purposes. Google 24 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . KALPANA-1. Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT . disaster warning and Search and Rescue operations.1) RISAT-1 is a microwave remote sensing satellite carrying a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The system with a total of 187 transponders in the C.Ganesh’s ias Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) systems which are placed in Geostationary orbits are one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in Asia-Pacific region. Established in 1983 with commissioning of INSAT-1B. INSAT-4B.
1995. The company was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were both attending Stanford University. was founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo in January 1994 and was incorporated on March 1. Yahoo! Inc. California. mobile app Play Store on Android. and advertising technologies. Google Play It is a digital content service from Google which includes an online store for music. and Google TV. It is developed by the Open Handset Alliance led by Google. 2012. 2012. as well as a cloud media player. former President of PayPal. movies. Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. cloud computing. Yahoo It is an American multinational internet corporation headquartered in Sunnyvale.Ganesh’s ias It is an American multinational Internet and software corporation specialized in Internet search. books. Google Play was introduced in March 2012 when Google rebranded its predecessor Android Market and Google Music services. On January 4. operated and privately owned by Facebook Inc. Facebook Facebook is a social networking service and website launched in February 2004. and Android apps and games. The service is accessible from the web. Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow students Eduardo Saverin. was named the new chief executive officer. Scott Thompson. Purchased content is available across all of these platforms/devices. 25 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . Facebook filed for an initial public offering on February 1. Android (Operating Systems) Android is a Linux-based operating system for mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers.
5 Gbps (Gigabit per Second) downstream and 1. It is named after the Amazon River. an expedition spearheaded by Mr. one of the largest rivers in the world. Light energy flows through this pipe and carries large amounts of data.com It is an American multinational electronic commerce company with headquarters in Seattle.25 Gbps upstream data capability to customer premise.Ganesh’s ias Amazon. It was vested with full authority and total flexibility to develop state-of-theart telecommunication technology to meet the needs of the Indian 26 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . It is the world's largest online retailer.Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) GPON technology indigenously designed and developed by the Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT).com. Inc. in 1994. the moon mission of Neel Armstrong. The present GPON standards specify 2. which is essentially a light pipe. GPON technology is the pivotal component required for broadband connectivity over optical fiber. It consists of a central office equipment OLT (Optical Line Termination) and customer premises equipment called ONT (Optical Network Termination). flows through optical fiber cable. video and data). Bezos has discovered what he claimed were discarded engines of Apollo 11. 10. It can be used to provide triple play (voice. It was established in August 1984 as an autonomous body. Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) C-DOT is the Telecom Technology development centre of the Government of India. and the site went online in 1995. Using high-tech sonar. The information carrying capacity of an optical fiber is practically limitless. Jeff Bezos created Amazon. The information from central office to the customer premises and back.
India has begun final preparations for the first test of Agni-V. MIRV (Multiple Independently targetable Re-entry Vehicles) MIRV warhead is a collection of nuclear weapons carried on a single intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) or a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM).500-3. Agni-IV was tested on November 15.000km. 27 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . It has a range of 2. The Agni-V is a three stage solid fueled missile with composite motor casing in the third stage. She was the first to become the project director of an Agni system in 2008. India will break into the exclusive ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) club that counts just US.500 km. Once the three-stage missile becomes operational by 2014-2015 after "four to five repeatable tests". The Agni-V will bring the whole of Asia.500-km new-generation Agni-IV missile. The Agni series is one of five missiles being developed by the DRDO under an Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme launched in 1983. Tessy Thomas She is the project director of the 3. France and UK as its members. Russia. It is a two-stage missile powered by solid propellant. 11. Agni-V It is the most-ambitious strategic missile of India with the range of 5.AGNI –IV Agni-IV is the fourth in the Agni series of missiles which was earlier known as Agni II prime. 70% of Europe and other regions under its strike envelope. China. The key objective was to build a centre for excellence in the area of telecom technology. 2011.Ganesh’s ias telecommunication network.
000 km 3. ‘AKASH’ MISSILE Name Agni-I Agni-II Agni-III Agni-IV Agni-V Type MRBM IRBM IRBM IRBM ICBM Range 700 – 1.200 – 3. medium-range. It can operate autonomously. fighter aircraft.000-6. or fewer targets redundantly. It provides multi-directional and multi-target area defence. The Weapon System is considered as the Indian "Patriot". control centre. The system can handle multiple targets and destroy maneuvering targets such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).000 km (under development). digitally-coded command guidance and fully automatic operation.Ganesh’s ias Using a MIRV warhead. Fuel Single stage soli propelled Two stage solid propellant engine Two stage solid propellant engine Two stage solid propellant engine Three stage solid The Akash Weapon System (AWS) was indigenously developed by DRDO as part of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) and is an all-weather. multifunction fire control radar and supporting ground equipment.5 and climb up to an altitude of 18 km. 28 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . This is to be developed and used in the Agni V system.000 – 2.700 km 5. Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) system. all-the-way powered flight till target interception. It can fly at a speed of up to Mach 2. By contrast a unitary warhead is a single warhead on a single missile. The Akash missile can be launched from static or mobile platforms providing flexible deployment. The AWS consists of a Launcher. and engage and neutralize different aerial targets simultaneously. a single launched missile can strike several targets individually. It has certain unique characteristics like high mobility. cruise missiles and missiles launched from helicopters.500 km 3.200 km 2.000 – 5. a missile with a 25 km range. multiple target handling.
