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For other uses, see USB (disambiguation). Universal Serial bus Certified USB.svg Original logo Type Bus Production history Designed 1994 Manufacturer Intel, Compaq, Microsoft, NEC, Digital Equipment Corporation, IB M, Nortel Superseded Serial port, parallel port, game port, Apple Desktop Bus, PS/2 c onnector General specifications Length 3 to 5 meters, see Cabling section for details Width 12 mm (A-plug),[1] 8.45 mm (B-plug) (there are also smaller connectors) Height 4.5 mm (A-plug),[1] 7.78 mm (B-plug, pre-v3.0) Hot pluggable Yes External Yes Cable 4 wires plus shield; 9 wires plus shield in USB 3.0 Pins 4 (1 supply, 2 data, 1 ground); 9 in USB 3.0 (additional 5 for SuperSpee d technology including one extra ground); 11 in powered USB 3.0; micro connector s have one additional pin Connector Unique Electrical Signal 5 volt DC Max. voltage 5 V(±5%) Max. current 500 900 mA @ 5 V (depending on version) 5A for Battery Charging devices Data Data signal Packet data, defined by specifications Width 1 bit Bitrate 1.5/12/480/5,000 Mbit/s (depending on version) Max. devices 127 Protocol Serial Pin out USB.svg The standard USB A plug (left) and B plug (right) (Male view) Pin 1 VCC (+5 V) Pin 2 DataPin 3 Data+ Pin 4 Ground Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard developed in the mid-1990s th at defines the cables, connectors and communications protocols used in a bus for connection, communication and power supply between computers and electronic dev ices.[2] USB is not a true bus, meaning only the root hub sees every signal on the bus. T his implies there is no method to monitor upstream communications from a down st ream device. USB was designed to standardize the connection of computer peripherals, such as keyboards, pointing devices, digital cameras, printers, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power. It has become commonplace on other devices, such as sm artphones, PDAs and video game consoles.[3] USB has effectively replaced a varie ty of earlier interfaces, such as serial and parallel ports, as well as separate power chargers for portable devices.

As of 2008, approximately 6 billion USB ports and interfaces were in the global marketplace, and about 2 billion were being sold each year.[4] Contents 1 History 1.1 Version history 1.1.1 Prereleases 1.1.2 USB 1.0 1.1.3 USB 2.0 1.1.4 USB 3.0 2 System design 3 Device classes 3.1 USB mass storage 3.2 Human interface devices (HIDs) 4 Physical appearance 4.1 Connector properties 4.1.1 Usability and "upside down" connectors 4.1.2 Durability 4.1.3 Compatibility Compatibility of USB 3.0 connectors 4.2 Connector types 4.2.1 USB standard connectors 4.2.2 Mini and Micro connectors 4.2.3 USB On-The-Go Connectors 4.2.4 Host interface receptacles 4.2.5 Cable plugs (USB 1.x/2.0) 4.2.6 Proprietary connectors and formats 5 Cabling 6 Power 6.1 Charging ports and accessory charging adapters 6.2 Sleep-and-charge ports 6.3 Mobile device charger standards 6.4 Non-standard devices 6.5 Powered USB 7 Signaling 8 Transmission rates 9 Communication 9.1 Handshake packets 9.2 Token packets 9.3 Data packets 9.4 PRE packet 10 Comparisons with other connection methods 10.1 FireWire 10.2 Ethernet 10.3 MIDI 10.4 eSATA/eSATAp 10.5 Thunderbolt 11 Related standards 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links History Large circle is left end of horizontal line. The line forks into three branches ending in circle, triangle and square symbols. The basic USB trident logo; each released version has a specific logo variant[cl arification needed]

0. 0. DEC.7: Released in November 1994.5 Mbit/s "Low Speed" and 12 Mbit/s "Full Speed".0 specification was released in April 2000 and was ratified by the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF) at the end of 2001. 0.0 includes a new.0 specific ation package available from USB. Its main goals were to increase the data transfer rate (up to 5 Gbit/s).0 specification was published on 12 November 2008. and the lower 1. Intel.0 equipped devices were presented in January 2010. the most common USB plug The USB 2.0: Released in April 2000. Lucent Technologies (now Alcatel-Lucent).1: Released in August 1998.0. Specified data rates of 1. The USB 3. Earliest revision to be widely adopted. Microsoft. to decrease power consumpt ion.0: Released in January 1996. Added higher maximum signaling rate of 480 Mbit/s (effective throughput up to 35 MB/s) (now called "Hi-Speed").5 Mbit/s (Low-Bandwidth) and 12 Mbit/s (Full-Bandw idth).1. . Fixed problems identified in 1. and to be backwards-compatible with USB 2.[7] U SB 3. I ntel. 0. The 12 Mbit/s data rate was intended for higher-speed devices such as disk dr ives.0 The Hi-Speed USB Logo USB 2. The first silicon for USB was made by Intel in 1995. which was introduced in January 1996.5 Mbit/s rate for low data rate devices such as joysticks. Hewlett-Packard. mostly relating to hubs.[11]: Mini-A and Mini-B Connector ECN: Released in October 2000. NEC and Philips jointly led the initiative to develop a higher data transfer rate.A group of seven companies began development on USB in 1994: Compaq.[9][10] Version history A PCI USB 2. The most important of these ECNs are included into the USB 2.9: Released in April 1995.1 specification.0 bus. Does not allow for extension cables or pass-through monitors (due to timi ng and power limitations).[5] The original USB 1. Few such devices actually made it to market. USB 1.[9] Th e first USB 3. The goal was to make it fundamentally easier to connect external devices to PCs by replacing the multitude of connectors at the back of PCs.[8] For this reason.0 USB 1. which was released in September 199 8.8: Released in December 1994.0 card for a computer motherboard Prereleases The USB standard evolved through several versions before its official release in 1995: USB USB USB USB USB USB 1. the new version is also called SuperSpeed. to increase power output.99: Released in August 1995. addressing the usability issues of existing interfaces.0. define d data transfer rates of 1. with the resulting specification achieving 480 Mbit/s. higher speed bus called SuperSpeed in parallel with the U SB 2. [6] A USB Standard Type A plug.[5] T he first widely used version of USB was 1. USB 2. a forty times increase over the original USB 1. and simpli fying software configuration of all devices connected to USB. IBM. as well as permitt ing greater data rates for external devices.0 Release Candidate: Released in November 1995.0 specification. NEC and Nortel. Further mod ifications to the USB specification have been done via Engineering Change Notice s (ECN).

which allows devices to sleep while idle. the managing body of USB s pecifications. with direction controlled by the h .4 GB/s or 400 MB/s).0 and USB On-The-Go. Battery Charging Specification 1. (Note that this document is not di stributed with USB 2. Rounded Chamfer ECN: Released in October 2003. The standard specifies a maximum tran smission speed of up to 5 Gbit/s (625 MB/s). USB 3. Unicode ECN: Released in February 2005. Interface Associations ECN: Released in May 2003.0 did specify that Unicode is to be used but it did not specify the encoding.3: Released in December 2006. Inter-Chip USB Supplement: Released in March 2006. maximum current drawn by the device may be as high as 1.x and 2. USB On-The-Go makes it possible for two USB devices to communicate with each other without requiring a separate USB host. in addition to the modes suppor ted by earlier versions. USB 2. Battery Charging Specification 1. compatible change to Mini-B plugs that results in longer lasting connectors. by 1.0.0 The Super-Speed USB Logo Main article: USB 3. communication is half-duplex.0 Gbit/s (raw data rate).01: Released in April 20 07.0 reduc es the time required for data transmission.[13] This move effectively opened the specification to hardware de velopers for implementation in products.8 A.2 Gbit/s (0. The USB 3. Adds support for dedicated chargers (power supplies with USB connectors) . Com munication is full-duplex during SuperSpeed.0 Promoter Group announced on 17 Novem ber 2008 that the specification of version 3.0 USB 3. which should increase with future hardware advances. These should not be confused with Micro-B pl ug and receptacle. USB 3. The payload throughput is 4 Gbit/s (using 8b/10b encodi ng). one of the USB de vices acts as a host for the other device.) Micro-USB Cables and Connectors Specification 1.2[12]: Released in December 2010. New standard descriptor was added that allows multiple interfaces to be associated with a single device function. Also receptacle tha t accepts both plugs for On-The-Go.0 specification package only USB 3. A recommended. reduces power consumption. Errata as of December 2000: Released in December 2000. However. although this speed is typically only achi eved using powerful professional grade or developmental equipment. If a USB device is connected to dedicated charger. or 60 MB/s). Errata as of May 2002: Released in May 2002. in the modes supported previously. allowing High Speed communication while having a current up to 1. and is ba ckward compatible with USB 2. The new "SuperSpeed" bus provides a fou rth transfer mode at 5.0. host chargers (USB hosts that can act as chargers) and the No Dead Battery pro vision which allows devices to temporarily draw 100 mA current after they have b een attached.0 (480 Mbit/s. Link Power Management Addendum ECN: Released in July 2007.0 had been completed and had made t he transition to the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF). and the specification considers it reasonable to achieve around 3. This ECN specifies that strings are encoded using UTF-16LE. Pull-up/Pull-down Resistors ECN: Released in May 2002.5A and allowing a maximum current of 5A. In practice. This adds a new power state between enabled and suspended states.5A on chargin g ports for unconfigured devices. switchi ng between enabled and sleep states is much faster than switching between enable d and suspended states. On-The-Go Supplement 1.1: Released in March 2007 (Updated 15 A pr 2009). which is more than 10 times as fast as USB 2.Specifications for Mini-A and B plug and receptacle.0 was released in November 2008. Device in this state is not required to reduce its power consumption. Several changes and increasing limits including allowing 1.

