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SANDIA REPORT

SAND98-0260 UC-705 Unlimited Release
Printed February 1998

An Efficient Method for Calculating RMS von Mises Stress in a Random Vibration Environment

Daniel J. Segalman, Clay W. G. Fulcher, Garth M. Reese, R
Prepared by Sandia National Labora

Sc2900Q18-81)

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Fulcher. Sandia National Laboratories P. Jr. The key relation presented is one suggested in past literature.. . Box 5800 Albuquerque. Clay W. but does not appear to have been previously exploited in this manner. G. Segalman. Structural Dynamics and Vibration Control Dept. Field. Reese.SAND98-0260 UnlimitedRelease Printed February 1998 Distribution Category UC-705 An Efficient Method For Calculating RMS von Mises Stress in a Random Vibration Environment Daniel J. and Richard V. An efficient implementation of the method calculates the RMS stresses directly from the linear stress and displacement modes. NM 87185-0439 ABSTRACT An efficient method is presented for calculation of RMS von Mises stresses from stress component transfer functions and the Fourier representation of random input forces. 111 . Garth M.O..

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Table of Contents Nomenclature Introduction The Problem Structure And Inputs RMS von Mises Stress In Frequency Domain RMS von Mises Stress Using Modal Superposition Results And Verification Comparison With Miles’ Relation Summary And Conclusions References vii 1 1 2 5 7 10 13 18 4 .

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( b o(t) lT ( ) E[ 3 (- ( )t vii .Nomenclature z fi(t) input force time history at degree of freedom i.evaluated at node b matrix transpose timeaverage expected value operator complex conjugate Hermitian (complex conjugate transpose) RMS SF SF vai Yo. PSD transfer function matrix number of modes computed number of frequency points number of input force locations power spectral density root mean square input force cross spectral density matrix input force autospectral density stress vector (6 x 1) displacement eigenvector for mode i at d.0. N. frequency-domain representation of f ( t ) impulse response function matrix von Mises stress time history h( t ) p(t) Dj( frequency dependence in stress transfer functions a) H M N.f. a stress vector for mode i .

such as Miles’ relation [2]. within the choosing a single mode (typically the one with highest modal effective mass [4] bandwidth of the input) to compute an “equivalent static g-field” using Miles’ relation.Introduction The primary purpose of finite element stress analysis is to estimate the reliability of engineering designs. This process is of order NJog N . for each output location. Therefore. Response contributions from other structural modes are ignored. For deterministic loads. To illustrate the problem. the form of the von Mises probability distribution must be determined and the parameters of that distribution must be found. both static and dynamic. was created using shell elements. the calculation of von Mises stress is straightforward [ 13. involve significant approximations that can be nonconservative [3]. Computationally simpler methods. subjected to transverse random vibration at the base. what is ultimately sought is not the frequency distribution or time history of the von Mises stress but it’s RMS value. Due to space constraints. This expensive computational procedure makes broad surveying for von Mises stress impractical. In structural applications. For random load environments typically defined in terms of power spectral densities. respectively. a finite element model of an aluminum cylinder. or stress tensor responses cannot be applied directly to calculate the RMS von Mises stress. 1 and 2 show the cylinder model and the input acceleration PSD applied at the base. To the extent that single-DOF behavior is not realized. allowing a thorough investigation into the reliability of an engineering design. A new. nor is it centered about zero as are the stress components. Page 1 . The stress invariants can be computed at each time step and an RMS value determined through time integration. a nonlinear function of the linear stress components. this method is inaccurate for ascertaining the global random stress response. Figs. and subjected to a vibratory load characterized by a specified power spectral density (PSD) of the input acceleration. computationally efficient process for computing the RMS values of von Mises stress is introduced. and for all frequencies of interest. The new method enables the analyst to perform surveys of von Mises stress routinely. Current standard procedure is to assume single-DOF response of the structure. the von Mises stress due to a given load is often used as the metric for evaluating design margins. 2 The Problem In a typical random vibration test. such as a shaker table. Although. displacement. This method accounts for the full frequency response of the structure. The most direct method of calculating von Mises stress from frequency data requires computation of a long time series of linear stress components. the linear theory normally applied to compute RMS acceleration. a structure is attached to a single input load source. determination of the von Mises probability distribution will be the subject of a later paper. A method is proposed here that accurately captures the RMS von Mises stress from all excited modes throughout the structure. the probability distribution of von Mises stress is not Gaussian.