BDL is manufacturing these Torpedoes at its Visakhapatnam Unit. It can hunt submarines with a speed of 33 knots with endurance of six minutes in shallow and deep waters. The title of the symposium is “Vaccines – from Discovery to Translation.” Vaccine Grand Challenge Programme (VGCP) 29 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . self. Decoys. the Akash SAM systems will be the mainstay for Air Defence of the Country up to the 2030s & beyond. Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL).‘TAL’ TORPEDO The Light Weight Torpedo has been indigenously developed by the National Science and Technology Laboratory (NSTL). 12. Visakhapatnam. Visakhapatnam It was established on August 20. 1969 to undertake research and development of complete major naval systems (Underwater Mines. NSTL was established to work towards design and development of underwater weapons and associated systems and structural design of naval platforms. Targets. 13. S.International symposium on vaccines The Ministry of Science and Technology conducted the International symposium on vaccines at Surajkund. Fire Control Systems. Torpedoes. V.Ganesh’s ias A versatile and wholly indigenous weapon system being built by the Defence PSU Bharat Dynamics Ltd (BDL). The present director of NSTL is Shri. etc) for the Indian Navy to make it self-reliant. Rangarajan. Weapon Launchers. The Torpedo weighs around 220 kgs.homing Torpedo which can be launched both from ships and helicopters. The Light Weight Torpedo (TAL) is an electrically propelled. This is the first of its kind symposium in India under its new initiative called 'Vaccine Grand Challenge Program'.
VGCP is based on an enterprise model for R&D.N. 14. Netherlands. which contained the text of the Chemical Weapons Convention.N. multi stage process where critical actions must be taken in synergy and not sequentially.Ganesh’s ias The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) initiated this programme to develop vaccines through National Jai Vigyan Mission Programme on S&T for generation of new vaccines. The agreement is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). The General Assembly approved the Convention on November 30. 1997. Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction. 1992. 30 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . Production. globally recommended in contrast to the traditional scientific project funding as vaccine development is a long. 1992 the Conference on Disarmament submitted to the U. Secretary-General then opened the Convention for signature in Paris on January 13. The key steps in the process are (i) Develop specific candidates.Chemical Weapons Convention It is an arms control agreement which outlaws the production. On September 3. which is an independent organization based in The Hague. stockpiling and use of chemical weapons. and The U. create a pipeline as one does not always know which one will work (ii) Create a stable formulation under GMP (iii) Conduct toxicological tests in animals (iv) Ensure human safety (v) Prove efficacy in humans (vi) Establish reproducible manufacturing under GMP (vii) Obtain regulatory approvals (viii) Conduct post market monitoring for rare but serious side effects. 1993. 180 days after the deposit of the 65th instrument of ratification (by Hungary). The CWC remained open for signature until its entry into force on April 29. General Assembly its annual report. It is the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development.
cover biological weapons. 1997 and the NA CWC was first constituted by a resolution and then established under Section 6 of the CWC Act. on behalf of the Government of India. however. It does not.Ganesh’s ias The convention augments the Geneva Protocol of 1925 for chemical weapons and includes extensive verification measures such as on-site inspections. on behalf of the Government of India. The NA CWC also acts as the national focal point for effective liaison with the OPCW and other State Parties on matters relating to the CWC. Key points of the Convention Prohibition of production and use of chemical weapons Destruction (or monitored conversion to other functions) of chemical weapons production facilities Destruction of all chemical weapons (including chemical weapons abandoned outside the state parties territory) Assistance between State Parties and the OPCW in the case of use of chemical weapons An OPCW inspection regime for the production of chemicals which might be converted to chemical weapons International cooperation in the peaceful use of chemistry in relevant areas National Authority for Chemical Weapons Convention (NACWC) The National Authority for Chemical Weapons Convention (NACWC) has been set up as an office of the Cabinet Secretariat. 2000 The primary task of the NA CWC is to fulfill. the obligations under the Chemical Weapons Convention and to act as the national focal point for effective liaison with the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and other State Parties on matters relating to the Convention. Agent Orange 31 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . the obligations under the Chemical Weapons Convention. The CWC came into force with effect from April 29. Government of India to fulfill.
military base in central Vietnam where the herbicide was stored during the war. The formulation is rich in antioxidants and other bioactive compounds that improve performance of brain. Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (erstwhile Field Research Laboratory) is only one of its kind situated in Leh at an altitude of 3500 m above MSL.S. The project concentrates on a former U. Vietnam in June 2011 kicked off the first phase of a joint plan with former enemy the United States to clean up environmental damage leftover from the chemical defoliant Agent Orange. it was manufactured for the U.Perfomax A composite herbal formulation named ‘Perfomax’ that has been developed by DRDO and has been found to improve physical and mental performance in High Altitude and Hypoxic Conditions at a function held in Leh. which ended more than three decades ago.S. Information Security Education and Awareness (ISEA) Project 32 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 .S.4. Vietnam's Ministry of Defence will begin sweeping areas around the Danang airport for unexploded ordnance. Department of Defenseprimarily by Monsanto Corporation and Dow Chemical. It will then work with the U. Operation Ranch Hand. Ladakh today. which is expected to begin early next year.Ganesh’s ias Agent Orange is the code name for one of the herbicides and defoliants used by the U. A 50:50 mixture of 2. heart.S. Agency for International Development to remove dioxin from soil and sediment at the site. during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971.5-T and 2.4-D. a lasting legacy from the Vietnam War. 15. having core competence in cold arid agro-animal technology in the world. It marks the first time the two sides will work together on the ground to clean up contamination. military as part of its herbicidal warfare program. kidney and lungs and improves blood circulation.
