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International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology Vol. 3, No. 1, 2011, pp. 136-165

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY www.ijest-ng.com © 2011 MultiCraft Limited. All rights reserved

**Free convection of Walter’s fluid flow in a vertical double-passage wavy channel with heat source
**

J. Prathap Kumar, J.C. Umavathi*, and H. Prema

Department of Mathematics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, Karnataka, INDIA. * Corresponding Author: jc_uma11@yhaoo.com

Abstract

The steady two-dimensional free convection flow of a Walter’s fluid (Model B’) in a vertical double passage wavy channel has been investigated analytically in the presence of heat source. The channel is divided into two passages by means of thin, perfectly conductive plane baffle and each stream will have its own pressure gradient and hence the velocity will be individual in streams. The governing equations of the fluid and the heat transfer have been solved subject to the relevant boundary conditions by assuming that the solution consists of two parts; a mean part and disturbance or perturbed part. To obtain the perturbed part of the solution, the long wave approximation has been used and to solve the mean part, well known approximation used by Ostrach has been utilized. Numerical results are presented graphically for the distribution of velocity and temperature fields for varying physical parameters such as baffle position, Grashof number, wall temperature ratio, viscoelastic parameter and product of non-dimensional wave number and space co-ordinate at different positions of the baffle. The relevant flow and heat transfer characteristics namely, skin friction and the rate of heat transfer at both the walls has been discussed in detail. Keywords: vertical wavy channel; baffle; double passage; heat source. 1. Introduction The corrugated wall channel is one of the several devices employed for enhancing the heat transfer efficiency of industrial transport processes. It is necessary to study the heat transfer from irregular surfaces because irregular surfaces are often present in many applications. Mixed convection from wavy surfaces can be used for transferring heat in several heat transfer devices, such as flat-plate solar collectors and flat-plate condensers in refrigerators. The presence of roughness elements disturbs the flow past surfaces and alerts the heat transfer rate. Viscous flow in wavy channels was first treated analytically by Burns and Parks (1962). The solution was obtained by expressing the stream function in a Fourier series under the assumption of Stokes flow. Vajravelu (1980) studied the flow and heat transfer effects accounting for the convection contributions by a perturbation method using the long-wave approximation, where the solution consist of a mean part and perturbed part. Yao (1983) proposed a simple transformation to study the natural convection heat transfer from isothermal vertical surfaces, such as sinusoidal surfaces, in Newtonian fluids. Chiu and Chou (1994) studied the transient and steady natural convection along a vertical wavy surface in micropolar fluids. They have found that increasing the micropolar parameter results in decreasing the heat transfer rate. Rees and Pop (1994) studied the free convection flow along a vertical wavy surface with constant wall temperature. Rees and Pop (1995) also studied the natural convection flow along a vertical wavy surface with uniform wall flux. Wang and Vanka (1995) determined the rates of heat transfer for a flow through a periodic array of wavy passage. They observed that for the steady-flow regime, the average Nusselt numbers for the wavy-wall channel were only slightly larger than those for a parallel-plate channel. However, in the transitional-flow regime, the enhancement of heat transfer was by a factor of approximately 2.5. Friction factors for the wavy channel were about twice those for the parallel-plate channel in the steady-flow region, and remained almost constant in the transitional regime. Although some studies for steady and unsteady flows have been reported, example, Blancher et. al. (1998), Selvarajna et. al. (1998), Greiner et. al. (1991), little knowledge is available on the flow in these wavy channels.

137

Kumar et al. / International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2011, pp. 136-165

The analyses of the flow properties of non-Newtonian fluids are very important in the fields of fluid dynamics because of their technological application. Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids present challenges to engineers, physicists and mathematicians. Due to the complex stress-strain relationships of non-Newtonian fluids, not many investigators have studied the flow behavior of the fluids in various flow fields. Hot rolling, extrusion of plastics, flow in journal bearings, lubrication, and flow in a shock absorber are some typical examples to name just a few (Bőhme, 1981; Huilgol et. al., 1997). Non-Newtonian fluids are of increasing importance in modern technology due to its growing use in many activities, such as molten plastic, paints, drilling, and petroleum and polymer solutions. The Walters fluid is one of such fluids. The most commonly used technique for internal cooling enhancement is the placement of periodic ribs. Ribs are generally mounted on the heat transfer between the surfaces, which disturb the boundary layer growth and enhance the heat transfer between the surface and the fluid. In addition to ribs and impingement, a third common internal cooling enhancement technique is the placement of internal flow swirls, tape twisters, or baffles. The convective heat transfer in a vertical channel could be enhanced by using special inserts which can be specially designed to increase the included angle between the velocity vector and the temperature gradient vector rather than to promote turbulence. This increases the rate of heat transfer without a considerable drop in the pressure (Guo et. al., 1998).A plane baffle may be used as an insert to enhance the rate of heat transfer in the channel. A thin and perfectly conductive baffle is used so as to avoid a considerable increase in the transverse thermal resistance into the channel. Cheng et al. (1989) studied analytically heat transfer aspects of a laminar fully developed forced-convection within an asymmetrically heated horizontal double-passage channel and concluded that the thermal characteristics of fully developed flow could be significantly affected by the position of the baffle, the pressure gradient ratio and the thermal boundary conditions. Similar mixed convection problem in a vertical double-passage channel has been investigated analytically by Salah El-Din (1994). His results showed that the presence of the baffle may lead to a higher value of Nusselt number according to the baffle position and the value of Gr Re . Dutta and Hossain (2005) reported experimental results of the enhancement of heat transfer with inclined solid and perforated baffles. In that study, the effects of baffle size, position were studied for internal cooling heat transfer augmentation. Chen and Chen (1998) experimental results showed that for small baffle widths, the local heat transfer coefficient decreases with an increase in the baffle wall gap. For large baffle widths, there is an optimum distance between the baffle and the solid wall which give rise to a higher heat transfer coefficient. More over recently Chang and Shiau (2005) studied numerically the effects of horizontal baffle on the heat transfer characteristics of pulsating opposing mixed convection in a vertical channel. They found that the flow pulsation with a baffle gives the optimal heat transfer. Also with large Reynolds number, the inlet flow pulsation dominates the velocity field in the channel. The purpose of the present study focuses attention on the fully developed free convection flow of a Walter’s fluid (Model B’) in a vertical wavy double-passage channel in the presence of heat source. The buoyancy force, temperature ratio, heat source/sink, λ x and viscoelastic parameter at different baffle positions are all considered so as to extensively investigate their distinct influence on the velocity, temperature, skin friction and rate of heat transfer. 2. Mathematical formulation Case 1: Free convection of Walter’s fluid in a vertical channel with baffle Consider a steady two dimensional laminar free convection Walter’s fluid flow in an open-ended vertical channel with one wavy wall and another flat wall as shown in Fig. 1. The channel is divided into two passages by means of a perfectly conducting thin baffle, for which the transverse thermal resistance can be neglected (Cheng et al., 1989 and Salah El Din, 1994, 2002). The X axis is taken upwards and parallel to the flat wall, while the Y-axis is taken perpendicular to it in such a way that the wavy wall is represented by Y = ε ∗ cos ( kX ) and the flat wall by Y = d . The wavy and flat walls are maintained at a constant temperature Tw and T1 , respectively. The following assumptions are made a. All the fluid properties except the density in the buoyancy force are constant. b. The dissipative effects and the work of deformation are neglected in the energy equation. c. The wavelength of the wavy wall is large compared with the width of the channel. d. For fully developed flow, it is assumed that the transverse velocity and temperature gradient in the axial direction are zero. e. The volumetric heat source/sink term in the energy is constant. f. Boussinesq approximation is assumed, i.e., ρ = ρ s (1 − β (T − Ts ) )

138

Kumar et al. / International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2011, pp. 136-165

Baffle

Stream 1

Stream 2

gx

2π k

ε

X

T (1) = Tw

Y

Y = ε ∗ cos ( kX )

Y =d

d∗

d

Flow direction Figure.1 Physical configuration of the double-passage channel Following the above assumptions the basic equations governing the flow are (Rita and Alok, 2000) ∂U j ∂V j + =0 ∂X ∂Y ⎛ ∂U j ∂U j ⎞ ∂Pj* ∂ 3U j ∂ 3U j ∂ 3U j ⎛ 2 ⎜ 2U j +Vj + μ∇ U j − 2 K 0 + 2V j +U j ρ ⎜U j ⎟=− ⎜ ⎜ ∂X ∂Y ⎟ ∂X ∂X 3 ∂X 2 ∂Y ∂X ∂Y 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝

+U j −3 ∂ 3V j ∂Y ∂X 2 +Vj − ∂ 3U j ∂Y 3 +Vj ∂ 3V j ∂X ∂Y 2 −3 −6 ∂U j ∂ 2U j ∂X ∂X 2 − + ∂U j ∂ 2V j ∂Y ∂X 2 − −4 ∂U j ∂ 2U j ∂Y ∂X ∂Y −2 ∂V j ∂ 2V j ∂X ∂Y 2

(1)

(2)

∂V j ∂ 2U j ∂X ∂X ∂Y

∂V j ∂X +Vj

∂U j ∂ 2V j ∂X ∂X ∂Y

∂U j ∂ 2V j ∂Y ∂Y 2

∂V j ∂ 2V j ∂X ∂Y 2

∂U j ∂ 2U j ⎞ ⎟ − ρ gx ∂X ∂Y 2 ⎟ ⎠

ρ ⎜U j ⎜

⎝ +2U j −

⎛

⎛ ∂V j ⎞ ∂Pj* ∂ 3U j ∂ 3V j ∂ 3U j ∂ 3V j =− + μ∇ 2V j − 2 K 0 ⎜ U j +U j +Vj +Vj ⎟ ⎜ ∂Y ⎟ ∂Y ∂X 2 ∂Y ∂X 3 ∂X ∂Y 2 ∂Y ∂X 2 ⎠ ⎝ ∂ 3V j ∂Y 3 −2 −6 ∂U j ∂ 2V j ∂X ∂X 2 ∂V j ∂ 2V j −2 −4 ∂V j ∂ 2V j ∂X ∂Y 2 −3 ∂ 2U j ∂V j ∂X 2 ∂X −3 ∂V j ∂ 2U j ∂Y ∂X ∂Y −3 ∂U j ∂ 2V j ∂Y ∂X ∂Y

∂ 3V j ∂X ∂Y 2 −

+ 2V j

(3)

∂V j ∂ 2V j ∂Y ∂X 2

∂U j ∂ 2U j ∂Y ∂X 2

∂V j ∂ 2V j ⎞ ⎟ ∂Y ∂Y 2 ∂X ∂X ∂Y ⎟ ⎠ ∂T j ∂T j ⎛ ρ CP ⎜ U j +Vj ⎜ ∂X ∂Y ⎝

⎞ 2 ⎟ = k∇ Tj + Q ⎟ ⎠

(4)

