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# Fundamental/base quantities Quantity Length Mass Thermodynamic Temperature Time Amount of substance Luminous intensity Electric current

Physical Quantities Quantity Force Pressure Work Power Frequency Current Voltage Resistance Orders of Magnitude Order 10¹² 10⁹ 10⁶ 10³ 10² Notation (preﬁx) Tera (T) Giga (G) Mega (M) Kilo (k) Hecta (h) 10ˉ¹² 10ˉ⁹ 10ˉ⁶ 10ˉ³ 10ˉ² Order Notation (preﬁx) Pico (p) Nano (n) Micro (µ) Mili (m) Centi (c) SI Unit (symbol) SI Unit (symbol)

if it varies LINEARLY with temp.Order 10¹ Density: Notation (preﬁx) Deca (da) 10ˉ¹ SI Unit: Order Notation (preﬁx) Deci (d) Know: • fundamental vs derived units • random error vs systematic error (how to reduce/eliminate) • accuracy vs precision Physical properties used to measure temperature: • • • Fixed points Celsius scale: ice point & steam point Kelvin scale: absolute zero & triple point of water relation between physical property (L) and temp. θ ∆ L₁ ⁄ ∆ L ₂ = ∆ θ₁ ⁄ ∆ θ₂ Mode Conduction Convection Radiation Factors that affect the rate of radiation: • • • • emitters good➮poor reﬂectors poor➮good absorbers good➮poor (radiators) Description .

(in K) [VOLUME INCREASES PROPORTIONALLY WITH TEMPERATURE] Boyleʼs law → For a ﬁxed amount of an ideal gas kept at a ﬁxed temperature. P [pressure] and V [volume] are inversely proportional (while one doubles.dull black shiny black white silvery Matter is made up of tiny particles that are in constant random motion. Temperature affects kinetic energy of molecules Pressure: SI unit: Solid Liquid Gas Pressure law → the pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume is directly proportional to its absolute temperature [PRESSURE INCREASES PROPORTIONALLY WITH TEMPERATURE] Charles law → for an ideal gas at constant pressure. P₁ V₁ ⁄ T₁ = P₂V₂ ⁄ T₂ . the other halves). the volume is directly proportional to the absolute temp. Phase Molecular arrangement Intermolecular separation Intermolecular forces Motion of molecules Intermolecular separation when heated Motion of particles (when heated) Internal energy: sum of random kinetic and potential energy of molecules in a substance Phase affects potential energy of molecules.

without a change in phase SI Unit: JKˉ¹ kgˉ¹ c = Q ⁄ çθ Q = mc (∆Q) → power x time Know: • boiling vs evaporating Factors affecting rate of evaporation: • Temperature • Surface area • Humidity • Motion of air • Volatility (how easy it evaporates) • External Pressure Latent heat : energy needed to change phase of a substance without a change in temp. of an object by a unit temp. of a unit mass of a substance by a unit temp.[PRESSURE IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO VOLUME] Thermal Capacity (heat capacity) : The energy needed to raise the temp. without a change in phase SI Unit: JKˉ¹ C = Q ⁄ ∆θ (Q is heat energy) Speciﬁc heat capacity: the energy needed to raise the temp. Speciﬁc latent heat : energy needed to change the phase of a unit mass of a substance without a change in temperature SI Unit: J kgˉ¹ l=Q⁄m .

⁄ total time Acceleration : change in velocity in unit time SI Unit: msˉ¹ . vs speciﬁc latent heat of fusion Power = energy ⁄ time Vector quantities : magnitude & direction Scalar quantities : magnitude only Scalar quantities mass pressure temperature distance speed energy volt resistance current time Vector quantities displacement velocity acceleration force weight moment Distance : total length of travel irrespective to the direction of the motion SI Unit: m Displacement : the shortest dist.Know: • speciﬁc latent heat of temp. measured from a ﬁxed point in a given direction SI Unit: m Speed : rate of change of distance SI Unit: msˉ¹ Speed = distance travelled ⁄ time taken Velocity (v) : rate of change of displacement per unit time SI Unit : msˉ¹ v = displacement ⁄ time taken Average speed = total dist.

downwards) Terminal velocity : constant speed a falling object attains towards the end of its fall Mass : the amount of matter and a measure of inertia Weight : gravitational force acting on the mass w = m x g (g = 9.initial v (∆v) ⁄ time positive & negative signs for vectors rep.81msˉ¹. direction On a graph: Displacement ↑ area ↓ Velocity gradient ↑ Acceleration ↓ Free fall : free fall is the object falling under the inﬂuence of gravity with the absence of air resistance (acceleration is 9.81 msˉ²) Newtonʼs 1st law of motion: an object will remain at rest or at constant speed in a straight line unless a resultant force acts on it .a = ﬁnal v .