Advantages The lower power emissions helped address health concerns.2G "2G" means second-generation wireless telephone technology. cyber hygiene. starting with SMS text messages. on Information Security issues i. such as SMS and email. data security etc. 16. and 2G introduced data services for mobile. Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that Phone conversations were digitally encrypted.Tech & B.Ganesh’s ias ISEA Project was launched by the Department of Information Technology.Central and State.Tech level and Research Activity/PhD (b) Train System Administrators/Professionals (c) Training of Government Officers. 2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetration levels. 33 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . computer networking. in March 2005 with the following broad aims:(a) Introduce Information Security Curriculum at M. 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland in 1991. A web portal “Secure your PC” has also been provided to general users by CERT-In for dissemination of information on securing their computer system from cyber attacks.e. (d) Bring Information Security Awareness in the country (e) Education Exchange Programme Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) CERT In is spreading awareness among users on the spread of computer virus and safeguarding from such attacks through issuance of advisories and guidelines. Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data services.
While the security algorithms used have proved not to be as secure as initially advertised. digital will start to completely fail. 3G (Third Generation of Mobile Telephony) 34 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . Under good conditions. while analog slowly gets worse. This can be both an advantage and a disadvantage. but is mostly not a problem on 2G systems deployed on lower frequencies. You will hear less of the tonality of someone's voice talking on a digital cellphone. generally holding a call longer and allowing at least a few words to get through. Analog has a smooth decay curve. As conditions worsen. which have no protection against eavesdropping. the weaker digital signal may not be sufficient to reach a cell tower. With analog systems it was possible to have two or Enhanced privacy. 2G phones are immensely more private than 1G phones.Ganesh’s ias Greatly reduced fraud. but you will hear it more clearly. the range of sound that they convey is reduced. digital a jagged steppy one. digital will sound better. While digital calls tend to be free of static and background noise. digital cellular calls are much harder to eavesdrop on by use of radio scanners. while digital has occasional dropouts (momentary loss of signal). National regulations differ greatly among countries which dictate where 2G can be deployed. by dropping calls or being unintelligible. the lossy compression ("lossy" compression is a data encoding method that compresses data by discarding (losing) some of it) used by the codecs takes a toll. Under slightly worse conditions. though. analog will experience static. A key digital advantage not often mentioned is that more "cloned" handsets that had the same phone number. This tends to be a particular problem on 2G systems deployed on higher frequencies. Disadvantages In less populous areas.
Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution 35 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . 18.Ganesh’s ias 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. 17.Mobile Number Portability (MNP) It is a service using which a mobile phone subscriber can migrate from one operator to another without having to change his/her mobile number.
or Trojan. is a standalone malicious program which may give full control of infected PC to another PC. Trojan horses may make copies of them. hackers may be given remote access to the computer allowing them to perform all kinds of operations. computer boot sector or document. A Trojan horse. EDGE is a high-speed 3G technology that was built upon the GSM standard. Once a Trojan has been installed on a targeted computer system.Ganesh’s ias Also known as Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS) is a digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates. 19. or harm their host computer systems. spyware.Malware. whether it's a virus. or be present on a diskette or CD. Spyware is a type of malware (malicious software) installed on computers that collects information about users without their knowledge. though. Such speeds still pale in comparison. Spyware is often secretly installed on a user's personal computer without 36 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . It is a faster version of GSM. A Trojan may give a hacker remote access to a targeted computer system. A virus is a program or programming code that replicates by being copied or initiating its copying to another program. server. steal information. Viruses and Spyware "Malware" is short for malicious software and is typically used as a catch-all term to refer to any software designed to cause damage to a single computer. to standard DSL and high-speed cable access today. or computer network. EDGE networks are designed to deliver multimedia applications such as streaming television. EDGE delivers a boost of more than three times the capacity and performance over GSM. audio and video to mobile phones at speeds up to 384 Kbps. Viruses can be transmitted as attachments to an e-mail note or in a downloaded file. It may also perform typical computer virus activities. The presence of spyware is typically hidden from the user and can be difficult to detect. et al.
20. 22. corporate.DRDO AEW&CS The Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AWACS) is a project of India's Defence Research & Development Organization to develop an AWACS system for the Indian Air Force. 37 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . ensuring its stable and secure operation. in particular.S. or public computer on purpose in order to intentionally monitor users. government by other organizations. ICANN is responsible for the coordination of the global Internet's systems of unique identifiers and. some spyware such as key loggers may be installed by the owner of a shared.Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) ICANN is a nonprofit private organization that was created in 1988 to oversee a number of Internet-related tasks previously performed directly on behalf of the U. The drone is ground or ship launched from a zero length launcher and recovery is by a two stage parachute system. remote piloted by a ground control station provides realistic towed aerial sub-targets for live fire training. However. system integration and testing of the system. The advanced version of pilotless target aircraft (PTA) Lakshya-II was again successfully flight. notably the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). 21. which ICANN now operates. The drone. which led the design. Primary responsibility for the project was with DRDO's Bangalorebased Centre for Airborne Systems (CABS). This work includes coordination of the Internet Protocol address spaces (IPv4 and IPv6) and assignment of address blocks to regional Internet registries.tested at the Integrated Test Range (ITR) on 27th January.Lakshya-1 It is an Indian remotely piloted high speed target Aircraft system developed by the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) of DRDO. 2012.Ganesh’s ias their knowledge.