The boundary conditions relevant to the problem are taken as,

α = Qd 2 k (Tw − Ts ) . vi = i . pp. ui = i . p= (6) x = . 1. u1 = v1 = 0. / International Journal of Engineering.139 Kumar et al. Ud Vd T − Ts X Y p∗ . Science and Technology. y = . v1 = v2 = 0. T1 = T2 . (1) to (5) become ∂ui ∂vi + =0 ∂x ∂y uj ∂u j ∂x + vj ∂u j ∂y =− ∂ Pj ∂x + ∂ 2u j ∂x 2 + ∂ 2u j ∂y 2 ∂ 3v j ∂x∂y 2 ⎛ ∂ 3u j ∂ 3u j ∂ 3u j ∂ 3v j − K ⎜ 2u j + 2v j 2 + u j +uj ⎜ ∂x3 ∂x ∂y ∂x∂y 2 ∂y∂x 2 ⎝ −6 ∂u j ∂ 2u j ∂x ∂x 2 −3 + ∂u j ∂ 2 v j ∂y ∂x 2 − −4 ∂u j ∂ 2u j ∂y ∂x∂y − −2 ∂v j ∂ 2 v j ∂x ∂y 2 (7) + vj −3 ∂ 3u j ∂y 3 + vj (8) ∂v j ∂ 2u j ∂x ∂x∂y ∂2 v j ∂x 2 − ∂u j ∂ 2 v j ∂x ∂x∂y ∂u j ∂ 2 v j ∂y ∂y 2 ∂v j ∂ 2 v j ∂x ∂y 2 ∂u j ∂ 2u j ⎞ ⎟ − Gθ j ∂x ∂y 2 ⎟ ⎠ uj ∂v j ∂x + vj ∂v j ∂y =− ∂ Pj ∂y + + ∂2v j ∂y 2 ⎛ ∂3u j ∂3 v j ∂3u j ∂3 v j − K ⎜uj 2 + u j + vj + vj ⎜ ∂x3 ∂x∂y 2 ∂y ∂x 2 ⎝ ∂x ∂y −2 − ∂u j ∂ 2 v j ∂x ∂x 2 ∂y ∂x 2 −2 −6 ∂v j ∂ 2 v j ∂x ∂y 2 ∂y ∂y 2 −3 −4 ∂ 2 u j ∂v j ∂x 2 ∂x −3 ∂v j ∂ 2 u j ∂y ∂x∂y + 2u j −3 ∂3 v j ∂x∂y 2 + 2v j − ∂3 v j ∂y 3 (9) ∂u j ∂ 2 v j ∂y ∂x∂y ∂v j ∂ 2 v j ∂y ∂x 2 ∂u j ∂ 2 u j ∂v j ∂ 2 v j ∂v j ∂ 2 v j ⎞ ⎟ ∂x ∂x∂y ⎟ ⎠ ∂θ j ⎞ ∂ 2θ j ∂ 2θ j ⎛ ∂θ j P ⎜u j + vj + +α ⎟= ⎜ ⎟ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ⎝ (10) Subject to the boundary conditions. the Grashof number ε = ε ∗ d. θ2 = m on y = 1 the Prandtl number the dimensionless amplitude parameter the dimensionless frequency parameter the wall temperature ratio the dimensionless heat source/sink parameter the dimensionless viscoelastic parameter . 3. m = (T1 − Ts ) (Tw − Ts ) . T1 = Tw U1 = U 2 = 0. ∂T1 ∂T1 ∂T2 ∂T2 + = + on Y = d ∗ ∂Y ∂X ∂Y ∂X T2 = T f on Y = d Introducing the following non-dimensional variables in the governing equations for velocity and temperature as. Vol. . θ1 = 1 on y = ε cos ( λ x ) on y = y ∗ on y = y ∗ u1 = u2 = 0. U 2 = V2 = 0. 2011. 2 G= d g x β (Tw − Ts ) ν2 where the subscript s denotes quantities in the static fluid condition. K = 2K0 3 (ρd ) . 136-165 on Y = ε ∗ cos ( kX ) (5) U1 = V1 = 0. λ = kd . θ = 2 ν ν d d Tw − Ts ρ (ν d ) where Ts is the fluid temperature in static condition. ∂θ1 ∂θ1 ∂θ 2 ∂θ 2 + = + ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x (11) u2 = v2 = 0. No. where P = η0 c p k . Doing this. V1 = V2 = 0. θ1 = θ 2 . Eqs.

Zeroth order equations d 2u j0 dy 2 + Gθ j 0 = 0 ∂u j1 ∂x u j0 ∂u j1 ∂x + v j1 + ∂u j 0 ∂y =− ∂ Pj1 ∂x −4 + ∂ 2 u j1 ∂x 2 + ∂ 2 u j1 ∂y 2 −2 d 2θ j 0 dy 2 =0 = −α (13) First order equations + ∂v j1 ∂y (14) ⎛ ∂ 3 u j1 ∂ 3 u j1 ∂ 3 v j1 − K ⎜ 2u j 0 + u j0 + u j0 ⎜ ∂x3 ∂x∂y 2 ∂y ∂x 2 ⎝ ∂y ∂y 2 −3 ∂u j 0 ∂ 2 v j1 ∂y ∂y 2 ∂u j1 ∂ 2 u j 0 ⎞ ⎟ − Gθ j1 − ∂x ∂y 2 ⎟ ⎠ +v j1 ∂3 u j 0 ∂y 3 ∂u j 0 ∂ 2 v j1 ∂y ∂x 2 ∂u j 0 ∂ 2 u j1 ∂y ∂x∂y ∂v j1 ∂ 2 u j 0 (15) u j0 ∂v j1 ∂x =− ∂ Pj1 ∂y + ∂ 2 v j1 ∂x 2 + ∂ 2 v j1 ∂y 2 ⎛ ∂ 3 u j1 ∂ 3 v j1 ∂ 3 v j1 ∂v j1 ∂ 2 u j 0 − K ⎜ u j 0 2 + 2u j 0 + u j0 −2 ⎜ ∂x ∂x 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x∂y 2 ∂x3 ⎝ ∂u j 0 ∂ 2 u j1 ⎞ ⎟ −3 − ∂y ∂x∂y ∂y ∂x 2 ⎟ ⎠ ∂u j 0 ∂ 2 v j1 (16) ∂θ j1 dθ j 0 ⎞ ∂ 2θ j1 ∂ 2θ j1 ⎛ P ⎜ u j0 + v j1 + (17) ⎟= ⎜ ∂x dy ⎟ ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ⎝ ⎠ ∂ In deriving the Eq. 2011. solutions for velocity and temperature are assumed in the form u j ( x. Equations (7) to (11) yield the following equations. 3. 1962). θ10 = θ 20 . u20 = 0. n ≥ 2 are neglected (Rita and Alok. ∂x 1952). This idealized model is a valid approximation of Walter’s fluid (model B ' ) taking very short memories into account so that terms involving ∞ ∞ ∫ 0 ∞ ∫ 0 ∫τ 0 n N (τ ) dτ . Adopting this technique. for small values of the amplitude parameter ε . / International Journal of Engineering. However. the constant pressure gradient term ( p0 − ps ) has been taken equal to zero following (Ostrach. y ) = θ j 0 ( y ) + θ j1 ( x. pp. The amplitude parameter ε is usually small and hence regular perturbation method can be strongly justified. y ) (12) where the perturbations u j1 . y ) = v j1 ( x. v j1 . θ j ( x. θ10 = 1 on y = 0 u10 = u20 =0. Science and Technology. Vol. (12) the boundary condition in Eq.140 Kumar et al. p j1 and θ j1 are small compared with the mean or zeroth order quantities. 1. y ) v j ( x. approximate solutions can be extracted through the perturbation method. Zeroth order boundary conditions u10 = 0. y ) = u j 0 ( y ) + u j1 ( x. Solutions Equations (8) to (10) are coupled non-linear partial differential equations and hence finding exact solutions is out of scope. 136-165 The term η0 is the limiting viscosity at small rate of shear which is given by η0 = N (τ ) dτ and k0 = τ N (τ ) dτ where N (τ ) being the relaxation spectrum as introduced by Walters (1960. In view of Eq. No. (13). y ) p j = p j 0 ( y ) + p j1 ( x. 3. (11) can be split up into the following two parts. θ 20 = m on dθ10 dθ 20 = on y = y ∗ dy dy y =1 (18) First order boundary conditions . 2000). y ) .

ψ 2 = 0. No. (14) to (17) for the first order quantity it is convenient to introduce stream function ψ in the following form ∂ψ j1 ∂ψ j1 . 3. (15) with respect to y and differentiate Eq. on Consider only small values of λ . (17) are given by Stream 1 −α y 2 + c1 y + c2 2 u10 = l1 y 4 + l2 y 3 + l3 y 2 + d1 y + d 2 θ10 = (20) (21) Stream 2 −α y 2 + c7 y + c8 (22) 2 u20 = l7 y 4 + l8 y 3 + l9 y 2 + d11 y + d12 (23) In order to solve Eqs. pp. ψ 1 = 0. ' ψ 2 = 0. can be expressed in terms of the stream function ψ and t in the form ψ iv −ψ ''j 2λ 2 + i λ u j 0 + ψ j λ 4 + iλ u ''j 0 + iu j 0 λ 3 + Ki (2u j 0 λ 3ψ ''j j −λ u j 0ψ iv j − 2u 'j 0 λ 3ψ 'j − 3u ''j 0 λ 3ψ j t ''j − λ 2 t j = Piλ u10 t j + ψ j θ 'j 0 ( ) ( ) ( iv + λ u10ψ j − λ u10ψ j ) = Gt 'j 5 (25) (26) ) where i is the coefficient of imaginary part and suffix ( j = 1. v11 = v21 =0. y ) = ε eiλ x t j1 ( y ) From the above Eqs. on y = y ' ' t1 = t2 . Vol. y ) = ε eiλ xψ j1 ( y ) . (13) and the boundary conditions Eq. y ) = ∑ λ rψ r . We assume stream function and temperature in the following form ψ j1 ( x. (25) to (27) we obtain to the order of λ . dy ⎠ ⎝ u11 = u21 =0. Differentiate Eq. (14) to (17) after elimination of Pj1 . on y = y∗ (27) y =1 We restrict our attention to the real parts of the solutions for the perturbed quantitiesψ . Science and Technology. 1. v j1 = for j = 1. ' ψ2 = 0. (19) can be written in terms of ψ and t as ' ψ 1' = u10 . θ 21 = 0. 2011. θ11 = θ 21 . u j1 and v j1 . y ) = ∑ λ r tr r =0 r =0 ∞ ∞ (28) into Eqs. on y = y∗ u21 = 0. t . t1 = t2 . / International Journal of Engineering. t ( λ . on y =1 (19) where rp represents the real part The solutions for zeroth order velocity u j 0 and zeroth order temperature θ j 0 satisfying the Eq. ψ 2 = 0. (15) with θ 20 = Eq. 2 (24) u j1 = − ∂x ∂y The stream function approach reduces the number of dependent variables to be solved and also eliminates pressure from the list of variables. 2 ) denotes stream-1 and stream-2 respectively. Boundary conditions as defined in Eq. t2 = 0. θ j1 ( x. v21 = 0.141 Kumar et al. the following set of ordinary differential equations Zeroth order ti''0 = 0 (29) (30) ψ iv0 j First order = Gt 'j 0 ti''1 = Pi u j 0 t j 0 + ψ j 0θ 'j 0 ( ψ iv = iu j 0ψ ''j 0 − iu ''j 0ψ j 0 + iK u j 0ψ iv0 − u iv0ψ j 0 + Gt 'j1 j1 j j ( ) (31) ) (32) . (16) with respect to x and then subtract Eq. ' t1 = −θ10 on y=0 ∗ ψ 1' = 0. 136-165 dθ ⎞ ⎛ v11 = 0. (16) which will result in the elimination of pressure pi1 . ψ 1 = 0. θ11 = − rp ⎜ eiλ x 10 ⎟ on y = 0 dy ⎠ ⎝ du ⎞ ⎛ u11 = −rp ⎜ eiλ x 10 ⎟ . On substituting ψ ( λ .

