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Introduction to Tantra-Sastra

Sir John Woodroffe
(Arthur Avalon)

INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA

STRA

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Inquanok –– Leeds 2008 .INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA SIR JOHN WOODROFFE Celephaïs Press Ulthar .Sarkomand .

Originally published as the Introduction to Mah nirv na Tantra (Tantra of the Great Liberation), 1913. First issued as an independent work, Madras: Ganesh & co., 1952, many later printings. This electronic text produced by Celephaïs Press, Leeds, in the year 2008 of the common error.

This work is in the public domain.

Release 1.01.: 04.04.2009. May require further proof reading. Please report errors to dancingstar93@gmail.com citing revision number or release date.

CONTENTS
PAGE

Mount Kail sa iva and akti Guna The Worlds (Lokas) Inhabitants of the Worlds Varna rama Macrocosm and Microcosm The Ages The Scriptures of the Ages The Human Body The Three Temperaments Guru and isya Initiation: D ksa Abhiseka S dhana Worship Yoga Sin and Virtue——Karma Moksa) Siddhi

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1 4 18 24 26 31 32 34 36 40 42 58 65 68 70 72 73 125 142 147 154

Four aims of Being (Dharma, Artha, K ma,

These and the first-named form the ““Panchkedar. In these mountains Munis and Rsis lived. A matha and temple dedicated to ri Sad iva in charge of the aiva ascetics called Jangama. Hence the race itself came.”” 3 A celebrated temple dedicated to an incarnation of the Deva Visnu. Here also is the Ksetra of iva Mah deva. and there its early legends have their setting. and where Mother Ganges also has her source.3 At Kangri. the pilgrims make the parikrama of Mount Kail sa (Kang Rinpoche). further north. Badarika see Mah bh rata c. the ““Abode of Snow. encircled with everlasting snows. and Kalpe var. rose the great mountain of the north. The Devat is also worshipped at four other places along the Himalayan chain——Tungnath. Madhmahe war.MOUNT KAIL SA THE scene of the revelation of Mah nirv na-Tantra is laid in Him laya. where his spouse Parvat . the daughter of the Mountain King. as did Rama and his faithful wife at the point where the Kosi joins the Sit in the grove of A oka trees. This nobly towering peak rises to the north-west of the 1 2 Source of the Ganges. where iva is said to dwell. Rudranath. There are still shown at Bhimudiyar the caves where the sons of P ndu and Draupadi rested. Here in these lofty uplands. from K rm cala is said to have descended in his K rma form.1 Kedarnath2 and Badrinath.”” a holy land weighted with the traditions of the ryan race. From time immemorial pilgrims have toiled through these mountains to visit the three great shrines at Gangotri. was born. the Sapta-KulaParvata. 92 . who As to ranya-Parvan.

thronged with trains of Spirits (devayoni). Kul rnava-Tantra (chap. verse 17. however. musical with the song of birds and bright with undying flowers. though he should not behold him. Its heights. . See Tripur s ra. resounds with the music and song of celestial singers and players. it is written: 1 ““He who thinks of Him cala. IX). The air. And in the regions beyond rises Mount Meru. centre of the world-lotus.”” It is not. peopled with spirits. of which the opening chapter of Mah nirv na-Tantra speaks. wheresoever situate. Goroh sthanam hi Kali sam as the Yogin -Tantra (chap. to which all. As the dew is dried up by the morning sun. is greater than he who performs all worship in K i (Benares). He dwells wheresoever his worshippers. scented with the sweet fragrance of Mandh ra chaplets. 2 and His mystic mount is to be sought in the thousand-petalled lotus 3 (sahasrarapadma) in the body of every human j va. In short. hence called iva-sthana. so are the sins of mankind by the sight of Him cala. versed in Kula-tattva. are hung with clusters of stars as with wreaths of M lati flowers. may repair when they have learned how to achieve the way thither. cited in Bh skar yas Commentary on Lalit -sahasran ma. The paradise of iva is a summerland of both lasting sunshine and cool shade.2 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA sacred Manasarowar Lake (Mapham Yum-tso) from amidst the purple ranges of the lower Kangri Mountains. necessary to go to the Him layan Kail a to find iva. In a hundred ages of the Devas I could not tell thee of the glories of Him cala. 1 2 3 Skanda-Pur na. The Mount is Gana-parvata. i) says. abide.

the dialogue opens with a question from Parvati3 in answer to which and those which succeed it. this Tantra is in the form called gama. after he had himself received them from the mouth of iva. Chapter X. As the Dev is here the isya. the Dev in Her form as P rvat .2 the Deva Gane a first preached the Tantra to the Devayoni on Mount Kail sa. According to the G yatri-Tantra.1 and in the Tantras which exist in the form of dialogues between the Devat and his akti. . After a description of the mountain. 1 2 3 Of which the iva-S tra-Vimar ini is a Commentary.MOUNT KAIL SA 3 iva promulgates His teaching in the world below in the works known as Y mala. iva-S tra. D mara. S’’iva unfolds His doctrine on the subjects with which Mah -nirv na-Tantra deals.

as in the previous state It was nir-guna. what are they but a glimpse of light caught from ““That”” (Tat)? Brahman is both niskala and sakala.1 As the substance of Prakrti is the three gunas It is then sa-guna. Kal is Prakrti. both Tantrika works of great authority. yet (making accommodation to human speech) in It potentially exists akti. which it is. and without name. however. in fact. can never be the object of cognition. and stars. as being the inner self and knowing subject.”” For the sun. of kt nanda-tarangini (““Waves of Bliss of aktas). 1 rada-tilaka (chap. To say. i). which. that the akti exists in the Brahman is but a form of speech. and chap. since It and akti are. i. ““Spirit can alone know Spirit.IVA AND AKTI THAT eternal immutable existence which transcends the turiya and all other states in the unconditioned Absolute.”” ““That which is. moon. without Prakrti (niskala) or Her attributes (nir-guna).”” Being beyond mind. and all visible things. as it is said. It is called sakala when with Prakrti. one.”” ““That. . the Brahman was called ““Tat. For. Its power and the whole universe produced by It.”” and then ““Tat Sat. and is to be apprehended only through yoga by the realization of the Self ( tma-jñ na). The niskala-Brahman or Para-brahman is the Tat when thought of as without Prakrti (Prakrterany ). speech. the supreme Brahman or Para-brahman. Though in the latter state It is thought of as without akti.

She is the nandar pin Dev . the Caitanyar pini-Dev .”” In such manifestation of akti the Brahman is known as the lower (apara) or manifested Brahman. with akti (Parahaktimaya) issued N da ( iva. nanda-tarangini). Its form is that of the universe. verse 37. 1 Pranamya prakrtim nityam param tma-svar pinim (loc. pervades the universe as does oil the sesamum seed. It is embodied in the forms of all Devas and Dev s.akti as the ““Word”” or ““Sound””). Commentary on verse 49.1 She is Brahma-r p and both viguna (nir-guna) and sa-gun . should be thought of as existing in the form of Param Bindu. who Manifests all bh ta. 2 3 4 kt - Kubjika-Tantra. As ruti says: ““He saw”” (Sa aiksata. In the beginning there was the One. by whom the Brahman manifests Itself.. to the mind and sense of the embodied spirit (j va) the Brahman has body and form.2 and who. He thought to Himself ““May I be many. It willed and became many. and of all things and beings therein. and from N da. Bindu appeared. cit. Aham-bahu-sy m——““may I be many.”” ““Sa aiksata”” was itself a manifestation of akti.3 From the Brahman. ““The Serpent Power. In the beginning the Niskala-Brahman alone existed. the Param p rva-nirv na. Sat-cakra-nirupana. who. .IVA AND AKTI 5 and akti is eternal (An di-r p ).akti of Brahman as akti. to use the words of the rada. K licharana in his commentary on the Satcakra-nir pana4 says that iva and Nirv naakti bound by a m yik bond and covering. and in the worshipper himself. in fact. aham bahu sy m praj yeya).”” Ibid. the subject of worship. is meditated upon with attributes. 1st Patala. as. And.

The Bindu. which circle is situate above the Sun-Circle (S rya-mandala). akti-maya. which are in the pericarp of the thousand-petalled lotus (sahar rapadrna). 5 rngat ka or triangle form. and Am -kal . jñ na and kriy . M y bandhanacchaditaprakr tipurusa-param binduh. namely. 2 The Tantra also speaks of three Bindus. or Nibodhik (v. wherein are Prakrti-Purusa. the sixteenth digit (referred to in the text) of the moon-circle (Candra-mandala). Next to the Bindu is the fiery Bodhin . post). iva-maya. refers to this subtle body of Hers known as the K ma-kal .akti maya. 1 2 3 4 rada-tilaka (chap. Commentary to The Dev -Purana says that Kundalin is so called because She has the verse 49 of the Sat-cakra-nirupana. Ka. which is again in that of am -kal .3 The param-bindu is represented as a circle. Pr na-tosini (p. the circumference of which is encircling m y . the centre of which is the brahma-pada. Nibodhik . The term m lamantr tmik .aktis (see also Yogin -hrdaya). The state of subtle body which is known as K ma-kal is the m la of mantra. are situated in the lightning-like inverted triangle 5 known as ““A. when applied to the Dev . . nadad bindusamudbhavah. with the Nirv na-kal . and iva.6 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA The S rad 1 says: Saccid nanda-vibhav t sakal t parame var t sicchaktistato n do. from akti came N da and from N da was born Bindu””). the three angles being the icch . 8). i).4 It is on the crescent of nirv na-kal the seventeenth. See Bh skarar ya’’s Commentary on the Lalit sahasran ma. (““From Parame vara vested with the wealth of Saccidananda and with Prakrti (sakala) issued akti. or place of Brahman. verse 36. the Guru and the Hamsah.

and the remaining sixteen from Tha to A. iva. i): Bhidyamant parad bindoravyaktatmaravo’’bhavat abda-brahmeti tam pr huh. 3 A polarization of the two iva and akti-Tattvas then takes place in Para akti-maya. such divisions being known as Bindu. Inside are the remaining letters (m trk ).”” 4 The rada says: ““The Devat para akti-maya is again Itself divided.akti. . B ja. and N da has 1 2 3 Sat-cakra-nirupana. It is made up of forty-eight letters (m trk ). the sixteen vowels running from A to Ka. This Param-bindu is prakrtiPurusa. rada-tilaka. and at its left base Tha. sixteen consonants of the kavarga and other groups running from Ka to Tha. Sat-cakra-nirupana. verse 49. and N da. (Chap.5 Bindu is of the nature of N da of iva.1 As the substance of Dev is matrka (m trk may ) the triangle represents the ““Word”” of all that exists. ha. la (second). verse 49.2 It is known as the abda-Brahman (the Sound Brahman). at its right base is Ka. and creation then takes place by division of iva and akti or of ““Ham”” and ““Sah.IVA AND AKTI 7 Tha”” and which is so called because at its apex is A. That is. which under its encircling sheath contains a divided seed. Her face turns towards iva. and B ja of akti. ““From the unfolding Parambindu arose an indistinct sound. The Dev becomes Unmukh . Commentary. The Bindu is symbolically described as being like a grain of gram (canaka). and ksa. This bindu is called the abdu-brahman.”” 4 5 Sat-cakra-nirupana. or Apara-brahman. tese are three different aspects of It. The triangle is itself encircled by the Candra-mandala. There is an unfolding which bursts the encircling shell of M y .

and the akti. as R ghava-bhatta 2 says. Binduh iv tmako b jam aktirn dastayormithah. Sattv dhikyena bindur pah. it is called Nibodhik . and tamas). constitutes the abda-brahman. when there is a sound in which there is something like a connected or combined disposition of the letters. Its own independent action effects an arrangement which is only perfected by the emergence of the essentially manifesting sattvika-guna set into play by it. which with iva It is. This avyaktan da is both the first and the last state of N da. rajas. etc. which. For N da.”” 1 The rada says that before the bursting of the shell enclosing the Brahmapada. in which it is a phase of Avyakta-n da.8 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA been said to be the relation of these two by those who are verse in all the gamas. lit. In this state. 4 5 Raja’’adhikyena kimcidvarna-ny s tmak h. . hidden. It is N da when rajo-guna is in the ascendant. unmanifest.4 When the sattva-guna preponderates N da assumes the form of Bindu. together with its defining circumference. Bindurn do b jam iti tasya bhed h sam ritah. 1 Chapter 1: Para aktimayah s ksat tridh sau bhidyate punah. Bindu. or Bodhin . unspoken. which form the substance of Prakrti. and Nibodhik . according as it is viewed from the standpoint of evolution or involution. In N da are the gunas (sattva. exists in three states. See Commentary on verse 48 of the Sat-cakra-nirupana. Samav yah sam khyat h sarv ga-mavi aradaih. an indistinct sound arose (avyakt tm -ravo’’ bhavat). When tamo-guna predominates N da is merely an indistinct or unmanifested (dhvanyatmako’’vyaktan dah3) sound in the nature of dhvani. 5 The action of rajas on tamas is to veil. Avyakta is 2 3 Tamo-gun dhikyena kevala-dhvany tmako’’vyakta-n dah. N da.

and V m ) jñ necch kriy tmano vahn ndvarka-svar pinah. The V make varaTantra says that Tri-pur is three-fold. and Icch or will is the eternal precursor of creation. Rudra and his akti. whose form is the Moon and whose activity is desire. which neither increases nor decays.akti). The moon contains the sixteenth digit.IVA AND AKTI 9 of which they are the specific manifestations. and as the energies desire. Moon and Fire respectively. verse 49. .. associated with the three gunas of Prakrti. and whose activity is knowledge (jñ na). as Brahm . See also the rad (chap. note). akti——issued Raudri. As the Git says: ““As one Sun makes manifest all the lokas. i). Kriy is like Sun for as the Sun by its light makes all things visible. Visnu and a. will (icch . V m and Visnu and his akti. and rajas. Raudri.akti). Jyestha. For when the effect of cause and effect of action are really known. wisdom and 1 Tata ca n da-bindu-nibodhik h arkenduvahnir pah (Satcakra.”” The abda-Brahman manifests Itself in a triad of energies——knowledge (jñ na akti). so unless there is action and striving there cannot be realization or manifestation. Icch is the Moon. are said to be in the form of Sun. which says te (that is.e. tamas. whose forms are Fire (vahni). whose form is the Sun and whose activity is Kriy (action): and Jyestha and Brahma and his akti. All other knowledge is called vijñ na. 2 Jñ na is the knowledge which gives liberation. the Am -kal with its nectar. and the tamo-guna is associated with it. sattva. then action ceases. and action (kriy . From the Param Bindu who is both bindv tmaka and kal tma——i. 1 Jñ na (spiritual wisdom2) is spoken of as fire as it burns up all actions.

and then come I na and the triad. Hence Devi is called Pancha-preta-manc dhis yini (verse 174. From Him issues Sad . the energy of wisdom when She reminds Him.”” Of the Mah -preta. but Brahmi. thus knowing.”” and when. (verse 8). 8. Hari. it is said that the last four form the support and the fifth the seat. According to the Bahurpastaka and Bhairavay mala. Their husbands are as but dead bodies. are the five ivas who are collectively known as the Mah -preta. Visnu and Brahma.5 See Pr na-tosini (pp. 1 2 3 Lalit . tamas. verse 130 (see Bh skarar ya’’s Commentary). Rudra and I na. Rudr ni. whose b ja is ““Hsauh. i) says : " Not Brahma. He acts.akti svar pini.10 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA action. saying ““Let this be thus. 9). firstly. the bed is iva. She becomes the energy of action. and Rudray mala. the last triad.iva exists as a septenary under the form. 4 See nandalahari of Samkar carya.iva. and the four supports Brahma.iva. Rudra create.iva. in the room of cint mani stone.1 the energy of will when Brahman would create. Who pervades and manifests all things. who is the associate of time (K labandhu). And so the Kubjika Tantra (chap. maintain or destroy. See also Yogin -Tantra. Part I.”” The ““stone which grants all desires”” is described in the Rudray mala and Brahm nda-Pur na. Vais navi. the pillow Mahe ana. of ambhu. the matting ada iva. each with His respective akti (without whom they avail nothing 3 ) separately and particularly associated with the gunas. Rudra.2 Para. together with I na and Sad .4 on the jewelled island clad with clumps of kadamba and heavenly trees set in the ocean of Ambrosia.akti-jñ na. chap x.akti-kriy . 5 . The Dev is thus Icch . Lalit sahasran ma). Visnu. Goraksha Sanmita and Bhuta-shuddhiTantra. Of these Devas. It is the place of origin of all those Mantras which bestow all desired objects (cintita). sattva and rajas. of the bed on which the Dev is united with Parama.