Though the Eurofighter was a more (5000 m with towed subadvanced. Boeing (F/A18) and Lockheed Range: 150 km Martin (F-16). Russian MiG-35 and Swedish Saab Service ceiling: 9000 m (Gripen).S. the target) fact that France has a permanent UN Security Rate of climb: 25 m/s () Council seat tipped the balance in favour of Rafale. including the contracted modifications to the airframe. 24. The project goal was to deploy these AEW&C aircraft by 2013. younger and more modern aircraft.Rafale edges out Euro fighter India selected the French Fighter Rafale over the Euro fighter Typhoon for the supply of 126 Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA).7 six. based in Dehradun. The aircraft platform selected was the Embraer ERJ 145. Cassidian — the defence and security division of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company. was responsible for the Data Link and Communication Systems for AEW&CS. including U. which manufactures the Typhoon EADS is financed by a four-nation consortium that includes Britain. This is India's largest defence deal to date.Ganesh’s ias LRDE was responsible for the design of the radar array. Spain and Italy) The two aircraft were chosen from a list of Maximum speed: Mach 0. Germany. Three ERJ 145 were procured from Embraer at a cost of US $ 300 Million. 23. 38 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . The DRDO AEWACS program aims to deliver three radar-equipped surveillance aircraft to the Indian Air Force.Pralay The IAF’s Eastern Air Command commenced Exercise codenamed “Pralay’ on 29th February 2012 in the Brahmaputra and rest of the Eastern region of India. Defence Electronics Application Laboratory.
Joint Operations with the Army including special operations by day and night. This is an annual exercise aimed at testing the combat potential of the Air Force in various roles such as Air Defence.Mother and Child Tracking System (MCTS) An e-governance initiative of the Union Health and Family Welfare Ministry. infant and child mortality in the country". signed in 2001 and effective from May 2004. Ground Support operations. Through MCTS.Ganesh’s ias The exercise involves joint Army Air operations by the IAF’s Eastern Air Command and Eastern Command of the Indian Army. the Central government is making efforts to institutionalize the beneficiary based approach of monitoring health and family welfare services' delivery. 26. It is an innovative initiative launched by the Department of Health and Family Welfare in January last year. Counter Air Operations.Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants It is an international environmental treaty. 25. It also tracks children until they get full immunization. that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of 39 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . Electronic Warfare. "MCTS marks a paradigm shift in the approach towards monitoring health and family welfare programmes as it is aimed at ensuring complete delivery of maternal and child health services to all pregnant women and new born in an effort to reduce maternal. is aimed at tracking pregnant women throughout their pregnancy period and providing medical services to them as per the guidelines of the World Health Organisation. The MCTS is designed to collate information of all pregnant women and infants so as to ensure delivery of maternal and child health services from conception till 42 days after delivery in the case of pregnant women and up to five years of age in the case of children so as to ensure that all pregnant women and all new born receive full maternal and immunization services.
Its objectives are the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits 40 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . One important factor of their chemical properties such as lipid solubility results in the ability to pass through biological phospholipid membranes and bioaccumulate in the fatty tissues of living organisms. The fifth Conference of the Parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) was held in Geneva in April 2011. and high molecular masses. in November 2001. they have been observed to persist in the environment. usually with chlorine. biomagnify in food chains. Because of this. to be capable of long-range transport. there are 173 parties to the Convention. and photolytic processes. The Treaty is vital in ensuring the continued availability of the plant genetic resources that countries will need to feed their people. semi-volatility. • International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture After seven years of negotiations. This legally-binding Treaty covers all plant genetic resources relevant for food and agriculture. the more resistant it is to being broken down over time. The more chlorine groups the POPs have. As of April. Some of the chemical characteristics of POPs include low water solubility. biological. It is in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity. We must conserve for future generations the genetic diversity that is essential for food and agriculture. POPs are frequently halogenated. and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. ninety days after forty governments had ratified it. the FAO Conference adopted the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. 2011. • Persistent Organic Pollutant (POPs) POPs are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical. bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue.Ganesh’s ias persistent organic pollutants (POPs). high lipid solubility. The Treaty came into force on 29 June 2004.