ψ 10 = 0. t20 = 0. ψ 20 = 0. the first order quantities can be put in the form. / International Journal of Engineering. t21 = 0. Considering only the real part. ψ = (ψ rp + iψ ip ) = ψ j 0 + λψ j1 . on y =1 First order boundary conditions in terms of stream function and temperature are ' ψ 11 = 0. and u1 ( y ) and v1 ( y ) are given where σ 0 ( 0 ) = ⎜ 10 ⎟ ⎝ dy ⎠ y =0 ⎝ dy ⎠ y =1 by u ( x. 3. Vol. ψ 21 = 0. t = trp + i tip ( ) j = t j 0 + λ t j1 (35) where suffix rp denotes the real part and ip denotes the imaginary part. t11 = t21 . y = ε cos ( λ x ) skin friction takes the form 0 '' '' '' σ w = σ 0 ( 0 ) + ε u10 cos ( λ x ) + λψ 11 ( 0 ) sin ( λ x ) −ψ 10 ( 0 ) cos ( λ x ) 0 −2λε K σ 0 ( 0) ( ( ' ψ 10 ( 0 ) sin ( λ x ) ' + λψ 11 ( 0 ) cos ( λ x ) ) ) (40) and at the flat wall.142 Kumar et al. t11 = 0 on y=0 ' ' ψ 11 = 0. 136-165 Zeroth order boundary conditions in terms of stream function and temperature are ' ' ' ψ 10 = u10 . the expression for first order velocity and temperature become u j1 = ε − cos ( λ x )ψ 'j 0 + λψ 'j1 sin ( λ x ) v j1 2 θ j1 = ε ( cos ( λ x ) (t j 0 ) − λ t j1 sin ( λ x ) ) The first order and total solutions are given in Appendix. (25) to (28) subject to boundary conditions Eqs. on y = y∗ ' ' t11 = t21 . ψ 11 = 0. No. t10 = −θ10 ' ψ 10 ' ψ 20 on y = 0 y = y∗ = 0. ψ 11 = 0. Skin friction and Nusselt number ( = ε ( −λ ) (36) cos ( λ x )ψ j1 − λψ j 0 sin ( λ x ) ) (37) (38) The shearing stress σ xy at any point in the fluid in non-dimensional form is given by σ xy = '' −u0 d 2σ xy ρν 2 ' ' ' = u0 ( y ) + ε eiλ x u1' ( y ) + iελ eiλ x v1 ( y ) + K ε 3u0 eiλ x v1' ( y ) + u0 ( iλ ) eiλ x u1 ( y ) 2 iλ x ( ( y) e iλ x v1 ( y ) + u0 ( y ) λ e v1 ( y ) u0 ( y ) ( i λ ) e iλ x u1' ( y )) (39) At the wavy wall. (29) and (30) have been solved exactly for ψ and t . ψ 21 = 0. From these solutions. on y = y∗ ' ψ 21 = 0. ψ 21 = 0. y ) = eiλ x v1 ( y ) ∂θ = θ 0' ( y ) + ε Re ( eiλ xθ1' ( y ) ) ∂y The non-dimensional heat transfer coefficient known as Nusselt number ( Nu ) is given by Nu = (42) At the wavy wall y = −1 + ε cos ( λ x ) Nusselt number Nuw takes the form 0 ' ' ' Nuw = Nu0 ( 0 ) + ε (θ10 ( 0 ) cos ( λ x ) + t10 ( 0 ) cos ( λ x ) − λ t11 ( 0 ) sin ( λ x ) ) (43) . pp. y ) = eiλ x u1 ( y ) . ' ψ 20 ' ' = 0. ψ 10 = 0. t10 = t20 . on (33) = 0. v1 ( x. on (34) y =1 The set of Eqs.1. Science and Technology. 2011. t10 = t20 . y = 1 skin friction takes the form 0 '' '' σ f = σ 1 ( 0 ) + ε −ψ 20 (1) cos ( λ x ) + λψ 21 (1) sin ( λ x ) '' ' ' ' − ελ K λ u20 (1)ψ 21 (1) cos ( λ x ) − 2u20 (1) ψ 21 (1) sin ( λ x ) + λψ 21 cos ( λ x ) ( ( ) ( )) (41) ⎛ du ⎞ ⎛ du ⎞ 0 0 and σ1 (1) = ⎜ 20 ⎟ are the zeroth order skin-friction at the walls. 1. 3. ψ 20 = 0.

136-165 and at the flat wall y = 1 . u2 = − ⎜ − ⎟ + d3 y + d 4 2⎜ 3 2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ The above solutions agree very well with the solutions of Salah El Din (2002) θ2 = y − (50) Case 2b: Comparision of the Solutions with Rita and Alok (2000) in the absence of baffle The above case validates the results for viscous fluid. dy ⎠ y = 0 ⎝ ⎝ dy ⎠ y =1 Velocity and temperature solutions are numerically evaluated for several sets of values of the governing parameters. 1. Nu f are calculated numerically and some of the qualitative interesting features are presented. The comparison of the present model is carried out in two ways. 1. Shifting the baffle to the right wall and comparing the solutions of stream-1 with Rita and Alok (2000). That is u1 = 0 on y = 0. pp. 3. i. u2 = 0 on y = 1 (48) u1 = u2 = 0 on y = y∗ The solutions of Eqs.143 Kumar et al. u1 = − ⎜ − ⎟ + d1 y + d 2 (49) 2⎜ 3 2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ d 2u j0 1 G ⎛ y3 y 2 ⎞ . θ 2 = on y = 1 θ1 = − 2 2 (47) dθ1 dθ 2 on y = y∗ θ1 = θ 2 . The boundary conditions for this case become θ10 = 1 on y = 0 θ10 = m on y = 1 u10 = 0 on y = 0 u10 = 0 on y = 1 ' t10 = −θ10 on y = 0 ' ' ψ 10 = u10 . / International Journal of Engineering. σ f and the wall Nusselt number Nuw . Case 2a: Comparison of the Solutions with Salah El Din (2002) in the presence of baffle To validate the results of the present model. = dy dy The boundary conditions on velocity are no-slip conditions on the boundary and vanishing of velocity at the baffle. No. pressure gradient and heat source. The dimensionless basic equations (7) to (10) in the absence of the above parameters become d 2θi 0 = −α (45) dy 2 + Gθ j 0 = 0 (46) dy 2 To compare the results. the problem is solved in the absence of the baffle and compared the results with Rita and Alok (2000). ψ 10 = 0 t11 = 0 ' ψ 11 on y = 0 t11 = 0 ' ψ 11 = 0. 1 1 on y = 0.. the problem is solved in the absence of viscoelastic parameter. To validate the results for Walter’s fluid. ψ 11 = 0 on y = 1 The solution of stream-1 with above boundary conditions become −α y 2 θ10 = + c1 y + c2 2 (51) .e. ' ' Nu f = Nu10 (1) + ε ( t20 (1) cos ( λ x ) − λ t21 (1) sin ( λ x ) ) (44) ⎛ dθ ⎞ ⎛ dθ ⎞ 0 0 where Nu0 ( 0 ) = ⎜ 10 ⎟ and Nu1 (1) = ⎜ 20 ⎟ are zeroth order Nusselt number at the walls. Science and Technology. the boundary conditions on temperature are taken as in Salah El Din (2002). Vol. ψ 11 = 0 on y = 0 = 0. Also. 2011. product of nondimensional wave number and space co-ordinate. ψ 10 = 0 on y = 0 t10 = 0 ' ψ 10 on y =1 on y = 1 on y = 1 = 0.. (45) and (46) using boundary conditions (47) and (48) become 1 G ⎛ y3 y 2 ⎞ θ1 = y − . the wall skin friction σ w .

pp. Non –linear partial . ψ 20 = 0 (55) t21 = 0 ' ψ 21 t21 = 0 ' ψ 21 = 0. 3. ψ 21 = 0 on y = 1 = 0. The constants are defined in the Appendix section 4. The boundary conditions for this case become θ 20 = 0 on y = 0 θ 20 = m on y = 1 u20 = 0 on y = 0 u20 = 0 on y = 1 ' t20 = −θ10 on y = 0 ' ψ 20 t20 = 0 ' ψ 20 on y =1 on y = 1 on y = 1 = ' u20 . 1. ψ 21 = 0 on y = 0 The solutions of stream-2 with above boundary conditions become −α y 2 + c7 y + c8 θ 20 = 2 u20 = l7 y 4 + l8 y 3 + l9 y 2 + d11 y + d12 ψ 20 t21 = P i m7 y 7 + m8 y 6 + m9 y 5 + m10 y 4 + m11 y 3 + m12 y 2 + c11 y + c12 ( t20 = c9 y + c10 d d = l10 y 4 + 13 y 3 + 14 y 2 + d15 y + d16 6 2 ) ψ 21 = i ⎜ + n n n n d n n ⎞ n ⎛ n11 10 y + 12 y 9 + 13 y8 + 14 y 7 + 15 y 6 + 16 y 5 + 17 y 4 ⎟ + 18 y 4 + 17 y 3 3024 1680 840 360 120 24 6 ⎝ 5040 ⎠ 24 d18 2 y + d19 y + d 20 2 With the above solutions the velocity temperature filed become ' ' u2 = u20 + ε − cos ( λ x )ψ 20 + λψ 21 sin ( λ x ) v2 = ε −λ 2 cos ( λ x )ψ 21 − λψ 20 sin ( λ x ) ( ( θ 2 = θ 20 + ε ( cos ( λ x ) (t20 ) − λ t21 sin ( λ x ) ) ) ) (57) (58) (56) Equations (56) to (58) are computed and are tabulated in Table 5. Shifting the baffle to the left wall and comparing the solutions of stream-2 with Rita and Alok (2000). The above solutions agree very well with Rita and Alok (2000) 2. / International Journal of Engineering. 136-165 t11 = P i m1 y 7 + m2 y 6 + m3 y 5 + m4 y 4 + m5 y 3 + m6 y 2 + c5 y + c6 ( u10 = l1 y 4 + l2 y 3 + l3 y 2 + d1 y + d 2 t10 = c3 y + c4 d d ψ 10 = l4 y 4 + 3 y3 + 4 y 2 + d5 y + d6 6 2 ) ψ 11 = i ⎜ 1 y + 2 y 9 + 3 y8 + 4 y 7 + 5 y 6 + 6 y 5 + 7 y 4 ⎟ + 8 y 4 + 7 y 3 3024 1680 840 360 120 24 ⎠ 24 6 ⎝ 5040 d8 2 y + d9 y + d10 2 With the above solutions the velocity and temperature field become + ' ' u1 = u10 + ε − cos ( λ x )ψ 10 + λψ 11 sin ( λ x ) ⎛ n 10 n n n n n n ⎞ n d v1 = ε −λ 2 cos ( λ x )ψ 11 − λψ 10 sin ( λ x ) ( ( θ1 = θ10 + ε ( cos ( λ x ) (t10 ) − λ t11 sin ( λ x ) ) ) ) (52) (53) (54) Equations (52) to (54) are computed and are tabulated in Table 5. Vol. 2011. These solutions agree very well with Rita and Alok (2000). No. containing a thin conducting baffle in the presence of heat source. Results and discussion The objective of the present study is to examine the characteristics of free convection of Walter’s fluid (model B’) in a vertical channel one of whose wall is wavy. Science and Technology.144 Kumar et al. ψ 20 = 0 on y = 0 on y = 0 = 0.

1 0. ε =. λ =. Since the wall temperatures at both the walls are equal.0 10 10 10 u 1. λx =π / 2 m=1. 2.7.145 Kumar et al.0 0.01. 2. the maximum point of velocity is in stream-1 as seen in Figure 2.0 0. 1.0. 0.01. keeping wavy and flat walls at equal temperatures. the maximum point of velocity is in stream-2 and when the baffle is placed near the right wall.0 G=20 0. Irrespective of the baffle position.0 0.0 Fig. P=. 136-165 differential equations governing the motion has been solved by linearization technique wherein. K=0.6 1.2 0.2 5 5 0. viscoelastic parameter and λ x are fixed as 20.01.7.2 0. Exact solutions are obtained for the mean part and the perturbed part using long wave approximation.2. The effect of Grashof number G on the main and cross velocities are shown in Figures 2 and 3 at three different baffle positions ( y ∗ = 0. λ =. Vol.0 5 0.5 and 0. pp. No. Prandtl number. However when the baffle is placed near the left wall.8 1.3 20 0.2c y Figure 2: Main velocity profiles for differnt values of Grashof number G .4 0. wave number.4 1. ε =.1 0.6 0.2b y Fig. a mean part and a perturbed part.5 15 0.2a y Fig.0 and 1. / International Journal of Engineering.0 10 0.5 15 u u 0. the maximum point of the velocity profiles is equal in both the streams when the baffle is positioned in the centre of the channel. As the Grashof number G increases main velocity u increases in both the streams at different positions of the baffle. Science and Technology. which supports the motion. It is noticed that the temperature remains invariant up to 10-3. Grashof number. The effect of Grashof number G on temperature is shown in Table-1.57079632 respectively for all the graphs except the varying one.1 0. 0. Similar result is found in the single passage flow examined by Aung and Worku (1986) for flat wall.4 0. velocity increases as Grashof number G increases.0 G=20 G=20 G=20 0.8 1. λ x =π / 2 m=1. internal heat source.0 α =2. 3. Also the minimum point of cross velocity is in stream-1 only at any position of the baffle.2 0. amplitude parameters are fixed as 0. whereas.8 1. The effect of Grashof number G on cross velocity as shown in Figure 3 is exactly opposite to its effect on main velocity.1 respectively for all computations. because as G increases both the velocity and temperature fields are enhanced.0 0. K=0.7 2. 0.1 0.01. 1.0 α =2 K=0.8 ) .5 15 10 5 0. the flow is assumed to consist to be in two parts. As G increases cross velocity decreases in both the streams at any position of the baffle. 2011.0 0. Physically.5 5 α =2.6 20 5 0.6 0. P=. λ x =π / 2 m=1. wall temperature ratio.7. λ =.5 15 15 1. P=. an increase in Grashof number means an increase of the buoyancy force.4 0. ε =.7.