Mahe vara. tamas (that which veils and produces inertia). (verse 121). Sad . and in particular. that is called m y ””. M la-prakrti is the womb into See also the Agni. Bhavisyottara. Nature as the passage of descent from spirit to matter.1 akti is both m y . that by which the Brahman creating the universe is able to make Itself appear to be different from what It really is. is the universe of name and form. speaking of this power of the Supreme. K rma. for there are many Rudras.”” consisting of the equipoise of the triad of guna or ““qualities”” which are sattva (that which manifests). sub voce ““Guna.”” Lalit -sahasra-n ma.iva indicates the predominance of the sattva-guna.iva. 1 Vicitra-k ryak ran cintit phalaprad Svapnedraj lavalloke m y tena prakirtita. the Linga and the K sikh nda of the Skanda Pur na. 2 The Dev Pur na (chap. His names are many. It is the primary so-called ““material cause. 1. V mana Pur nas. says: ““That which is of various cause and effect. the giver of unthought-of fruit which in this world seems like magic or a dream.008 being given in the sixty-ninth chapter of the iva-Purna and in the seventeenth chapter of the Anu sanaParvan of the Mah bharata. Varaha. or the unmanifested (avyakta) state of that which. names which indicate particular states. rajas (that which acts).3 The Dev is thus guna-nidhi4 (treasure-house of guna). when manifest. For though the Gunas are specifically three they have endless modifications. qualities and manifestation of the One in its descent towards the many. The three gunas represent Nature as the revelation of spirit. etc. 3 4 .. Thus Sad . Padma. See post. xiv). or of ascent from matter to spirit and nature as the dense veil of spirit.IVA AND AKTI 11 iva is variously addressed in this work as ambhu. amkara. 2 and m la-prakrti.

fire. sight. taste.12 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA which Brahman casts the seed from which all things are born. with its three gunas distinctly manifested. pervade the whole universe and are present in man in the Svayambh -Linga of the muladhara and the Dev Kundalin . or pure s ttvika ahamk ra. and as such is in all pr nis (breathing creatures) and in the shape of letters appears in prose and verse. Thence sprung the third creation ahamk ra (selfhood). The equilibrium of the triad is destroyed and the guna. the taijasa or r jasika ahamk ra. and with the colours—— 1 Bhagavad-git (Chap. water. now in varied combinations. which are in such dual form the product of the polarity manifested in Par akti-maya. She sleeps in the m l dh ra and has three and a half coils corresponding in number with the three and a half bindus of which the Kubjik -Tantra speaks. She is the luminous vital energy (j va. . From the first avyakta creation issued the second mahat. The abda-Brahman assumes in the body of man the form of the Dev Kundalin . earth. evolves under the illumination of iva (cit). and smell. air. ether. Kundala means coiled.akti) which manifests as pr na. xiv).1 The womb thrills to the movement of the essentially active rajo-guna. The latter is the origin of the subtle essences (tanm tr ) of the Tattvas. whose form is that of a coiled serpent. associated with sound. When after closing the ears the sound of Her hissing is not heard death approaches. touch. who. Hence Kundalin . encircles it. the universe which is ruled by Mahe vara and Mahe vari. The dual principles of iva and akti. which is of threefold form——vaik rika. and the t masika or bh t dika ahamk ra. means that which is coiled. in serpent form.

constitute the vaikrta creation. such as the vegetable world with its upward life current. and yellow.4 akti or Dev is thus the Brahman revealed in Its mother aspect ( ri-m ta) 5 as Creatrix and Nourisher of the worlds. and bh t dika are the fourth. 1. Mitra. K l says of Herself in Yogini-Tantra:6 ““Saccid1 Mah m y without m y is nir-gun . Upendra.”” and the Devas Dik. 2 kt nanda-tarangini (chap. Vahni. There is some difference in the schools as to that which each of the three forms produces but from such threefold form of Ahamk ra issue the indriyas (““senses. or appertaining to Prakrti. iii. 2 She is Pra krti. preta and the like. i). whose life current tends downward. and the A vins. which are products of these. Arka. She is M y for of Her the m y which produces the sams ra is. animals with horizontal life current and bh ta.3 and as existing before creation is the dy (primordial) akti. .) 6 Part I.IVA AND AKTI 13 pure transparency. and the v chya. ii. fifth. Pakrtikh nda. the two being known as the kaum ra creation. taijasa.akti.akti. The vaik rika. Chapter X. N rad dya Pur na. Chap. The Goddess (Dev ) is the great akti. Pracetas. 5 Dev is worshipped on account of Her soft heart: (komal ntahkaranam). y ma.1 Dev is avidy (nescience) because She binds and vidya (knowledge) because She liberates and destroys the samsara. which are known as pr krita. V ta. the manifestation of Cit in Prakrti. The rest. 3 Brahma-vaivarta Pur na (chap. white. or Cit itself. red. kt nanda-tarangini (chap. The tm should be contemplated as Dev . i). Dev is the v caka. and sixth creations. akt nanda tarangini. Indra. As Lord of m y She is Mah m y . of Dev -bh gavata. 4 See chap. and with m y Sa-guna.

Visnu. an aspect of Visnu.14 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA nanda-r p ham brahmai-v h m sphurat-prabham.2 She is the great Mother (Ambik ) sprung from the sacrificial hearth of the fire of the Grand consciousness (cit). decked with the Sun and Moon. and as such is called Tripur (see Bh skarar yas Commentary on 1 2 Lalit . The forms of the Mother of the Universe are threefold..4 ““none knows. verse 125.5 She appears as the subject of contemplation in Her third. 6 Ibid. ““She who plays””. now wrapped in her terrible darkness. verse 838.3 The Dev .”” So the Dev is described with attributes both of the qualified1 Brahman and (since that Brahman is but the manifestation of the Absolute) She is also addressed with epithets. or gross (Sth la). and Mahe vara. which consists of mantra. iii of kt nanda-tarangini). chap. Dev . 5 Am rtaucit-sthrio na sy t tato m rttim vicintayet (ibid. and Commentator’’s note to Chapter II where Devi is addressed as Supreme Light (param-jyotih) Supreme Abode (paramdh ma) Supreme of Supreme (par tpar ). verse 153. or physical form. who as Prakrti is the source of Brahma. Lalit . 3 See the Lalit -sahasra-n m . open and shut with the appearance and disappearance of countless worlds now illuminated by her light.”” There is next her subtle (S ksma) form. 4 M tatsvat-param-r pam tanna j n ti kaschan (see chap. whose eyes playing like fish in the beauteous waters of her Divine face. Ibid. But as the mind cannot easily settle itself upon that which is formless. There is first the Supreme (para) form. with hands and feet and the like as celebrated in the Dev stotra of the Pur nas and Tantras. as Para-brahman. . as the Visnu-y mala says. is beyond all form and guna. which denote the unconditioned Brahman. of which. i. 6 has Such as Mukunda. as was explained to Him vat by Devi in the K rma Pur na). whose play is world-play. Lalit -sahasra-n m .

who exists in the form of all Tantras and all Yantras. Sarva-yantr tmik (see Lalit . verse 79) Krisodar ( dyak lisvar pa stotra. amkar cary . So it is said in the tenth sloka of the Karp r khyastava——samant d p nastana jaghanadhrikyauvanavati. iii. annaprad na-nirat ng-stana-bh ra-namr m in Anna-p rn stava. ““Hymns to the Goddess. in his Tripura-sundar stotra speaks of her nitamba (nitamba-jita-bh dhar m) as excelling the mountains in greatness. Durg .”” The Tantrika more than all men. G yatr . seventh Ull sa). in a peculiar sense female beings are parts of Her.”” pivara-stana-tating tanuvrittamadhy m (Bhuvane varistotra).5 bending beneath the burden of the ripe fruit of her breasts. pivarastana-tatim in Bhuvane varistotra. See author’’s ““Hymns to the Goddess. as the Dev Pur na says. concludes: ““All things indicated by words in the feminine gender are manifestations of Dev . and Shachi to be each the manifestation of Dev . as the Lalita says. pinonnata-payodhar m in Durg dhy na of Dev Pur na: Vaksho-kumbh ntari in Annap rn stava. . Laksmi.4 whose slender waist. Tripur -sundar .2 The Great Mother. chap.6 wells into jewelled hips heavy7 with the promise of infinite maternities. immeasurable. Padma-pur na says. 1 2 Ibid. Anas y . hucha-bharanamit ngim in Sarasvat -dhy na.”” 9 She whose body is. ““Visnu ever worships the Sapphire Dev . which weight her limbs. 6 Pin -stan dye in Karp r distotra. which also says that there is no eunuch form of God. 7 8 The physical characteristics of the Dev in Her swelling breasts and hips are emblematic of Her great Motherhood for She is r m t (see as to Her litanies. So in the Candi (M rkandeya-Pur na) it is said: Vidyah samastastava dev bhedah Striyah samast h sakal jagatsu. The Linga-Pur na also after describing Arundhati.3 is.8 As the Mahadevi 9 She exists in all forms as Sarasvat . the ““unsullied treasure-house of beauty””. ““tan madhy (Lalit . as was observed centuries past by the Author of the Dabist n. For though existing in all things. recognises the divinity of woman. the Sapphire Dev .”” 3 4 5 Sarva-tantra-r p .1 But it is in Her female forms that she is chiefly contemplated.. Mah -nirv naTantra. verses 205-6).IVA AND AKTI 15 both male and female forms.

16 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA Annap rn . but one moon reflected in countless waters.1 Devi. Bhuvane var . there is Her subtle form Kundalin in the body (pin d nda). in 1 2 kt nanda-tarangin (chap. Chinnamast . It was as Sati prior to Daksa’’s sacrifice (daksayajna) that the Dev manifested Herself to iva2 in the ten celebrated forms known as the da a-mah vidya referred to in the text——K l . Besides the forms of the Dev in the Brahm nda. Tripurasundari. T r . . and all the Dev s who are avataras of the Brahman.4 She exists. She is seen as one and as many. His permission that she might attend at Daksa’’s sacrifice. 51 and 52. remained wholly distraught and spent with grief. and. as Sati. Dh m vat . who had not granted at her request. To save the world from the forces of evil which arose and grew with the withdrawal of His Divine control. and Ga r . which iva bore. too. Visnu with His discus (cakra) cut the dead body of Sati. ever bearing it with Him. into fifty3-one fragments. as it were. In order to display Her power to Her husband. When. is spouse of iva. iii). M tangin . Bagal . and Bhairav . Parvati. Um . with Her Bhairava. and for an account of the da a-mah vidy ——their yantra and mantra——the da a-mah vidyaup sana-rahasya of Prasanna Kum ra stri. iva took away the body. where Dev . These are but some only of Her endless forms. at the Daksayajna She yielded up her life in shame and sorrow at the treatment accorded by her father to Her Husband. which fell to earth at the places thereafter known as the fifty-one mah p tha-sth na (referred to in the text). Brahma-bindu Upanisad. Shoda i. 3 4 The number is variously given as 50. is worshipped under various names. 12. See my edition of the ““Tantra-tattva”” (Principles of Tantra).

S ta-samhit . all life and being. The great Bharga in the bright Sun and all devatas. in the words of the great Dev -bh gavata. i. Dev . 5 . the Witness freed of the glamour of the manifold Universe.”” 2 3 Hymn to Jagad-ambik in Chapter XIX. and are worshipful but only as Her manifestations. which divides such worship into Vedic and T ntrik In which Dev is worshipped in the form made up of sacred syllables See Introduction to Author’’s ““Hymns to the Goddess.5.IVA AND AKTI 17 all animals and inorganic things. where it is said ““The Para-brahman. iva. and indeed. Therein Pure Intelligence is the Supreme akti who is worshipped as the very Self. as the Dev Pur na says but a part of Her. yet falls into some waterless and terrible well. verse 43).4 is described as nir dh r . the universe with all its beauties is. and all other Deva and Dev are but one.”” The highest worship for which the s dhaka is qualified (adhik ri) only after external worship3 and that internal form known as s dh ra.stras and Tantras.”” (see Bh skarar ya’’s Commentary on Lalit . 1 a doctrine which is nowhere else taught with greater wealth of illustration than in the kta.2 ““like unto a man who. with the light of a clear lamp in his hands.3. All this diversity of form is but the infinite manifestation of the flowering beauty of the One Supreme Life.5 1 See the Third Chapter of the kt nanda-tarangin . 4 according to the instructions of the Guru. are wonderful. By one’’s own direct experience of Mahevari as the Self She is with reverence made the object of that worship which leads to liberation. And he who worships them otherwise is. and he who thinks them different from one another goes to Hell.

The term guna is generally translated ““quality. The functions of sattva. Rajas is the dynamic. The unrevealed Prakrti (avyakta-prakrti) or Dev is the state of stable equilibrium of these three gunas. both as affording one of the chief keys to Indian philosophy and to the principles which govern S dhana. for where rajas is not independently active it is operating on sattva to suppress . For it must not be overlooked that the three gunas (Sattva. and tamas) which are of Prakrti constitute Her very substance. and is composed of the same guna in different states of relation to one another. When this state is disturbed the manifested universe appears. This being so.GU N A IT cannot be said that current explanations give a clear understanding of this subject. the Mah k ranasvar pa. Thus in Devas as in those who approach the divya state. to make active. That is. They are in one sense still there. That is to say. Yet such is necessary. their independent manifestation is reduced. as sattva and tamas are static principles. and to suppress respectively. rajas. is called trigun tmaka.”” a word which is only accepted for default of a better. These gunas work by mutual suppression. rajas. and tamas are to reveal. sattva and tamas can neither reveal nor suppress without being first rendered active by rajas. sattva predominates. all Nature which issues from Her. in every object of which one or other of the three gunas is in the ascendant. and rajas and tamas are very much reduced.

as between each member of these classes one or other of three gunas may be more or less in the ascendant. or is a pa u respectively. subject to suppression by the revealing principle. the sattva guna may predominate. In the animal creation sattva has considerably less activity. but is much more active than in the vegetable world. as the Tantra calls it. In the inorganic creation rajas makes tamas active to suppress both sattva and its own independent activity. or t masik. . Again. he is said to belong to virabh va. In another the rajoguna may prevail. in one man as compared with another. In the ordinary human j va considered as a class. Rajas has great independent activity. which appears or disappears to the extent to which it is.GUNA 19 tamas. and even amongst these last there may be possibly some which are less t masik than others. or. It will thus be seen that the ““upward”” or revealing movement from the predominance of tamas to that of sattva represents the spiritual progress of the j v tm . in which case the individual is described as r jasik. Rajas has less independent activity than in man. Thus. Again the vegetable creation is obviously less t masik and more r jasik and s ttvik than the mineral. In the vegetable kingdom tamas is more preponderant than in the case of animals and both rajas and sattva less so. to use Tantrik phraseology. and in the third the t moguna. or. divyabh va. Tamas is greatly less preponderant than in the latter. in which case his temperament is s ttvik. and sattva is also considerably active. or is not. tamas is less reduced than in the case of the Deva but very much reduced when comparison is made with the animal j va.