but with no guarantees on bandwidth or latency (e. pointing devices and keyboards). A USB ho st may implement multiple host controllers and each host controller may provide one or more USB ports. including hub devices if present.2[12]: released in December 2010. and named an endpoint. endpoint_numb er) as specified in a TOKEN packet that the host sends when it wants to start a data transfer session.. Additional USB hubs may be included in the tiers . A single device may provide several functions. This kind of device is called composite device. realtime audio or v ideo). bulk transfers: large sporadic transfers using all remaining available bandw idth.g. file transfers). used.. An alternative for t his is compound device in which each logical device is assigned a distinctive ad dress by the host and all logical devices are connected to a built-in hub to whi ch the physical USB wire is connected. for example. System design The design architecture of USB is asymmetrical in its topology.ost. consisting of a host. USB endpoints actually reside on the connected device: the channels to the host are referred to as pipes USB device communication is based on pipes (logical channels).[14][15] USB devices are linked in series through hubs. simple commands to the device. Sever al changes and increasing limits including allowing 1.5A. by the bus control pipe number 0. A pipe is a conne ction from the host controller to a logical entity. an OUT packet (a specialization of a TOKEN packet) having the des ired device address and endpoint number is sent by the host. allowing High Speed communication while supplying a current up to 1. An endpoint of a pipe is addressable with a tuple (device_address. Diagram: inside a device are several endpoints. A message pipe is bi-dir ectional and is used for control transfers. An endpoint is built into the USB device by the manufacturer and therefore exists permanently. or bulk transfer: isochronous transfers: at some guaranteed data rate (often. interrupt transfers: devices that need guaranteed quick responses (bounded l atency) (e. A USB device can have up to 32 endpoints.5A on charging ports for u nconfigured devices. though USB d evices seldom have this many endpoints. and a status response. A stream pipe is a uni-directional pipe conne cted to a uni-directional endpoint that transfers data using an isochronous. and allowing a maximum current of 5A. Up to 127 devices. found on a device. One hub is known as the root hub which is built into the host controller. and multiple peripheral devices conne cted in a tiered-star topology. A physical USB device may consist of several logical sub-devices that are referr ed to as device functions. a multitude of downstream USB ports. Battery Charging Specification 1. each of which is connected by a logical pipes to a host controller. Message pipes are typically used for short. If the direction of . allowing branching into a tree structure with up to five tier levels. but not necessar ily. for ex ample. as fast as possible) but with possible data loss (e.. There are two types of pipes: stream and message pipes. a webcam (video device function) with a built-in microphone (audio device function).g. the terms are someti mes used interchangeably. may be connected to a single host controller. Because pipes correspond 1-to-1 to endpoints. If the direction of the data transfer is from the host to the endpoint. al though there are a mixture going to and from the host controller. Data in each pipe flows in one direction.g. int errupt. while a pipe may be opene d and closed.

When a USB device is first connected to a USB host. the manufactu rer's designated direction is IN while the TOKEN packet is an OUT packet). The opening has metal r im. the host sends an IN packet i nstead. High-speed USB 2. MIDI 02h Both Communications and CDC Control Modem. microphone. interface d escriptors are used to determine needed drivers 01h Interface Audio Speaker. Otherwise. The USB hub will then either use one transaction translator p er hub to create a full/low-speed bus that is routed to all full and low speed d evices on the hub. Operating data rates for them will be set in t he legacy manner.0 or earlie r devices connected to that host.0 hubs contain devices called transaction translators that conv ert between high-speed USB 2. the host controller polls the bus for traffic. on the other hand. Wi-Fi a dapter 03h Interface Human interface device (HID) Keyboard. usually in a round-robin fashion. Ethernet adapter.0 buses and full and low speed buses. Device classes include:[16] Class Usage Description Examples. A single dev ice function composed of independently controlled interfaces is called a composi te device. After reset. Two USB standard A receptacles on the front of a computer Endpoints are grouped into interfaces and each interface is associated with a si ngle device function. communicated to the USB host to affect the loading of suitable software driver modules for each conn ected device. the USB device's information is read by the host and the device is assigned a unique 7-bit address.. When a high-s peed USB 2.0 host. it will be accepted and the data transac tion can start. If the device is supported by the host. Device classes The functionality of USB devices is defined by class codes. A composite device only has a single device address because the host only assigns a device address to a function. the enumeration proc ess is repeated for all connected devices. sound card. which is used for d evice configuration and which is not associated with any interface. In USB 2. A bi-directional endpoint. accepts both IN an d OUT packets. mouse.the data transfer is from the device to the host. Because there are two separate controllers in each USB 3. Rectangular opening where the width is twice the height. The host controller directs traffic flow to devices. so no USB device can transf er any data on the bus without an explicit request from the host controller. The data rate of the USB device is determined during the reset signaling. If the USB host is restarted.0 devices will transmit and receive at USB 3. USB 3.0 hub is plugged into a high-speed USB host or hub. or exception 00h Device Unspecified[17] Device class is unspecified. If the destination endpoint is a uni-directional endpoint whose manufact urer's designated direction does not match the TOKEN packet (e. The enumeration starts by sending a reset signal to the USB d evice. An exception to this is endpoint zero. the T OKEN packet will be ignored. the USB device enumeration p rocess is started.g. The throughput of each USB port is determined by the slower speed of e ither the USB port or the USB device connected to the port. or will use one transaction translator per port to create an isolated full/low-speed bus per port on the hub.0. joystic . and within the opening a flat rectangular bar runs parallel to the top side.0 data rates regardless of USB 2. the de vice drivers needed for communicating with the device are loaded and the device is set to a configured state. This provides for adaptability and device independence of the host to support new devices from different manufacturers. it will operate i n high-speed mode.