4 1.08987 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Figure 4 shows the effect of wall temperature ratio m on the main velocity ( m = −1 means that the average of the temperatures of the two walls is equal to that of the static temperature. P=.23999 1.2 1.23982 0.2 0.2 y ∗ = 0.6 1.08999 1.23984 0. ε =.08999 1. λ x =π / 2 m=1.6 0.20983 0.20998 1.3a y Fig.09 1.0 0.8 1.23946 0.9 1.01.2 0.6 1.20998 1.8 and the flow reversal is observed in stream-2 for m = −1 .1 -100 20 -6 0.20999 1.15987 0.24997 1.24946 0.7 1.20986 0.24999 1.3c y Figure 3: Cross velocity profiles for differnt values of Grashof number G Table 1. As m increases.1 1. y ∗ = 0. 136-165 0 G=5 0 0 -1 10 5 15 G=5 -20 G=5 -10 -2 10 20 -40 v x 10 10 -5 v x 10 v x 10 -3 -5 -20 10 -5 -60 15 -4 15 -30 -5 20 -80 15 α =2.20958 0. 0.0 0.2.7 λ =.15999 1.15966 0.24946 0.24983 0.23997 1.15998 1.7. . pp.9 1.0 20 α =2.15972 0.7 1.15999 1.1599 0.08985 0. Vol.5 and 0.4 0.23998 1.2 Fig.23997 1.2 1.08999 1.08986 0.15972 0.1 1.15999 1. Science and Technology. λ x =π / 2 m=1.15999 1.9 1.08995 0.8 1.ε =.146 Kumar et al.0 0.01. K=0.6 0.23997 1.5 1. 3. 2011.4 1.08982 0.6 0.3 1.7 1. 1.20953 0.8 1. K=0.15999 1.15974 0.6 1. No.8 1.20962 0.1 -40 0.1 1.5 1.5 y ∗ = 0.23999 1. λ =.15999 1.8 1.8 1.20958 0. P=. m = 0 corresponds to the temperature of the flat wall is equal to static temperature and m = 1 means that the wavy and flat wall are maintained at equal temperature and m > 1 implies wall temperatures are unequal).3 1.4 0.8 1.09 1.20998 1.20998 1.23949 0. / International Journal of Engineering.24983 0.01.3 1.15974 0. K=0.23951 0. Temperature values for different Grashof number and baffle position.0 α =2.5 1.24999 1.7 λ =.15999 1.4 0. ε =.08993 0.24997 1.23949 0. P=. The effect of m on the main velocity is similar to the result obtained by Malashetty et.2 1. λ x =π / 2 m=1.4 1.3b y Fig.5 1.8 y y y G=10 G=200 G=10 G=200 G=10 G=200 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0. main velocity u increases in both streams at the baffle positions 0.0 0.1 0.08999 1.1597 0.20999 1.2 1.

8 0.8 1.2.2 0. Physically.01.8 1.4 1.0 -1 0. The effect of wall temperature ratio m on the temperature field is shown in Figure 6.5 and 0. temperature increases at all the baffle positions and magnitude of promotion also remains the same for y ∗ = 0. ε =. P=.7 λ =.0 0.0 m =1 λx =π / 2 1. Science and Technology.01.0 0. As m increases.2 0.1 0.6 -1 0. / International Journal of Engineering. 2. It is also observed that main velocity profiles for m = 0 lies in between m = −1 (below) and 1 (above). increases the temperature and hence buoyancy force increases which results in the increase of velocity field. 3.2 0.7 λ =.4b y 0.1 m =1 m =1 m =1 0.7.8.8 -1 0. The velocity profiles for m = 0 lies in between m = 1 (below) and -1(above). an increase in m . (2001) for single passage with wavy wall. cross velocity decreases at all the baffle positions as seen in Figure 5. ε =.6 0.2 u 0. 136-165 al. 2011.6 0. No.0 0. the variations of m are not very effective on main velocity but its effect is dominant when the baffle position moves to the centre and near to the right wall as seen in Figure 4. K=0. G=20 P=.1 0. 0.0 Fig.0 0. K=0. 1. When the baffle position is near left wall. P=.147 Kumar et al. λ x =π / 2 G=20. Vol.4 0.2 G=20.0 α =2. The effect of m on the cross velocity is not effective for the baffle position at the right wall when compared to the baffle position at the left and at the centre of the channel.6 -1 0 0. pp.4 0.6 α =2 K=0. The effect of m on the cross velocity is opposite to its effect on main velocity. λ =.2 0 0 0 u u 0.0 α =2.4 0.4 1 0.01 ε =.0 0.6 0 1.2 -1 1.4 Fig.8 1. That is as m increases.4a y Fig.4c y Figure 4: Main velocity profiles for differnt values of wall temperature ratio m . λ x =π / 2 -0.

3. λ =. K=0.01. P=. pp. 2011. K=0. λ x =π / 2 G=20. P=.2 0.8 1.0 0. 0.4 -5 m =-1 0 -35 1 α =2.01.4 0.6 0.0 Fig.2 0. K=0. No.01. λ =. 136-165 2 m =-1 0 m = -1.148 Kumar et al.5b y Fig. .1 0 -6 1 1 0.5a y Fig.8 1.0 0. λ x =π / 2 G=20.7. 1.0 0. ε =. / International Journal of Engineering.6 0.0 α =2.7 λ =. ε =.0 -40 0.6 0. Vol.7.2 0. Science and Technology.4 0. P=.8 1. 1 0 -10 1 -5 -20 0 0 -10 -30 -40 -1 -15 vX10-5 vX10 -5 vX10-5 -2 1 -20 -50 -60 m =-1 m =-1 -3 -4 α =2.1 -25 -70 -30 0 -80 -90 -100 1 0. ε =.5c y Figure 5: Cross velocity profiles for differnt values of wall temperature ratio m. λ x =π / 2 G=20.1 0.

The effect of source α ( > 0 ) increases the temperature distribution which enhances the velocity field whereas sink α ( < 0 ) suppresses the temperature distribution which causes reduction in the velocity field. 136-165 m=1 m=1 m=1 1. al.6a y Fig. However there is no effect of viscoelastic parameter K on cross velocity (Table 2b) and on temperature (Table 2c). However.5 and in stream-1 for y ∗ = 0.5 0.8 . 3.0 α =2.0 0.0 θ 0. As K increases main velocity decreases very slightly. Vol. 1.2.01. λ x =π / 2 G=20.5 -1. P=.0 Fig. The effect of internal heat source α on the main and cross velocity is shown in Figures 7 and 8 respectively. As α ( > 0 ) increases temperature increases and as α ( < 0 ) increases temperature decreases in both the streams.0 0. / International Journal of Engineering.1 -1.6 0. ε =.4 0.5 and 0.0 0.0 0.7 λ =. As α (>0) increases the main velocity u increases in both the streams for the baffle positions y ∗ = 0.5 -1 θ 0.7 λ =.0 0 1. K=0. The effect of heat source (α > 0 ) and heat sink (α < 0 ) on temperature is shown in Figure 9.8 1.6c y Figure 6: Temperature profiles for differnt values of wall temperature ratio m.8 as seen in Figure 7.8 1.0 α =2.2. The effect of either source or sink on the flow field is similar to the results obtained by Umavathi et.0 0 1.2 α =2. K=0.0 0 -1 0.01.7 λ =. It is also observed that effect of heat source/sink on temperature do not vary with the baffle position.4 0. reversal flow occurs irrespective of baffle position. The effect of heat source/sink on cross velocity is exactly opposite to its effect on main velocity i.5 -0. As the viscoelastic parameter K increases main velocity remains constant up to the order of 10−4 . ε =. the magnitude of promotion is effectively very large in stream-2 when the baffle is placed near the left wall. K=0. as α ( > 0 ) increases cross velocity decreases and as α ( < 0 ) increases cross velocity increases in both the streams. 0.5 and 0. 0. pp.8 as seen in Figure 8.0 -1. the magnitude of main velocity is equal when the baffle is in the centre of the channel and the peak value for main velocity is in stream-1 when the baffle is placed near the right wall.149 Kumar et al.0 θ 0.4 0. The effect of heat source/sink on cross velocity v is shown in Figure 8. The effect of heat sink α ( < 0 ) is to reduce the main velocity in both the streams at the baffle positions y ∗ = 0. 2011.2 0.e.0 0. ε =. (2006) for single passage.0 -0.6 0.2 0. As sink parameter increases. 0.2. λ x =π / 2 G=20.6b y Fig. The peak values of cross velocity is in stream-2 for y ∗ = 0. . λ x =π / 2 G=20.5 -0.01.6 0.1 0.8 1. P=. The effect of viscoelastic parameter K on main and cross velocity is shown in Table 2a and 2b respectively.1 0. Science and Technology.5 -1 0. No. P=.

2 -2 1.2 0.8 1.6 0 1.8 2. / International Journal of Engineering.0 0.4 0. 136-165 which is the similar result observed by Rita and Alok (2000) for single passage.2 0.150 Kumar et al. pp.2 α =10 α =10 α =10 3. No.7c y Figure 7: Main velocity profiles for differnt values of heat source/sink α.7 λ =.0 2 2 0 2 2. 1.2 0. Science and Technology.4 α =10 0. Vol.8 -5 0.2 1.0 0.0 0.4 -5 -5 -2 0.0 0.0 0.8 1. . 2011.6 0. 3.6 0.6 0 u -2 -2 u 0.7a y Fig.8 1.7b y Fig.0 0.0 5 5 2.0 -10 -10 -10 -10 0.4 0.4 0.0 2 u 1.4 0.0 0.8 α =10 G=20 K=0 λx =π / 2 m=1 P=.01 ε =. 3.0 0.4 -10 -10 10 0.6 Fig.8 5 2.8 -5 0.2 2.1 1. That is as K increases skin friction decreases to the order of 10−4 at both the walls in Rita and Alok (2000).2 0.2 0.6 0 1.4 5 2.

3.6 0.8 1.0 0.6 0.7 λ =. pp.4 0.8 1. . 2011.1 α =-10 0 10 0 α =-10 -5 -10 -15 -20 α =-10 -20 -5 -40 -5 -5 vX10-5 4 -60 -2 -2 0 2 -120 5 -6 -50 -8 10 10 0. / International Journal of Engineering.4 0.8a y Fig.0 0.8c y Figure 8: Cross velocity profiles for differnt values of source/sink α.2 -45 5 -140 5 -80 0 -100 2 -2 vX10 -5 2 vX10-5 -25 -30 -35 -40 0 -10 -2 2 0 -4 -160 10 0.0 0.8b y Fig.151 Kumar et al. 136-165 10 8 6 α =-10 G=20 K=0 λx =π / 2 m=1 P=.4 0. 1.0 -60 0. Vol.2 0. No.2 0.01 ε =. Science and Technology.0 -55 10 -10 0.6 0.8 1.0 Fig.