In this case the tamoguna is currently spoken of as representative of inertia. In the primary sense sat is that which reveals.”” And commonly (though such use obscures the original meaning). etc. or instinct with sattva. Nature is a revelation of spirit (sat). ““good”” in the sense that it is productive of good and happiness. It is the shining forth from under the veil of the hidden spiritual substance (sat). and nanda or Bliss. when translated into the moral sphere. becomes ignorance. however. But Nature not only reveals. stress is laid rather on a necessary quality or effect (in the ethical sense) of ‘‘sat’’ than upon its original meaning. Where Nature is a veil of spirit there it appears in its quality of tamoguna. however. or of ascent . again. This quality. The eternally existent is also Cit. Where Nature is a bridge of descent from spirit to matter. In a third sense nature is a bridge between spirit which reveals and matter which veils. at times so dense that the ignorant fail to discern the spirit which it veils. In such a case. the word sattva guna is rendered ““good quality. because that is the effect of the nature which veils.20 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA Etymologically.”” It is. pure Intelligence or spirit. sattva is derived from ““sat. In a secondary sense.”” that which is eternally existent. but is also a dense covering or veil of spirit. sloth. Where Nature is such a revelation of spirit there it manifests as sattva guna. sat is also used to denote the ““good. So of a pregnant woman it is said that she is antahsattva. And that quality in things which reveals this is sattva guna. she in whom sattva as j va (whose characteristic guna is sattva) is living in a hidden state.

that by which spirit is covered. as it were.GUNA 21 from matter to spirit there it manifests itself as rajoguna. or s ttvik. The object of Tantrik s dhana is to bring out and make preponderant the sattva guna by the aid of rajas. manas. Each thing in nature then contains that in which spirit is manifested or reflected as in a mirror or sattvaguna. ranging from man to the Deva. Thus sattva is the light of Nature. When sattva is made active impressions of happiness result. r jasik. as tamas is its shade. ahamk ra. active passionate bodies. a blended tint oscillating between each of the extremes constituted by the other gunas. and when transferred to the sphere of feeling it shows itself as passion. The acting of rajas on sattva produces happiness. These impressions are the result of the predominance of these respective gunas. This is generally referred to as the quality of activity. by a veil of darkness or tamoguna. This body conveys impressions to the j v tma through the subtle body and the buddhi in particular. as it were. in the second. This subtle body creates for itself gross bodies suited to the spiritual state of the j vatma. Under the influence of pr rabdha karma. The subtle body (linga ar ra) of the j vatma comprises in it buddhi. which operates to make the former guna active. buddhi becomes t masik. as its own indepen- . Rajas is. In the first case the j vatma assumes inanimate bodies. and in the third. and that which is the vehicle for the descent into matter or the return to spirit or rajoguna. and the ten senses. and when rajas or tamas are active the impressions are those of sorrow and delusion. sattvik bodies of varying degress of spiritual excellence. The gross body is also trigun tmaka.

due to the operation of rajas. Where sattva or happiness is predominant. and from discrimination arises the recognition of pleasure and pain. with a corresponding lack of discrimination. as in the case of the inorganic world. As spiritual progress is made. whether by righteous or unrighteous acts. for discrimination is the effect of sattva in buddhi. always in the j v tma an admixture of sorrow with happiness. On the exhaustion of such karma.22 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA dent activity or operation on tamas produces sorrow and delusion respectively. sattva in buddhi is not suficiently active to lead to any degree of . the j v tma assumes animate bodies for the operation of such forms of karma as lead to sorrow and happiness mixed with delusion. is after all only a vik ra. or of activity of sattva. And where tamas or delusion predominates there. both happiness and sorrow are suppressed. which are the fruit of a high degree of discrimination. karma operates to the production of pure delusion. of the transitory and intransitory. there happiness and delusion are suppressed. and so forth. This is the result of the pursuit of happiness. All objects share these three states in different proportions. however. For happiness. the state of its own true nature——is that bliss ( nanda) which arises from the pure knowledge of the Self. The natural state of the j v tma——that is. the gross body becomes more and more refined. sattva is but little active. In the lower animal. there sorrow and delusion are suppressed. in which both happiness and sorrow are equally objects of indifference. There is. which is the fruit of righteous acts done to attain happiness. In the vegetable world. In inanimate bodies. conceptions of right and wrong. Where rajas or sorrow is predominant. The worldly enjoyment of a person involves pain to self or others.

are not capable of forming such conceptions in an equal degree. Therefore also is it said that is it better to follow one’’s own dharma than that. a process for the stimulation of the sattva guna.GUNA 23 development of these conceptions. and aid him to follow it by the infusion of the tejas which is in the Guru himself. will both mark out for the isya the path which is proper for him. A good guru. however. Therefore it is that the adoption of certain forms of s dhana by persons who are not competent (adhik ri). the sattva in buddhi is considerably active. For this reason the human birth is. of another. In man. Whilst s dhana is. the individual is yet gifted with that amount 1 of discrimination which. It must be adapted to the spiritual condition of the isya. by reason of his own nature and spiritual attainment and disinterested wisdom. otherwise it will cause injury instead of good. if properly aroused and aided.”” . it is evident that one form of it is not suitable to all. 1 Corresponding to the theological doctrine of ““sufficiency of grace. and in consequence these conceptions are natural in him. so important. may not only be fruitless of any good result. The degree of activity in an individual’’s buddhi depends on his pr rabdha karma. However bad such karma may be in any particular case. for spiritual purposes. will enable him to better his spiritual condition by inducing the rajoguna in him to give more and more activity to the sattva guna in his buddhi. but may even lead to evils which s dhana as a general principle is designed to prevent. however exalted it be. as stated. however. On this account proper guidance and spiritual direction are necessary. All men.

their mountains and rivers. II.THE WORLDS (LOKAS) THIS earth. Virtue is heaven and vice is hell. II. v-vii): and in the Bh gavata. Above the terrestrial sphere is Bhuvarloka. or giving pain.”” in which the Siddhas and other celestial beings (devayoni) of the upper air dwell. or the heavenly sphere. 26). is but one of fourteen worlds or regions placed ““above”” and ““below” it. Beneath it are the Hells and Nether World. which is the object of the physical senses and of the knowledge based thereon. and other Pur nas. the seventh and highest overhanging it in the Sahasr ra-Padma. These three spheres are the regions of the consequences of work. Heaven (svarga) is that which delights the mind. On this n di six of the upper worlds are threaded. “From the sun to the pole star” (dhruva) is svarloka. and are termed transitory as compared 1 Bhuvanajn nam s rye samyam t. as hell (naraka) is that which gives it pain. iii. chap. the names of which are given below. 2 Visnu-Pur na (Bk. of which (as the s tra says1) knowledge may be obtained by meditation on the solar “nerve”” (n di) susumn in the merudanda. ibid. the thousand-petalled lotus. The sphere of earth (Bh rloka). and with its oceans. Patanjali Yoga-Sutra (chap. or the atmospheric sphere known as the antariks . An account of the lokas is given in Vy sa’’s commentary on the s tra. extending ““from the earth to the sun. . is the seventh or lowest of the upper worlds.2 In the former is the abode of the Deva and the blest. vi). with its continents. V yu. chaps. Narakamin ti = kle am pr payati. in the Visnu-Pur na (Bk.

1 2 3 4 Ganabheda of Vahni-Pur na.4 his own embodied radiance.”” as Wilson (Visnu-Pur na) has it. dwell the N ga serpent divinities. but the knowledge of the tm which procures Liberation (moksa). and above it the three ascending regions known as the janaloka. Issuing from the Hells the j va is again reborn to make its future. there are thirty-four 2 though it is elsewhere said 3 there are as many hells as there are offences for which particular punishments are meted out. Yet below P t la is the form of Visnu proceeding from the dark quality (tamogunah). When the j va has received his reward he is reborn again on earth. . however. For it is not good action. Ras tala. Of these six are known as the great hells. Hinduism. Vitala. known as the Sesa serpent or Ananta bearing the entire world as a diadem. fascinating even the most austere. and the fourth. and P t la. Sutala. attended by his akti V run . Visnu-Pur na Not ““the Goddess of Wine. according to popular theology. tapoloka. and D navas wander. To it nothing is eternal but the Brahman. Tal tala. Above Svarloka is Maharloka. where. according to the Pur nas. knows nothing of a hell of eternal torment. which is of a mixed character. Dev -Pur na.THE WORLDS (LOKAS) 25 with the three highest spheres. and of which. even when popular. Below the Hells are the seven nether worlds. Atala. Below the earth (Bhah) and above the nether worlds are the Hells1 (commencing with Avichi). brilliant with jewels. and satyaloka. Mah tala. each inhabited by various forms of celestial intelligence of higher and higher degree.

Sarasvat . or ““heavenly and shining one””—— for spirit is light and self-manifestation——is applicable to those descending yet high manifestations of the Brahman. is the title of the Supreme Mother Herself. ranging from the highest Devas (of whom there are many classes and degrees) to the lowest animal life. Deva. Gaur . The scale of beings runs from the shining manifestations to the spirit of those in which it is so veiled that it would seem almost to have disappeared in its material covering. In the sense also in which it is said. in the beginning there was the Brahman.INHABITANTS OF THE WORLDS THE worlds are inhabited by countless grades of beings. A covering of metal may be so dense as to exclude from sight the rays of light which yet burns within with an equal brilliancy. . There is but one Light. and others. Dev again. A flame enclosed in a clear glass loses but little of its brilliancy. whose manifestations are many. such as K l . the latter term also includes lofty intelligences belonging to the created world inter1 Brhad ranyaka Up. It created the Devas””.1 ““Verily. or some other more opaque yet transparent substance. 2-3-2). the light is dimmer. such as the seven ivas. Visnu. one Spirit. Samdhy . including the Trinity (trim rti). (ix. and Rudra. G yatr . all such veiling forms are m y . They are none the less true for those who live in and are themselves part of the m yik world. If we substitute for the glass. paper. Brahma. As a fact. Laksm . and is again applied to the manifold forms assumed by the one only M y .

INHABITANTS OF THE WORLDS 27 mediate between vara (Himself a Purusa) and man. verse 50. who in the person of the Br hmana is known as Earthdeva (bh deva). Ita pergit derivatis deitatis ab ordine in ordinem et ab hierarchia in hierarchiam et a melioribus creaturis in deteriores pro capacitate cujusque in deificationem omnium. 2 3 Chapter 11. assimilata deinceps assimilant. iii). the priest of the Church on earth is called by Malachi (ii. 7) ““angel.”” On the other hand. which appears thus to be other than Itself through its connection with the up dhi or limiting conditions with which ignorance (avidy ) invests it. their worship is in reality the worship of the Brahman. and hence the Mah nirv na-Tantra says3 that.”” chap. the one Brahman. and perfecting those committed to his charge””.”” which is as Pseudo-Dionysius Areopagitæ says: ““From his announcement of the truth and from his desire and office of purifying. j va and jada (inorganic matter) are.1 These spirits are of varying degrees. so the worship given to any Deva is received by the Brahman. The hierarchies have also their reason and uses in Christian theology: ““Totus conatus omnium spirituum est referee Deum. when properly understood and given effect to. in their real. the br hmanical office. a common statement which appears in the Bhagavadgit and elsewhere. the latter drawing to Itself that which the former has sent forth. illuminating. those who. Though the worshippers of Devas may not know it. as opposed to their phenomenal and illusory being. Throughout these forms play the divine currents of pravrtti and nivrtti.2 Deva. do so as manifestations. and thus worship It 1 In like manner. Deus in primis potenter assimilat quod vicina sunt ei. . in fact. Therefore all being which are the object of worship are each of them but the Brahman seen though the veil of avidy . knowing this. of Brahman. ““as all streams flow to the ocean. worship the Devas. For there are no breaks in the creation which represents an apparent descent of the Brahman in gradually lowered forms.”” (““Coletus de Cœœlesti Hierarchia Dionysii Areopagitæ.

Daitya. also. ““Quod autem angeli Dii vocantur testatur iliud geneseos dictum Jacob a viro luctatore. Opposed to the divine hosts are the Asura.28 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA mediately. prevails”” (Namastat karmabhyovidhirapi na yebhyah prabhavati).”” 3 . maintenance. some of whom are mentioned in the opening verses of the first chapter of the text. So it is said.”” etc. and those which have (s dhya) evolved from humanity as in the case of King Nahusa. over which not even Vidhi (Brahm ).”” chap. As to the Christian doctrine on the Angels. with such conception of the celestial hierarchies as is presented by the work of the Pseudo-Dionysius on that subject writtell under the influence of Eastern thought (Stephen Bar Sudaili and others). 1 And again: Ye samast jagatsrstisthitisamh ra k rinah Te’’pi k lesu liyante k lo hi balavattarah.”” The patristic doctrine is summarised by Petavius ““De Angelis. are subordinate to both time and karma.3 the Christian conception of these Beings. the most glorious symbol in the physical world. and destruction of the world disappear in time because time is more strong than they). ((Even all those who are the cause of the creation. for though the world of Devas has in some respects analogy to the angelic choirs. xii. All Devas. those which have not.1 The rendering of the term ““Deva”” as ““God””2 has led to a misapprehension of Hindu thought. ““Salutation to Karma. ““De Angelis. see Suarez.”” In the lower ranks of the celestial hierarchy are the Devayonis. with other spirits. R ksasa. 2 Though. The use of the term ““angel”” may also mislead. The Devas are of two classes: ““unborn”” (aj ta)——that is. from the highest downwards. as Coletus says (““De Cœœlesta Dionysii Hierarchia. Particularly. is the m yik vesture of Her who is ““clothed with the sun. 8) the Angels have been called " Gods””. who. represent the tamasik or demonic element in creation. who became Indra. D nav . as I have elsewhere shown. The sun.

is daily offered to these pitrs. Atharv veda to Sumantu. numbering. the Yajurveda to Vaisampayana. The seven great Rsis or saptarsis of the first manvantara are Mar c .”” Pit Mah of the human race.1 Rsati-pr pnoti sarvam mantram jn nena pa yati sangs rap rangv . and Va istha. Tarpanam. Atri. the lunar ancestry who are addressed in prayer with the Devas.”” are a creation (according to some) separate from the predecessors of humanity. . To the Rsis the Vedas were revealed. Va istha. and Itih sa and Dogm. other ideas connoted by the Sanskrit term. according to the M rkandeya Pur na. The pitrs. Atri. etc. and others. and by their knowledge are the makers of stra and ““see”” all mantras. his ““mental sons””: the Agnisv tt h. Jamadagni. III. issued Marichi. who is known as the ““Grandfather. thirty-one. From Brahma.”” The Rsis are seers who know. and other classes of Pitrs. In other manvantaras there are other saptarsis. and are. or oblation. Vy sa taught the Rgveda so revealed to Paila. Gautama. the S maveda to Jaimini. Pulaha. 728 of his ““Interpretationes in artis Cabalistice scriptores““ 1587). but in fact excludes. Vi v mitra. Angiras. does not include. Bharadv ja. Pulastya. Havismantah. The cabalistic names of the nine orders as given by Archangelus at p. according to others. Usmap h. Saumsaya. 1 abdakalpadruma. Atri. tom. In the present manvantara the seven are K yapa. or ““Fathers. The term is also applied to the human ancestors of the worshipper generally up to the seventh generation to whom in r ddha (the obsequial rites) pinda and water are offered with the mantra ““svadh . Kratu. The word comes from the root rs.INHABITANTS OF THE WORLDS 29 their origin and functions.