processing and bandwidth. which are assured access to a wide range of genetic diversity for agricultural development. Consumers. and The environment.Operation Ghost Click It is a two-year investigation of a criminal gang based in Estonia. in many ways: Farmers and their communities. • All benefit. The longliving botnet of more than 4. whose collections the Treaty puts on a safe and long-term legal footing. and future human needs. and future generations.000.Cloud Computing It is a technology that uses the internet and central remote servers to maintain data and applications. 27. Cloud computing allows consumers and businesses to use applications without installation and access their personal files at any computer with internet access. for sustainable agriculture and food security. through Farmers' Rights. The scientific community. as well as increased food security. because the Treaty will help conserve the genetic diversity necessary to face unpredictable environmental changes. Both the public and private sectors. This technology allows for much more efficient computing by centralizing storage. 41 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . because of a greater variety of foods. International Agricultural Research Centres. 28.000 bots was taken down by the FBI and Estonian police in cooperation with a cohort of international partners. through access to the plant genetic resources crucial for research and plant breeding. in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity. memory. and of agriculture products.Ganesh’s ias derived from their use.
you would not be able to access websites. When a computer is compromised by an attacker. there is often code within the malware that commands it to become part of a botnet. • DNSChanger Malware DNS (Domain Name System) is an Internet service that converts userfriendly domain names into the numerical Internet protocol (IP) addresses that computers use to talk to each other. By controlling DNS. The gang of six Estonians . or use any other Internet services.are accused of running a botnet of more than four million virus-infected computers in 100 countries. such as www. When you enter a domain name. each of which is known as a 'bot'. they can control what sites the user connects to on the Internet. a 42 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . Your computer then uses this IP address to locate and connect to the website. They allegedly used their control of the machines to redirect users from websites such as Apple's iTunes Store and Amazon to ones that would serve up advertising. • Botnet A botnet is a collection of compromised computers.Ganesh’s ias The botnet spread over 100 countries. for which the gang would receive a referral fee.fbi. send e-mail. The "botmaster" or "bot herder" controls these compromised computers via standards-based network protocols such as IRC and http. and generated $14 million. affected some 4 to 5 million victims. DNS servers are operated by your Internet service provider (ISP) and are included in your computer’s network configuration.gov. in your web browser address bar. DNS and DNS Servers are a critical component of your computer’s operating environment—without them. connected to the Internet. Criminals have learned that if they can control a user’s DNS servers.and a Russian who remains at large . your computer contacts DNS servers to determine the IP address for the website.
which is relatively weak on the 43 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . which converts human-friendly domain names like google. The neutrino (meaning "small neutral one" in Italian) is denoted by the Greek letter ν (nu).Operation Global Blackout 2012 Rallied by Anonymous supporters worldwide. One way criminals do this is by infecting computers with a class of malicious software (malware) called DNSChanger. 30. It was to be an attempt to shut down the Internet for a whole day tomorrow (Saturday) by disabling its core DNS servers. and gravity. which means that they are not affected by the electromagnetic forces that act on charged particles such as electrons and protons. Neutrinos are affected only by the weak sub-atomic force. 29. Neutrinos do not carry electric charge. making websites inaccessible. It declared when the attack would be carried out: March 31. And it detailed exactly how: by bombarding the Domain Name System with junk traffic in an effort to overwhelm it altogether.com into numeric addresses that are more useful for computers. to attack the Domain Name System. In this scenario. All evidence suggests that neutrinos have mass but that their mass is tiny even by the standards of subatomic particles. A bad DNS server operated by a criminal is referred to as a rogue DNS server.Neutrino It is an electrically neutral. of much shorter range than electromagnetism. Their mass has never been measured accurately. the criminal uses the malware to change the user’s DNS server settings to replace the ISP’s good DNS servers with bad DNS servers operated by the criminal. weakly interacting elementary subatomic particle with half-integer spin.Ganesh’s ias criminal can get an unsuspecting user to connect to a fraudulent website or to interfere with that user’s online web browsing.
It was proposed (1925) by the Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli to account for the observed patterns of light emission from atoms. The rule. 31. Neutrinos are created as a result of certain types of radioactive decay. electrons fill orbitals starting at the lowest available (possible) energy states before filling higher states.Ganesh’s ias subatomic scale. They are therefore able to travel great distances through matter without being affected by it. or nuclear reactions such as those that take place in the Sun. • Aufbau principle It is the principle for the rationalization of the distribution of electrons among energy levels in the ground (most stable) states of atoms. The principle was formulated by the Danish physicist Niels Bohr about 1920. or when cosmic rays hit atoms. • Hund's Rule of Maximum Multiplicity It is an observational rule which states that a greater total spin state usually makes the resulting atom more stable. it can be taken that if two or more orbitals of equal energy are available. • Pauli Exclusion Principle It is an assertion that no two electrons in an atom can be at the same time in the same state or configuration. in nuclear reactors. discovered by Friedrich Hund in 1925. The product will be a boon for the patients of Leucoderma and is backed by extensive 44 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . Accordingly. electrons will occupy them singly before filling them in pairs. is of important use in atomic chemistry. and quantum chemistry. The exclusion principle subsequently has been generalized to include a whole class of particles of which the electron is only one member. According to the principle.spectroscopy.Lukoskin A herbal product for Leucoderma developed by DRDO was launched.