01 ε =.6 0.4793333513595 0.7009327122020 0.3 0.5 0 0 0 0.8074804257647 0.2 K=0 α =10 λ x=π / 2 m =1 2.4 0.3 0.1 0.8274958323083 1.9a y Fig.4639960277544 1.8528482924837 0.01 ε =.1088331235177 0.2 α =10 2.9413313793788 1. Science and Technology.8 -2 0.2 0.5 0 0 0 0.4592416057237 0.0 0 0.7 λ =.2 0.2 0.9b y Fig.7009328992020 0.4 2 1.4793314574786 0. 1.01 ε =.1 0.9c y Figure 9: Temperature profiles for differnt values of heat source/sink α.8075016873718 1.8 -2 0.6 0.1088331267518 0. Vol.25 0 0 0 0 0.5 y K =0.8 8 1.2 2.5 1. 2011.0 0.8 6 6 1.4319715575490 0.0 K =0.25 0 0 0 0 0. y ∗ = 0.8528314350671 0.7 λ =.8248382713951 0.4640292734686 0.8 6 G=20 K=0 λ x=π / 2 m =1 P=.1 α =10 2.0 0.4794478480932 0.2 0.0 P=.8 -2 0. No.6 1.0 0.2 0 0 0 0.0 0.2 1.4 0.8 1.1 G=20 2.6 0.9 0.8 1.7110330746923 0.6 -4 0.2 1.4 2 θ 1.9413313306169 1.2 y K =0.7 λ =.152 Kumar et al.6 4 θ θ 1.6 4 1.7 1. / International Journal of Engineering.1088331254581 0.15 K =0.4592416468904 0.6 -4 0.0 0 1.6 -4 0.0 8 G=20 K=0 λ x=π / 2 m =1 P=.8248214868118 0.8074889304075 1.4592415782793 0.4640159751829 1.8528595307615 0. pp.9413312981090 0.2 0 0 0 0.0 Fig.8275169940345 0.0 K =0.2 1.1 1.4319848405966 1.4 1. Table 2a.4794476719265 0.6 0. 3.6 4 1.0 0 1.7009330238687 0. Main velocity for different viscoelastic parameter and baffle position.15 K =0.7110329966923 0.0 8 1.0 0.4794475544821 0.8 1.4793346139468 .8248102970896 1 0 0 0 y ∗ = 0.8 1.8275085293440 1.4320047651680 1.4 2 1.4 0. 136-165 2.4 0.7110328796923 0.

0.9 1. 0.159974288 0.1 0.239951412 0. 0.6 -1.8 1.089982338 0. 0.6E-4 0.15.5 y ∗ = 0.055833X10-4 0.159970358 0.8539675520714 0 0 0.4593336629373 0 y ∗ = 0.5 1.5 -3. main velocity increases near the wavy wall and reverses its direction near the baffle position and remains constant at the flat wall at all baffle positions The effect of λ x on cross velocity is shown in Figure 11.5 -1.239981989 0.3 -4.4309904807698 1. Cross velocity for different viscoelastic parameter and baffle position.0.3 -9.15.25 0 1.6 1.7109997068134 0.25 K = 0.159989966 0.159965967 0.15. As λ x increases.4650952545252 0.5 y ∗ = 0. 1.14583X10-4 Table 2c.1088333048732 0 Table 2b.8 1.6 1.153 Kumar et al.8 1.9 -4.9 1 y 0.133334X10-5 0.15.2 0 0. 0.0.000000000 0 1.4593355490563 0 K =0.239949388 0.8 1.8 -3.4 1. Temperature values for different viscoelastic parameter and baffle position.159971603 0.249945576 0.9 1 0.9 -1. As λ x increases.33546X10-8 0.1 1.7 1.000000000 1 1.239983697 0.0010560 0. No. Science and Technology.25 K = 0. 2011.159974288 0.3333X10-6 0.8279959836014 1.4650946168109 0. 0. .8 . 0. 0.8 0.3 1.133333X10 0.6 0.8539642211687 0 0 0.3 -2.1088333049525 0 0 0.9410981127098 1.8 y y y K = 0.239946019 0.613333X10 0. / International Journal of Engineering.7 1.8 -1.249982530 0.875E-5 0.9 1.9411002826145 1.4 -9. 0.8240736400061 1.4 -6.875E-5 0.1 1. centre and right walls.5 1.3 1. 3.089984843 0. y ∗ = 0.089993097 0.4 1.2E-5 0.1102X10-19 1 0 1 0 1 -7.000000000 1 1.209953161 0.8279949361907 1.2 1.8 0.4650962110966 0.000000000 The effect of λ x on main velocity is shown in Figure 10.7010007559614 0.089985643 0.00110625 0. 0.2 0 0.25 0 0.08E-4 0.0.000000000 0 1.1 -0.145833X10-4 -5 -4 0.5 1.25 K = 0.8 y y y K = 0.209986108 0.8279966818752 1.8 -8.308333X10 0.2 1.2 y ∗ = 0.8067025047522 1. However there is no effect of λ x at the right wall when y ∗ = 0.3 0.7 0.6 -1.209958492 0. 0.15.0 0 0.5 0 0.8067008853415 1.00001X10-6 0.5 1. pp.083337X10 0.7 0.8 0 0.15 0 0.8 K =0.4309904201984 1.4 1.159987100 0.2 1.5 0. Vol.7 1.6 -2.7009997705329 0.1 -5.4309903798174 1.7 0 0. 136-165 0.4593324055246 0 K =0.25 0 0 0 0 0 -7.5 0 0.2 1.239949365 0.7 -1.4 0.49333X10-4 -6 -5 0. y ∗ = 0.209983242 0.1 1.7125X10-4 0.1 -3.7009991135805 0.8240715691033 1.99998X10-6 0.33331X10-6 0.9 1.08331X10-6 0. 0.7 -2.249946228 0.8067035843593 1.73E-4 0.9 1.089987112 1 1.3 1.2E-5 0. 0.7109987322420 0.0.15.089994804 0.2 -4.0.25 K = 0.249982530 0.8 0.2 y ∗ = 0.000000000 0.4 -1.159971603 0. cross velocity decreases in stream 1 and stream-2 for the baffle positions at the left.2 0.8539655535298 0 0 0.8240723974644 1.209957956 0.7110003565277 0.9411017292177 1.1088333049049 0 0.6 1.209961790 0. 0.2 -0.5.

8 1.0 1.9a Figure 10: Main velocity profiles for different values of λx.0 -0.0 0. / International Journal of Engineering. (2003) and Wang and Vanka (1995) for single passage.01 ε = .5 1.1 m=1. rate of heat transfer increases at the wavy wall. as the wave length increases.0 0.4 0.4 G=20 .8 1.4 0.7 λ=. 0. Wang and Vanka (1995) observed that in the steady flow regime. 1. K=0 α =2 0.8 λ x =0 π/4 π/2 λ x =0 2.7 λ=.6 0. P=.0 Fig.2 0.9c y .2 u u u 0. al.0 0.5 0.0 0.2 0. y Fig.8. 136-165 The effect of λ x on the temperature field is shown in Figure 12.2 0.5 0. K=0 α =2 0.6 0.0 π/4 π/2 0. 3.1 m=1.0 0.9b y Fig. pp.2 0. 2011.5 G=20 .4 1. K=0 α =2 0. 0. Science and Technology. P=.7 λ=. the average Nusselt number for the wavy wall channel were larger than those for a parallel plate channel. Jang et al. No.8 1. (2003) showed that.0 -0. The effect of the product of nondimensional wave length and space co-ordinate on the temperature is the similar result obtained by Jang et.6 1. P=.01 ε = .4 0.2. As λ x increases.6 0.154 Kumar et al.0 λ x =π / 2 π/4 -0.0 -1. Vol.0 -0.5 and 0.5 0 G=20 .1 m=1.01 ε = . temperature increases at all the baffle positions and magnitude of promotion also remains the same for y ∗ = 0.6 0.

2 0.2 0. No. λ = 0.8 1. heat source/sink and wall temperature ratio for the wider passage.1 m=1 K=0 α=2 0.7 λ=0.01 ε = 0. Vol. 3. The Nusselt number increases at both the walls with increase of wall temperature ratio. The skin friction increases at the wavy wall and decreases at the flat wall for increasing Grashof number.6 0.1 except the varying parameter. The effect of Grashof number.11a y Fig. . K = 0.6 0. ε = 0. The viscoelastic parameter.4 0.0 0. 1. pp.11b y Fig. Science and Technology.0 vX10 -8 -15 -6 -30 π/2 -35 -10 -4 π/4 -4 π/2 0.01. wave number and the amplitude parameter is to decrease the Nusselt number at the wavy wall and increase at the flat wall. The values of skin friction and Nusselt numbers on different physical parameters are shown in Tables 3a and 3b respectively for the values of G = 20.2 0.0.8 1.6 0. The effect of viscoelastic parameter remains constant at both the walls at all baffle positions. wave number and amplitude parameter reduces the skin friction at both the walls. 136-165 0 λ x =0 0 λ x =0 0 λ x =0 -5 -5 -2 -10 -10 -15 -5 vX10 vX10 -20 π/4 π/2 -20 -6 -25 π/4 π/4 -25 -30 π/2 -35 0.0 Fig.0 0. / International Journal of Engineering.155 Kumar et al.4 0.0 0. 2011.0 0.4 G=20 P=0. while the effect of heat source/sink enhances the Nusselt number at the wavy wall and reduces at the flat wall.11c y Figure 11: Cross velocity profiles for different values of λx. m = 1.8 1.

62498 5.10 1.90 0.05 θ 1.12001 2.45834 -5.61342 -0.2798 9.12032 -2.79165 5.62502 -5.8 -2.15 0. pp.27968 -9.2479 * y = 0.12 -2.0 0.20 0 1.28 -9.62393 5. Science and Technology. 3.27901 λ G 20 100 200 m -1 0 1 K 0 0.395 92.12b y Fig.625 5.00 0.62505 -28.27801 9.28008 -9.625 -5.5 0 0.12158 -2.90 0.8 1.0 0.12 2.28008 -46.25 y = 0. 2011. σw G 20 100 200 m -1 0 1 K 0 0. / International Journal of Engineering.62948 5.12001 2.62948 5.95832 4.253338 -2.625 5.12003 -2.12003 -2.62527 1.20 0 1.12 2.625 -5.95 0. Vol.4 G = 20 P = 0.27006 9.25 σf y = 0.95 0.11866 2.6002 21.25394 9.12016 λ 0 0.14659 9.90 0.25 λ x =π / 2 π/4 1.10 1.12 -2.5 -5.2 0.8 1.1245 56.01335 7.62505 -5.2555 * y* = 0.05 1.1 m=1 K=0 α=2 0.62479 5. 1.00 1.12003 -2.0 0.6008 -21.12a y Fig.2032 2.85333 1.2 0.1264 -56.0 0.20 0 1.8 1.7 λ = 0. 136-165 1.60915 5.28008 -9.1 0.1 0.28 9.6 0.12001 2.95 0.12009 2. Table 3a.2 -9.25 λ x =π / 2 π/4 π/4 1.62505 -5.2798 9.62773 -5.12043 2.7801 * 1.5 .2 2.23669 9.05 θ 0.70859 -1.6 0.62489 5.5 ε 0 0.11776 2.12003 -2.402 -92.15 1.62555 -5.0 Fig.8082 * y = 0.28 -9.1 0.28008 -9.00 1.12003 -2.5 ε 0 0.61548 5.41333 -9.4 0.98667 2.5 5.12001 10.1 0.15 0.2798 46.156 Kumar et al.28041 2.27984 -9.62498 28.25 λ x =π / 2 1.8 9.28 9.2798 9.12003 -10.28409 -9. No.28082 -9.15 1.62499 -5.12004 3.6 0.2009 * y = 0.45367 -3.4 0.01 ε = 0.15 1. skin friction values at the wavy and flat wall.10 θ 1.62505 -5.12c y Figure 12: Temperature profiles for different values of λx.2 0.0 1.