Muni is so called on account of his mananam (manan t munirucyate). then Mananam. The three chief classes of Rsis are the Brahmarsi. who may be a Rsi.”” The human being is called j va1——that is. When these false notions 1 That is specially so as all embodiments.30 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA Pur na to S ta. as u ruta. and R jarsi or Kings who became Rsis through their knowledge and austerities. namely. K ma (desire). and Avidy (illusion). the Devarsi of lower rank. Buddhi. Mananam is that thought. etc. As the Mahabharata says. born of the mind of Brahma. is a sage. These two are followed by Nididhy sanam. . investigation. No one is a muni who has no independent opinion of his own (n sau muniryasya matam na bhinnam). the five organs of perception (jn nendriya). which is the thinking or understanding. of the Param tm are j va. the five organs of action (karmendriya). discussion upon. ““The Vedas differ. which is attention and profound meditation on the conclusions (siddh nta) drawn from what is so heard and reasoned upon. and discussion which marks the independent thinking mind. the embodied tm possessed by egoism and of the notion that it directs the puryastaka. Karma (action and its results). The rutarsi are makers of astras. the fourfold antahkarana or mental self (Manas. and testing of what is heard as opposed to the mere acceptance on trust of the lower intelligence. such as Janaka. such as Jaimini. The K ndarsi are of the Karmak nda. Ahamk ra. the five vital airs (Pr na). Rtap rna. whether human or not. Citta). The Muni. the five elements. listening. and so do the Smrtis. First there is ravanam.

teaching).: Br hmana (priesthood. arm. during the upanayana ceremony of the sacred thread. speaks of a fifth or hybrid class (s m nya). . there is no longer any j va remaining as such. and the wearer of the m yik garment attains nirv na. resulting from intermixture between the others. however. of whatever caste. thigh. sex or otherwise.INHABITANTS OF THE WORLDS 31 are destroyed. by study of the Vedas one attains the state of a vipra. and that he who has knowledge of the Brahman is a Br hmana. As the Gautamiya-Tantra says. and foot of Brahma. by samsk ra (upanayana) dvija (twice born). Vai ya (merchant). 1 Janman j yate drah Samsk r d dvija ucyate Veda-p that bhavet viprah Brahma jn n ti br hman h. It is a peculiarity of Tantra that its worship is largely free of Vaidik exclusiveness. and for all women”” (Sarvavarn dhik ra ca n rin m yogya eva ca). When the j va is absorbed in Brahman. ““The Tantra is for all men. A man of the first three classes becomes on investiture. VARNA ORDINARILY there are four chief divisions or castes (varna) of Hindu society——viz. It is said that by birth one is s dra. the embodiment is destroyed. 1 The present Tantra. whether based on caste. Ksattriya (warrior). dra (servile) said to have sprung respectively from the mouth. twice-born (dvija).

again. aiv vadh ta and Brahmvadh ta——of each of which there are. the grhastha rama only. et. following in the main. capacity.1 This Tantra2 states that in the Kali age there are only two ramas. For the Ksattriya there are the first three A ramas. aiv vadh ta. Mah nirv na Tantra deals with the avadh ta (those who have relinquished the world) in Chapter XIV. (2) aiv vad ta. it is now commonly said. (3) Brahm vadh ta. the period of secular life as a married house-holder or grhastha. or periods in the life of a Br hmana are: first. or brahmac ri. that of the chaste student. or bhiksu. that of the recluse. and meditates upon the Supreme Spirit to which he is about to return. The second grhasthya and the last bhiksuka or avadh ta. conditions. and (4) Hams dvadh ta. third. that of the beggar. i). nor the character. 4 Of the first class the divisions are firstly. the first two. The Bhairavad mara classes the avadh t into (1) Kul vad ta. Chapter VIII. Ibid. . who begs his single daily meal. distinctions made in this Tantra. when there is retirement from the world. for the Vai ya. or v naprastha. Though an 1 2 3 4 Yoga Y jnavalkya (chap. and for the dra. verse 142..RAMA THE four stages. two main divisions of avadh ta——namely. and powers of the people of this age allow of the first and third.3 There are. The two ramas prescribed for Kali age are open to all castes indicriminately. second. verse 8. seq. who is ap rna (imperfect). and lastly. Neither the conditions of life. three divisions. verse 12.

the avadh ta is competent for ordinary s dhana with a akti. like the aiv vadh ta. 2 . See the kaup napañcakam of amkar c ry . He is not permitted. the Brahm vadh ta. japa. though within certain limits he may practise some yoga. and passes his time doing p j . who ever enjoys the Brahman in the thought Ahambrahm smi. who has now left the world. a peculiarly “T ntrik”” precept. or places of pilgrimage. visiting the t rtha and p tha.RAMA 33 ascetic. for it is said in ruti “talp gat m na pariharet” (she who comes to your bed is not to be refused). however. as some may suppose. practise yoga accompanied by akti. whose senses are in repose. and is restricted to sv ya akti. except that he must under no circumstances touch a woman or metals. which though higher. who. Wearing only the kaup na. 2 Of the second class the three divisions are. is imperfect (ap rna) and householder. he is also a householder and like iva. and is permitted to meet the request of a woman who makes it of him. This is not..1 he renounces all things and all rites. firstly. under the guidance of his Guru. 1 The exiguous loin cloth of ascetics covering only the genitals. The third is the perfect stage of a aiva. amkar c ry says that talp gat m is sam gamarthinim. for the rule of chastity which is binding on him yields to such an advance on the part of woman. is still imperfect. to have a aiva akti. The second class Brahmaparivr jaka is similar to the aiva of the same class except that ordinarily he is not permitted to have anything to do with any woman. In this stage. though he may. adding that this is the doctrine of Rsi V madeva. The third or highest class——Hams vadhata——is similar to the third aiva degree. nor may he practise any rites or keep any observances. etc. where the Kaup nar n is described as the fortunate one living on the handful of rice got by begging. The second is the wandering stage of the aiva (or the parivr jaka). however. ever pondering upon the words of the Ved nta. Hence his name.

or macrocosms evolved from it. and organs of generation are the nether worlds. ““As above. sv dhisth na. The meru of human body is the spinal column. and m l dh ra lotuses respectively. Svah. chap. Satya has been said to be in the sahasr r . and Tapah. extending from top to bottom. II.MACROCOSM AND MICROCOSM THE universe consists of a Mah brahm nda. There are fourteen regions descending from Satyaloka. so below. anahata. sides. The seven substances of the body 1 The seven main chains of mountains in Bh rata (see Visnu-Purana. The macrocosm has its meru. which are microcosms reflecting on a minor scale the greater worlds which evolve them. Below m l dh ra and in the joints. The nadis are the rivers. As is said by the Nirv naTantra.1 Such are the correspondences as to earth. and of numerous Brhatbrahm nda. Janah. anus. Bh h in the jn . Bk. Bhuvah. iii). they are pindamadhyesthit .”” The mystical maxim of the West is stated in the Vi vas ra-Tantra as follows: ““What is here is elsewhere. The bones near the spinal column are the kulaparvata. or vertebral column. or grand Cosmos. the highest. all which is in the first is in the second. In the latter are heavenly bodies and beings. what is not here is nowhere”” (yadhih sti tadanyatra yanneh sti na tatkvacit). These are the seven upper and the seven nether worlds (vide ante). manip ra. in which the worlds are said to dwell. Mahah. vi uddhi. and within it are the cakras. . In the words of the kt nanda-Tarangin . Then as to water.

semen. etc. pr na. see chap. Sweat.MACROCOSM AND MICROCOSM 35 (dhatu)1 are the seven islands. for the personal soul of the microcosm corresponds to the cosmic soul (hiranyagarbha) in the macrocosm. Fire exists in the m l dh ra. tears. Bh ta uddhiTantra. and the like are the oceans. muscle. so is the body supported by the ten v yus. blood. susumn . . badala in the bones.3 The witness within is the purusa without. in susumna the fire of lightning. 2 As the worlds are supported by the pr na and other v yus (“airs”). 3 As to distribution of elements in the cakras. There is the same k a (ether) in both. navel and elsewhere. tendon. and in the navel earthly fire. The k m gni in m l dh ra. bone. 1 2 Skin. fat. iv.

but the two are different. Egyptian. Official science teaches that man appeared on the earth in an imperfect state. This passage is marked by the four ages (yuga). (d) Kali. (c) Dvapara.000. in conflict with the traditions of all peoples——Jew. ““Hindu Astronomy”” (1823). From this state of primal perfection he fell. There man was one with Nature.000 human years.320. Et eruditus est Moyse omni sapientia Ægyptiorum. from which he has since been gradually. The Garden of Eden is the emblem of the paradisiacal body of man. a privileged enclosure in a garden of delight 2 ——gan be Eden. which are again subdivided into seventyone mah yuga. The mah -yuga (great age) is itself composed of four yuga (ages)——(a) Satya. Such teaching is. Babylonian. p. Roman. called Satya. Treta. . the length of each of which is 4. 1 2 See Bentley.320. the last being that in which it is generally supposed the world now is. and Kali-yuga.000 years. and Christian——which speak of an age when man was both innocent and happy. (b) Treta. The yuga 1 is a fraction of a kalpa. raising himself. The kalpa. Genesis ii. Paradise is commonly confused with Eden. however. Greek. 10. or day of Brahm of 4. Paradise is in Eden. Hindu. 8.THE AGES THE passage of time within a mah -yuga influences for the worse man and the world in which he lives. Dv para. He was himself paradise. though continually. continuing his descent until such time as the great Avat ras. Christ and others. descended to save his race and enable it to regain the righteous path. is divided into fourteen manvantaras.

The third. and stature. 1 . or 1. and stature decreased. and of virtue there remained three-quarters. is that in which righteousness (dharma) decreased by onefourth. Men were still attached to pious and charitable acts. sacrifice and pilgrimage. Var ha. ““There were giants in those days”” whose moral. beauty.000 human years. and the Cf.800 Divine years. Man's stature was 14 cubits. mental.”” and Elie Reclus’’ celebrated work on the Primitives (1888). ““L’’Ideal du dixneuvième siècle. Longevity permitted lengthy spiritual exercises.”” see M. of which the chief was that to Naimi ranya.000 of the years of man. Methuselah and others: and for more favourable modern estimate of the ““Primitives. the Golden Age of righteousness. Leblond. strength. The duration was 3. Nr-simha. marked by longevity. and V mana. and lasted a lakh of years. penances. A. which. and physical strength enabled them to undergo long brahmac rya (continence) and tapas (austerities). physical strength. Their stature was 21 cubits. or Treta (three-fourth) Yuga. Life then depended on the marrow. and lasted 10. In this period appeared the avat ras of Visnu as Para ur ma and R ma. Matsya. is that in which righteousness decreased by one-half. free of sin. To this age belong the Avat ras or incarnations of Visnu. Of sin there appeared onequarter. or Dv para (one-half) yuga.296. 1 men dying when they willed. according to Hindu belief. K rma. the Biblical account of the long-lived patriarchs.600 Divine years.THE AGES 37 The Satya Yuga is. Longevity. when multiplied by 360 (a year of the Devas being equal to 360 human years) are the equivalent of 1.000 years. Life was in the bone. Its duration is computed to be 4. The second age.728.

The Kalki-Pur na speaks of Him as one whose body is blue like that of the . Men became restless. in which righteousness exists to the extent of one-fourth only. the elder brother of Krsna. Life which lasted 1.000 human years.000 years was centred in the blood. Kali-yuga is the alleged present age. This is the period which. and increase of weakness and disease mark this age. the Destroyer of sin. and though eager to acquire knowledge. takes his place.400 Divine. or 864. A further decrease in longevity and strength. The chief pilgrimage is now to the Ganges.000 years between this and the next yuga the Tantra was revealed. or 432. this age commenced in 3120 B. and the general decline of all that is good. disease. on the date of Visnu’’s return to heaven after the eighth incarnation. Stature is 3½ cubits. according to other accounts. C. Sin and virtue were of equal force. or intervening period of 1. is characterized by the prevalence of viciousness.200 Divine. 100. and followed both good and evil pursuits. has yet to come.000 human years. according to the Pur nas and Tantras.38 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA duration was 2. who. Anustubh cary and Jaya-deva) the avat ra of Visnu as Bala-r ma. years. Stature was 7 cubits. is dependent on food. In the samdhya. were deceitful. the duration of which is 1. or Kalki Avat ra. To this age belongs (according to Vy sa. which lasts at most 120. The principal place of pilgrimage was Kuruksetra. It is He who will destroy iniquity and restore the age of righteousness. In this age has appeared the Buddha Avat ra. The last. Human life. or. weakness. According to some. as it will be revealed at the dawn of every Kali-yuga. as some say.

the Lord reposing in yoganidr (yoga sleep in pralaya) on the Serpent esa. Then a night of dissolution (pralaya) of equal duration follows. when the universe is created and the next kalpa follows. Lord of the Universe!”” With the satya-yuga a new maha-yuga will commence and the ages will continue to revolve with their rising and descending races until the close of the kalpa or day of Brahma. . O Hari. assuming the body of Kalki. who with sword in hand rides. Be victorious. the Cherisher of the people. Ke ava. as does the rider of the Apocalypse. addresses Him thus: For the destruction of all the impure thou drawest thy scimitar like a blazing comet. O how tremendous! Oh. Destroyer of the race of the Kali-yuga. the Endless One. And Jayadeva.THE AGES 39 rain-charged cloud. the source of true religion. till day-break. in his Ode to the Incarnations. a white horse swift as the wind.

and others. See abda-ratn vali. and Brahmavaivartta Pur na. says that ruti is of two kinds. All others are based on it. (4) The Tantra. Thus the Tantra is that presentment of ruti which is modelled as regards its ritual to meet the characteristics and infirmities of the Kali-yuga. Itih sa (history).1 The Hindu stras are classed into: (1) ruti. Jn na-K nda. which commonly includes the four Vedas (Rg. Smrti. Atharva) and the Upanisads. such as the Dharma astra of Manu and other works on family and social duty prescribing for pravrttidharma. For each of these ages a suitable stra is given. the celebrated commentator on Manu.THE SCRIPTURES OF THE AGES EACH of the Ages has its appropriate stra or Scripture. where it is dealt with in greater detail. Upapur n s. are different presentments of ruti appropriate to the humanity of the age for which they are given. Vaidik and T ntrik (vaidiki-t ntriki caiva dvi-vidha rutihk rtit ). The Veda is the root of all stras (m la. Pur na. The Tantra is spoken of as a fifth Veda.stra). designed to meet the characteristics and needs of the men who live in them. rutij vik . As men On the subject matter of this paragraph see my Introduction to ““The Principles of Tantra”” (Tantra-tattva). The various stras. there were originally four lakhs. (2) Smrti. chap cxxxii.2 of which. S ma. which term includes amongst other things Dharma.stra. Kulluka-Bhatta. the books of Va istha. however. (3) The Pur nas. V lm k . the doctrine of which is philosophically exposed in the Ved nta Dar ana. 1 These are referred to as samhit (collection). 2 . according to the Brahma-vaivarta Pur na. Yajur. and of which eighteen are now regarded as the principal.

So the T r -Pradipa (chap. in the Dv para Yuga. the Pur na. The Mah nirv na 2 and other Tantras and T ntrik works 3 lay down the same rule. Kul c ra is the central informing life of the gross body called ved c ra.). etc. In a similar way. the Tantra.THE SCRIPTURES OF THE AGES 41 have no longer the capacity. being more and more subtle sheaths. in Tret -yuga. i) says that in the Kali-yuga the T ntrika and not the Vaidika-Dharma is to be followed (see as to the stras. it is described to bear the relation of the Par m tm to the J v tm . The Kul rnava-Tantra says1 that in the Satya or Krta age the stra is ruti (in the sense of the Upanisads). 1 Krte rutyukta c ras Tret y m smrti-sambhav h. for the attainment of that which is the ultimate and common end of all stras. and in the last or Kali-yuga. 2 3 Chapter I.stra and rutij vik . Dv pare tu pur noktam K lau gama kevalam. each of the c ra which follow it up to kaulc ra. or means or practice of its own. . The Tantra is also said to contain the very core of the Veda to which. which should now be followed by all orthodox Hindu worshippers. longevity. Smrti (in the sense of the Dharma. the Tantra prescribes a special s dhana. verse 23 et seq. and moral strength necessary for the application of the Vaidika Karma-k nda. my Introduction to ““Principles of Tantra””).