Frequency(Hz) Structure And Inputs Consider a structure. and ( ) denotes the matrix transpose. Input to the linear system are histories of an extended force vector where the subscripts denote the degree of freedom. Figure 2 lnput transverse PSD at cylinder base. At a location x . S. G(t ) . T Page 2 . The: complete dynamic analysis asserted above includes generation of deterministic transfer functions mapping the imposed forces to stresses at the locations of interest.Figure I : Cylinder FEM. for which a complete linear dynamics analysis has been performed.the stress. is expressed as a convolution of the imposed force history with the stress impulse response function [ 5 ] . .

(EQ 3) where frequency component off. oyz] consisting of the non-redundant components of the stress tensor. oxy. (EQ 2). Re{&neini}. Further. Here it is assumed that the time-averaged value of the imposed force is zero. o ( t )= N.the impulse response function h. ozz7 oxz. - f ( t )= n=l Re{fnein5}. Let the force vector be expressed as. we find. and f n is the nfh In general. < = 2 n t / T . (EQ 5) n=l where and *Theinput is often specified in terms of a cross spectral density matrix given by Page 3 . Representing the number of rows off as N . the linear analysis is conveniently and conventionally expressed in terms of transfer functions in the frequency domain. . and its transform f is known to the same extent. and for the sake of convenience in nomenclature. [oxx. (EQ 3) is substituted into Eq. o is taken to be an algebraic vector of length six. The frequency domain representation off is given by.Computationally. T is a period on the order of the time of the experiment. When Eq. oyy. f is known only in a statistical sense. The common use of digitized data and the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)suggest a restatement of the above equations in terms of Fourier series. is a 6xNF matrix.

this is the autospectral density. such as squared van Mises stress. RMS von Mises Stress In Frequency Domain It is of interest'to calculate the mean value of the square of the von Mises stress over a given time period.) The quadratic functions of the output variables. 2 Q . written in the following form. In the case of von Mises stress.~ + Q ~ ~ +Q ( o~ y ~ ~) x + Q y z ) 3 x + z 2 2 2 A = 3 3 Equation (EQ 10) expanded in Fourier terms is m=l n=l Page 4 .. (In fact.Q. positive semi-definite matrix. For a single force input. the method presented here can be used to examine any other quadratic functions of the linear output variables. Consider quadratic functions of stress.p(t) = and. must be mapped from the imposed force. o ~ ~ + + Q. . 2 2 2 + oYy cZz ( ( ~ .where E [ ] is the expected value obtained by ensemble averaging [6] and (-) is the complex conjugate operator. constant. ~ ( t =) oTAo ~ where A is a symmetric.

RMS von Mises Stress Using Modal Superposition Modal superposition provides a convenient framework for computation of RMS stress invariants. Equation (EQ 13) is a form of Parseval’s theorem [7].8]. a’ The one-dimensional version of Eq. but the equations presented here appear to be the first that accommodate the full stress tensor. p R M s of p is . Let Yo. Eq. the above expansions must be expressed in terms of the input forces n=l With ensemble averaging. b For a modally damped structure. (EQ 14) To be useful. The root-mean-square value. n = 1 a. can be written as [lo] Page 5 . given by PRMS = m.] t (EQ 13) where ( )t denotes the Hermitian operator (complex conjugate transpose).The “stress modes” are standard output from most FEA modal analysis codes (such as the grid point stresses in MSCNASTRAN [9]). The linear components of the stress (not principal stresses) can be superposed since they are derivatives of linear functions. evaluated at node b . the transfer function for a stress at location b due to an input force at degree of freedom a . (EQ 16) has been used previously in stress analysis [3. (EQ 8). (EQ 15) can be expressed in terms of the input cross spectral density matrix of Eq.and some trigonometric manipulations show the time-averaged value of the square of von Mises stress to be (p2) = 1 Nul 2 n=l [&.A&. represent the stress components (1 to 6) for mode i .