(Arka). neither it is hereditary nor contagious. or viral causes. Mucuna pruriens (Kaunch). Protein storage. Aloe vera (Kumari). • Defence Institute of Bio-energy Research (DIBER) DIBER. but research suggests that it may arise from autoimmune. modification. Synthesis of cholesterol. Psoralea corylifolia (Bakuchi). 45 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 .Ganesh’s ias R&D work by the scientists of Defence Institute of Bio-energy Research (DIBER) (formerly Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory). • Leucoderma or Vitiligo Leucoderma or Vitiligo is an idiopathic acquired disorder of skin. The cause of vitiligo is unknown. These cells are involved in: Protein synthesis. and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances. a DRDO laboratory has carried out extensive work in the area of medicinal plant and is also engaged in R&D in generating bio-energy solutions for energy security. A hepatocyte is a cell of the main tissue of the liver. bile salts and phospholipids. and Centella asiatica (mandooparni). die or are unable to function. The herbal product will be available in the form of ointment and oral liquid. It occurs when melanocytes. Calotropis sps. The ingredients for the medicine included ‘Ammi majus' which is crucial for melanin synthesis. It is a condition that causes depigmentation of sections of skin. which works as a photo sensitizer for the initiation of erythema on the spots of leucoderma. genetic. Haldwani. It is not a disease. oxidative stress. thereby gradually improving the auto-immune system. Transformation of carbohydrates. the cells responsible for skin pigmentation. Patients with Vitiligo develop white spots in the skin with varying size and location. The lukoskin drug regulates metabolism and improves the functioning of the hepatocytes. Hepatocytes make up 70-80% of the liver's cytoplasmic mass. neural. The hepatocyte also initiates formation and secretion of bile. Detoxification.
the middle layer of the eye. Full genome sequencing is a laboratory process that determines the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time. for plants. Unlike full genome sequencing. which can also be used as the person's identifier. DNA profiling should not be confused with full genome sequencing. The DNA profiling technique was first reported in 1984 by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester in England. it does not contain additional information on genetic relationships. • Melanocyte They are melanin-producing cells located in the bottom layer of the skin's epidermis. Melanin is a pigment that is responsible primarily for the color of skin. It also helps to investigate the family relationship in animal population to increase the extent to inbreeding by looking at the degree of variability in the DNA profile comparing DNA patterns of parents and off spring. meninges. DNA profiles are encrypted sets of numbers that reflect a person's DNA makeup. 32. as genetic Finger Printing is the technique used for identifying the components of DNA that is unique to individuals.Ganesh’s ias The world wide incidence of leucoderma has been reported 1-2%. bones and heart. in the chloroplast. This skin disorder is considered as social stigma in our country and people confuse it with leprosy.DNA FINGER PRINTING It is also known. This helps in preserving the endangered species. DNA profiling only determines the likelihood that genetic material came from a particular individual or group. 46 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . origin or susceptibility to specific diseases It is used as a forensic technique in crime investigation especially in cases of rape. its incidence is around 4-5% in some parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat it is very high more than 5-8%. In India. the inner ear. This entails sequencing all of an organism’s chromosomal DNA as well as DNA contained in the mitochondria and.
During sporulation. It is in Hyderabad. 34. The Bt brinjal has been developed to give resistance against lepidopteron insects. that have insecticidal action. IITA. many Bt strains produce crystal proteins called δendotoxins. 33. and CIAT (International Centre for Tropical 47 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . 35. ICRISAT. Ministry of Science and Technology.World Sparrow Day The World Sparrow Day (WSD) is being celebrated on 20th March across the globe to raise public awareness about the decline of the house sparrow and throw light on the problems faced by the species in its daily fight for survival. and more recently to genetically modified crops using Bt genes.Ganesh’s ias • Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD) The Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD) is an autonomous organization funded by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT). soil-dwelling bacterium. 2010 across the globe to celebrate the beauty of the house sparrow. The World Sparrow Day also celebrates the common biodiversity around us. Government of India.Tropical Legumes II Tropical Legumes-II is a joint initiative of three international agricultural research centres. The Bt brinjal is a suite of transgenic brinjals created by inserting a crystal protein gene (Cry1Ac) from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis into the genome of various brinjal cultivars. viz. The first World Sparrow Day was celebrated on March 20. terminators and an antibiotic resistance marker gene into the brinjal plant is accomplished using mediated genetic transformation. in particular the Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis). This has led to their use as insecticides. along with other genetic elements like promoters.Bacillus thuringiensis It is a Gram-positive. commonly used as a biological pesticide. The insertion of the gene.
found chlorofluorocarbons already in wide and growing usage around the world could cause pronounced thinning of the Earth's natural ozone layer. 36. and fluorine. and establish decentralized. generate new farmerand market-preferred varieties and hybrids with desirable traits (high yields.Ganesh’s ias Agriculture) that aims to increase productivity and production of legumes and the income of poor farmers in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound that contains carbon. pest and disease problems. and resistance to pests and diseases). The rocket has been developed and built by students from universities spread all across Europe. Esrange Space Center and the Mobile Rocket Base (Moraba) of the German Aerospace Center. produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane. 37. thus subjecting life on the planet's surface to larger doses of harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. He died.REXUS (Rocket-Borne Experiments for University Students) REXUS is part of the EU student experiment program. His best-known work was the discovery that chlorofluorocarbons contribute to ozone depletion. tolerance to moisture stress. Sherwood Rowland He was an American Nobel laureate and a professor of chemistry at the University of California. The project’s strategy is to fast track testing and adoption of existing varieties and advanced breeding lines for use by famers.F. The basic idea behind REXUS is to provide an experimental space platform for students in the field of aerospace technology. The REXUS program is a joint student project between the Swedish Space Corporation. and unavailability and lack of access to quality seed of improved legume varieties. 48 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . pro-poor seed production and delivery systems. In 1974. F Sherwood "Sherry" Rowland and his co-author Mario Molina. chlorine. The project is expected to help small farmers overcome productivity constraints such as drought.