99999 -1.99993 0.8 -0.00008 -1.06 0.04 -0.0 -0.7 and λ = 0.5 The results obtained in case 2a and the results obtained by Salah El Din (2002) are displayed in Table 4.5 0 0 0.1 0.08 0.0 -0.8 0.1 -0.0 0.8 0.6 -0. which again reduces to single passage.08 0.7 0.5 y* = 0.4 0.99993 0. 136-165 Table 3b.1 0.999822 0.08 0.1 0.99928 0.99999 -0. P = 0.1 0. the baffle is shifted to the right wall.99987 -0.4 -0.998559 y * = 0.08 -0.07 -0.99738 -1.08 -0.1 0. There is a very good agreement for the values of velocity at different baffle positions which will justify the present model with baffle.5 0.06 -0.08 0.999822 0.99973 -0. α = 2. Vol.99935 λ λ 0 0.99871 -0.5 0 0.99993 -0.992797 1.25 y * = 0.04 0.99993 0.1 0.0 -0.0 0.05 -0.99993 0.08 0.5 -0. 3.99994 -0.2 -0. Comparison of velocity at different baffle positions with Salah El-Din (2002) for G = 10. The solutions obtained in stream-2 agree very well with Rita and Alok (2000).09X10-5 0.999111 0.999822 0.0 -0.5 ε 0 0.8 0 0.999856 0.99984 -0.04 0.2 0.99993 0.5 y* = 0.1 -0.3 -0.999856 0.25 y * = 0.02 0 0 0 0.3 0 0 0.99984 -0.07 0.999822 0.99355 -1.7 -0.15 0.000 -0.999856 0.01 Salah Salah Present Present Present El-Din El-Din y y y Model Model Model (2002) (2002) y* = 0. When the baffle is shifted to the right wall (stream-1).999477 y * = 0.02 0.99924 -0.05 0.999301 y * = 0.99994 -1.999111 -3.998223 G 20 100 200 m -1 0 1 K 0 0.5 ε 0 0.999856 0.02 0.08 0.0001 -2.06 1 0.99984 -0.67X10-7 0.8 0 -0.0 0.99928 -1.99994 -0.5 0.99947 -0.04 0.3 -0.07 0.9 0.157 Kumar et al.00001 -2.07 -0.999822 0.999822 1.02 0. Nusselt number values at the wavy and flat wall.991113 1.99239 -1.05 0.5 -0.07 0.99871 -0.999856 0.07 0. 2011.1 -0.99987 -0.0 -0.02 0 The solutions obtained in case 2b and the solutions obtained by Rita and Alok (2000) are shown in Table 5. K = 0.99924 -2.07 0. / International Journal of Engineering.99965 -1. Table 4.2 -0.1 0.999856 1.2 y* = 0.02 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Salah El-Din (2002) y* = 0.6 0.99994 -0.6 0.99847 y * = 0. .99973 -2.996506 1.024E-4 0.99987 -0.2 0 0 0. the problem reduced to single passage whose solutions agree with Rita and Alok (2000) which justifies the solutions of stream-1.2 0 0 0.99847 -0.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.998223 0. m = 1.0 0.1 0.999651 0.4 -0.2 -0.05 0.7 0.0 0.06 0.02 -0.8 0. pp. No.99995 -1.8 0 0.99984 -1.2 y* = 0.02 0. 1.99987 -1.1 -0. Science and Technology.0 0.0 -0.99994 -0.99998 -6.5 0 0 0.99993 1.998559 0.999301 0. To justify the solutions obtained in stream-2.07 0.9 0 0.99987 -0.1 0. Nu f Nuw G 20 100 200 m -1 0 1 K 0 0.99935 -0.9 0.99984 -0.15 0.99984 -0.99994 -0.99987 -0.1 0.1 0 0.

/ International Journal of Engineering.209 1.249 1.0 0. wall temperature ratio and λ x on cross velocity are exactly opposite to their effect on main velocity. 136-165 Table 5.954 0.159 1.261 0.9 1.858E-4 -1.8 0. 4. 6.239 1.510 1.531 0.239 1. while the effect of heat source/sink enhances the Nusselt number at the wavy wall and reduces at the flat wall.858E-4 -1.448 1. Vol.510 1.531 0.954 1.261 1.089 1 u 0 0.448 1.159 1. 2. The effects of Grashof number.239 1. m = 1.84E-4 -3. α = 2.1 0.448 1.209 1.239 1.3 0. No.552E-4 -5.954 1.75E-4 -7.089 1.84E-4 -3.0 Conclusion v1 0 -4.7 0.7 and λ = 0. 3. The temperature profiles remain almost invariant with changes in the Grashof number and viscoelastic parameter at all baffle positions.58E-5 0 θ2 1 1.510 1.209 1.64E-4 -7. Present Model Rita and Alok (2000) y Stream-1 Stream-2 u1 0.552E-4 -5. The results of the present model agreed very well with the results obtained by Salah El Din (2002) for flat wall and for viscous fluid in the presence of baffle. 2011.758E-4 -8. The maxima of main velocity profiles are obtained for increasing values of Grashof number.954 0.84E-4 -3.587E-5 0 θ 0 0. According to the results the following conclusions can be drawn.261 1. The skin friction increases at the wavy wall and decreases at the flat wall for increasing Grashof number. wall temperature ratio. The effect of Grashof number.448 1. heat source/sink and wall temperature ratio for the wider passage.758E-4 -8.587E-5 0 θ1 1 1.089 1.209 1.448 1.75E-4 -7.239 1.448 1. 5.531 0. The effect of wall temperature ratio promotes the temperature and λ x also increases the temperature at the wavy wall and remains constant at the flat wall. wave number and amplitude parameter reduces the skin friction at both the walls.159 1.089 1.01 .158 Kumar et al.973E-4 -5.531 0 v2 0 -4.261 0.531 0 1 1.209 1.159 1. heat source/sink especially in the wider passage. The results of the present model were in good agreement with the results of Rita and Alok (2000) for single passage with wavy wall for Walter’s fluid B’model.261 1. the main velocity increases at the wavy wall and remains constant at the flat wall at all baffle positions.209 1.4 0.973E-4 -5.2 0. The effect of viscoelastic parameter reduces the main velocity in stream-1 and increases stream-2 for wider passage with equal wall temperature.57E-4 -8.552E-4 -5. pp. K = 0.089 1 The characteristics of flow and heat transfer of viscoelastic (Walters Fluid Model B’) fluid in a vertical channel one of whose walls is wavy in a double-passage channel with a perfectly conducting baffle are investigated.973E-4 -5.954 0.249 1.261 0.239 1. 3.249 1.758E-4 -7.57E-4 -8.6 0.858E-4 -1.7E-4 -8.954 1. P = 0. As λ x increases.159 1. wave number and the amplitude parameter is to decrease the Nusselt number at the wavy wall and increase at the flat wall.159 1. Nomenclature d d * (m) width of passage 1 ( m ) channel width dimensionless specific heat at constant pressure acceleration due to gravity ( ms-2 ) Grashof number ( d 3 g x β (Tw − Ts ) ν 2 ) cp gx G K k dimensionless viscoelastic parameter wavelength ( m ) wall temperature ratio Nusselt number m Nu .089 1 u2 0 0.5 0. Validity of the present model with stream-1 (shifting the baffle to the right wall) and stream-2 (shifting the baffle to the left wall) with Rita and Alok (2000) for G = 10. 1.573E-4 -8. The effect of viscoelastic parameter remains constant at both the walls at all baffle positions. The viscoelastic parameter.64E-4 -7. The Nusselt number increases at both the walls with increase of wall temperature ratio. Science and Technology.531 0 v 0 -4. 1. The effect of viscoelastic parameter on cross velocity remains invariant.64E-4 -7.

V u. No.Y x. ip T Ts U . / International Journal of Engineering. 136-165 p p P ps rp i. 2011. 3. v pressure ( Nm -2 ) dimensionless pressure static pressure ( Nm -2 ) real part imaginary part temperature ( K ) static temperature ( K ) velocities along X and Y directions dimensionless velocities space co-ordinates ( m ) dimensionless space co-ordinates Prandtl number ( c pη0 k ) ( ms ) -1 X . Vol. 1.159 Kumar et al. pp. Appendix Case 1: Free convection of Walter’s fluid in a vertical channel with baffle −α y 2 θ10 = + c1 y + c2 2 u10 = l1 y 4 + l2 y 3 + l3 y 2 + d1 y + d 2 θ 20 = u20 −α y 2 + c7 y + c8 2 = l7 y 4 + l8 y 3 + l9 y 2 + d11 y + d12 d n n n n ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ n u11 = − cos ( λ x ) ⎜ 4l4 y 3 + 3 y 2 + d 4 y + d5 ⎟ + λ sin ( λ x ) ⎜ 1 y 9 + 2 y8 + 3 y 7 + 4 y 6 + 5 y 5 2 336 210 120 60 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 504 n n n d ⎞ + 6 y 4 + 7 y 3 + 8 y 3 + 7 y 2 + d8 y + d 9 ⎟ 24 6 6 2 ⎠ . y Greek Symbols β dimensionless co-efficient of thermal expansion ε ε∗ non-dimensional amplitude parameter ( ε ∗ d ) amplitude ( m ) non-dimensional wave number ( k d ) viscosity ( kg m -1 s -1 ) kinematic viscosity dimensionless temperature density ( kg m -3 λ μ ν θ α ρ ρ0 the non-dimensional heat source/sink parameter Qd 2 k (Tw − Ts ) static density ( kg m-3 ) skin friction stream function ) ( ) σ xy ψ Subscripts j refers to quantities for the fluids in stream-1 and stream-2 respectively. Science and Technology.

c4 = − α α α α . y* 2 2 α + m − 1 . l2 = . c2 = 1 . l4 = . 3. d1 = −(l1 y* + l2 y* + l3 y* ) . 1. 136-165 d n n n n n ⎛ ⎞ ⎛n u21 = − cos ( λ x ) ⎜ 4l10 y 3 + 13 y 2 + d14 y + d15 ⎟ + λ sin ( λ x ) ⎜ 11 y 9 + 12 y 8 + 13 y 7 + 14 y 6 + 15 y 5 + 16 y 4 2 504 336 210 120 60 24 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ n n d ⎞ + 17 y 3 + 18 y 3 + 17 y 2 + d18 y + d19 ⎟ 6 6 2 ⎠ d n d n ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ n v11 = −λ sin(λ x) ⎜ l4 y 4 + 3 y 3 + 4 y 2 + d5 y + d6 ⎟ − λ 2 cos(λ x) ⎜ 1 y10 + 2 y 9 + 3 y8 + 6 2 5040 3024 1680 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ n4 7 n5 6 n6 5 n7 4 n8 4 d 7 3 d8 2 ⎞ y + y + y + y + y + y + y + d9 y + d10 ⎟ 840 360 120 24 24 6 2 ⎠ v21 = −λ sin(λ x)(l10 y 4 + + d13 3 d14 2 n n n ⎛ n y + y + d15 y + d16 ) − λ 2 cos(λ x) ⎜ 11 y 9 + 12 y 9 + 13 y8 + 14 y 7 6 2 3024 1680 840 ⎝ 5040 n15 6 n16 5 n17 4 n18 4 d17 3 d18 2 ⎞ y + y + y + y + y + y + d19 y + d 20 ⎟ 360 120 24 24 6 2 ⎠ θ11 = cos ( λ x ) ( c3 y + c4 ) − λ sin ( λ x ) P m1 y 7 + m2 y 6 + m3 y 5 + m4 y 4 + m5 y 3 + m6 y 2 + c5 y + c6 θ 21 = cos ( λ x ) ( c9 y + c10 7 7 ( ( ) − λ sin ( λ x ) ( P ( m y ) + m8 y 6 + m9 y 5 + m10 y 4 + m11 y 3 + m12 y 2 ) )+c 11 ) y+c ) 12 ⎛ d n ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ n u1 = l1 y 4 + l2 y 3 + l3 y 2 + d1 y + d 2 + ε ⎜ − cos(λ x) ⎜ 4l4 y 3 + 3 y 2 + d 4 y + d5 ⎟ + λ sin(λ x) ⎜ 1 y 9 + 2 y8 2 336 ⎝ 504 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ( + n3 7 n4 6 n5 5 n6 4 n7 3 n8 3 d7 2 ⎞⎞ y + y + y + y + y + y + y + d8 y + d 9 ⎟ ⎟ 210 120 60 24 6 6 2 ⎠⎠ ⎛ d ⎛ ⎞ ⎛n u2 = l7 y 4 + l8 y 3 + l9 y 2 + d11 y + d12 + ε ⎜ − cos ( λ x ) ⎜ 4l10 y 3 + 13 y 2 + d14 y + d15 ⎟ + λ sin ( λ x ) ⎜ 11 y 9 2 ⎝ 504 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ( ) + n12 8 n13 7 n14 6 n15 5 n16 4 n17 3 n18 3 d17 2 ⎞⎞ y + y + y + y + y + y + y + y + d18 y + d19 ⎟ ⎟ 336 210 120 60 24 6 6 2 ⎠⎠ 10 ⎛ d n d n ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ n v1 = ε ⎜ −λ sin ( λ x ) ⎜ l4 y 4 + 3 y 3 + 4 y 2 + d5 y + d6 ⎟ − λ 2 cos ( λ x ) ⎜ 1 y + 2 y 9 + 3 y8 6 2 5040 3024 1680 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ n n n n d d n ⎞⎞ + 4 y 7 + 5 y 6 + 6 y 5 + 7 y 4 + 8 y 4 + 7 y 3 + 8 y 2 + d9 y + d10 ⎟ ⎟ 840 360 120 24 24 6 2 ⎠⎠ ⎛ d n d n ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ n v2 = ε ⎜ −λ sin ( λ x ) ⎜ l10 y 4 + 13 y + 14 y 2 + d15 y + d16 ⎟ − λ 2 cos ( λ x ) ⎜ 11 y 9 + 12 y 9 + 13 y8 6 2 3024 1680 ⎠ ⎝ 5040 ⎝ ⎝ n n n n d d n ⎞⎞ + 14 y 7 + 15 y 6 + 16 y 5 + 17 y 4 + 18 y 4 + 17 y 3 + 18 y 2 + d19 y + d 20 ⎟ ⎟ 840 360 120 24 24 6 2 ⎠⎠ 3 θ1 = −α y 2 + c1 y + c2 + ε ( cos ( λ x ) ( c3 y + c4 ) − λ sin ( λ x ) P m1 y 7 + m2 y 6 + m3 y 5 + m4 y 4 + m5 y 3 2 + m 6 y 2 + c5 y + c6 ) ) ( ( θ2 = −α y 2 + c7 y + c8 + ε ( cos ( λ x ) ( c9 y + c10 ) − λ sin ( λ x ) P m7 y 7 + m8 y 6 + m9 y 5 + m10 y 4 + m11 y 3 2 + m 12 y 2 + c11 y + c12 c1 = ) ) ( ( − m + 1 . Vol. / International Journal of Engineering. c8 = 1 . c10 = − − m + 1 . 2011. pp. c3 = α + m − 1 . l3 = . d6 = 0 . l1 = . 2 2 2 2 3 2 Gc3 −Gc1 −Gc2 Gα d 2 = 0 . 6 24 2 24 3 2 6d d5 = −(l1 y* + l2 y* + l3 y* ) . d10 = 0 . c7 = + m − 1 . Science and Technology. d3 = −12l4 y* + 25 . d9 = 0 . c9 = + m − 1 .160 Kumar et al. No.