In the vital body He feels alive. Vijn namaya the higher mental or (theosophical) causal body. appears as though He were limited by them.2 In the first the Lord is self-conscious as being dark or fair. the city of Brahman. 1 2 An apparently conditioning limitation of the absolute. water. and the highest the tmik body.THE HUMAN BODY THE human body is Brahma-pura. Thus garmented with the five garments. vijn na-maya. . 3 M nasoll sa of Suresvar c rya. though all-pervading. old or youthful. which is called the ““sheath of food”” (anna-maya ko a). Commentary on third loka of the Daks ina-m rti-stotra. mano-maya. Mano-maya represents the astral (K ma) and lower mental body. the Lord. and the body of bliss. and thirsty. THE FIVE SHEATHS In the body there are five ko as or sheaths——annamaya. In the mental bodies He thinks and understands. According to ““Theosophic”” teaching. reign the elements earth.3 ANNA-MAYA KO A In the material body. or the physical and vital bodies. hungry. short or tall. nandamaya. the first two sheaths are apparently the physical body in its dense (Anna-May ) and etheric (Pr na-maya) forms. the two mental bodies. pr na-maya. vara Himself enters into the universe as j va. And in the body of bliss He resides in happiness. Wherefore the mah -v kya ““That thou art”” means that the ego (which is regarded as j va only from the standpoint of an up dhi)1 is Brahman.

legs. which is assimilated by the fire of digestion. from the father. which are those presiding in the lower Cakras. The organs of sense (indriya) are of two kinds——viz. closing and opening eyes. the colour of fire. mouth. walking. There are ten v yus (airs) or inner vital forces of which the first five 2 are the principal——namely. which manifests itself in air and ether. hair. These are all aspects of the action of the one Pr na-devata. ud na. anus.: jn nendriyas or organs of sensation. flesh. blood. Sv dhisth n and Mani-p ra centres. and the milky sam na. The two former produce food and drink. and distension. eyes. assistance to digestion. In the gross body ( ar ra-ko a) there are six external ko as——viz. through which knowledge of the external world is obtained (ear. muscle. krkar . the M l dh r . The Minor v yus are n ga. the sapphire pr na. 1 which come from the mother. holding. the functions of which are speech. PR NA-MAYA KO A The second sheath is the pr na-maya-ko a. arms. the presiding elements in the An hata and Vi uddha-cakras. nose). producing hiccup. and bone.”” . and karmendriya or organs of action. Kundalin is the Mother of pr na. or sheath of ““breath”” (pr na). ukla (semen) instead of m msa 2 See S rada-tilaka. ii) gives (flesh). marrow. and converted into the body of food. and procreation. skin. The indriyas are both the faculty and organs of sense. devadatta. the silver vy na. as distinguished from the faculty of sense. k rma. excretion. yawning. dhanamjay . penis. tongue.. ““which leaves not even the corpse. There are in this body the material organs. ap na the colour of an evening cloud.THE HUMAN BODY 43 and fire. which 1 The Prap nca-Sara (chap.

The above is the Vedantic classification. the M la-Prakrt . the faculty 2 whereby the mind in its widest 1 According to Samkhya. certainty).”” Vy na is the separate v yu. MANO-MAYA.. excrement. Buddhi. and citta. which is four-fold-namely. of the second. digestion. illumined by the light of the Supreme tm generates. of the fourth consciousness (abhimana). expelling wind. the mind in its two-fold aspect of buddhi and manas. determines. which is set over and against the subjective self by Ahamkara. or the universal force of activity. effecting division and diffusion. etc. VIJN NA AND ANANDA-MAYA KO AS The next two sheaths are the mano-maya and vijn na kohas. Ap na is the downward v yu. throughout the body. Specifically considered. . determination (niscaya-k rini). self-hood (ahamk ra). excretion. Manas automatically registers the facts which the senses perceive. These forces cause respiration. ““conducting equally the food. etc. divided on entering each individual into five-fold function. (uncertainty. These coustitute the antah-karana. kindles the bodily fire.44 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA She. The sam na. discriminates. and cognizes the object registered. which with expiration is from and to a distance of eight and twelve inches respectively. urine. citta is included in buddhi. 2 The most important from the point of view of worship on account of mantra-smarana. The function of citta is contemplation (cint ). pr na is inspiration. of the third (egoity). 1 The function of the first is doubt. Ud na is the ascending v yu. and semen. devat -smarana. on attending to such registration. Pr na is v yu. samkalpavikalp tmaka. circulation. or collective v yu.

The second is svapna. when the sense organs being withdrawn.ar ra) comprises the ten indriyas. which are the outer doors through which it looks forth upon the external world. The faculties. The antah-karana is master of the ten senses. and the five functions of pr na. citta endures. . as opposed to the organs or instruments of sense.THE HUMAN BODY 45 sense raises for itself the subject of its thought and dwells thereon. The physical or gross body is called sth la. has three states of consciousness——namely. buddhi. and it and buddhi work on that which manas has registered in the waking state. In the latter the tm of the last sheath of bliss resides. the j grat. The subtle body (s ksma ar ra also called linga ar ra and k rana. when through the sense organs are perceived objects of sense through the operation of manas and buddhi. The tm . ahamk ra. reside here. or waking state. exists. by its association with the up dhis. For whilst buddhi has but three moments in which it is born.arira. Here manas ceases to record fresh sense impressions. The centres of the powers inherent in the last two sheaths are in the jn Cakra and the region above this and below the sahasr ra lotus.”” The J va is called j gari——that is. the dream state. This subtle body contains in itself the cause of rebirth into the gross body when the period of reincarnation arrives. It is explained in the vara-pratya-bh jn as follows——““the waking state dear to all is the source of external action through the activity of the senses. and dies. tm is conscious of mental images generated by the impressions of j grat experience. he who takes upon himself the gross body called Vi va. manas.

Hiranya-garbha is the collective form of these j vas. By the saying cited from the P tanjala-s tra three modifications of avidy are indicated——viz. Beyond susupti is the tur ya. preserves only the notion: ““Happily I slept. and this is the only realistic one for the yog which he attains through sam dhi- . but the j va is then not the supreme one (Param tm ). he is no longer j va as before. In the macrocosm the up dhi of these states are also called Vir t. ignorance. I was not conscious of anything”” (P tanjala-yoga-s tra). Hence. his individuality being merged in the causal body (k rana).. dominated by tamas. because the vehicle in the j va in the sleeping state is K rana. Its individuality is merged in the subtle body. and beyond tur ya the transcendent fifth state without name. because the state is associated with avidy . Sound sleep is that in which these three exist. Since in the sleeping state the pr jna becomes Brahman. and buddhi.46 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA The explanation of this state is also given in the work last cited. when manas itself is withdrawn. and Avyakta. due to the perception of idea there latent. The third state is that of susupti. Hiranyagarbha. ““The state of svapna is the objectification of visions perceived in the mind. The person in that state is termed pr jna. vara is the collective form of the pr jna j va. and happiness. or dreamless sleep.”” J va in the state of svapna is termed taijasa. The description of the state of sleep is given in the iva-s tra as that in which there is incapacity of discrimination or illusion. In the fourth state uddha-vidya is required. egoism. the vehicle of the j va in the fourth is declared to be mah -k rana. as Vai v nara is such form of the j va in the waking state.

The fifth state arises from firmness in the fourth. 35). speaks of 72000 n dis (see also Niruttara-Tantra. when pointing out that the T ntrik theory adds the fourth and fifth states to the first three adopted by the followers of the Upanisads. but this is not so. Of these n dis. more strictly tends to a close equality. for it is only beyond that. as the Author of the Sat-cakranir pana points out (verse 2). susumn is the greatest. but all the n dis of which the books on Yoga2 speak are not of this physical character. 3 It 1 2 N di-vijn na (chap. N di means a nerve or artery in the ordinary sense. or. but are subtle channels of energy. and again. 13) of three lacs and 50. quoting from Bh ta uddhi-Tantra. that susumn is outside meru.THE HUMAN BODY 47 yoga. Ida and Pingal are outside the meru. Sat-cakra-nir pana (commentary on verse 1). in his Commentary on the Lalit . and the iva-samhit (2. and to it all others are subordinate. Bh skarar y . the principal are fourteen. i. of which some are gross and some are subtle. pingal and susumn are the chief. vajr and citr n . says that the latter states are not separately enumerated by them owing to the absence in those two states of the full perfection of J va or of iva.”” which is unity. It has been thought. and of these fourteen. of these three. p. J va in tur ya is merged in the great causal body (mah -k rana). N DI It is said1 that there are 3½ crores of n dis in the human body. Pr natosin . Susumn is in the hollow of the meru in the cerebro-spinal axis. He who is in this state becomes equal to iva. ida. the quoted passage in Nigama-tattva-s ra referring to susumn . verses 4 and 5). that ““the spotless one attains the highest equality. 3 . on the authority of the Tantra-c d -mani. Hence even in the fourth and fifth states there is an absence of full perfection which constitutes the Supreme.000.

flow separately from that point.”” ““fire. Pingal is on the right. .”” the fluid of mortality.”” ““water. in the form of the moon (candra-svar p ).”” which are united at the jn -cakra. interlacing id and pingal and the jn -cakra round which they pass. has its exit in the left nostril. Susumn is thus trigun .48 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA extends from the M ladhara lotus. Within the latter is the pale nectar-dropping citr or citrin n d . and coiling round susumn . The m l dh ra is called Yukt (united) triveni. Id is on the left side. These three ““rivers. Yamun (Pingal ). and is sun-like (s rya-svar p ). the cakras being described as knots in the n d . The opening at the end of the susumna in the m l dh ra is called brahma-dv ra. and has within it the vajrinin di in the form of the sun (s rya-svar p ).1 to the cerebral region. which is also called Brahma-n d . the Tattvik earth centre.”” are not to be identified with the so-called popular ““elements”” of those names. since it is the meeting-place of the three n d s which are also called Ganga (Id ). 1 The Tattvas of ““earth. Id is of a pale colour. after the three sacred rivers of India. and similarly coiling. Susumn is in the form of Fire (vahni-svar pa). Outside the meru and on each side of susumn are the n d s id and pingal .”” ““air. The susumn . The various lotuses in the different Cakras of the body (vide post) are all suspended from the citra-n d . Pingal is red. and contains nectar.”” and ““ether. is moonlike (candra-svar p ). containing ““venom. thus form a representation of the caduceus of Mercury. enters the right nostril. and Sarasvati (susumn ). which is closed by the coils of the sleeping Dev Kundalin . and for this reason the jn -cakra is called mukta triveni. which is as thin as the thousandth part of a hair.

”” ““sam”” and ““sam. ““Earth”” evolved from ““water”” is the Tattva of the cakra. an hata. vi uddha. The Devi Kundalin . or dynamic Tattvik centres. These and other terms are employed to represent realities of yoga experience. more subtle M la. Thus the lotus is a plexus of n d s. M L DH RA M l dhara 1 is a triangular space in the midmost portion of the body. In the centre of this lotus is Svayambh -linga. with the apex turned downwards like a young girl’’s yoni. situate between the base of the sexual organ and the anus. On the four petals are the four golden varnas——““vam. param nanda (supreme bliss). the disposition of the latter at the particular cakra in question determining the number of the petals.3 The lotus.”” ““ am. Over all these is the thousandpetalled lotus (sahasr ra-padma).””2 In the four petals pointed towards the four directions ( na. for the m l dh ra is the root of Susumn and that on which Kundalin rests. It is described as a red lotus of four petals. hang downwards. dh ra. 1 It need hardly be said that it is not supposed that there are any actual lotuses or letters engraved thereon.) are the four forms of bliss——yog nanda (yoga bliss).THE HUMAN BODY 49 CAKRAS There are six cakras. support. sahaj nanda (natural bliss). the m l dh ra. and jñ ——which are described in the following notes. Citrin -n d is figured as a tube.. like the colour of a young leaf. and vir nanda (vira bliss). in the body——viz. manip ra. etc. sv dhisth na. the root. linga and brahma-dv ra. through which the Devi ascends. 2 3 Hence She is called in the L lit -sahasra-n ma (verse 106) M l dh r m-buj rudh. . and the opening at its end at the base of the linga is called the door of Brahman (Brahma-dv ra). ruddy brown.

called the prthivi-(earth) mandala.”” ““ram. Here is the b ja ““lam”” and with it prthivi on the back of an elephant. 3 Who according to the Sammohana-Tantra (chap. Its pericarp is red.”” ““bham. ii).”” When awakened.2 and the red four-handed akti D kin . and within the triangle is the red Kandarpa-v yu.”” ““yam. is called Kundalin . Here also are Brahm and S vitr . mistrust).”” In the six petals are also the vrttis (states. it is She who gives birth to the world made of mantra. ““the Glittering Dancer”” (as the aradatilaka calls Her) ““in the lotus-like head of the yog . . and its petals are like lightning. 1 A red fiery triangle surrounds svayambh -linga. qualities. as some 1 2 See Pr na-tosin . acts as keeper of the door.3 SV DHISTH NA Sv dhisth na is a six-petalled lotus at the base of the sexual organ. Outside the triangle is a yellow square. 45. m rchch (delusion. for here is the seat of creative desire. and expressed in the form of the whole universe.”” ““mam. a form of Prakrti pervading. ““Water”” evolved from ““fire”” is the Tattva of this cakra. above m l dh ra and below the navel. of K ma. pra raya (credulity) a-vi v sa (suspicion. lies asleep coiled like a serpent around the linga.50 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA than the fibre of the lotus. or air. or. The Dev has forms in the brahm nda. supporting. and luminous as lightning. functions or inclinations)—— namely. to which is attached the ““eight thunders”” (asta-vajra). or body. and closes with Her body the door of Brahman. The varnas on the petals are ““bam. The Dev is S vitr as wife of the Creator. avajn (disdain). Her subtlest form in the pind nda. p.”” and ““lam. who is called Savit because He creates beings. or form of the apana v yu.

fourhanded. is within the figure. to each side of which figure are attached three auspicious signs or svastikas.”” ““pam. He has three eyes and two hands. disgust). moha (ignorance). In front of him are Rudra and his akti Bhadra-k li. MANI-P RA Mani-p ra-cakra 2 is a ten-petalled golden lotus. lajj (shame). ““destruction of everything. ““Fire”” evolved from ““air”” is the Tattva of the cakra. the dark blue Mah visnu.”” and a triangular figure (mandala) of Agni. and in it is Varuna himself seated on a white alligator (makara). Rudra is of the colour of vermilion.”” which false knowledge leads to. red.1 and kr rat (pitilessness). So-called.”” ““dam.”” ““nam. . ghrn (aversion. Agni. sarva-n a (false knowledge).3 vis da (sadness).”” ““dham. and the b ja of Varuna. susupti (laziness).”” ““tam.”” Inside the b ja there is the region of Varuna. situate above the last in the region of the navel. of the shape of an half-moon.”” ““dham. and on them are the blue varnas——““dam. namely. The ten petals are of the colours of a cloud. kas ya (dullness). Lord of Fire.”” ““nam. and Saraswat . and seated on a ram. trsn (desire). it is said by some. 3 Deeply so.THE HUMAN BODY 51 say. and is old. bhaya (fear). With one of these he makes the sign which grants 1 2 Lit. His body is smeared with ashes. Within the pericarp is the b ja ““ram. because during samaya worship the Dev is (P ra) with gems (man ): see Bh skara-r ya’’s Commentary on Lalit sahasra-n ma.”” ““tham. Lord of water or ““vam. Mah laksm . rs (jealousy). verses 37 and 38. disinclination). By others it is so called because (due to the presence of fire) it is like a gem. pi unata (fickleness).”” ““pham”” and the ten vrttis (vide ante). with complete disinclination to action: absence of all energy. In front is the blue fourhanded R kin akti. Within a semicircular space in the pericarp are the Devat .

situate above the last and in the region of the heart.”” ““Tam.”” "Jam". mamat (sense of mineness).52 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA boons and blessings.”” ““Gham. vara. who is the Overlord of the first three cakras is of the colour of molten gold. ahamk ra (conceit). lustrous as lightning.1 dambha (arrogance or hypocrisy).”” ““Nam. spoken of in the text. Near him is the three-eyed K kin . cinta (care. anxiety). Near him is the four-armed L kin . cest (endeavour). viveka (discrimination). vikalat (langour). wearing yellow raiments and ornaments. ““Air”” evolved from ““ether”” is the Tattva of the former lotus.”” ““Ñam.”” ““Kham. and with the other that which dispels fear. The solar region drinks the nectar which drops from the region of the Moon. ““Jham. Within this mandala is a red b nalinga called N r yana or Hiranyagarbha. with four hands holding the noose 1 Resulting in attachment. lolat (covetousness). and with His two hands grants blessings and dispels fear. and near it vara and his akti Bhuvane var . Above the lotus is the abode and region of rya. Her mind is maddened with passion (mada-matta-citta). vitarka (indecision). a (hope). which is to be distinguished from the heart-lotus facing upwards of eight petals. anut pa (regret).”” ““Cham.”” ““Cam.akti. AN HATA An hata-cakra is a deep red lotus of twelve petals. .”” ““Tham. where the patron deity (Ista-devat ) is meditated upon.”” and the twelve vrttis (vide ante)——namely. kapatata (duplicity). On the twelve petals are the vermilion varnas——““Kam.”” ““Gam.akti of the colour of molten gold (tapta-k ncana). A triangular mandala within the pericarp of this lotus of the lustre of lightning is known as the Trikona akti.

