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Consumer goods are goods that are bought from retail stores for personal, family , or household use

. They are grouped into three subcategories on the basis of co nsumer buyinghabits: convenience goods, shopping goods, and specialty goods.Cons umer goods can also be differentiated on the basis of durability. Durable goods are products that have a long life, such as furniture and garden tools. Nondurab le goods are thosethat are quickly used up, or worn out, or that become outdated , such as food, school supplies,and disposable cameras. 1.1 Convenience Goods Convenience goods are items that buyers want to buy with the least amount of ef fort, that is,as conveniently as possible. Most are nondurable goods of low valu e that are frequently purchased in small quantities. These goods can be further divided into two subcategories:staple and impulse items.Staple convenience goods are basic items that buyers plan to buy before they enter a store,and include m ilk, bread, and toilet paper. Impulse items are other convenience goods that are purchased without prior planning, such as candy bars, soft drinks, and tabloid newspapers.Since convenience goods are not actually sought out by consumers, pro ducers attempt to getas wide a distribution as possible through wholesalers. To extend the distribution, these itemsare also frequently made available through v ending machines in offices, factories, schools,and other settings. Within stores , they are placed at checkout stands and other high-trafficareas. 1.2 Shopping Goods Shopping goods are purchased only after the buyer compares the products of more than onestore or looks at more than one assortment of goods before making a del iberate buyingdecision. These goods are usually of higher value than convenience goods, boughtinfrequently, and are durable. Price, quality, style, and color ar e typically factors in the buying decision. Televisions, computers, lawnmowers, bedding, and camping equipment areall examples of shopping goods.Because custome rs are going to shop for these goods, a fundamental strategy in establishingstor es that specialize in them is to locate near similar stores in active shopping a reas. Ongoingstrategies for marketing shopping goods include the heavy use of ad vertising in local media,including newspapers, radio, and television. Advertisin g for shopping goods is often donecooperatively with the manufacturers of the go ods. Specialty Goods Specialty goods are items that are unique or unusual²at least in the mind of the b uyer.Buyers know exactly what they want and are willing to exert considerable ef fort to obtain it.These goods are usually, but not necessarily, of high value, a nd they may or may not bedurable goods. They differ from shopping goods primaril y because price is not the chief consideration. Often the attributes that make t hem unique are brand preference (e.g., a certainmake of automobile) or personal preference (e.g., a food dish prepared in a specific way).Other items that fall into this category are wedding dresses, antiques, fine jewelry, and golf clubs.P roducers and distributors of specialty goods prefer to place their goods only in selected retailoutlets. These outlets are chosen on the basis of their willingn ess and ability to provide a highlevel of advertising and personal selling for t he product. Consistency of image between the product and the store is also a fac tor in selecting outlets.The distinction among convenience, shopping, and specia lty goods is not always clear. Asnoted earlier, these classifications are based on consumers' buying habits. Consequently, agiven item may be a convenience good for one person, a shopping good for another, and aspecialty good for a third. F or example, for a person who does not want to spend timeshopping, buying a pair of shoes might be a convenience purchase. In contrast, another person might buy shoes only after considerable thought and comparison: in this instance, theshoe s are a shopping good. Still another individual who perhaps prefers a certain br and or hasan unusual size will buy individual shoes only from a specific retail