1989. of Switzerland. importing and selling finished products in the Indian market. It is believed that if the international agreement is adhered to.g. contributing 60-70% of daily energy needs.. Cereals are the main source of energy.A. 49 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . They are also commonly known by the DuPont trade name Freon. The treaty was opened for signature on September 16. After India's independence in 1947. wheat. Nestlé is the world's leading Nutrition. where our headquarters are still located today. calcium. followed by a first meeting in Helsinki. and entered into force on January 1. maize.Nestlé India Nestlé India is a subsidiary of Nestlé S. May 1989. 1987. Health and Wellness Company. Wholegrains (grains with the intact outer layer like in brown rice. Punjab. which contain hydrogen. Switzerland. as well. • Food and Energy Cereals: Cereals form the staple diet in India. iron and B-complex vitamins. 38. Cereals are a source of protein. The Company was founded in 1866 by Henri Nestlé in Vevey. the economic policies of the Indian Government emphasised the need for local production. Nestle began trading as The Nestlé Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company (Export) Limited. the ozone layer is expected to recover by 2050. Nestlé responded to India's aspirations by forming a company in India and set up its first factory in 1961 at Moga. corn) are a good source of fibre and B-complex vitamins and should be included in daily diet.Ganesh’s ias A common subclass is the hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. e. rice.
They are required in 50 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . They provide minerals. They are not only a good source of quality protein but also calcium and riboflavin. They are a good source of high quality protein and other important nutrients. dried fruits like dates supply iron. folic acid. Animal Foods: This category includes eggs. curd. butter. buttermilk etc. A special feature in flesh foods is the presence of vitamin B12. GLV’s are a rich source of calcium iron.Ganesh’s ias Pulses (legumes): Pulses are a rich source of proteins (up to 22%) and meet the protein requirement of the vegetarians. vitamin A (βcarotene). Fats can be the visible fats (ghee. They are also rich in B complex vitamins. Milk and Milk Products: This category includes liquid and powdered milk. Nuts and Oils: These are calorie-rich foods. Green. Fish is rich in omega-3 PUFA which is protective against cardiovascular diseases and calcium as well. and are useful for increasing the energy density of foods. Fruits: these provide vitamins and fiber. fish etc. Yellow and Orange fruits are a rich source of beta carotene. Fruits and Vegetables: these include Roots and Tubers: these are rich in carbohydrates and are good sources of energy and calcium. Root vegetables like carrots are a good source of vitamin A. Fats. Citrus fruits. chicken. Seasonal fruits should be encouraged. Fruits also contain pectins which provide bulk to the diet and helps bowel movement. which is absent in plant foods. vitamins and fiber (which add bulk to the diet). Vegetables and Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV’s): vegetables add both color and variety to the diet. paneer. amla. meat. and guava are rich in vitamin C. vitamin C. oil) or the invisible fats (present inherently in each food). These should be a part of everyday’s diet and especially essential for children as they support healthy growth. Germination (sprouting) of pulses increases the vitamin C and B group vitamins and also improves the digestibility.
but these are required in lesser amounts. But protein should never be taken when you're starving or very hungry. syrups etc which are energy concentrates. Protein Content in Common Foods Foods 1 Egg White 35 gm (2-3 pieces) of lean meat like skinless chicken & fish 200 ml of skimmed milk CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t Protein Value 6 gm 7 – 8 gm 6-7 gm 51 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . Proteins are the building blocks of muscles. In adults. Protein is the body's nutritional powerhouse. a critical need for both adults and children at every stage. Protein: Human body needs three vital macronutrients to survive. thus defeating the purpose. tends to convert protein into carbohydrates. More muscle in the body helps burn more calories and this also gives the strength and energy to work out more vigorously. For optimal health. This is why weight loss is so much faster when there is adequate protein in the diet. High protein diets are also considered better for better diabetic control and dyslipidemia. proteins and fats. it helps heal wounds and recover more rapidly from injury. They are the sweetening agents which should be consumed in moderation as they provide calories but not much in the way of nutrition. the total calories from fat should not exceed 10-15%. proteins and fats should be balanced.Ganesh’s ias moderate quantities in the daily diet as they provide essential fatty acids and promote absorption of fat soluble vitamins along with improving the palatability of the food. hormones. in starvation mode. This is because the body. Sugars: This group includes table sugar. It is responsible for the regeneration of body cells. Also excessive sugar consumption has been linked to weight gain. Protein helps re-build the muscle tissue. bones. prevents hair loss and weakness. intake of carbohydrates. These are carbohydrates. jaggery. It also needs micronutrients like vitamins and minerals. skin cells and tissues. However. That's why it's so important for growing children and lactating women. honey.