VI UDDHA Vi uddha-cakra or Bh ratisth na. traditionally counted with the vowels in the alphabet.”” ““svadh . 1 Here.”” ¯ ““rm.”” Inside the lotus is a six-cornered smoke-coloured mandala and the circular region of smoke-coloured V yu. rsabha.”” ““em.”” ““ m.”” ““sv h . She wears a garland of human bones. like the tapering flame of a lamp.] . g ndh ra. or the colour of fire seen through smoke.”” ““im. e.”” ““rm. too.”” ““om. also.”” ““phat.”” ““am.”” ““aim. She is excited. the b jas ““hum.THE HUMAN BODY 53 and drinking-cup.”” The lotus is of a smoky colour. There also are the regions of the full moon and ether. within which is the androgyne iva. are several other aktis. Here. dhaivata and pañcama): ““venom”” (in the eighth petal). and making the sign of blessing.2 the ¯ seven musical notes (nisada.. abode of the Dev of speech. who is seated on a black antelope. is the embodied tm (j v tm ). madhyama.””] [The last two are the anusvar and vi arga. as also the b ja of air (v yu) or ““yam. is above the last and at the lower end of the throat (kantha-mala). so both the a and anusvara appear the same both in the Devanagari script (A<) and romanized form. It has sixteen petals.”” ““lm. (see.”” ““ah””. with its b ja ““ham.”” ““ m. The Tattva of this cakra is ““ether.g. and that which dispels fear. sadja.”” ““vausat. plates in The Serpent Power) they are written with the anusvara dot above. not strictly vowels but marks which modify vowel sounds. and her heart is softened with wine.”” ““l m. The former is romanized as ““m”” or ““m.”” In the symbolic representation of the letters on the lotuses. such as Kala-ratri.”” ““ m. A (a).”” ““namah. which carry the red vowels——““am. In the pericarp is a triangular region.”” The k a-mandala is 1 2 [““…… more than a little drunk.”” and in the sixteenth petal. and more than a little mad. known as Ardhan r vara.”” ““vasat. whereas the anusvara and vi arga are attached to the first vowel.”” ““um. nectar (amrta).

kheda (dejection). desire). ten arms. 4 oka (sorrow.akti. sambhrama (agitation). Pingal and Susumn ——go their separate ways. dama (self-command). Near Him is the white akti kini. bearing the following vrttis:—— raddh (faith). arati (detachment). and with the other he makes the mudras which grant blessing and dispel fear. grief). holding in Her four hands the bow. 53 says: “The noose is icch iakti. dressed in yellow raiments. and the bow and arrows kriy . apar dha (sense of error). Through respect. uddhat (purity). Above the cakra. and is dressed in tiger skins.5 Urmi (appetite. with five faces.”” But the Yogin -hrdaya i. JÑ jñ -cakra is also called parama-kula and muktatri-ven . The V make vara-Tantra says: ““The noose and the elephant-hook of Her are spoken of as desire and anger. and the hook. the goad jn na. in some Tantras. as in the case of man and wife. In this cakra there is no gross Tattva. the arrow. Desire is the v san form and the noose is the gross form (see next note). iva is white.akti. 4 5 Towards those younger or lower than oneself. situate between the two eyebrows.”” 2 3 Generally applied to the case of anger between two persons who are attached to one another. the noose. three eyes.54 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA transparent and round in shape. called Lalan and. sneha (affection). k a himself is here dressed in white. and mounted on a white elephant. which hold the noose1 (paia). m na 3 (anger). It is a red lotus with twelve petals. the elephant-hook2 (anku a). Kal -cakra. He has four hands. since it is from here that the three n dis——Id . but the subtle 1 The Dev herself holds the noose of desire. It is a two petalled lotus. at the root of the palate (t lumula) is a concealed cakra. santosha (contentment). .

or the absence of these. rasopabhoga. taste. and a rosary. (gentleness). ghranopalabhi. also a digit of the moon. vair gya (dispassion). On its petals are the red varnas ““ham”” and ““ksam. which are also called sixteen Kalas. myduta. SAHASR RA PADMA Above the jñ -cakra there is another secret cakra called manas-cakra. composure). Para. in which are jñ na-mudra. thrill). on which are abda-jñ na. sampat (prosperity). a drum (damaru).THE HUMAN BODY 55 Tattva mind1 is here. and Mahe vara. Kal ——a part. It is a lotus of six petals. or the faculties of hearing. respectively. which is called Itara. r pa-jñ na. and sleep. dhairya (patience. rom nca (rapture.iva in the form of ham sa (ham sa-r pa) is also there with his akti——Siddha-K li. and svapna. Within the triangular mandala in the pericarp there is the lustrous (tej maya) linga in the form of the pranava (pranav krti).2 a skull. . Visnu. Above this. dhrti (constancy). with six heads and four hands. again. It is a lotus of sixteen petals. there is another secret cakra.] 2 3 4 The gesture in which the first finger is uplifted and the others closed. called Soma-cakra. rajas and tamas. In the three corners of the triangle are Brahma.akti. or half the letter Ha. buddhi (as opposed to manas or the various other subtle tattvas which may be summarized in the English ““mind””). vinaya (sense of 1 [Specifically (as far as I can tell from The Serpent Power). That is. spar a-jñ na. 4 hasya (cheerfulness).”” In the pericarp is concealed the b ja ““om. 3 These Kalas are called krp (mercy). is also there. In this cakra there is the white H kini. spiritual prosperity. touch. smell.”” In the two petals and the pericarp there are the three gunas——sattva. sight. Hak r rdha.

there is the Paramahamsa. Near nirv na-kal is parama. there the Guru of all should be meditated. lustrous as the Sun. Close to the thousand-petalled lotus is the sixteenth digit of the moon. the altar of gems (mani-p tha). receptacle of the lunar nectar. the two feet iva and akti. restfulness). creatrix of tattva-jñ na. where yogis see the radiant vara. Above this is the pranava shining like a flame and above pranava the white crescent N da. the wings gama and Nigama. the island of gems (manidv pa). 1 2 Of demeanour evidencing a grave nature. The State of being undisturbed by one’’s emotions.akti. effort). luminous as the Sun. Above it are Bindu and Visarga.1 udyama (enterprise. infinitely subtle. and finer than the thousandth part of a hair. the beak Pranava. as fine as a fibre of the lotus. aksobha (emotionlessness). and over this lotus there is the ocean of nectar (sudh -s gara).nirv na. susthirat (quietitude. and above this last the point Bindu. On N da and Bindu. which is called am kal . root and abode of all bliss. dhy na (meditation). which is pure red and lustrous like lightning. In it is the crescent nirv na-kal . the forked lightning-like lines a. The body of the Hamsa on which the feet of the Guru rest is jñ na maya. and therein N da and Bindu. Above this last cakra is ““the house without support”” (nir lamba-pur ). humility). There is then a white lotus of twelve petals with its head upwards. This is the Ista-devat of all. hanging downwards. tha. ka.2 audarya (magnanimity) and ek grat (concentration). gambhirya (gravity). .56 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA propriety.akti. and the latter serves as an altar for the feet of the Guru. the eyes and throat K ma-Kal . as an altar.

such as Hari-hara-sth na. Parama-Brahma. the Supreme Spirit (param tma). and Parama. Parama.iva-Akula. In each of the petals of the lotus are placed all the letters of the alphabet. Parama-jyotih. Vaisnavas. This is the region of the first cause (Brahma-loka). Others call it by other names. the cause of the six preceding causes. and whatever there is in the lower cakra or in the universe (brahm nda) exists here in potential state (avyakta-bh va). all speak of the same. kt s. Prakrti-purusa-sthana. The power is the v caka.iva is in the form of the Great Ether (param k a-r p ). the Samkhya-sages. holding potentially within itself the gunas. It is the great Sun both cosmically and individually. akti-sth na.THE HUMAN BODY 57 Sahasr ra-padma——or thousand-petalled lotus of all colours——hangs with its head downwards from the brahma-randhra above all the cakras. Parama-purusa. Parama-hamsa. powers and planes.iva and dy .akti reside. But whatever the name. in whose effulgence Parama. Kula-sth na. Dev sth na. aivas call this place ivasth na.akti or saguna brahman. the Sun of the darkness of ignorance. .

It has been pointed out1 that the analogous Gnostic classification of men as material. the pa u-bh va (animal). and divyabh va (deva-like or divine). Some there are at the lowest end of the scale. dispositions. the latter may abuse the greater freedom he has won. characters (bh va). a j va of this class may prove superior to a jiva of the next. The term pa u comes from the root pa . an error to suppose that the pa u is as such a bad man. If the former. on the contrary.”” p. v ra-bh va (heroic). pity (day ).”” The pa u is in fact the man who is bound by the bonds (pa a). fear (bhaya). Baur. correspond to the three gunas of the S mkhya-dar ana. ““to bind. psychical and spiritual. which marks the first advance upon the higher forms of animal life. Others approach and gradually merge into the v ra class.THE THREE TEMPERAMENTS THE Tantras speak of three temperaments. ante) as they manifest in man (j va). and sloth ( lasya). producing such dark characteristics as error (bhr nti). There are also numerous kinds of pa u. custom 1 Richard Garbe. some less tamasik than others. It is however. some more. . In the pa u the rajo-guna operates chiefly on tamas. lacks enlightenment. or classes of men——namely. 48. as also before him. These divisions are based on various modifications of the gunas (v. of which the Kul rnava-Tantra enumerates eight——namely. shame (lajja). family (kula). who is greatly bound by matter. ““Philosophy of Ancient India. disgust (ghrna). ignorance and delusion (moh ). drowsiness (tandr ).

as opposed to the yog . m y -mala. Men of this class are also described in Tantra by exterior traits. He distinguishes one deva from ano1 2 3 Lalit -sahasra-n ma (verse 78).THE THREE TEMPERAMENTS 59 ( ila). but all such larger divisions are merely elaborations of the simpler enumerations. He who frees himself of the remaining impurity of anu becomes iva Himself. is pa up a-vimocin . and Vijn na-kevala are those bound by nava-mala only. and karma (action and its product). in ignorance and bondage. but She too. Instead of being Devat . A pa u does not touch a yantra. and thinks that the image is but a block of stone. The pa u is also the worldly man. and the tattva-jn ni. He entertains doubt about sacrifices and Tantra. and Karma-mala. Chapter VII. Pratayakal are those bound by the first and last. regards a mantra as being merely letters only. .1 Liberatrix of the pa u from his bondage. These are the three impurities (mala) called nava-mala. So the Kubjika-Tantra 2 says: ““Those who belong to pa u-bh va are simply pa us. are sixty-two. nor make japa of mantra at night. according to some.). bheda (the division also induced by m y of the one self into many). and is the cause of them. What has been stated gives the root notion of the term pa u. called anu (want of knowledge or erroneous knowledge of the self). and caste (varna). Similarly the Nity -Tantr (see Pr na-tosini. The Dev bears the p a. Other enumerations are given of the afflictions which. 547 et seq. Three divisions of pa u are also spoken of——namely. sakala. 3 He lacks faith in the guru. which are manifestations of the interior disposition. who are bound by the three p as.

. There are several classess of vira. The third. where pa ubh va is described.60 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA ther. who does not eat meat etc. 5 6 7 See Pr na-tosin . in short. all other forms of worship than their own. as to which see post. Nity -Tantra. of Picchil Tantra. he only thinks of external and ceremonial purity. p. those who. nor in the latter part of the day. and chap. that is as to maithuna as a part of vir c ra. Taking their usual duration to be four days.3 Such an one is called pa u and he is the worst kind of man. or highest.1 and worships without flesh and fish. As Tantrika v ra do. yet also largely (though in lessening degrees.6 who avoids sexual intercourse. and aiv c ra. The V ra and Divya are not so bound to maithuna on the fifth day only.2 and talks ill of others. are bound by the Vaidik rules which govern all pa us. X. That is. In fact. rajas more largely works on sattva. That is. again. This is a Vaidik injunction. 547. a common fault of the pa u the world over. . He is always bathing. decrying as sectarian-minded Vaisnavas do. class of man is he of the divyabh va (of which. the Picchil -Tantra (chap. until the highest stage of divya-bhava is reached) works independently towards the production of acts in which sorrow inheres. except on the fifth day after the appearance of the courses 7 (rtuk lam vin dev vamanam parivarjayet). not of internal purity of mind. there are several degrees——some 1 2 Not recognising that all are but plural manifestations of the One. owing to his ignorance. In the case of vira-bh va. even on the five auspicious days (p rvana)””. 3 4 All the Tantras describe the pa u as the lowest form of the three temperaments. following Ved c ra. etc. XX) says that the Vais nava must worship Parame vara like a pa u. Vaisnav c ra.””4 Similarly the Nitya-Tantra5 describes the pa u as——““He who doe not worship at night nor in the evening.

in which rajas operates on sattva-guna to the confirmed preponderance of the latter. cit. His faith is strong in Veda. though it seems to be true that this quality of uddhata which is referred to is the cause of such differences. The Picchil -Tantra 2 says that the only differenee between the vira and divya men is that the former are very uddhata. samdhy . 3 Chapter VII. p. Chapter X. in fact. and wearing clean cloth. where also bh va is described as the dharma of the manas. except that which his guru offers him. performs all the daily rites. He gives charity daily also. It is obvious that such statements must not be read with legal accuracy. through the greater prevalence of the independent working of the rajoguna in them than in the calmer sattvik temperament. He worships the Pitri and Deva. stra. the v ra the next best. See Pr na-tosin . He avoids all food. whether great or small. . the trpundara mark in ashes or red sandal. and that devat -bh va must be awakened through vira-bhava. lxiv). and all cruelty and other 1 2 Loc. The Nity -Tantra1 says that of the bh va the divya is the best. others completely realizing the deva-nature). by which is probably meant excitable. 570. and so also Utpatti-Tantra (chap. The Kubjik -Tantra 3 describes the marks of the divya as he ““who daily does ablutions. There may be. and ornaments of rudr ksa-beads. and Deva. Guru. performs japa and arcan . a considerable difference between a low type of v ra and the highest type of divya. He has a great knowledge of mantra.THE THREE TEMPERAMENTS 61 but a stage in advance of the highest form of vira-bh va. and the pa u the lowest.

and the whole brahmanda is pervaded by iva. For instance.62 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA bad actions. who is versed in Tantra and mantra. and is himself of the nature of a Devat . the Tantra only seeks to give a general picture. again. as a Bhairava. Similarly (in Nity Tantra). regarding both friend and foe as one and the same. He regards this universe as pervaded by str ( akti). . and. worships Parame vari with divya-bh va. Here. who is above all ritual acts. though he He worships all Devas. He ever strives for the attainment and maintenance of devat -bh va. or ve y and whether youthful or old. p n being taken after meals. He himself ever speaks the truth. iva is in all men. for some of the practices there referred to would not be performed by the avadhata. for he is unaffected by a of ghrn or lajj . An esoteric term. 1 2 the p 3 4 5 He is even str -khanda-panaj -rudhira-bh s tah. drawing no distinctions. Vaidik worship is by day. up-country Hindu who is a worshipper of R ma cannot even bear to hear the name of Krsna. and as Devat .3 and makes japa at night with his mouth full of p n. though both R ma and Krsna are each avat r of the same Visnu. and meditates upon his guru daily.5 He offers everything to the Supreme Dev . after eating. or portions of it. he does obeisance to the kulastr . He worships thrice daily. is p m ch li. refer to the ritual divya. All Devas he regards as beneficial. whether she has been brought by a d ti.akti. who is again himself but a partial manifestation of the great akti. as to which see Tantr bhidh na.1 He bows down at the feet of women regarding them as his guru2 (strin m p da-talam drstva guru-vad bh vayet sad ). an orthodox. The passage shows that it. the details of which are not applicable to all men of the divya-bhava class. He worships the Dev at night. and avoids the company of those who decry the Devat . That is.4 and makes obeisance to the kula vrksa.