Some are used directly in the production of the products for resale. little difference between offerings within agrade.. and forklifts. fabricated parts and materials. Thisnegotiation plus the fact that raw materials are ordinarily sold in large quantities make personal s elling the principal marketing approach for these goods. such as hand tools. 2.0 INDUSTRIAL GOODS Industrial goods are products that companies purchase to make other products. Others (e. Durable industrial goo dsthat cost large sums of money are referred to as capital items. combined with a market made up of buyers from several different ty pes of businesses. Some installations.. h owever. . Manufa cturers of installations can make their availability known throughadvertising. 2. for this buyer. it is usually done by intermedi aries.The relatively low unit value of accessor y equipment.Most raw materials are graded according to quali ty so that there is some assurance of consistency within each grade. There is. wheat. Other installations. and some areused indirectly.2 Accessory Equipment Goods that fall into the subcategory of accessory equipment are capital items th at are lessexpensive and have shorter lives than installations. Nondurable ind ustrial goodsthat are used up within a year are called expense items.the shoes are a specialty good. Examples are iron ore. Some (e. and computerize d axial tomography (CAT) scanmachines.The purchase of installations requires extensive research and careful decision making on the part of the buyer. actual sale of installations requires the technical knowledge andassista nce that can best be provided by personal selling. most are only indirectly involved. Unlike consumer goods. such as conveyor systems. such as stampingmachines.are involved directly in the production proc ess. 2. Sellersrely heavily on a dvertisements in trade publications and mailings to purchasing agents andother b usiness buyers. wheat) may be converted directly into another consumer product (cereal). robotics equipm ent. 2. large commercial ovens. Examples include hand tools.g. These goods are divided into five subcategories:installations. copper. Consequently. ra w materials.3 Raw Materials Raw materials are products that are purchased in their raw state for the purpos e of processingthem into consumer or industrial goods. sales n egotiations focus on price.timber.desk calculators.Industrial g oods also carry designations related to their durability.are designed and built for specialized situations. industrial goods are classified on the basis of their use rather than customer buying habits.such as wholesalers. are built to a standard design but can be modified to meet individual requirements. cr ude oil.location. diamonds.1 Installations Installations are major capital items that are typically used directly in the pr oduction of goods. andindustrial supplies. computers.g. timber) may be converted into an intermediate product (lumber) to be resold for use in another industry (construction). When personal selling is needed. While some types of acce ssory equipment. dictates a broad marketing strategy. and leather. and credit terms. wh ich theythen sell. accessory equipment. delivery. and machine tools. H owever.

As a matter of fact. Goods thatare in their final form. cl eaning supplies. Suppliesinclude computer paper.It is not always clear whether a product is a consumer good or an industrial good. light bulbs. The key todifferentiating the m is to identify the use the buyer intends to make of the good. rely heavily onfabricated parts.They may work closely with a company in designing the components or ma terials theyrequire.2. if purchased to transport lawnmowers for alawn service . sun roofs. . Buyers of fabricated parts and materials have well-defined specifications for th eir needs. lubrication oil. are ready to be consumed. and spark plugs. companies marketing supplies placetheir emphasis on ad vertising²particularly in the form of catalogues²to business buyers. They contribute ind irectly to the production of final products or to the administration of the prod uction process. On the other hand. or they may invite bids from several companies. Automakers use such fabricated parts as batteries. if they are b ought by a business for its own use.5 Industrial Supplies Industrial supplies are frequently purchased expense items. in cluding the auto industry. personal contact must be maintained with the buyers over time. sales representatives may be used. require a dditional processing before being placed in the end product. but flour purchased by a bakery to make past ries would be classified as an industrial good. on the other hand. As a result. de pending on how they are used.When large orders are at stake. They also use several fabricated materials.4 Fabricated Parts and Materials Fabricated parts are items that are purchased to be placed in the final product without further processing. Many industries. Flour purchased by a supermarket for resale would be classified as a consumer good. and office supplies. can fall into either classification. and are bought to be resold to the finalconsumer are classified as consumer goods. such as flour and pick-up trucks.Buyers of industrial supplies do not spend a great deal of time on their purchasing decisionsunless they are ordering large quantities. it is an industrial good. many industries actually buy more fabric ated items than rawmaterials. 2. they are considered industrial goods. personal selling is a key compo nent in the marketing strategy. including steel and upholsteryfabric. Fabricated materials.Here again. in order to be in a position to get the business. A pickuptruck bought for persona l use is a consumer good. windshields. In either c ase. Some items.