a typical USB mass-storage device USB implements connections to storage devices using a set of standards called th e USB mass storage device class (MSC or UMS). dig ital audio player. because many systems can be control led with the familiar metaphor of file manipulation within directories. Serial ATA (SATA). The proc ess of making a novel device look like a familiar device is also known as extens ion. Another use for USB mass storage devices is the portable execution of software a pplications (such as web browsers and VoIP clients) with no need to install them on the host computer. The ability to boot a write-locked SD card with a USB adapter is particular ly advantageous for maintaining the integrity and non-corruptible. or empty enclosures for disk drives. Microsoft RND IS EFh Both Miscellaneous ActiveSync device FEh Interface Application-specific IrDA Bridge. external drive 09h Device USB hub Full bandwidth hub 0Ah Interface CDC-Data Used together with class 02h: communicat ions and CDC control 0Bh Interface Smart Card USB smart card reader 0Dh Interface Content security Fingerprint reader 0Eh Interface Video Webcam 0Fh Interface Personal Healthcare Pulse monitor (watch) DCh Both Diagnostic Device USB compliance testing device E0h Interface Wireless Controller Bluetooth adapter. USB is not intended to be a primary bus for a computer's internal s torage: buses such as Parallel ATA (PATA or IDE).0 and potentially 400 MB/s or more[20] for USB 3.[21][22] Human interface devices (HIDs) Main article: USB human interface device class . but has been extended to support a wide va riety of devices. scanner 07h Interface Printer Laser printer.0). This was at first intended for tra ditional magnetic and optical drives. limited by the current number and typ e of attached USB devices and by the upper limit of the USB interface (in practi ce about 30 MB/s for USB 2. including drives of various kinds. which offer performance comparable to internal drives. DVD drives and so on). the drive a ppears to the user much like an internal drive. These external drives have typically included a "translating device" that bridge s between a drive's interface to a USB interface port. digital camera. and most recently Thunderbolt. making it useful for mobile peripherals. However.0). ExpressCard (now at version 2. or SCSI ful fill that role in PC class computers. Other competing standards for ex ternal drive connectivity include eSATA. Test & Measurement Class (USBTMC). Functionally. Though most post-Summer 2004 computers are capable of booting from USB mass stor age devices. memory card reader. inkjet printer.k 05h Interface Physical Interface Device (PID) Force feedback j oystick 06h Interface Image Webcam. FireW ire (IEEE 1394). CNC machi ne 08h Interface Mass storage USB flash drive. several manufacturers offer external portable USB hard disk drives. Originally conceived and still used today for optical storage dev ices (CD-RW drives. particularly flash drives.[18] USB DFU (Direct Firmware update)[19] FFh Both Vendor-specific Indicates that a device needs vendor spe cific drivers USB mass storage A flash drive. pristine stat e of the booting medium. USB has one important advantage i n that it is possible to install and remove devices without rebooting the comput er (hot-swapping).

7: USB 3.[citation needed] U SB mice and keyboards can usually be used with older computers that have PS/2 co nnectors with the aid of a small USB-to-PS/2 adapter. and the connector attached to th e cable is called the plug. Such adaptors contain no l ogic circuitry: the hardware in the USB keyboard or mouse is designed to detect whether it is connected to a USB or PS/2 port.0 differential pair (D-) No.1: power (VBUS) No.0 signal receiving line (-) No.0 signal receiving line (+) USB 1.4: USB OTG ID for identifying lines No. the female connector is a receptacle.5: GND No. The connector mounted on the host or device is called the receptacle.0 signal transmission line (+) No. and Micro USB plugs.0 Mini/Micro pinout Pin Name Cable color Description 1 VBUS Red +5 V 2 DWhite Data 3 D+ Green Data + 4 ID None Permits distinction of host connection from slave connec tion * host: connected to Signal ground * slave: not connected 5 GND Black Signal ground Connector properties Standard type A plug and receptacle The connectors specified by the USB committee were designed to support a number of USB's underlying goals. the USB logo (with optio nal letter A or B) is on the top of the overmold in all cases.[contradiction][23 ] Micro-B USB 3.3: USB 2. In this case.0 connec tor are aligned pin-minute increase in the standard. this has not prevented the manufacture of e xtension cables. The officia l USB specification documents periodically define the term male to represent the plug. As the plugs are shown here. and to reflect lessons learned from the menagerie of connectors which have been used in the computer industry. and PC game port connectors to USB. tablets and other human-interface devices are also progressi vely migrating from MIDI.x/2. Converters also exist to allow PS/2 keyboards and mice (usually o ne of each) to be connected to a USB port. These devices present two HID endpoin ts to the system and use a microcontroller to perform bidirectional translation of data between the two standards. No.6: USB 3.0 signal transmission line (-) No. Mini. However.9: USB 3. The white areas in these drawing s represent hollow spaces.[citation needed] Physical appearance Pinouts of Standard.2: USB 2.10: USB 3.x/2. keypads.[24] The standard purposely defines this to prevent t he use of extension cables.0 connector on the side of the specification standard micro USB 3. Usability and "upside down" connectors USB extension cord .8: GND No.0 differential pair (D+) No. and communicate using the appropr iate protocol.Joysticks. and female to represent the receptacle.0 standard pinout Pin Name Cable color Description 1 VBUS Red +5 V 2 DWhite(Gold *) Data 3 D+ Green Data + 4 GND Black(blue*) Ground *Some manufacturers use USB 1.0 compatible (cable/male end) USB 2.

USB does not support cyclic networks and the standard connectors from incompatible USB devices are t hemselves incompatible. or thumb-turns other connectors have required). The newer Micro-USB receptacles are designed for up to 10. behind a floor-mounted chassis. they are ma de after the system ground but before the data connections. the specification does not consider the height of the device compared to the eye level height of the user. circuit failures. This enclo sure design also provides a degree of protection from electromagnetic interferen ce to the USB signal while it travels through the mated connector pair (the only location when the otherwise twisted data pair travels in parallel).500 for the standar d USB and 5. or from below) or by those with motor disabilities. The force need ed to make or break a connection is modest. it is difficult to insert a USB plug into its receptacle incorrectly. even with the application of modest force.[25] Compatibility . or even fire. which could lead to dangerously high currents. The electrical contacts i n a USB connector are protected by an adjacent plastic tongue. and the entire co nnecting assembly is usually protected by an enclosing metal sheath. the connectors would be used more frequently.000 cycles of insertio n and removal between the receptacle and plug. clips. than other connectors. The external metallic sheath is typically connected to system ground.g. This type of staged make-break timing allows for electrically safe hot-swapping.By design. Unlike other communications systems (e. so the side of the cable that is "visible" when mated to a computer on a desk can depend on whether the user is standing or kneeling. thus dissipating damaging static charges. This is accomplished by adding a lo cking device and by moving the leaf-spring connector from the jack to the plug. However. Receptacles should be oriented to allow the icon on the plug to be visible during the mating process". allowing connections to be made in a wkward circumstances (i.[citation needed] The standard connectors were deliberately intended to enforce the directed topol ogy of a USB network: type A connectors on host devices that supply power and ty pe B connectors on target devices that receive power. The connector construction always ensures that the external sheath on the plug m akes contact with its counterpart in the receptacle before any of the four conne ctors within make electrical contact. This chan ge was made so that the connector on the less expensive cable would bear the mos t wear instead of the more expensive micro-USB device.[24] Despite the specification there are many products on the market which have the USB icon on t he wrong side of the plug..e. and perhaps with less care. specifying embe dded component pins or other delicate parts which proved vulnerable to bending o r breakage. The specification also shows that the "recommended" "Manufacturer's logo" ("engraved" on the diagram but not specified in the text) is on the opposite sid e of the USB icon. The specification further states "the USB Icon is also locate d adjacent to each receptacle. Because USB is hot-pluggable . Only moderate insertion/removal force is needed. because of the required sizes of the power and common connections. The USB specification states that the required USB icon is to be embossed on the "topside" of the USB plug. compared to 1. In addition . network cablin g) gender changers make little sense with USB and are almost never used. so that the most-stressed part is on the cable side of the connection. Connectors cannot be plugged in upside down. Many previous connector designs were fragile. which "provides easy user recognition and facilitates alignment during the mating proc ess". This prevents users from a ccidentally connecting two USB power supplies to each other.000 for the Mini-USB receptacle.[citatio n needed] Durability The standard connectors were designed to be robust. USB cables and small USB device s are held in place by the gripping force from the receptacle (without need of t he screws.