n3 = 10l3 l4 − 10l1l6 + 5GPm3 n4 = 12d1l4 + 4l5 l3 − 4l2 l6 − 12l1 d5 + 24l4 l2 K − 24l1l5 K + 4GPm4 n5 = 12l4 d 2 + 6l5 d1 − 6l2 d5 − 12l1 d6 + 24l3 l4 K − 24l1l6 K + 3GPm5 n6 = 6l5 d 2 + 2l6 d1 − 6l2 d6 − 2l3 d5 + 24d1l4 K − 24l1 d5 K + 2GPm6 . 2011. m1 = 3 1 . 2 42 30 20 c d + c d − α d16 + c7 d15 c d + c l − α d15 + c7 d15 c d +c d m10 = 9 11 10 9 . No. m11 = 9 12 10 11 . n7 = 2l6 d 2 − 2l3 d 6 + 24 Kl4 d 2 − 24 Kl1 d6 . d ⎟ ⎠ ∗ ∗7 15 = −4l10 − 14 ∗6 d d d13 − d14 . l8 = . 8 *3 9 *2 ⎞ d −Gc7 −Gc8 d Gα ⎟ . m3 = 3 3 4 2 . 3. / International Journal of Engineering. 1. l6 = 4 . l12 = 14 . n2 = 6l2 l4 − 6l1l5 + 6GPm2 . m4 = 3 1 4 3 .161 Kumar et al. l9 = . l11 = . d ) (1 − y ) − (1 − y ) 3 Gc9 . m5 = 3 2 4 1 . ⎟ 6 6 2 24 2 ⎠ d12 = −l7 − l8 − l9 − d11 . d14 = ⎜ −4l10 1 − y∗4 − 13 1 − y∗3 − 1 2 ⎝ 9 8 1 1 1 Z1 = n11 1 − y∗ + n12 1 − y∗ + n13 504 336 210 4 3 2 1 1 1 + n16 1 − y∗ + n17 1 − y∗ + n18 1 − y∗ 24 6 6 ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ) ⎞ (1 − y ) . l5 = 3 . l7 = . 136-165 2 d3 y* 1 ⎛ *3 d 4 = * ⎜ −d5 − 4l4 y − 2 y ⎜ ⎝ d11 = l7 1-y* ( 4 ) + l (1-y ) + l (1-y ) . pp. n13 = 10l9 l10 − 10l7 l12 + 5GPm9 n14 = 12d11l10 + 4l9 l11 − 4l8 l12 − 12l7 d15 + 24l8 l10 K − 24l7 l11 K + 4GPm10 n15 = 12l10 d12 + 6l11 d11 − 6l8 d15 − 12l7 d16 + 24l9 l10 K − 24l7 l12 K + 3GPm11 n16 = 6l11 d12 + 2l12 d11 − 6l8 d16 − 2l9 d15 + 24d11l10 K − 24l7 d15 K + 2GPm12 . l10 = * d13 = −l10 1 − y* − 4 1 − y* + 2 1 − y* 6 4 2 d13 d14 d13 c l − α l4 d − − d15 . d16 = −l10 − 13 − 14 − d15 . n12 = 6l8 l10 − 6l7 l11 + 6GPm8 . n17 = 2l12 d12 − 2l9 d16 + 24 Kl10 d12 − 24 Kl7 d16 . Science and Technology. m7 = 9 7 . 13 ∗2 d15 = −4l10 − d13 − d14 2 ( 7 6 5 4 3 2 ) − 6m y 1 *7 − 5m2 y* − 4m3 y* 6 5 −3m4 y* − 2m5 y* − m6 y* 4 3 2 +4m4 y* + 3m5 y* + 2m6 y* + c11 n1 = 7GPm1 . 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 2 3 2 ) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 d ⎛ n18 = Gc11 . Vol. m8 = 9 8 10 7 . 24 * * 14 = −4l10 1 − y∗ ( 3 (1 − y ) ∗ ) − d2 (1 − y ) . 30 20 6 12 c l + c l − α l11 + c7 l10 c l + c l − α l12 + c7 l11 c d +c d c l − α l10 m6 = 4 2 1 6 . n8 = Gc5 3n y* n y* 3n y* n y* n y* n y* n y* n y* d7 = − 1 − 2 − 3 − 4 − 5 − 6 − 7 − 8 105 72 140 28 15 20 2 2 n y* n y* n y* n y* n y* d y* n y* n y* n y* d8 = − 1 − 2 − 3 − 4 − 5 − 6 − 7 − 8 − 7 2520 1512 840 420 180 60 12 12 3 n11 = 7GPm7 . 6 2 2 15 ∗5 ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 (1 − y ) + 120 n (1 − y ) + 60 n (1 − y ) . m9 = 9 9 10 8 . m12 = 10 12 7 16 6 12 2 c12 = iP 6m7 y* + 5m8 y* + 4m9 y* + 3m10 y* + 2m11 y* + m12 y* c11 = − Pi ( m7 + m8 + m9 + m10 + m11 + m12 ) − c12 6 5 4 3 2 6 5 4 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ c5 = iP ⎜ 7 m7 y* + 6m8 y* + 5m9 y* + 4m10 y* + 3m11 y* + 2m12 y* ⎟ − iP ⎜ 7 m1 y* + 6m2 y* + 5m3 y* ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ (1 − y ) + (1 − y * 3 ( y −1 * 4 ( * 2 ) ( ) (1 − y )) . d16 = −l10 − 6 2 6 2 42 c l + c l − α l5 + c1l4 c l + c l − α l6 + c1l5 c d + c d − α d 6 + c1 d5 c d + c l − α d5 + c1l6 m2 = 3 2 4 1 .

c3 = m + α 2 −1 ψ 10 = l4 y 4 + l4 = d3 3 d 4 2 y + y + d5 y + d 6 6 2 Gc3 d . θ 20 = y − 2 2 3 2 ⎞ y G⎛y G ⎛ y3 y 2 ⎞ u10 = − ⎜ − − ⎟ + d1 y + d 2 . No. l3 = . l2 = . / International Journal of Engineering. 30 20 42 12 c d + c d − α d 6 + c1 d5 c d +c d . d6 = 0 . c5 = − P i ( m1 + m2 + m3 + m4 + m5 + m6 ) m1 = ( ) .162 Kumar et al. d 2 = 0 6 24 2 = c3 y + c4 c4 = −m − α 2 + 1 . d1 = −l1 − l2 − l3 . d 4 = −d1 − 3 − 4l4 24 2 t11 = P i m1 y 7 + m2 y 6 + m3 y 5 + m4 y 4 + m5 y 3 + m6 y 2 + c5 y + c6 c l + c l − α l5 + c1l4 c l + c l − α l6 + c1l5 c3 l1 − α l4 c d + c l − α d5 + c1l6 . c1 = m + α u10 l1 = t10 −Gc1 −Gc2 Gα . Science and Technology. 136-165 10 9 1 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ Z 2 = n11 ⎜ 1 − y∗ − 1 − y∗ ⎟ + n12 ⎜ 1 − y∗ − 1 − y∗ ⎟ 504 336 ⎝ 5040 ⎠ ⎝ 3024 ⎠ 8 7 6 1 1 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ + n13 ⎜ 1 − y∗ − 1 − y∗ ⎟ + n14 ⎜ 1 − y∗ − 1 − y∗ ⎟ + n15 ⎜ 1 − y∗ − 1 − y∗ ⎟ 1680 210 840 120 360 60 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ 1 − y∗ − 1 − y∗ ⎟ 1 − y∗ − 1 − y∗ ⎟ + n17 ⎜ 1 − y∗ − 1 − y∗ ⎟ + n18 ⎜ + n16 ⎜ 6 24 6 ⎝ 24 ⎠ ⎝ 120 ⎠ ⎝ 24 ⎠ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) d17 = − Z 2 − Z1 1 1 − y∗ 2 ( ) 3 ⎛1⎛ ∗ ⎜ ⎜1 − y ⎝6⎝ ( ) ( ) ( ⎞ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎟ + (1 − y ) (1 − y ) − (1 − y ) ⎟ . m2 = 3 2 4 1 . θ10 Shifting the baffle to the left wall and comparing the solutions of stream-1 with Rita and Alok (2000). Vol. d5 = −l1 − l2 − l3 . d3 = −12l4 + 6d5 . 3. 1. m4 = 3 1 4 3 . d3 = −c8 − . −α y 2 = + c1 y + c2 2 −1 2 = l1 y 4 + l2 y 3 + l3 y 2 + d1 y + d 2 c2 = 1 . d 4 = ⎜ ⎟ 2⎜ 3 2 ⎟ 2 (1 − y *) ⎜ 3 2 6 ⎟ 12 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Case 2b: Comparison of the Solutions with Rita and Alok (2000) in the absence of baffle 1. pp. 2 ⎠ 4 ⎠ ∗2 ∗ ∗ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) d18 = − Z1 − d17 1 − y ∗2 2 ) (1 − y ) ∗ 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 ⎛ ⎞ y∗ y∗ y∗ y∗ y∗ y∗ y∗ y∗ y∗ + n12 + n13 + n14 + n15 + n16 + n17 + n18 + d17 + d18 y ∗ ⎟ d19 = − ⎜ n11 ⎜ ⎟ 504 336 210 120 60 24 6 6 2 ⎝ ⎠ n13 n12 n14 n15 n16 n17 n18 d17 d18 ⎛ n11 ⎞ d 20 = − ⎜ + + + + + + + + + + d19 ⎟ 6 2 ⎝ 5040 3024 1680 840 360 120 24 24 ⎠ Case 2a: Comparison of the Solutions with Salah El Din (2002) in the presence of baffle 1 1 θ10 = y − . d 2 = 0 . m3 = 3 3 4 2 . 2011. u20 = − ⎜ ⎟ + d3 y + d 4 2⎜ 3 2 ⎟ 2⎜ 3 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ d1 = − ⎛ y *3 y *2 y * ⎞ G G ⎛ y *2 y * ⎞ G − − + ⎜ ⎟ . m6 = 4 2 1 6 m5 = 3 2 4 1 6 2 c6 = 0 .