and D contains all frequency dependence. For a single shaker input. u' Grouping terms and simplifying. j where (EQ 20) N F (EQ :21) Here T . N . and equation 21 reduces to.con + 2j y i a n 2 Here. Q may be evaluated only once while T and the modal sums must be computed at each node. 2 Page 6 . cp is the displacement eigenvector. depends only on the node location for stress output.. j u . The RMS stress at node b is computed by combing equations 16 and 17. contains all the frequency dependence of the problem. the total computation is of order M N where M is the number of modes. Computation of Q is of order N . # modes (EQ 119) i. = 1 . these computations are easily accomplished on a workstation. - n i.u i iq 2 ai . and Q .# modes E y". Even for a very large model. N w . n To obtain results at every node. Within a modal survey. and N is the number of nodes in the survey.

10 ' 1 Frequency (Hz) o3 1o4 . A = 1 1 -2 1 -. . In this context. .1 2 (EQ 23) The transfer functions for the stress components were computed from Eq. A typical set of transfer functions at one of the grid points is illustrated in Fig. (EQ 10) and an inverse FFT of Eq. . (EQ 6 ) . A reduces to a 3 x 3 matrix. in element coordinates. Frequency (Hz) Figure 3: Stress component transfer functions. 3. 1 produce no out-of-plane stresses [9]. Page 7 . The stress and displacement eigenvectors. The mean squared von Mises stresses at each grid point were calculated using three methods: (a) time realization using Eq..Results And Verification The shell elements used to model the cylinder in Fig.(b) direct frequency . Therefore. Y and cp. required to compute the transfer functions were obtained using MSUNASTRAN. . the three remaining nonzero stress components are ox by ? (normal stress) and T~~ (shear stress). (EQ 17) at each grid point in the model. and 1% modal damping was applied. . . . . . .

at 724 Hz. 1o3 Frequency ( i ) H! . . The RMS von Mises stresses at all grid points were computed from Eqs. The mean squared von Mises stresses at each grid point were found to be identical using each of the three methods. oy is driven by the first bending mode of the cylinder.012 Time (sec) 0. ~is driven by Page 8 . . 6. As illustrated in Fig.. 4 and 5 . (EQ 14) and (EQ 19)... respectively. and (c) the implementation of Eq... (EQ 16). .. . .006 0.004 0... Figure 4: Time and frequency realizations of the lateral input acceleration.01 0. Time and frequency realizations of the input acceleration and output stresses at a typical point are shown in Figs.016 0.. . Mises stresses at the same location are presented in Fig....realization of Eq. 5.. the shear and one of the normal stress components dominate the stress state -atthis location.... 10" 40 1o3 Frequency (Hz) 10 " C J 5 20 -20 -40 2 0 0 I 0..0.002 0.018 0. Time and frequency plots for the mean squared and RMS von . (EQ 13) using Eq. T .. (EQ 19). with contours of this quantity plotted in Fig. (EQ 13) using thie efficient modal superposition procedure of Eq.014 0. . thus veriQing the procedure. 7.008 0.