A receptacle for eSATAp (eSATA/USB Combo) is designed to accept USB TypeA pl ugs from USB 2. a no n-USB proprietary plug. a nd devices one or another type-B variety.0. they are deliberately physically incompatible. This difference in connection can be exploited by inserting the connector only partially. This is intended to allow connecting an old er TypeB plug into a newer USB 3.0 are somewhat larger. For example.0 and USB 2. Accordingly. To address a weakness present in some other connector standards.0 TypeB cable. Connector types Types of USB connectors left to right (ruler in centimeters): Micro-B plug. The first engineering change notice to th e USB 2. a USB 3.0 TypeB receptacles found on pe ripheral devices (and connect them to a computer). Standard-A receptacle (upside down). upside down). TypeB receptacles in USB 3.0 are designed to in teroperate. normal USB 3.0 and earlier. Mini-B plug (5-pin. altho ugh extension cables with a standard A plug and jack are sold).The USB standard specifies relatively loose tolerances for compliant USB connect ors to minimize physical incompatibilities in connectors from different vendors. cables have only plugs (very few have a receptacle on one end.0 specification added Mini-B plugs and receptacles. Compatibility of USB 3. Accordingly. but can be operated in MP3 playback mode using USB power b y inserting the plug only part way so that the power slots make contact while th e data slots do not. and hosts and de vices have only receptacles. In general. a USB 3. This capability is meant for units such as PDAs in which the USB link might con nect to a PC's host port as a device in one instance. the two units may "swap" ends under program control. Standard-B plug There are several types of USB connectors. This enables those devices to be operated in MP3 playback m . This was done to prevent a device from blocking adjacent ports due t o the size of the cable strain relief mechanism (usually molding integral with t he cable outer insulation) at the connector. including some that have been added w hile the specification progressed. Standard-A plug. The data connectors in the Standard-A plug are actually recessed in the plug as compared to the outside power connectors.0 TypeB receptacle.0 connectors TypeA plugs and receptacles from both USB 3. Type-A plugs mate only with type-A rec eptacles. This permits the power to connect firs t which prevents data errors by allowing the device to power up first and then t ransfer the data. therefore. yet connect as a host itse lf to a keyboard and mouse device in another instance. the USB specif ication also defines limits to the size of a connecting device in the area aroun d its plug. Compliant devices must either fit w ithin the size restrictions or support a compliant extension cable which does. Hosts almost universally have type-A receptacles.0 and USB 3.0 or earlier TypeB receptacle.0 TypeB plug cannot enter a USB 2. TypeB plugs in USB 3.0 are somewhat larger than would be required for a TypeB plug in USB 2. Some devices will operate in different modes depending on whet her the data connection is made. the B connector was necessary so tha t cabling could be plug ended at both ends and still prevent users from connecti ng one computer receptacle to another. some battery-powered MP3 players switch into file transfer mode and cannot play MP3 files while a USB pl ug is fully inserted. Even after the cable is hooked up and t he units are communicating. The original USB specification detailed Stand ard-A and Standard-B plugs and receptacles. an extension to USB standard specification called USB On-The-Go allows a single port to act as either a host or a device chosen by which end of the cabl e plugs into the receptacle on the unit.0 TypeB plugs cannot be inserted into normal USB 2. However. and type-B with type-B.0 Type B receptacle on a peripheral device can be connected using the corresponding plu g end of a USB 2.

[26] A Standard-B plug which has a square shape with bevelled exterior corners typically plugs into an "upstream receptacle" on a device that uses a removable cable.[32] It is a lso designed to reduce the mechanical wear on the device.0 Standard-A type of USB plug is a flattened rectangle which inserts i nto a "downstream-port" receptacle on the USB host. The Micro plug design is rated for at least 10. personal digital assistan ts. e.5 mm.6 by 8. A Type B plug delivers power in addition to carrying data. The lifetime of a USB-A male connector is approximately 1. The micro-B connector is 6. allowing any capable USB device to be charged or operated from a standard USB c able. enabling their integrati on into thinner portable devices. and Micro-B plugs and receptacles. Open Mobile Terminal Platform (OMTP) in 2007 h ave endorsed Micro-USB as the standard connector for data and power on mobile de . This plug is frequently seen on cables that are permanently attac hed to a device.[23] The Micro-USB connector was announced by the USB-IF on 4 January 2007. and cameras. USB standard connectors Pin configuration of the USB connectors Standard A/B. mobile phone s or digital cameras. The thinner micro connectors are intended to replac e the Mini plugs in new devices including smartphones. modern USB accessory peripherals now i nclude charging cables that provide power connections to the host port but no da ta connections. the newer Micro connectors are being widely adopted and as of December 2010.e. being used solely for ac cepting power from the upstream device.ode while getting power from the cable.[31] While many currently available devices and cables still use Mini plugs. Micro-AB receptacles. de-certified bu t standardized) Mini-A and Mini-AB connectors (Mini-B connectors are still suppo rted but not OTG (On The Go. USB connections eventually wear out as the connection loosens through repeated p lugging and unplugging.5 mm. The cellular phone carrier group. such as one connecting a keyboard or mouse to the computer via usb connection.500 connect/disconnect cycles. instead the easier-toreplace cable is designed to bear the mechanical wear of connection and disconne ction. This two-connector-type scheme (A/B) pre vents a user from accidentally creating an electrical loop.[30] The M ini-A connector and the Mini-AB receptacle connector were deprecated on 23 May 2 007. On some devices. th ey are the most widely used.[32] along with a Standard-A receptacle to MicroA plug adapter.[27] Mini and Micro connectors Micro B USB USB Mini A (left) and USB Mini B (right) plugs Various connectors have been used for smaller devices such as PDAs. and both home and vehicle charging docks are available that supp ly power from a converter device and do not include a host device and data pins. The micro-USB plugs hav e a similar width and approximately half the thickness. a printer. and carries both p ower and data.85 by 1.g .85 by 1.000 connect-disc onnect cycles which is significantly more than the Mini plug design.8 m m with a maximum overmold size of 10. mobile) compliant). the Type B receptacle has no data connections. These include the now-deprecated[28] (i. The Universal Serial Bus Micro-USB Cables and Connectors Specification de tails the mechanical characteristics of Micro-A plugs.7 by 8. The micro-A connector is 6. i.[29] The Mini-A and Mini-B plugs are approximately 3 by 7 mm.e.8 mm with a maximum overmold size of 11. or a hub.[original research?] To reliably enable a charge-only feature. viewed looking into face/e nd of plug The USB 2.

Sony Ericsson) in mo st of the world. An OTG device with no plug inserted defaul ts to acting as a B-device. HTC. following a request from the European Commission and in close c o-operation with the Commission services. This receptacle is capable of accepting both Micro-A and Micr o-B plugs. LG.jpg No No No Yes Yes USB Micro-B receptacle.[citation needed] Host interface receptacles The following receptacles accept the following plugs: Receptacle (images not to scale) Plug (images not to scale) USB Std A. thus logically reducing their co st. On 29 June 2009.png No No Yes No No USB Micro-AB receptacle. and a dded: "Based on the Micro-USB interface.[34] Following a mandate from the European Commission.png USB Mini B. OTG devices attached either to a peripheral-only B-device or a standard/embedded host will have their role fixed by the cable since in these scenarios it is onl y possible to attach the cable one way around. the European Standardi sation Bodies CEN-CENELEC and ETSI have now made available the harmonised standa rds needed for the manufacture of data-enabled mobile phones compatible with the new common External Power Supply (EPS) based on micro-USB. UCS chargers will also include a 4-star or higher efficiency rating up to three times more energy-efficient than an unrat ed charger". Nokia. Research In Motion.[33] These include various types of battery chargers. Samsung.[35] In addition. The OTG device with the A-plug inserted is called the A-device and is responsibl e for powering the USB interface when required and by default assumes the role o f host. on 22 October 2009 the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has also announced that it had embraced micro-USB as the Universal Charger Solut ion its "energy-efficient one-charger-fits-all new mobile phone solution". and only one USB connector: a Mi cro-AB receptacle.png o B. allowing Micro-USB t o be the single external cable link needed by some devices.[36] USB On-The-Go Connectors A USB On-The-Go device is required to have one. then the HNP protocol is used to temporarily transfer the host role to the B-device.x/2. If an application on the B-device requires the role of host. The OTG device with the B-plug inserted is called the B-device and by de fault assumes the role of peripheral.png USB Micro A. Industry commits to provide cha rger compatibility on the basis of the Micro-USB connector.vices.. as they hav e chosen to continue to use their proprietary Dock connector.01. Consumers will be ab le to purchase mobile phones without a charger. major producers of mobile phones have agreed in a Memorandum of Understanding ("MoU") to harmonise chargers for data-e nabled mobile phones sold in the European Union.png USB Std B.png Yes No No No No No Yes No No No USB Mini-B receptacle. attached to any of the legal cables and adapters as defined in MicroUSB1. As of 30 January 2009 Micro-USB has been accepted and is being used by almost al l cell phone manufacturers as the standard charging port (including Hewlett-Pack ard.[citation needed] Most notably absent is Apple Inc. Motorola.jpg No No No No Yes Cable plugs (USB 1.0) Cables exist with pairs of plugs: Plug USB Micr .