THE THREE TEMPERAMENTS 63 would also share (possibly in intenser degree) the beliefs of divya men of all classes——that he and all else are but manifestations of the universe-pervading Supreme akti. vaisnav c ra. See y m rcana-candrik . So verse 54 speaks of the pa u as one who should himself procure the leaves. may also be. that a pa u may attain siddhi through the Tantra quicker than a v ra can. Paur nik mantra. if it may be the source of good.4 The Commentator explains the passage cited from the Tantra as meaning that the conditions and character of the Kali-yuga are not such as to be productive of pa u-bhava (apparently in the sense stated). It may be thought difficult at first sight to reconcile this (so far as the pa u is concerned) with other statements as to the nature of these respective classes. the source of evil. can. which. and water for worship. would appear to be used in a good sense3 as referring to a man who though tamasic. The term pa u. and 1 2 3 Chapter 1. so is the form of worship and s dhana. fruits. 343. or to allow of it’’s c ra (that is. and not look at a dra. in the Kali-yuga. without which the Vaidik. divya and pa u dispositions can scarcely be found. According to the temperament of the s dhaka. . when operating independently. and aiv c ra rites. he says. yet performs his functions with that obedience to nature which is shown by the still more tamasic animal creation free from the disturbing influences of rajas. in certain cases. verse 24. or even think of a woman. 4 For this reason it is possible. cited in Hara-tattva-didhitti. p. No one. the specific worship and s dhana of the other classes is strictly prohibited by the Tantra to the pa u. fully perform the ved c ra. It is said in this Tantra1 and elsewhere2 that. in these and similar passages. In fact. Vaidik c ra).

There can therefore be no pure pa u. No one now goes through the brahmac rya rama. does not mean that all are now competent for v r c ra. and are fallen.2 1 2 Pp. as are also those men who associate with them. there is no other way. men have taken to drink. and I have given the above-mentioned account with considerable diffidence as to complete accuracy. or adopts after the fiftieth year that called v naprastha. Now. iva for the liberation of men of the Kali Age has proclaimed the gama. The subject is a difficult one.64 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA yajña are fruitless. 570-571. that the Pr na-tosin 1 cites a passage purporting to come from the Mah nirv na-Tantra. It is only by the pa u-bh va that men may obtain mantrasiddhi. therefore. however. ““In the Kali Age there is no divya or v rabh va. and is only touched upon here. the Tantra is the governing astra. Kevalam pa u-bh vena mantra-siddhirbhavenrnam. It is to be noted. . The pure type of pa u for whom ved c ra was designed does not exist. which is apparently in direct opposition to the foregoing : Divya-vira-mayo bh vah kalau n sti kad -cana. For others who though pa u are not purely so.”” This matter of the bhava prevalent in the Kaliyuga has been the subject of considerable discussion and difference of opinion.”” The explanation thus given. This however. associate with the low. Under these circumstances the duties prescribed by the Vedas which are appropriate for the pa u being incapable of performance. Those whom the Veda does not control cannot expect the fruit of Vaidik observances. appears to amount to this. On the contrary.

which also deals with the qualities of the Guru. the Supreme Guru abiding in Kail sa. the giver of sacred knowledge is the more venerable father. Manu says: ““Of him who gives natural birth and of him who gives knowledge of the Veda. and the relationship between him and the disciple ( isya) continues until the attainment of monistic siddhi. The ordinary human Guru is but the manifestation on the phenomenal plane of the din th Mah k la.3 The guru is not to be thought of as a mere man.1 He it is who enters into and speaks with the voice of the earthly Guru at the time of giving mantra.2 Guru is the root (m la) of diksa (initiation). Since second or divine birth insures life to the twice-born in this world and the next. There is in reality but one Guru. Mantra-prad na-k le hi m nuse naga-nandini. and Devat is the root of siddhi. . so that the Guru occupies the position of a grandfather to the Ista-devat . Diksa is the root of mantra. qualities of the disciple and so forth. (ibid. full of the greatness of of Guru. indeed.”” The stra is.) 3 See chap. chap. the relationship between him and the disciple. Atastu gurut dev m nuse n tra sam ayah. i of the Tantra-s ra. It is the Guru who initiates and helps. The Munda-m l -Tantra says that mantra is born of Guru and Devat of mantra. i). There 1 2 Guru sth nam hi kail sam (Yogin -Tantra.GURU AND IS YA THE Guru is the religious teacher and spiritual guide to whose direction orthodox Hindus of all divisions of worshippers submit themselves. Adhisth nam bhavet tatra mah k lasya amkari. Mantra is the root of Devat .

siddha (siddh nga). and capacity for enjoyment. 2.: the Guru.66 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA is no difference between Guru. Matsya-s kta Mah tantra (chap. Guru. p. Parama-guru. should be rejected. free from false notions of 1 2 3 4 See Chapter VI. . i) and Pr na-tosin . Par para-guru. for the sins of the disciple recoil upon him.2 Good qualities are required in the disciple. who is ever engaged in doing good to all beings. 1. each of these being the guru of the preceding one. 3 and according to the S rasamgraha a guru should examine and test the intending disciple for a year. Khanda (chap. mantra. xv). Attached to this greatness there is however. Three lines of Gurus are worshipped. Tantras ra (chap. Mah rudra-y mala. constantly addicted to sin (sad p pa-kriya). 108. ignorant. and human (m navanga). xiii). a woman with the necessary qualifications may be a guru. mother. Pr na-tosin . purity of soul ( uddh tm ). xiii). Guru is father. can save from the wrath of iva but none can save from the wrath of the Guru. Paramestiguru. and Deva. viz. 5 6 Matsya-s kta Tantra (chap. whose senses are controlled (jitendriyah). and Brahman. it is said.”” See post. heavenly (divy nga).4 The qualifications of a good disciple are stated to be good birth.6 The perfect s dh ka who is entitled to the knowledge of all stras is he who is pure-minded. Khanda (chap. 5 Those who are lewd (k muka). ““The Great Liberation. slothful and devoid of religion. According to the Tantra. i).. See Tantras ra (chap.1 The Kula-gurus are four in number. and give initiation. combined with desire for liberation (puru-s rtha-par yanah). ii). adulterous (parad r tura). 108. responsibility.

). naturally this relation.1 So long as akti is not fully communicated (see next page) to the isya’’s body from that of the guru. ii. so long the conventional relation of guru and isya exists. however. A man is isya only so long as he is s dhaka. siddhi is attained. . With the attainment of pure monism. When. the supreme unity of the Brahman. as all others. 1 Gandharva-Tantra (chap. both Guru and isya are above this dualism. taking shelter with and living in.GURU AND ISYA 67 dualism. attached to the speaking of. disappears.

so the divine akti. seat the intending candidate on a mat of ku a grass. This is an index to the Sahasra-n m . He then makes japa of a ““sleep mantra”” (suptamantra) in his ear. that is the vital force (pr naakti) of the Supreme Guru whose abode is in the thousand-petalled lotus. i. which P nini says is the combination (sam hrta) of both. and then retires to rest. First Chal ksara-S tra. The day prior thereto the guru should.INITIATION: D KS INITIATION1 is the giving of mantra by the guru. japa of the mantra. Pracaya is Vaidik (ch ndasa). its opposite or the low accent and. At the time of initiation the guru must first establish the life of the Guru in his own body. gives spiritual knowledge and destroys sin. show that even the dras are not debarred the use of even the Pranava. Certain mantras are also said to be forbidden to dras and women. which follows. see Tantras ra. Initiation. There are three svaras in laukikavy karana——viz. the high accent. as is generally asserted. ud tta. chap. For 1 2 As to who may initiate. like the Sarv nukramanik to the Veda. prostrates himself at the feet of the guru. As an image is the instrument (yantra) in which divinity (devatva) inheres. however. and ties his crown lock. and other ritual acts. Without diksa. so also is the body of guru. . consisting of mantra. A note. The disciple. nowever. As one lamp is lit at the flame of another. anud tta. is communicated from the guru’’s body to that of the isya. according to Tantra. are said to be useless. in the first Chal ksara-S tr to the Lalita 2 would. svarit . who should have fasted and observed sexual continence repeats the mantra thrice. p j .

INTIATION: D KS

69

according to the K lik -Purana (when dealing with svara or tone), whilst the ud tta, anud tta, and pracaya are appropriate to the first of these castes, the svara, called auk ra, with anusvara and n da, is appropriate to udra, who may use the Pranava, either at the beginning or end of mantra, but not, as the dvija may, at both places. The mantra chosen for initiation should be suitable (anuk la). Whether a mantra is sva-k la or a-k la to the person about to be initiated is ascertained by the k la-cakra, the zodiacal circle called r icakra and other cakra which may be found described in the Tantras ra. Initiation by a woman is efficacious; that by a mother is eightfold so.1 Certain special forms of initiation, called abhiseka, are described in the next note.

1

Tantras ra, loc. cit.

ABHI S EKA
ABHISEKA1 is of eight kinds, and the forms of abhiseka which follow the first at later stages, mark greater and greater degrees of initiation. The first kt bhiseka is given on entrance into the path of s dhana. It is so called because the guru then reveals to the isya the preliminary mysteries of akti-tattva. By it the isya is cleansed of all sinful or evil akti or proclivities and acquires a wonderful new akti.2 The next, p rn bhiseka is given in the stage beyond daksin c ra, when the disciple has qualified himself by pura car na and other practices to receive it. Here the real work of s dhana begins. sana, yama, etc., strengthen the disciple’’s determination (pratijñ ) to persevere along the higher stages of s dhana. The third is the difficult stage commenced by krama-d ks bhiseka, in which it is said the great Va istha became involved, and in which the Rsi Vi v mitra acquired brahmajñ n and so became a Br hmana. The sacred thread is now worn round the neck like a garland. The isya, then undergoing various ordeals (pariks ), receives s mr jy bhiseka and mah s mr jy bhiseka, and at length arrives at the most difficult of all stages introduced by yoga-d ks bhiseka. In the previous stages the sadhaka has performed the pañc nga-pura carana, and with the assistance of his
1 Sprinkling, anointing, inaugurating, consecration as of a king or disciple. 2 Of the kt bhiseka two forms are also mentioned——r j and yogi (see Pr natosini. 254; V make vara Tantr , chap. 1; Niruttara-Tantra, (chap. vii). As to what follows, see Tantrarahasya, cited post.

ABHISEKA

71

guru (with whom he must constantly reside, and whose instructions he must receive direct), he does the pañcanga-yoga——that is, the last five limbs of the astanga. He is thereafter qualified for p rna-diks bhisek , sometimes called vir ja-grahan bhiseka. On the attainment of perfection in this last grade, the s dhaka performs his own funeral rites ( r ddha), makes p rn huti with his sacred thread and crown lock. The relation of guru and Sisya now ceases. From this point he ascends by himself until he realizes the great saying, So’’h m (““I am He””). At this stage, which the Tantra calls j van-mukta (liberated whilst yet living) he is called parama-hamsa.

the pañca-tattva. whose veiling vesture the body is. accomplishing the same s dhana. and consists in the exercise and training of the body and psychic faculties. divided into four classes——mrdu. is obviously different from that prescribed for. external control (dama) over the ten indriyas. exterior or mental. S dhana takes on a special character. the madhyamakaulika.S DHANA S DHANA is that which produces siddhi (q. according to their physical. and ahamk ra.). or common Kaula following v racara. manas. madhya. or practice. knowledge. and moral qualities. who is qualified (adhik r ) for all forms of yoga. In a similar way the Kaula division of worshippers are divided into the prakrti. upon the gradual perfection of which siddhi follows. but with a mind more turned towards meditation. and sam dhi. according to the end sought. s dhana for brahma-jñ na. The means employed are various. depends upon the progress made towards the realization of the tm . mantra and so forth. The s dhaka and s dhika are respectively the man and woman who perform s dhana. such as worship (p j ). . mental. They are. say. who having surpassed all ritualism meditates upon the Universal Self. or middling Kaula.v. the nature and degree of which. addicted to ritual practice. austerities (tapas). Thus. and the highest type of Kaula (kaulikottama). and renunciation both of the world and heaven (svarga). and the highest adhim trama. It is the means. stric learning. which consists in the acquisition of internal control ( ama) over buddhi. discrimination between the transitory and the eternal. the purposes of the lower magic. again. and s dhana with Pañca-tattva. adhim traka. by which the desired end may be attained.

Constant meditation by the yoga process upon the Devat in the heart is the lower and middlemost (dhy na-bh va).). P j -bh va is that which arises out of the dualistic notions of worshipper and worshipped. japa (q.v. or of a yantra (q. She exists as akti in stone or metal. 1 See ““Principles of Tantra.v.WORSHIP THERE are four difference forms of worship corresponding with four states (bh va). knows that all is Brahman. which takes its place. neither yoga nor p j . having realized the advaita-tattva.v. is the highest state or brahma-bh va.1 The realization that the j vtma and param tma are one. stava. This dualism exists in greater or less degree in all states except the highest. dhy na. In external worship there is worship either of an image (pratim ). and that nothing but the Brahman exists. vrata. and then by the life-giving (pr na-pratistha) ceremony infuse the image with Her life by the communication to it of the light and energy (tejas) of the Brahman which is within him to the image without. that everything is Brahman.) and stava (hymns and prayer) is still lower. and the lowest of all mere external worship (p ja) (q. nor dh rana.”” . there is neither worshipper nor worshipped. The s dhaka should first worship inwardly the mental image of the form assumed by the Dev . the servant and the Lord. from which there bursts the lustre of Her whose substance is consciousness itself (caitanya-may ). japa.). But for him who. or other ritual or process of s dhana.

or the reading of Vedas. such as yajña for a particular object.stra .74 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA or elsewhere. post). and even the lowest cand la. tapas with the same end (for certain forms of tapas are also nitya) and vrata (v. though upon the break-up of the cakra the ordinary caste and social relations are re-established. All castes. The first is both daily and obligatory. such as the T ntrik G yatr .) The dra is precluded from the performance of Vaidik rites. and is k mya when done to gain some particular end. which in the case of dras is in the Tantrik form. post). for in the words of the Gautamiya-Tantra. His worship is practically limited to that of the Ista-Devat and the B na-linga-p j . post. Karma is either nitya or naimittika. post). Such are the sandhy (v. may be a member of a cakra.and Kula-Devat (v. and is done because so ordained. Caitanya (consciousness) is aroused by the worshipper through the pr na-pratistha mantra. and recite the T ntrik mantra. post) of the Ista. and for Br hmanas the pañcamah -yajña (v. All are competent for the special T ntrik worship. such as the sandhy (v. In other cases the vrata is performed through a Br hmana. or T ntrik circle of worship. or the recital of the Vaidik mantra. and daily p j (v. the Tantra. In the cakra all its members partake of food and drink together and are deemed to be greater than Br hmanas. perform the Tantrik worship. The second or conditional karma is occasional and voluntary. but is there veiled and seemingly inert. Rites (karma) are of two kinds. with T ntrik and Paur nik mantra and such vratas as consist in penance and charity. All may read the Tantras. The Tantra makes no caste distinctions as regards worship. post).

The Kul rnava-Tantra mentions seven. .. 3 Ibid. 68.7 The c ra is the way. xv.strak ra that the wife may. As the Yogin -Tantra says. though it is said by ankha Dharma. Rudra-y mala. in a peculiar sense. and as wife of Guru. 2 Khanda (chap. but may. The extra divisions are bracketed in the following quotation. many worshippers for want of instruction by a siddha-guru have degenerated into mere eaters of corpses. as a Guru. ii). take vows. divisions of worshippers. can perform vyata. Her earthly representatives. According to the Tantra. all females who are Her embodiments are. one who is liberated from the terrible (ghora) sams ra. i). Annadalialpa Tantra cited in Pr na-tosini. i).6 Daksin c ra. fourth edition. li).). but in any case. fast. Aghora means. as some say. aiv c ra. or. (Aghor c ra. xxiv). V m c ra. M trka-bheda-Tantra (chap. initiate and give it. 339. in fact.WORSHIP 75 is for all castes and for all women. 1 Khanda (chap. This is generally regarded as a distinct sect though the author below cited says it is. It has been said that neither a virgin (kum r ). i). nine. Vaisnav c ra. See also Hara-tattva-d dhiti.1 The latter are also excluded under the present Vaidik system.3 She is worshipful as Guru. p. viii). custom and practice of a particular class of s dhakas. 4 The Dev is Herself Guru of all stras 5 and women. pp. as sometimes supposed. nor a woman during her period. 7 Chapter II. Siddh nt c ra. 1 2 Sarva-varn dhik rascha n rin m yogya eva ca (chap.2 etc. 4 5 6 Kankala-m lini-Tantra (chap. A short description (of little aid) is given in the Visvas raTantra (chap. They are not. FORMS OF C RA There are seven. 1 Khanda (chap. the first being the lowest: Ved c ra. it is said. where the qualifications are stated. not so. indeed. as. a woman may not only receive mantra. which are given in their order of superiority. et seq. with the consent of her husband. gurupatn mahe ni gurureva (chap. Yog c ra). a pregnant woman (garbhin ). the highest of all. and Kaul c ra. perform homa and vrata.