.. .004 0.. . .. . .014 0. . . ' I. .. .. . Figure 5: Time and frequency realizations of the output both first and second bending modes.. . For example. .. . the oxoy term in the expression for von Mises stress is small and the first two modes..f. 6 that the frequency content of the squared von Mises stress contains terms at twice the excited natural frequencies (e. . .. .g. . : .. the third occurring at 7698 Hz. . . .j denote excited .3464 = 4234 Hz. .. ... .modes... lo3 Frequency (Hz) . . The linear stress components respond at the natural frequencies of the structure..0.014 0. .016 0.. . 6 shows von Mises content at f2 . 0 0.. .018 0. . ... .. ... At this particular location.. . ... ....:. . . .5 -10 -5 o 0 0... Fig. drivers for oyand T~~ . . ...... :. . . . : . : ..... .. . 1o4 .. . . .. . .. . . ..01 0.. ..:. ... ...008 0. where i.724 = 2740 Hz and at f3 f2 = 7698 .. . . . . . .. .. . .001 1' 0 10 4 v) 10010- z ::-$---.. . . .1 0. Page 9 . . . The relatively low uXstress is driven by the first three modes.... . 1 I I n v v) X -a c z z a ...fi. .. . ..006 0.018 0. . .. the second occurring at 3464 Hz. while the squared von Mises stress responds at twice these frequencies. .002 0. . ... .01 .. . . .... :. .002 0.. . 1448 Hz.1000 I 1g 0. .. . . .0. . .. .:.004 006 . .. . . i. ..also drive the von Mises stress. .1 SG 0.. 0. . Von Mises stress frequencies also occur at fj . . .v . . We see in Fig..008 Time (sec) 00 ..... ...016 0. This observation is attributable to the fact that a squared sinusoid is another sinusoid at twice the original frequency (plus a constant). . . . .. . 6928 Hz). . .. ...012 0.0 0. ... v .. = 3464 .. .. ..012 0. . . .. . . .

014 0.02 Comparison With Miles’ Relation Evaluations of RMS von Mises stress using the new procedure and the traditional Miles’ relation were compared. Excitation of both modes resulted by applying the full PSD from zero to 10. the input PSD was set to zero below 1000 Hz and followled the Fig.006 0.016 0. and was set to zero beyond this frequency.016 0.1 0.012 0. 8. Page 10 . A new input accelerationPSD was generated.004 0.006 0. the input PSD followed the definition of Fig. 0.008 Figure 6: von Mises and squared von Mises stresses Time (sec) 00 . Three cases were examined in which the input PSD frequency range was selected to excite (a) only the first mode.000Hz.008 0. as shown in Fig. (b) only the second mode and (c) both first and second modes. To excite the first mode only. 8 definition between 1000 and 10. For second mode response.014 0.02 0 0.018 0.002 0.012 0.018 0.004 0.000 Hz. 8 up to 1000 Hz.I I I I I I 1 0 .002 0.

P S D ( f m ) is the value of the input acceleration PSD at frequency fm. g. 8.7 g for the first mode at 724 Hz. the first mode of a cantilever beam assumes the approximate shape of the beam under a transverse g-field.3 g for the second mode at 3464 Hz. defined as 1/(25). For example... and Q is the quality factor. f m is the single natural frequency chosen for application of Miles’ relation. Page 11 . and 90. is the approximate RMS acceleration response. commonly used as an “equivalent staticg field”. An additional constraint on the application of Miles’ relation to elastic structures is that the shape of the single excited mode must approximate the profile of the structure under a static g-field. Miles’ relation is given by. For the input PSD shown in Fig. (EQ 24) is 10. where g. from Eq.Figure 7: RMS von Mises stress contours Miles’ method assumes single-DOF behavior of a structure.