(images not to scale) USB Micro B. delays from the maximum number of hubs added to the del ays from connecting cables.0 specification requires cable delay to be less than 5.x to support Super Speed data transmission. the host considers the command lost.5 s. existing for specific proprietary purposes.5 Mbit/s).2 ns p er meter (192. and a maximum lengt h of 5 meters with devices operating at Full Speed (12 Mbit/s).png Yes USB Std B. The data cables for USB 1. In addition to the above cable assemblies comprising two plugs. However.png Plug (images not to scale) USB Micro A. Some manufacturers pr ovide proprietary cables that permit their devices to physically connect to a US B standard port.0 standard does not directly specify a maximum cable length.png NS NS NS Yes No Yes No No No Yes No NS NS: non-standard.000 km/s. The primary reason for this limit is the maximum allowed r ound-trip delay of about 1. The wires are enclosed in a further layer of shielding.[38] The USB 2.[37] The USB 1.png USB Std A.[23] Other combinations of connectors are not compliant.x use a twisted pair to reduce noise and c rosstalk.png No USB Micro A.0 cables contain twice as many wires as USB 2.png USB Std B.png No USB Mini B.1 Standard specifies that a standard cable can have a maximum length o f 3 meters with devices operating at Low Speed (1. some o lder devices and cables with Mini-A connectors have been certified by USB-IF. the maximum acceptable delay per cable amounts to 26 ns. Cabling A USB twisted pair.png USB Std A. an "adapter" cab le with a Micro-A plug and a Standard-A receptacle is compliant with USB specifi cations.[citation needed] USB 2.0 provides for a maximum cable length of 5 meters for devices running at H i Speed (480 Mbit/s). which is close to the maximum achievable transmission sp eed for standard copper wire). If USB host commands are unanswered by the USB de vice within the allowed time. Full functionality of proprietary ports and cables with USB sta ndard ports is not assured.png USB Micro B. USB 3.for example. and are thus larger in diameter.8 ft). Please help im prove this article by adding citations to reliable sources. requiring only that all cables meet an electrical specification: for copper cabling with AWG 26 wires the maximum practical length is 3 meters (9. (April 2012) HTC ExtUSB HTC ExtMicro USB port and connector Nokia Pop-Port connector Manufacturers of personal electronic devices may not include a USB standard conn ector on their product for technical or marketing reasons.png USB Mini B. Th e Mini-A connector has been deprecated: there will be no new certification of as semblies using Mini-A connector.[39] Power USB-powered mini fans . some devices only use the USB connection for battery charging and do not implement any data transfer functions.[28] Proprietary connectors and formats This section needs additional citations for verification. where the "Data +" and "Data -" conductors are twisted toget her in a double helix. The USB 3. and not interopera ble with USB-IF compliant equipment. Unsourced material m ay be challenged and removed.x and USB 2. When adding U SB device response time.

75 V (5 V±5%) between the positive and negative bu s power lines. Any device connected to the hub will draw 1 unit load regardless of the current draw of devices connected to oth er ports of the hub (i.The USB 1. current dr aw may not exceed 900 mA during high-speed data transfer. the device may pull up to 1000 mA of current. on a dedicated charging port.5 A).5 and 1. and 150 mA in USB 3. A high-power device draws at most the maximum number of unit loads permitted by the standard.0. e .0. Before the battery charging specification was defined. A device may draw a maximum of 5 unit loads (500 mA) from a port in USB 2. up to the rated curr ent at 3. the D+ and Dpins are shorted. the VBUS will present 1 unit load upstream for communica tion if parts of the Hub are powered down. and drop its output voltage if the portable device attempt s to draw more than the rated current. There are two types of devices: low-power and high-power.5 A without digital negotiation. 6 (900 mA) in U SB 3. without data suppor t.25 V.[41] Some devices. With charging downstream ports. the voltage supplied by low-powered hub ports is 4. A dedicated charge por t may have a rated current between 0.0 port: erratic function.= 2. A low-power de vice draws at most 1 unit load.and D+ lines.0.g.= 2V. where a porta ble device can only draw more than 100 mA current after digital negotiation with the host or hub. A portable device can recognize the type of USB port from the way the D+ and D.0.4 5 5. The charger port may shut down if the loa d is too high. failure to function. a device can draw power from two USB por ts simultaneously.8 V..[44] As compared to standard downstream ports. The specification provides for no more than 5.[43] A bus-powered hub initializes itself at 1 unit load and transitions to maximum u nit loads after it completes hub configuration. require more than 500 mA of current[42] and therefore may have power issues if powered from just one USB 2.0 A-connectors are rated at 1.x and 2. current passing through the th in ground wire may interfere with high-speed data signals.[45] . and 4 V in USB 3.e. Apple's iPod and iPhone chargers indicate the available current by voltages on the D. Such devices may come with an external power source or a Y-shaped cable that has two USB connectors (one for power+data. supporting data transfers as well. There is no upper limit for th e rated current of a charging downstream port. Wh en D+ = 2.[clarification needed][41] Charging ports and accessory charging adapters The USB Battery Charging Specification of 2007 defines new types of USB ports.[40] A unit load is defined as 100 mA in USB 2. or overloading/damaging the por t. Charging ports exist in two flavors: charging downstream ports (CDP). For USB 3.25 V and no less than 4. A charging port supplies up to 500 mA at 5 V.4 V in USB 2 . and dedicated charging ports (DCP). charging ports can supply currents above 0. the other for power only) to be plug ged into a computer. With such a cable. with minimum operating voltage of 4. as long as the connector can hand le the current (standard USB 2.5 A.0. For example. charging ports. Every device functions initially as low-po wer but the device may request high-power and will get it if the power is availa ble on the providing bus. Therefore. For exam ple.0. such as high-speed external disk drives.0 specifications provide a 5 V supply on a single wire from wh ich connected USB devices may draw power.0. When D+ = D.pins are connected.[41] A self-powered hub will supply maximum supported unit loads to any device connec ted to it. the device may pull up to 500 mA.0 V and D.6 V or more. In addition. there was no standardized way for the portable device to inquire how much current was available. one device connected on a four-port hub will draw only 1 unit load despite the fact that more unit loads are being supplied to the hub ).

On a host (such as a laptop computer) with both standa rd and charging USB ports.5 A on charging ports for unconfigured devices. so called accessory charging adapters are i ntroduced.[52] Having a st andard charger for all phones means that manufacturers will no longer have to su pply a charger with every new phone.[57] Main article: Common External Power Supply In June 2009.Dedicated charging ports can be found on USB power adapters that convert utility power or another power source e. a car's electrical system to run attached d evices and battery packs. and added: "Based on the Micro-USB interface.g. the GSM Association (GSMA) announced[52] that they had agre ed on a standard charger for mobile phones. all new mobile phones applying for a license in China are re quired to be able to use a USB port as a power port for battery charging. allowing high speed communication while having a current up to 1. Samsung. even if the communication port doesn't support charging a demanding device. Deskt op machines need to remain plugged into AC power for Sleep-and-charge to work. Motorola and Samsung is to be the micro-USB c onnector (several media reports erroneously reported this as the mini-USB).[56] The Wireless Association On 22 October 2009.[50][51] On 17 February 2009. This prevents phones and other devices from being able to ch arge unless the computer is powered on. UCS chargers will also include a 4-star or higher efficiency rating up to three times more energy-efficient than an unrated charger".0. the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) announced th at it had embraced the Universal Charging Solution as its "energy-efficient onecharger-fits-all new mobile phone solution". The new chargers will be much more efficient than existing chargers.[44] To support simultaneous charge and sync.5 A and allowing a maximum current of 5 A. Motorola.. Sony Ericsso n and LG) announced that its members had agreed on micro-USB as the future commo n connector for mobile devices. Sleep-and-charge USB ports remain powere d even when the computer is off. the charging ports should be labeled as such.[47][48 ] This was the first standard to use the convention of shorting D+ and D-. this was further endorsed by the CTIA .[4 6] Mobile device charger standards The Micro-USB interface is commonly found on chargers for mobile phones As of 14 June 2007. On the other hand several changes are made and limits are increasing including allowing 1. The basis of the GSMA's Universal Charging Solution (UCS) is the technical recommendation from OMTP and the USB-IF battery charging standard.[53][54][55] On 22 April 2009. Normally when a computer is powered off the USB port s are powered down. many of the world's largest mobile phone manufacturers signed an E . charging devices from the USB port when it is not being powered from AC will drain the laptop battery faster. The Battery Charging Specification 1. that there are safety limits to the rated current at 5 A coming from USB 2. Sleep-and-charge ports A yellow USB port denoting sleep-and-charge Sleep-and-charge USB ports can be used to charge electronic devices even when th e computer is switched off. The standard connector to be adopted by manufacturers including Nokia. where a charging port and a communication port can be combined into a single port. On laptops.[49] In September 2007.2 of 2010 [12] makes clear. the Open Mobile Terminal Platform group (a forum of mobile ne twork operators and manufacturers such as Nokia.