originate in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. such as the Arun. St. It is the only coral island in Bangladesh. dividing Mithilanchal into two halves and reducing the entire townships to rubble and killing tens of thousands of people. the Sun Kosi and the Bhote Koshi. Martin's Island near Bangladesh is threatened by environmental collapse. Martin's Island It is a small island in the northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal.5 gm 8 gm 8 gm 39. also Saptakoshi for its seven Himalayan tributaries—is a transboundary river flowing through Nepal and India. Mithilanchal belt (Purnea. Araria and Supaul Districts) The fertile and chronically flood-lacerated swathe of the Mithilanchal belt in north Bihar witnessed a watershed moment in its urban ecosystem when Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar inaugurated the ‘Kosi Maha Sethu' — a railcum-road bridge — in Supaul district.Ganesh’s ias 35 gm (half cup) of Paneer (Cottage Cheese) 35 gm of Tofu 100 gm of Cheese Yoghurt (100 gm) Almonds (7-8 pieces) Peanuts (2 tsps) 6-7 gm 8 gm 30. The loss of this bridge.9 gm 4. at the mouth of the Naf River.St. Some of the rivers of the Koshi system. There are two national parks in the Koshi river basin: 52 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 . 40. Kosi River. It is about 8 km west of the northwest coast of Myanmar. It is one of the largest tributaries of the Ganges. about 9 km south of the tip of the Cox's Bazar-Teknaf peninsula. The bridge was destroyed in the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake. and forming the southernmost part of Bangladesh.' had hampered traffic and commerce for several decades. known as the ‘Lifeline of Mithilanchal.
acted as a precursor to the prototype developed by CSIR-CMERI. Kharagpur. It has an onboard computer that can be pre-programmed to carry out specific tasks. The ‘AUV-150' was developed by a team of scientists of the Robotics and Automation division of CSIR-CMERI under the leadership of S. surveillance activities and oceanographic studies. The performance parameters of the lab-scale model. located in eastern Nepal. developed by the IIT.N. 42.Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) The Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is designed and developed by the Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI). The project is sponsored by the Ministry of Earth Sciences. It was developed in technical collaboration with the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT).' as the prototype is named is built to operate 150 metres under the sea.Ganesh’s ias • the Sagarmatha National Park. The wildlife census in 2011 had put their number at 288. The ‘AUV-150. containing parts of the Himalayas and the southern half of Mount Everest. the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve situated on the floodplains of the Sapta-Koshi River in eastern Nepal. Shome. The cylindrical AUV is capable of independently carrying out a plethora of underwater operations. The rich forests and the water bodies along the Jawai dam in Sumerpur tehsil have a large presence of crocodiles. which makes it a smart vehicle endowed with the ability to devise 53 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 .Jawai Bandh forests Rajasthan accords the bio-diversity rich Jawai Bandh forests in Pali district the status of a conservation reserve. Durgapur — a constituent establishment of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). including ocean floor-mapping. • 41. based on data gathered using its onboard sensors. The reserve is fifth in the category in the State. It is in the Luni river basin close proximity of Kumbalgarh Sanctuary.
For effective operation. The payload and the configuration are determined by the nature of the mission it is tasked with. it locates own geographical position using navigational sensors. propulsion. it is equipped with navigational sensors like the inertial navigation system. depth sonar. and weighs about 490 kg. the institute is facilitating innovations and inventions for establishing the claims of Indian talent in international fields where Indian products shall ultimately compete. Sea trials of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle are scheduled for January-end. 54 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . Besides. The AUV has its own power. and payload sensors like camera. For movement underwater.Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by infection with a tickborne virus (Nairovirus) in the family Bunyaviridae.) Gautam Biswas. Being the only national level research institute in this field. altimeter etc. side scan sonar and the like.Ganesh’s ias its own stratagems to execute a mission. CMERI’s mandate is to serve industry and develop mechanical engineering technology so that India’s dependence on foreign collaboration is substantially reduced in strategic and economy sectors. The AUV has hybrid communication channels. (Dr. but switches to acoustic communication when submerged. It was then later recognized in 1969 as the cause of illness in the Congo.Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI) CMERI is the apex R&D institute for mechanical engineering under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). thus resulting in the current name of the disease. a cruising speed of up to four knots. The disease was first characterized in the Crimea in 1944 and given the name Crimean hemorrhagic fever. is the Director of CMERI-Durgapur 44. Prof.. 43. It has extra roll stability. It uses radio frequency while on surface. while its forward-looking sonar facilitates obstacle evasion and safe passage. navigation and control systems.
• National Institute of Virology The National Institute of Virology is one of the major Institutes of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). especially those of the genus. sheep and hares. are both a reservoir and a vector for the CCHF virus. goats. Hyalomma. such as cattle. the VRC acquired its status of national importance and was renamed as National Institute of Virology (NIV) in 1978. Transmission to humans occurs through contact with infected animal blood or ticks. USA. The first case of human infection caused by Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus in Ahmedabad was confirmed by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). On the recommendation of the Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC). Maharashtra State in 1952 as Virus Research Centre (VRC) under the auspices of the ICMR and the Rockefeller Foundation (RF). CCHF can be transmitted from one infected human to another by contact with infectious blood or body fluids. serve as amplifying hosts for the virus. 55 CA 4 CSP 2 01 2 A nna Nagar/ C hrom pe t 9 84 02 4 11 1 8 / 99 40 2 44 5 76 . Numerous wild and domestic animals. It was established at Pune.Ganesh’s ias Ixodid (hard) ticks. It was an outcome of the global programme of the RF for investigating the Arthropod Borne viruses.