. . . . . . _ .... .. .. . .. . . ... .. . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . . .. . . .. .... . 10' 1o2 Figure 8: Input PSD for Miles' comparison Frequency (Hz) 1o3 1o4 Page 12 .. .... . ... ... .. . .. . . . .. . . . ... .. .. . :.... .. .. . .. .. .. !. . The von Mises stress contours for this case are superimposed upon th. . .. . .. .. ....... The stress contours which result from the application of the input PSD below 1000 Hz are superimposed upon the deformed shape for the first mode in Fig. . . .. . . .. .. . .. . . . .. . . . ... . .... ... .. .. . . .. . . .. . . . ... . . . ... . .. . . . .. . . .. .:. . . . . .. .. . showing the Mile's method to be conservative by an order of magnitude. . ... . ... . . .. . . ... . . . . . . . .... _ . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. /.... . .. ..... . .3 psi. . . ... . h z cu N . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .... . ... ... .. . .. . .. . . . The maximum von Mises stress corresponding to the 1-g static field is 12. the maximum von Mises stresses corresponding tb c the Miles' equivalents for the first and second modes are 134. .. .. .. . . . .. . .. .j . j.... . . .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .... . .... . ... . . .... . ...... .. .. . . . . ... ... . ... . . . .... . . . . . .. .. . ... . .. . ... . .. . .. . . ... . .. .. . ... . ... . . . . ... .. . . .. . . ..... . . . ... .. . . . .. . ... . .. . . . . .. .. . .. . . : . .. . . . . .. . \ .. . . . . :. ... .. .. . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. ... .. / . .. ... .. . .. .. . . . ... .. ... _. . . . . ... .. :. . . . . showing the Mile's method to be slightly conservative.. ... . . . .. . .. .. .. .... . . . .. . . . .. . . ... .. . . .. . . .. . . . .... .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . : . . .... . . .. . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . : .. .. . .. . . . . .. ... . . .. . ... . .. ... . .... lo-' .. .. . ... . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . ... .. . . . ..... .. . .. . ... 10. . .. .. . . . . . . . ... .. . .... . . ... ... . . . .... .. .... . . . . . .. .. I . . .. .. . ...... .. . . . .. . . ... . . .. . .: _. . . / ... .... . . . . . . . .\I . .. ... . . . . . ... . . . ... . . Thus. _. . The maximum RMS von Mises stress for this case is 117. . . . . . . ... . . . 11.. ... . .... . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. * ... . . . . . . . . j. .. . . ... .. . ... . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . .... ... . . ... . .. . . . ... . . . . . ... . -. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . The true RMS von Mises stresses were computed using the new method presented above.... ... . .. . . .. .. .. ... ... . . . . . .. ... . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . ... .. .. . respectively. . . .. . ..... .. . .4 psi.. .. . . . ... .. .. .. . ... .. . . . . .. : . . . . . . .. the static response of the cantilevered cylinder to a 1-g field may be used to scale the Miles' approximations for each mode.... .... . . . .. . ..3 psi... . ... . . . .. . ... . . . . . . .. . . .. ... .I. . . ... . ..... .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . ... . . . .. .... .. . . . . The displacement and von Mises stress responses to a transverse 1-g field are presented in Figure 9. . . ... . . .. ... . . . ... . . .. . .. . .. .... The maximum RMS von Mises stress for this case is 106. . . .i .. . . ... 1 I : ... . . ... .. .. . .. ... .. . . . .. When the second mode alone is excited by applying the input PSD above 1000 Hz.. .. ..... .. ..... . .... . .. .. .Because the von Mises stress in a static g-field scales with the magnitude of the field.. . . . . . .. . . . . . v < cn -3 .. .. . . ... .... ... . .4 and 1138. . . ..... . . j ..... . .. . . : 4 .. . . . . .. .. ... . . . ..: ... . . .. . . . The profile of the static response is similar to the first mode of a cantilever beam. . . . . and occurs at the base top and bottom-most fibers. .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. 1 . . ... . .. . . .e deformed shape for the second mode in Fig. . .. ... The stress contours and shape profile closely resemble those of the static-g response. .. .. . ... . . .. . .. .... .. .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . .. .. .. .:. . . .... . : . . . .. . an entirely different result is obtained. . . .. .. . . . .i. . ... .. . .. ... .. . . . ... . .. . . ... . ... . . . . The stress contours and shape profile do not resemble those of the static-g response. . . .. ... .. . .6 psi. . . . . .. . j. .. . . .. .. ... . .. :': \ : . . . . ..... ..