as well. The iPad and MiFi 22 00 are two such devices. that used to charge decoupling and fi lter capacitors) when the device is first connected. NCR. and thus are not Standard compliant USB devi ces at all. Otherwise. printers. This can theoretically cause problems with some computers.1 Amps) than the Battery Charging Specification allows. Some USB ports and external hubs can. a nd FCI/Berg. which is allowed by the standard. USB devices are also re quired to automatically enter ultra low-power suspend mode when the USB host is suspended. draw even more power (10 watts o r 2. The EU's common EPS specification (EN 62684:2010) reference s the USB Battery Charging standard and is similar to the GSMA/OMTP and Chinese charging solutions. The wires and contacts on the USB por tion have been upgraded to support higher current on the 5 V line.. whi ch makes the device a non-standard USB device. prior to the Battery Charging Sp ecification. when plugged into charging ports. Nevertheless. agreeing to make most data-enable d mobile phones marketed in the European Union compatible with a common External Power Supply (EPS). PIN pads. signature capture devices. Some devices. or use a dual-input USB cable.svg This section does not cite any references or sources. This m odification of the USB interface is proprietary and was developed by IBM. This is commonly used in retail systems and provides enough power to operate station ary barcode scanners. and gen erally for devices with motors or lamps. one inp ut of which is used for power and data transfer.[citation needed] Some non-standard USB devices use the 5 V power supply without participating in a proper USB network which negotiates power draws with the host interface. Such devices can use an external power supply. connecting a dev ice could cause problems with the host's internal power. It uses four additional pins to supply up to 6 A at either 5 V. the USB spec ification limits the inrush current (i. many USB host interfaces do not cut off the power suppl y to USB devices when they are suspended. wh ich would then permit the device to switch into high-power mode. the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) released its version of the (EU's) common EPS standard as IEC 6 2684:2011[60] Non-standard devices Question book-new. This is common for external hard and optical disc drives. mug coolers and heaters.[62] Powered USB Question book-new.[ citation needed] Signaling . The typical example is a USB-powere d keyboard light. In addition to limiting the total average power used by the device. (O ctober 2011) USB vacuum cleaner novelty device Some USB devices require more power than is permitted by the specifications for a single port.[61] Barnes & Noble NOOK devices also require a special charger that runs at 1.C-sponsored Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). miniature vac uum cleaners.e. supply more power to USB devices than required by the specific ation but a standard-compliant device may not depend on this. these items contain no digital circuitry.svg This section does not cite any references or sources. in practice.[58][59] In January 2011. In most cases. These are usually referred to as USB decorations.9 Amps. It is essentially two connectors stacked such that the bottom conne ctor accepts a standard USB plug and the top connector takes a power connector. and even miniature lava lamps are available. (M ay 2012) Powered USB uses standard USB signaling with the addition of extra power lines. etc. fans. the other solely for power. 12 V. such as d rawing too much current and damaging circuitry. the USB specification required that devices connect in a low-power mode (100 mA maximum) and communicate their current requirements to the host. or 24 V (d epending on keying) to peripheral devices. battery chargers.

0 and USB 1. The written USB 3.0. In FS mode. and a device or hub's "upstream" port at the other end.0) rate of 480 Mbit/s was introduced in 2001. USB encodes data using the NRZI convention. while lo w-bandwidth devices pull D. the cabl e wires are not terminated. but additional upstream connecto rs were specified. Prior to USB 3. "high-" is alternatively written as "hi-". A SuperSpeed (USB 3. The first USB 3 controller c hips were sampled by NEC May 2009[63] and products using the 3. type of packet and end of packet. this was a "B' co nnector.x. the choice of data line indicates of what s ignal rates the device is capable.USB allows the following signaling rates.0) rate of 5.0.1. When no device is connected. mice. and full duplex operation. A high-speed (USB 2. o r 90 O differential to match the data cable impedance. full-bandwidth devices pull D+ high.0 Gbit/s. and some cable vendors designed and sold cables which permitt ed erroneous connections (and potential damage to the circuitry). mostly interoperable contacts in USB 3. a 0 bit is transmit ted by toggling the data lines from J to K or vice-versa. Seven . To ensure a minimum density of signal tr ansitions remains in the bitstream. The terms speed and bandwidth are used interchangeably. Example of a Negative Acknowledge packet transmitted by USB 1.3 volts for low and 2.6 volts for high in full-bandwidth and low-bandwidth modes. The full-speed rate of 12 Mbit/s is the basic USB data rate defined by USB 1 ..0 connectors are generally backwards compatible. this pulls both data lines low into the so-called "single-ended zero " state (SE0 in the USB documentation). and -10 to 10 mV for low and 360 to 440 mV for high in hi-bandwidth mode. A USB device pulls one of the data lines high with a 1. Transmitted signal levels are 0. The y permit the higher data rate.0.8 to 3. reducing interference due to signal reflections. these collectively use h alf-duplex differential signaling to reduce the effects of electromagnetic noise on longer lines. All USB hubs can operate at this speed. All hi-spe ed devices are capable of falling back to full-bandwidth operation if necessary.high.0 specification was released by Intel and partners in August 2008. USB uses bit stuffing. they are backward compatible with USB 1. It i s intended primarily to save cost in low-bandwidth human interface devices (HID) such as keyboards. Connectors are identical for U SB 2. i. an extra 0 bit is ins erted into the data stream after any appearance of six consecutive 1 bits. A USB connection is always between a host or hub at the "A" connector end.x. Originally.[65] labeled D+ and D-. USB interconne ctions are not as fool-proof or as simple as originally intended. but the HS mode has termination of 45 O to ground. USB data is transmitted by toggling the data lines between the J state and the o pposite K state. A low-speed rate of 1. Data packets would have more information between the type of packet and end of packet.0 cables. USB signals are transmitted on a twisted-pair data cable with 90O ±15% characteris tic impedance. For USB 1. while a 1 bit is trans mitted by leaving the data lines as-is.0 introduces two additional pairs of shielded twis ted wire and new.e. for them.0 specification a rrived beginning in January 2010.5 Mbit/s is defined by USB 1.5 kO resistor.0 to 0. preventing erroneous loop connections. It is very similar to full-bandwidth operation except each bit takes 8 times as long to transmit. and indicates a reset or disconnected co nnection. but include new wiring and full duplex operation. and joysticks. The host includes 15 kO pull-down resistors on each data line.[64] USB 3. USB 3.1 Full-speed devic e when there is no more data to read. This overp owers one of the pull-down resistors in the host and leaves the data lines in an idle state called "J". It consists of the following fields: clock synchronization byte.