m8 = 9 8 10 7 . d14 = −d15 − 13 − 4l10 24 2 t21 = P i m7 y 7 + m8 y 6 + m9 y 5 + m10 y 4 + m11 y 3 + m12 y 2 + c11 y + c12 c l + c l − α l11 + c7 l10 c l + c l − α l12 + c7 l11 c9 l7 − α l10 c d + c l − α d15 + c7 d15 . m12 = 10 12 7 16 m11 = 9 12 10 11 6 2 c12 = 0 . 3. 3024 1680 840 360 120 24 6 2 ⎝ 5040 ⎠ 24 + d19 y + d 20 n12 = 6l8 l10 − 6l7 l11 + 6GPm8 . n5 = 12l4 d 2 + 6l5 d1 − 6l2 d5 − 12l1 d6 + 24l3 l4 K − 24l1l6 K + 3GPm5 . 2 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 105 72 140 28 15 20 n n n n ⎞ n d n n ⎛ n d8 = −i ⎜ 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 ⎟ − 8 − 7 . n16 = 6l11 d12 + 2l12 d11 − 6l8 d16 − 2l9 d15 + 24d11l10 K − 24l7 d15 K + 2GPm12 . d19 = 0 . c7 = m + α u20 l7 = t20 −Gc1 −Gc2 Gα . n14 = 12d11l10 + 4l9 l11 − 4l8 l12 − 12l7 d15 + 24l8 l10 K − 24l7 l11 K + 4GPm10 . 20 2 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 105 72 140 28 15 n n n n ⎞ n d n n ⎛ n d18 = −i ⎜ 11 + 12 + 13 + 14 + 15 + 16 + 17 ⎟ − 18 − 17 . / International Journal of Engineering. 3n n 3n n ⎞ n n n ⎛n n18 = Gc11 d17 = −i ⎜ 11 + 12 + 13 + 14 + 15 + 16 + 17 ⎟ − 18 . d 20 = 0 3 ⎝ 2520 1512 840 420 180 60 12 ⎠ 12 . 2011. n8 = Gc5 3n n 3n n ⎞ n n n ⎛ n d7 = −i ⎜ 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 ⎟ − 8 . n3 = 10l3 l4 − 10l1l6 + 5GPm3 . l9 = . d10 = 0 ⎝ 2520 1512 840 420 180 60 12 ⎠ 12 3 2. Science and Technology. pp. Vol. 136-165 ⎛ n ψ 11 = i ⎜ 1 y ⎝ 5040 + d9 y + d10 10 + n n n n d d n2 9 n ⎞ n y + 3 y8 + 4 y 7 + 5 y 6 + 6 y5 + 7 y 4 ⎟ + 8 y 4 + 7 y3 + 8 y 2 3024 1680 840 360 120 24 ⎠ 24 6 2 n1 = 7GPm1 . m10 = 9 11 10 9 . n7 = 2l6 d 2 − 2l3 d6 + 24 Kl4 d 2 − 24 Kl1 d 6 . 30 20 42 12 c d + c d − α d16 + c7 d15 c d +c d . θ 20 Shifting the baffle to the right wall and comparing the solutions of stream-1 with Rita and Alok (2000).163 Kumar et al. n6 = 6l5 d 2 + 2l6 d1 − 6l2 d6 − 2l3 d5 + 24d1l4 K − 24l1 d5 K + 2GPm6 . d13 = −12l10 + 6d15 . d12 = 0 6 24 2 = c9 y + c10 c10 = − m − α 2 + 1 . l8 = . −α y 2 = + c7 y + c8 2 −1 2 = l7 y 4 + l8 y 3 + l9 y 2 + d11 y + d12 c8 = 1 . d11 = −l7 − l8 − l9 . d15 = d11 . n13 = 10l9 l10 − 10l7 l12 + 5GPm9 . d16 = 0 . c9 = m + α 2 −1 ψ 20 = l10 y 4 + l10 = d13 3 d14 2 y + y + d15 y + d16 6 2 Gc3 d . n15 = 12l10 d12 + 6l11 d11 − 6l8 d15 − 12l7 d16 + 24l9 l10 K − 24l7 l12 K + 3GPm11 . 1. c11 = − P i ( m7 + m8 + m9 + m10 + m11 + m12 ) m7 = ( ) ψ 21 = i ⎜ n n n n d d n n ⎞ n ⎛ n11 10 y + 12 y 9 + 13 y 8 + 14 y 7 + 15 y 6 + 16 y 5 + 17 y 4 ⎟ + 18 y 4 + 17 y 3 + 18 y 2 n11 = 7GPm7 . n4 = 12d1l4 + 4l5 l3 − 4l2 l6 − 12l1 d5 + 24l4 l2 K − 24l1l5 K + 4GPm4 . d9 = 0 . n2 = 6l2 l4 − 6l1l5 + 6GPm2 . m9 = 9 9 10 8 . n17 = 2l12 d12 − 2l9 d16 + 24 Kl10 d12 − 24 Kl7 d16 . No.

Vol. Int. P. Acta Mechanica. J. 69-75. Convective heat transfer in periodic wavy passages. Vol.L. Energy. 1989. 117. 1998. 519-531. J. Int. Accession number -93R12788. 1991. Science and Technology. 505-508. Umavathi. A numerical study of flow through wavy-walled channels. 474-478. G. Vol. 13. 1. Fluid flow and heat transfer in horizontal wavy channels. and Wirtz. pp. 405-416. 8. 1075-1083. 1994.R. Free and forced convection between in the entry region of a heated vertical channel. Ostrich. 547-550. ASME J. pp. Heat Mass Transfer. A novel concept for convective heat transfer enhancement. B. C. Burns. Yan.. Yao. 113.A.A. 2001. I. Rita Choudhury and Alok Das.. 116. Tulapurkara. Walters. W. Sci. Chen. 444-461.S and Huang. pp. Vol..C. Heat Transfer.P. N. 6..S. Theory of fully developed. Heat Mass Transfer.S.. and Leela. W.C. R. D. pp. An analysis of laminar free-convection flow and heat transfer about a flat plate parallel to the direction of the generating body force. Vol.. 1997. TN -2635. Effect of viscous dissipation on fully developed laminar mixed convection in a vertical double-passage channel. I. The solution of flow problems in the case of materials with memories.H.S. 1994. J. 1998. pp.. 26. Mallikarjun B Patil and Pop. 253-259. J. References Aung.H. Amsterdam. The motion of an elastico-viscous liquid contained between coaxial cylinders (II)... Energy. pp.. K. pp. 3219-3230. 2000. Free convection flow of a non-Newtonian fluid in a vertical channel. On laminar mixed convection flow in a vertical porous stratum with symmetric wall heating conditions. Salah El-Din. J. 65-72. Fully developed laminar convection in a vertical double-passage channel.. Int. 223-232. J. 1986. Jang. J. Heat Mass Transfer. D. 26. Vol. Rees. Wang. 1995. pp. Chen. 39-48. V. 3. 2005. Vol. 1994. . Magnetoconvective flow and heat transfer between vertical wavy wall and a parallel flat wall. Heat Fluid Flow. Sci .Y. T.. Bőhme.29. J.M. and Ram. J. Vol. of Applied Mechanics and Engineering. 485-488. S. and Wang.G. D. H. pp. M.V..D. No. Li. Defence Science Journal. Chiu. J. 2.Y. Heat Mass Transfer. Heat Transfer. 46.A. Vol. Internal cooling augmentation in rectangular channel using two inclined baffles. Chang.. Maths. pp. 1960. 136-165 Acknowledgments One of the authors J. 26. 1995. Free convection induced by a vertical wavy surface with uniform heat flux in porous medium. pp. Fluid Mech. pp. Elsevier.M. Heat Transfer. Heat Mass Transfer. Int. 2002. 1998. 35. Walters.. Int. 1962. Int. Enhanced heat transfer/pressure drop measured from a flat surface in a grooved channel. and Pop. K. and Phan-Thien. C. Transp. Chem. S. Applied. Transient analysis of natural convection along a vertical wavy surface in micropolar fluids. 2011. 2003. Int. 32. Blancher. Vol... A note on free convection along a vertical wavy surface in a porous medium. 108. J. S. pp 19-33. Heat Transfer. and Chen. Documentation ID-19930083498.C. A.. Vol. 2221-2225. Vol. R. Peristaltic motion. / International Journal of Engineering. 48. 265-286. Int. Vol. Salah El-Din. Vol. Journal Mecanique.. 41. Huilgol. Fluid mechanics of viscoelasticity. V. W. J.. Vol. Therm. J. Natural convection heat and mass transfer along a vertical wavy surface. pp. combined convection including flow reversal.. Laminar fully developed forced-convection flow within an asymmetric heated horizontal double-passage channel. pp. R. Kuo. 53. 1967.. Int.. Vol. R. Z. Umavathi would like to thank UGC-New Delhi for the financial support under UGC-Major Research Project. Selvarajan. 47. 1983. 127-140. 1. Vol. and Worku. and Parks.H.C. P and Hossain. 437-456. 2006. 4190-4204. 38. J. 37-44. No. Eng.. Non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. ASME J. G and Vanka. Dutta. Local heat transfer for oscillatory flow in the presence of a single baffle within a channel. Phenom. Appl. and Quere. 50. Heat Fluid Flow.M. Mech. Vol. pp. pp. J.. Guo. 1998. M. 33. I. Malashetty. Vajravelu. Vol. Cheng. 41.. Int.164 Kumar et al.P.J. E. Flow pulsation and baffle’s effects on the opposing mixed convection in a vertical channel.. 498-501. pp. Vol. Appl. T. and Chou. Numer. Umavathi. pp. 1980. M... S.J. J. L. K. 3177-3180.M.S. North Holland Amsterdam... J. G. NACA. Vol. 2005. J. Meth. Greiner. Z.. Vol. and Liu.. and Shiau. ASME J. pp. 245-258. and Pop. J. H. pp.H. H. Quart.. Creff.S. 19.C. Int. Effect of tollmien schlichting wave on convective heat transfer in a wavy channel part I: Linear analysis. J. 1952. pp. Y. Vol.. Vol. 1981. Rees. pp. pp.. Energy Science. M..X. pp.F. Fluids. Vol.

D degree from Gulbarga University Gulbarga India in 1992. degree from Mangalore University Mangalore in 1990 and Ph. He is a associate professor in the department of Mathematics Gulbarga University. C. 1. Prathap Kumar received M. She is a Professor in the department of Mathematics. Her research interest includes heat and mass transfer through channels. magnetohydradynamics.A. Received January 2011 Accepted April 2011 Final acceptance in revised form May 2011 . He has also presented 5 research articles in national conferences. India. Karnataka. Hiremath received Post-Graduation in Mathematics from Gulbarga University. flow through porous media she has published more than 60 papers in referred International journals. Gulbarga. India. Gulbarga. India in 1983. D degree from Gulbarga University Gulbarga India in 2003. Gulbarga University. 3. Her research interest includes heat and mass transfer of multiple (Newtonian and non-Newtonian) fluids through channels and rectangular ducts. She has also presented more than 20 research articles in National and International conferences. Gulbarga. / International Journal of Engineering. 136-165 Biographical notes J.L. Umavathi received Ph. pp.M. Phil.165 Kumar et al.D. She is working as Assistant Professor in Mathematics at B.’s College of Engineering and Technology Bijapur. Karnataka. Karnataka. He has published more than 20 papers in referred International journals.E. baffles for flow through various geometries of one and two fluids models. P. 2011. dispersion. She currently dealing with few projects sponsored by Government of India. Science and Technology. His research interest includes heat and mass transfer. Vol. numerical simulation using Finite differences and Range-Kutta Gill method. J. No. Karnataka.

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