Surveys of the RMS stress for the entire structure can be computed efficiently.Finally. Results exactly match a full time history development. and the resulting von Mises stress contours are superimposedupon the first and second mode shapes in Figs.where M is the number of modes computed. 2 Figure 9: von Mises stress contours and displacements for a transverse 1-g field Page 13 . the entire PSD of Fig.4 psi. 8 was applied to the cylinder. The contours are observed to be a blend of the two nanow-band responses. Summary And Conclusions A computationally efficient method has been developed for calculating the RMS von Mises stress in a random vibration environment. The number of operations per node output is of order M . 12 and 13. The first-mode Miles’ approximation is slightly non-conservative. The method retains the full accuracy of the FEM model and modal analysis. with the maximum RMS von Mises stress at 158. whereas the second-mode approximation is much too conservative.

Work underway will further quantify the statistical properties of the von Mises stress. as well as conditions resulting in poor estimates. and when the excited mode shape approximates the response to a static g-field. Miles’ relation is adequate when the system response is dominated by a single mode. Otherwise. These properties will determine the probability of the von Mises stress exceeding a given value for infinite time and finite time force histories. both conservative and non-conservative estimates may result from the application of Miles’ relation.Figure IO: von Mises stress contours for fpsd < 1000 Hz superimposed upon mode shape I Conditions under which Miles’ relation produces good estimates of von Mises stress contours were examined. Page 14 .

Figure 1I: von Mises stress contours for fpsd> 1000 Hz superimposed upon mode shape 2 Page 15 .

s contours for Figure 12: von 0 < fpsd 10 KHz superimposed upon mode shape 1 Page 16 .

Figure 13: won Mises stress contours for 0 < fpsd c 10 KHz superimposed upon mode shape 2 Page 17 .

pp.366. 1993.. Joseph E. Nov 1954. 1972 pp 232-236. 13. 1981. William T. f 5.. 9. 85.T. J. 6. Englewood Cliffs. C. Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures. p. Real and Complex Analysis. Inc. W. Craig... Meirovitch. MATLAB Reference Guide. 3. New York. Mechanical Engineering Design. Elements o VibrationAnalysis. 1986. Flanigan. Journal o Engineering Mechanics. Roy R. H. T. “A Superelement Approach to Test-Analysis Model Development..” Proceedings of the 4th International Modal Analysis Conference. MSCNASTRAN Quick Reference Guide. McGraw-Hill. D. 11. 12. 7. f Prentice-Hall. Random Vibration o Mechanical and Structural Systems. Jr. 1986. R. Page 18 . Ferebee.. C. NJ. NJ. Shigley. McGraw-Hill. The Mathworks. 2nd ed. NY. Vol. February. Theory of Vibration with Applications. pp. 9. Los Angeles. 111. 1975.References 1. “Extreme-value statistics for nonlinear stress combination”. W. Piersol. J.C. 1992. CA. John Wiley & Sons. L. and Jones. Bendat. “Comparison of Miles’ Relationship to the True Mean Square Value of Response for a Single Degree of Freedom System”. An Introduction to Computer Methods. NY. Grigoriu. Miles. Prentice-Hall. NY. Englewood Cliffs. 68. 244-246. p. and Dreyer. Structural Dynamics. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences. MacNeal-Schwendler Corp. McGraw-Hill.. 1981. Rudin. 10. John Wiley &z Sons... John W. f Madsen. and M. Sept. 8. 1966. 356. H. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Kammer. pp 1121-1129. NY.C. 4. Version 68. Thomson. “On the Structural Fatigue under Random Loading”.. No. Soong. 1985. and A. 2.

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