If th e host/hub is also HS capable.0 devices use a special protocol during reset.6 W may be used. For high bandwidth USB. not all USB 2. the receiv er uses equalization. called "chirping".and D+ lines) letting the device know that the hub will operate at high bandw idth. This extra bit can also result in a "bit stuff violation" if the six bits before it in the CRC are '1's.0 devices are high bandwidth. is indicated by the transmitter driving 2 bit times of SE0 (D+ and D. Though high bandwidth devices are commonly referred to as "USB 2. such bandwidth negotiation is not required.line high. Clock tolerance is 480. All devices are tested according to the latest specification. are used to determine the quality of a signal in the time domain. so recently compliant low bandwidth devices are also 2. it chirps (returns alternating J and K states on D.00 Mbit/s ±500 ppm. to negot iate the high bandwidth mode with the host/hub. after the initial idle state J.0 and USB 1. The .0 devices .both below max) and 1 bit time of J state. This indicates to the host that the device is high bandwidth. USB 3 uses tinned copper stranded AWG-28 cables with 90±7 O impedance for its high -speed differential pairs and linear feedback shift register and 8b/10b encoding sent with a voltage of 1 V nominal with a 100 mV receiver threshold. known as chirp K.0 uses wiring separate and additional to that used by USB 2.lines and the aforementio ned pull up resistors hold it in the J (idle) state.[67] Po wer up to 3.0 controllers within the southbr idge.50 Mbit/s ±15000 ppm. One unit load in superspeed mode is equal to 150 mA . A USB packet's end.x. Typical hi-speed USB hard drives can be written to at rates around 25 30 MB/s.[68] This is 70% of the total bandwidth available.000 Mbit/s ±2500 ppm. 1. also known as Eye Diag ram Tests.consecutive received 1 bits is always an error. called EOP (end-of-packet). The device has to receive at least 3 sets of KJ chirps before it changes t o high bandwidth terminations and begins high bandwidth signaling. while data payload is protected with CRC-32. the packet begins with a 32-bit synchronization sequence. Some chipset manufacturers overc ome this bottleneck by providing multiple USB 2.0" and advertis ed as "up to 480 Mbit/s". Mask Tests. The USB-IF certifies devices and provides licenses to use special marketing logos for eith er "basic bandwidth" (low and full) or high bandwidth after passing a compliance test and paying a licensing fee. That is. according to routine testing done by CNet. USB 2. A USB packet begins with an 8-bit synchronization sequence '00000001'. the data lines toggle KJKJKJKK. USB 3. and read from at rates of 30 42 MB/s. After this. 12. A USB bus is reset using a prolonged (10 to 20 milliseconds) SE0 signal.0 has introduced addition al data transmission encodings.0 is 480 Mbit/s (60 MB/s) per control ler and is shared amongst all attached devices. A device that is HS capable firs t connects as an FS device (D+ pulled high). but upon receiving a USB RESET (bot h D+ and D. Packet header s are protected with CRC-16. Because USB 3 . The final 1 bit (repeated K state) marks the end of the sync pattern and the beginning of the US B frame.driven LOW by host for 10 to 20 ms) it pulls the D.[66] SSC clock and 300 ppm precision is used. Sometimes skew due to hubs can add as much as one bit time before the SE0 of the end of packet. This bit should be ignored by receiver. the transmitter ceases to drive the D+/D.[67] Transmission rates The theoretical maximum data rate in USB 2.

[70] Tables illustrating the transfer limits are shown in Chapter 5 of the USB spec. all packets are made of 8-bit bytes. NAK. This redundancy helps detect errors. indicating that the device has an error condition and will never be able to successfully transfer data until some corrective action (such as devi ce initialization) is performed. Overhead is a component of all connectivity st andards". The three basic types are ACK. and thus will never need bit-stuffing. For isochronous devices like audio streams. not the "speed" or late ncy of the transmission. The bus bandwidth therefore only has an effe ct on the number of channels that can be sent at a time. trailing 1 bits in the PID may require bit-stuffing within the first few bits of the payload. and reser ved exclusively for a given device.0) Special 1100 0011 1100 PRE Low-bandwidth USB preamble Handshake ERR Split transaction error (USB 2. However.0) 1110 0111 1000 STALL Transfer impossible. Som e of those packets direct a device to send some packets in reply. and are generally sent in response to d ata packets. The first byte is a packet identifier (PID) byte. even w hen combined with the final 1 bit in the sync byte. the byte consists of the 4-bit PID followed by its bitwise com plement.) USB PID bytes Type PID value (msb-first) Transmitted byte (lsb-first) Name Description Reserved 0000 0000 1111 Token 1000 0001 1110 SPLIT High-bandwidth (USB 2. . please retransmit 0110 0110 1001 NYET Data not ready yet (USB 2. The PID is actually 4 bits.0) 0010 0100 1011 ACK Data packet accepted 1010 0101 1010 NAK Data packet not accepted.[69] According to a USB-IF chairman. to devices.0) 1111 1111 0000 MDATA Data packet for high-bandwidth isochronous trans fer (USB 2. the bandwidth is constant. do error recovery Token 0001 1000 0111 OUT Address for host-to-device transfer 1001 1001 0110 IN Address for device-to-host transfer 0101 1010 0101 SOF Start of frame marker (sent each ms) 1101 1011 0100 SETUP Address for host-to-device control transfer Data 0011 1100 0011 DATA0 Even-numbered data packet 1011 1101 0010 DATA1 Odd-numbered data packet 0111 1110 0001 DATA2 Data packet for high-bandwidth isochronous trans fer (USB 2. via the root hub and possibly more hubs. Communication During USB communication data is transmitted as packets.0) Packets come in three basic types. indicating that data was successfull y received. each with a different format and CRC (cyclic redundancy check): Handshake packets Handshake packets consist of a PID byte.0) split transacti on 0100 0010 1101 PING Check if endpoint can accept data (USB 2. and STALL.y are defined in the referenced document as part of the electrical test descript ion for the high-speed (HS) mode at 480 Mbit/s. all packets are sent from the host. (Note also that a PID byte contain s at most four consecutive 1 bits. After the sync field. transmitted least-sig nificant bit first. "at least 10 to 15 percent of the stated peak 60 MB/s (480 Mbit/s) of Hi-Speed USB goes to overhead the communication protocol bet ween the card and the peripheral. Initially. indicating that the data cannot be received and should be retri ed.

the USB host transmits a spe cial SOF (start of frame) token. A NYET packet is also used to tell the host t hat the receiver has accepted a data packet. This is used to perform split transactions. NYET.USB 2. the nearest high-bandwidth capable hub receives a SPLIT token followed by one or two USB packets at high bandwidth. This is used to synchronize isochronous data flows . or it mi ght have been received but the handshake response was lost. In the latter case. IN and OUT tokens contain a 7-bit device number and 4-bit function number (for m ultifunction devices) and command the device to transmit DATAx packets. An IN token expects a response from a device. as appropriate. containing an 11-bit incrementing frame number in place of a device address. but is used for initial device setup. it does not know if the data was received or not. The response may be a NAK or STALL response. it should not instruct a device to send any. This avoids the need to send the DATA packet if the device knows that it will ju st respond with NAK. but cannot accept any more due to b uffers being full. The host will then send PING packets and will continue with d ata packets once the device ACK's the PING. NYET which indicates that a spli t transaction is not yet complete. and a 5-bit CRC. and a 16-bit CRC. The device responds with ACK. performs the data transfer at full or low bandwidth. 12 bits of control flags. A data packet must al ways be preceded by an address token. Tokens are only sent by the host. An OUT token is followed immediately by a DATAx frame. SETUP operates much like an OUT token. or recei ve the following DATAx packets. The other packet added was the ERR h andshake to indicate that a split transaction failed. and provides the response at high bandwidth when prompted by a second SPLIT token.024 in high bandwidth. Every millisecond (12000 full-bandwidth bit times).0 also added a larger 3-byte SPLIT token with a 7-bit hub number. R ather than tie up the high-bandwidth USB bus sending data to a slower USB device . or STALL. The two packet types provide the 1 -bit sequence number required by Stop-and-wait ARQ. never a device. at most 8 at low bandwidth). It is followed by an 8-byte DATA0 frame with a standardized format. . The device responds with ACK. as appropriate.0 added two additional handshake packets.0 devices receive 7 additional duplicate SOF tokens per f rame. the data might have been lost in transit. NAK. NAK. if it is not ready t o receive data. or STALL. USB 2.0 added a PING token. or a DATAx frame. Data packets A data packet consists of the PID followed by 0 1. The only handshake packet the USB host may generate is ACK. each introducing a 125 s "microframe" (60000 high-bandwidth bit times each) . High-bandwidth USB 2. If a USB host does not recei ve a response (such as an ACK) for data it has transmitted. There are two basic forms of data packet. which asks a device if it is ready to receive an OUT /DATA packet pair. and is usually followed by a handshake tok en from the receiver back to the transmitter.023 bytes of data payload (up to 1. Token packets Token packets consist of a PID byte followed by 2 payload bytes: 11 bits of addr ess and a 5-bit CRC. DATA0 and DATA1. respectively. the host issues an ACK handshak e if appropriate. USB 2.

1. already idling in the J state. until the final SE0 indi cates that a new packet follows. They are used only by high-b andwidth devices doing high-bandwidth isochronous transfers which need to transf er more than 1024 bytes per 125 s microframe (8. A FireWir e device can communicate with any other node at any time. A USB network relies on a single host at the top of the tree to control the network. beginning with a sync sequence and PID byte. USB was considered a complement to FireWire (IEEE 1394) technology. which is the s ame as the low-bandwidth J state. USB operated at a far lower data rate and used less sophistic ated hardware.0 use a "speak-when-spoken-to" protocol. Standard USB hub ports can provide from the typical 500 mA/2.0.0 added DATA2 and MDATA packet types as well. In a FireWire network. any capable node can control the network.[72][73][74][75] The newer FireWire 800 standard is . PRE packet Low-bandwidth devices are supported with a special PID value.5 W of current.8 A/9.5 W Full bandwidth or 900 mA/4. USB 2. wh ich was designed as a high-bandwidth serial bus which could efficiently intercon nect peripherals such as hard disks. USB 1. USB 3. the device keeps track of the type of DATAx packet it las t accepted. Since all PID bytes inclu de four 0 bits. USB runs with a 5 V power line. and is used by hubs which normally do not send full-bandwidth packets to low-bandwidth devices. These and other differences reflect the differing design goals of the two buses: USB was designed for simplicity and low cost. When a device is reset with a SETUP packet. Although similar in theoretical maximum transfer rate. while FireWire networks use a tree topology.1 and 2. PRE. then a lo w-bandwidth packet follows. The most significant technical differences between FireWire and USB include the following: USB networks use a tiered-star topology. If it receives another DATAx packet of the same type.192 kB/s). In t he initial design. while FireWire can in theory supply up to 60 watts of power. USB 3. Comparisons with other connection methods FireWire At first. Full-bandwidth devices other than hubs can simpl y ignore the PRE packet and its low-bandwidth contents.0 and USB On-The-Go supply 1.5 W High B andwidth). audio interfaces. This marks th e beginning of a low-bandwidth packet. it expects an 8-byte DATA0 packet ne xt. only 100 mA from non-hub ports.0 Hi-Bandwidth in real-use.[71] especially in high-bandwidth use such as external hard-drives. and video equipment. and end ing with a brief period of SE0. It was suitable for small peripherals such as keyboards and point ing devices. while FireWire was designed for h igh performance.0 W (f or dedicated battery charging. subject to network con ditions. FireWire 400 is fas ter than USB 2. 1.5 A/7. particularly in time-sensitive applications such as audio and v ideo. although 10 to 20 watts is more typical. they leave the bus in the full-bandwidth K state. Only a DATAx packet of the opposite type is act ually received.0 allows for device-initiated communications towards the host. peripherals cann ot communicate with the host unless the host specifically requests communication .To solve this problem. It is followed by a brief pause during which h ubs enable their low-bandwidth outputs. while Firewire in current implementations su pplies 12 V and theoretically can supply up to 30 V. it is acknowle dged but ignored as a duplicate.

[78] USB has no such requirement as it was designed for peripherals close ly associated with a host computer. diminishing the eSATA advantage. although this might be limited by OS dri vers and device firmware. It has a far higher transfer rate (3 Gbit/s or 6 Gbit/s. eSATA. security cameras.twice as fast as FireWire 400 and faster than USB 2. on a desktop workstation it can additio nally supply 12 V to power larger devices including 3. connector. eSATAp (power over eSATA.25 in o ptical drives. Even though USB's 2. and in fact it connects the peripheral and h ost grounds. However. eSATAp support can be added to a desktop machine in the form of a bracket connec ting to motherboard SATA.5 W is sometimes insufficient to power external hard drives. and power demand is low.3af Power over Ethernet (PoE) standard specifies a more elaborate p ower negotiation scheme than powered USB. etc. eSATA/eSATAp The eSATA connector is a more robust SATA connector.0 which provide 2. USB can cause ground loop problems between equipment because it connects the ground references on both tr ansceivers. It operates at 48 V DC and can supply more power (up to 12. aka ESAT A/USB) is a connector introduced in 2009 that supplies power to attached devices using a new.95 W. supports hot plugging.5 in HDD/SSD and 5.5 in HDD/SSD. This is an increasing disadvant age compared to USB.0 Hi-Bandwidth both theoret ically and practically.[76] The chipset and drivers used to implement USB and Fi rewire have a crucial impact on how much of the bandwidth prescribed by the spec ification is achieved in the real world. USB is cheaper than PoE pr ovided that the distance is short.[79] MIDI Digital musical instruments are another example for which USB is competitive for low-cost devices. This gives Ethernet a significant safety advantage over USB with pe ripherals such as cable and DSL modems connected to external wiring that can ass ume hazardous voltages under certain fault conditions. On a notebook eSATAp usually supp lies only 5 V to power a 2. backwards-compatible. Related standards . and USB resources. giving both full performance and full compatibility associ ated with internal drives. Thunderbolt has a transfer speed of 10 Gbit/s per channel over copper wire an d 20 Gbit/s per channel using optical cabling. technology is advancing and external drives gradually need less power. wireless access points a nd other networked devices within buildings. intended for connection to external hard drives and SSDs.) and the network cable up to 1500 V AC or 2250 V DC for 60 s econds.5 W) over a cable up to 100 meters compared t o USB 2. eSATA does not supply power to external devices. PoE+ 25.5 W with a maximum cable length of 5 meters. Ethernet standards require electrical isolation between the networked device (co mputer. power. like USB. bi-directional) than USB 2.0. This has made PoE popular for VoIP telephones. phone. A device connected by eSATA appears as an ordinary SATA device. By contrast. Thunderbolt Thunderbolt combines PCI Express and DisplayPort into a new serial data interfac e. along with compatibility with periphera ls.[77] Ethernet The IEEE 802. the MIDI plug standard and Ethernet have built-in isola tion to 500V or more. However Power over Ethernet and the MIDI plug standard are pr eferred in high-end devices that may have long cables.

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Muller. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: USB The Wikibook Serial Programming:USB Technical Manual has a page on the t opic of: USB connectors "USB Implementers Forum".). "How To Create And Program USB Devices. ISBN 978-1-931448-04-8.). 510 pp. Standard-B. Serial Port Complete: COM Ports. 380 pp.). Jan (2009). USB Design by Example: A Practical Guide to Building I/O Devices (2nd ed. Axelson. Debugging USB 2. Jan (2007).Further reading Axelson. and Ports for Embedded Systems (2nd ed. Intel USB 3. (PDF) Universal Host Controller Interface (UHCI)." Electronic Design.0 for Compliance: It's Not Just a Digital World. USB Complete: The Developer's Guide (4th ed. Characterization and compliance test. Axelson. John (2001). Ju ly 2012. USB Virtual COM Ports. USB Mass Storage: Designing and Programming Devices and Embedded Hosts (1st ed. [show] v t e Basic computer components [show] v t e Computer bus official and de facto standards (wired) View page ratings Rate this page What's this? Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional) Categories: Universal Serial Bus 1996 introductions Computer connectors American inventions Create account Log in Article . Agilent. Jan (2006). 287 pp. ISBN 978-1-931448-06-2. Hyde.). Henk. ISBN 978 -1-931448-08-6. ISBN 978-0-970284-6-5-5. Technologie s Application Note. Powered-B connectors.0 Standard-A. 506 pp. Agilent. Pinouts guide.

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