Following this is Daksin c ra. This is the path of action (kriy -m rga). This is the path of devotion (bhakti-m rga). jñ na). Entrance is made upon the path of knowledge (jñ na-m rga). —— ED. The worship is largely of an external and ritual character. devotion (bhakti). Ved c ra. the object of which is to strengthen dharma. This stage commences when the worshipper can make dhy na and dh ran of the threefold akti of the Brahman (kriy . There is union of faith.). is the gross body (sth ladeha). its subtle bodies (s ksma-deha) of various degrees. the sadhaka passes into aiv c ra. wherein to love and mercy are added strenuous striving and the cultivation of power. icch . towards which he has the feelings of devotion. which are. as it were. which comprises within it all other c ras. or Tantrarahasya of Sacchid nanda Sv mi.76 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA different sects. [No citation for this note in my copy-text. and the aim at this stage is the union of it and faith previously acquired.] . and understands the mutual connection (samanvaya) of the three gunas until he receives p rn bhisek (q. the warrior (ksatriya) stage. At this stage the s dhaka 1 See as to this and following the San tana-s dhana-tattva. and whereof the Dev is the DaksinaK lik .”” but ““favourable””——that is. In the second stage the worshipper passes from blind faith to an understanding of the supreme protecting energy of the Brahman. which in Tantra does not mean ““right-hand worship. but stages through which the worshipper in this or other births has to pass before he reaches the supreme stage of the Kaula. and inward determination (antar-laksa). that c ra which is favourable to the accomplishment of the higher s dhana. With an increasing determination to protect dharma and destroy adharma.v. which consists in the daily practice of the Vaidik rites.

marking. . (including the last three). it being said that men are born into Daksin c ra. however. and its aim is the union of faith. or dy akti——the union of the three aktis. or return to the source whence the world sprung. 1 It is comparatively easy to lay down rules for the parvrtti-m rga. In V m c ra. V m is here ““adverse. the path of worldly enjoyment. can only fully appear after the exhaustion of the forces of the outward current. Mahe vara. lat -s dhana. This is the stage of individualistic Brahmanattva. and later consciously. and entry is here made upon the path of nivrtti. He is fully initiated in the G yatr -mantra. In this c ra there is also worship of the V m -Dev . albeit curbed by dharma. but are received by initiation into V m c ra. and worships the Dev G yatr . and qualified for the worship of the threefold akti of Brahma. the Daksina-K lik . however. which. the entry upon the path of return (nivrtti). This it is which has led some to divide the c ra into two broad divisions of Daksin c ra (including the first four) and V m c ra. At first unconsciously. Up to the fourth stage the S dhaka followed pravrtti-m rga. ““lefthand worship”” but worship in which woman (v m ) enters. the s dhaka commences to directly destroy pravrtti. the outgoing path which led from the source. with a knowledge of the threefold energies. and with the help of the Guru (whose help throughout is in this necessary) 1 to cultivate nivrtti. that is. and determination. as it does. The latter term does not mean. but nothing can be achieked in V m c ra without the Guru’’s help. Visnu.”” in that the stage is adverse to pravrtti. as is vulgarly supposed. which governed in varying degrees the preceding c ra. devotion. s dhana sought to induce nivrtti. After this a change of great importance occurs.WORSHIP 77 is kta.

according to the Dev -Bh gavata.1 When r -Krsna stole the clothes of the bathing Gop s. shame (lajj ). and to qualify the s dhaka for the highest grades of s dhana in which the s ttvika guna predominates. 1 . He then reaches the stage of iva ( ivatva).78 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA The method at this stage is to use the forces of pravrtti in such a way as to render them self-destructive. and There are various enumerations of the ““afflictions”” (p a) which are. custom ( ila). family. But it is not only the lower physical desires of eating. Moha is ignorance or bewilderment. and Maha-moha is desire of worldly pleasures. ignoranc (moha). family (kula). merely elaborations of the smaller divisions. however. To the truly s ttvik there is neither attachment nor fear nor disgust. The Gop s were eight. drinking. and caste (varna). Passion. Thus. as are the bonds (p a). is directed inwards and upwards. The s dhaka must at this stage commence to cut off all the eight bonds (p a) which mark the pa u which the Kul rnava-Tantra enumerates as pity (day ). and made them approach him naked.: Siddh nt c ra. the j va is liberated from all bonds arising from his desires. Freed of these. It is the aim of V m c ra to liberate from the bonds which bind men to the samsara. which has hitherto run downwards and outwards to waste. and sexual intercourse which must be subjugated. and transformed to power. The passions which bind may be so employed as to act as forces whereby the particular life of which they are the strongest manifestation is raised to the universal life. and society. he removed the artificial coverings which are imposed on man in the samsara. and the errors by which the j va is misled are the clothes which r Krsna stole. That which has been commenced in these stages is by degrees completed in those which follow——viz.

He learns to reach the upper heights of s dhana and the mysteries of yoga. a dweller in the cremation ground (sma na). Here also the Guru teaches him the inner core of Ved c ra. and is ashamed of nothing. It is nothing in the sense that it has no 1 The Vaisnavas are wont to gather together for worship singing the praise of Hari.aiv h. is the heart of all sects. caste. like iva himself. sabhayam vais nav mat h. ktas.kt h. on the contrary. Initiation by yoga-d ks fully qualifies him for yog c ra. Aghor c ra and Yog c ra. is misunderstood. but. at heart. in gatherings. like many another touching the Tantra. He learns the movements of the different v yus in the microcosm. and society. which have as their own inmost doctrine (whether these worshippers know it or not) that of Kaul c ra. and used to fix the kaula with hypocrisy——antah. n n -r padharah kaul h vicaranti mah t le. 1 Vaisnavas. Kaula-dharma is in no wise sectarian. A Kaula is one who has passed through these and other stages. . the regulation of which controls the inclinations and propensities (vritti). The s dhaka becomes. under various forms the Kaulas wander on earth). bahih. the ksudra-brahmanda. The s dhaka becomes more and more freed from the darkness of the samsara. The form is nothing and everything. hates nothing. having freed himself of the artificial bonds of family. It is indifferent what the Kaula’’s apparent sect may be. (outwardly aivas.WORSHIP 79 according to some. and is attached to nothing. This the true meaning of the phrase which. etc. On attainment of perfection in ast ngayoga he is fit to enter the highest stage of Kaul c ra. He learns also the truths which concern the macrocosm (brahm nda).

The great Mother. It must not. which is the true gnosis in its perfect form. be supposed that each of these stages must necessarily be passed through by each j va in a single life. it is everything in the sense that knowledge may infuse its apparent limitations with an universal meaning. To him no difference is there between mud and sandal paste. his son and an enemy. form is never a bond. He becomes a Parama-hamsa. to be fallen (bhrasta). home and the cremation ground. he remains in constant samadhi. they are ordinarily traversed in the course of a multitude of births. His actions are unaffected either by the phases of the moon or the position of the stars. who is liberated whilst yet living (j van-mukta). The Visva-s ra Tantra says1 of the Kaula that ““for him there is neither rule of time nor place. dwells in the heart of the s dhaka which is now the cremation ground wherein all passions have been burnt away. The weaving of the spiritual garment is recommenced where.”” At this stage the s dhaka attains to Brahma-jñ na. Seated alone in some quiet place. again. At times. however. it was dropped. he at others appears. In the present life a s dhaka may commence at 1 Chapter XXIV. The Kaula roams the earth in differing forms. on death. in a previous birth. and attains its nirvikalpa form. . the Supreme Prakrti Mah akti. So understood. At times adhering to social rules ( ista). On the contrary. On receiving mah p rna-diksa he performs his own funeral rites and is dead to the samsara. he seems to be as unearthly as a ghost (bh ta or pi c ).80 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA power to narrow the Kaula’’s own inner life. according to their standard.

abda 1 Chapter II. Mantras are all aspects of the Brahman and manifestations of Kulakundalin . and so is a Kaula in its fullest sense. or ethereal space. however. is the manifestation of the Cit. As the Prapañca-s ra states. It is not. as abda-brahman. which produces the latter. or sound. abda is the guna of k a. . Philosophically. consisting of dhvani also called n da. as the Niruttara-Tantra says. it is by merit acquired in previous births that the mind is inclined to Kaul c ra. acquired after many births. In the same way. in the preliminary stages.WORSHIP 81 any stage. The former. and. and the like. so in the space within the j va’’s body waves of sound are produced according to the movements of the vital air (pr nav yu) and the process of inhalation and exhalation. is the subtle aspect of the j va’’s vital akti. MANTRA abda. which is of the Brahman. Knowledge of akti is. however. The Vi va-s ra-Tantra says1 that the Para-brahman. according to the Mah nirv na-Tantra. The manifestation of the gross form (sth a) of abda is not possible unless abda exists in a subtle (s ksma) form. won his entrance into it.akti itself. It is either unlettered (dhvani) or lettered (varna). waves of sound are produced by movements of air (v yu). the brahm nda is pervaded by akti. produced by k a. abda is itself the Brahman. as in outer space. it is because in previous births he has by s dhana. whose substance is all mantra. exists in the body of the j v tm . If he is born into Kaul c ra. but manifests in it. and as such the cause of the Brahm nda. pr na.

As Kulakundalin . it issues from the mouth as vaikhar . and is called madhyam . of the Devat are inherent in certain varnas. or imperishable Brahman. is but the manifestation of. vowel and consonant in a mantra. it is known as pa yanti. less subtle when it has reached the heart. so the substance of all mantra is cit. is only realized by the s dhaka when his akti. the akti which gives life to the j va. Certain vibh tis. however. which sounds like the humming of a black bee. or aspects. who is saccid nanda. She it is who. letters. though it is the subtle or s ksma form at which all s dhakas aim. notwithstanding their external manifestation as sound. in fact. The relations of varna. indicate the appearance of Devat in different forms. and when perfect mantra-siddhi is acquired. When the mantra akti is awakened by the s dhana the presiding Devat appears. appearing in different aspects as different Devat s. in its fully gross form. the Devat .82 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA first appears at the m l dh ra and that which is known to us as such is. in fact. This. the letters of the alphabet. It is the sth la or gross form of Kulakundalin . is united with the mantra akti. is the cause of the sweet indistinct and murmuring dhvani. is revealed. in the m l dh ra. whose substance is all varna and dhvani. and Herself the Param tm . which are known as aksara. The extremely subtle aspect of sound which first appears in the M l dh ra is called par . are nothing but the yantra of the aksara. bindu. generated by s dhana. but perfect akti does not appear in any but a . When connected with buddhi it becomes more gross. Lastly. or words. n da. which is the presiding Devat (adhisth tri) of all mantra.

and so it is said of the embodied stra. such as Aim. when translated.1 Their textual source is to be found in Veda. Hrim. A mantra may. therefore. Pur nas are the body. and varna (sound). and Tantra. Any word or letter of the mantra cannot be a mantra. The latter is essentially the mantra. The form of a particular Devat . A mantra is composed of certain letters arranged in definite sequence of sounds of which the letters are the representative signs.stra. according to svara (rhythm). which consists of mantra. A mantra is not the same thing as prayer or self-dedication ( tm -nivedana). and Smrtis are the limbs. the s dhaka might choose his own language without recourse to the eternal and determined sounds of stra. Dar ana (systems of philosophy) are the senses. Pur na. If it were. convey on its face its meaning. and bears its meaning on its face. consisting of mantra. Only that mantra in which the playful Devat has revealed any of Her particular aspects can reveal that aspect. . Tantra is thus the akti of consciousness. Klim. and is therefore called the individual mantra of that one of Her particular aspects. the Vedas are the j v tm .WORSHIP 83 whole mantra. 1 For those reasons a mantra. ceases to be such. or may not. that Tantra. It is only ignorance of strik principles which supposes that mantra is merely the name for the words in which one expresses what one has to say to the Divinity. B ja (seed) mantra. Prayer is conveyed in what words the worshipper chooses. appears out of the particular mantra of which that Devat . is the param tm . To produce the designed effect mantra must be intoned in the proper way. and becomes a mere sentence. is the adhisth tr Devat .

The initiate.84 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA have no meaning. reading (p tha). By the combination of man. and the mantra but letters of the alphabet. a form (r pa) of the Brahman. manifesting in the form and sound of the letters of the alphabet. Though the purpose of worship (p j ). From manana.). dhy na. and is thus effective to produce caturvarga. a word of power (the fruit of which is mantra-siddhi). and 1 See ““The Garland of Letters”” and chapter on Mantra-tattva in ““The Principles of Tantra. Though. then. Thus it is said that siddhi is the certain result of japa (q. or four aims of sentient being. therefore. that is called mantra which calls forth ( mantrana). Man. and -tra from tr na. By siddhi in mantra is opened the vision of the three worlds. therefore. Every mantra is. that the substance of the Brahman and the brahm nda are one and the same. or liberation from the bondage of the samsara or phenomenal world. By mantra the sought-for (s dhya) Devat is attained and compelled. and mukti. advaitic perception. or thinking. 1 Whilst. sacrifice (homa).and -tra.v. stra says that they go to Hell who think that the Guru is but a stone. arises the real understanding of the monistic truth. however. and that they are the dhvani which makes all letters sound and which exists in all which we say or hear. and sam dhi (vide post). mantra is a potent compelling force. dh ran . hymn (stava).”” . whose mantra they are. the catur-varga (vide post).of mantra comes from the first syllable of manana. knows that their meaning is the own form (sva-r pa) of the particular Devat . mere prayer often ends in nothing but physical sound. according to the ordinary use of language.

the Prayogas ra and Pr na-tosini. 70). vii). N rada-p ñca-r tra (chap. (p. The masculine and neuter forms are called mantra. with more than twenty syllables mal . Commonly. according to the number of their syllables. a mantra with four to nine syllables b ja. and mantra.WORSHIP 85 that of the d ks -mantra are the same. The feminine mantra is known as vidy .akti which has the revelation and force of fire. . The neuter mantra. The solar are masculine and lunar feminine. phat. with ten to twenty syllables mantra. consisting of mantra.1 The Nitya-Tantra gives various names to mantra. or neuter. The T ntrik mantras called b ja (seed) are so named because they 1 See S rad -tilaka (chap. are masculine terminations. and tham. and are masculine. H m. the s dhaka’’s s dhana. and the T ntrik samdhy . yet the latter is far more powerful. a one-syllabled mantra being called pinda. in conjunction with mantra. the answer is for the sake of the requirements of the worshipper. and than which nothing is more powerful. sv h . the fruit. a three-syllabled one kartar . and this for the reason that. are said to lack the force and vitality of the others. ny sa. p j and the like are the stem and branches upon which hymns of praise (stuti) and prayer and homage (vandana) are the leaves and flower. sown in the field of the s dhaka’’s heart. are feminine ones. The masculine and feminine mantras end differently. ii). Mantras are solar (saura) and lunar (saumya). Thus. such as the Paur nikmantra. The special mantra which is received at initiation (d ksa) is the b ja or seed mantra. the term b ja is applied to monosyllabic mantra.akti works. however. feminine. ending with namah. and the kavaca. If it be asked why formless things of mind are given sex. in the first.

The mantra sleeps.86 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA are the seed of the fruit. and because they are the very quintessence of mantra. but also varies. etc. Japa of M la-mantra in Manip ra preceded and followed by M trk b j . They are short.. See Chapter X. and involved in. pranava triplicated. There are various processes preliminary to.1 Each Devat has His b ja. Japa of pranava or the mantra varies with the Devat ——e. p. Aim. unetymological vocables.odhana)4 and of the mantra (a auca-bhanga). m l -dh r . such as. awakening of mantra. 48. Generally the mah mantra Om or M y -b j Hr m. etc.). an hata. The utterance of a mantra without knowledge of its meaning or of the mantra method is a mere movement of the lips and nothing more. 4 Seven japas of one-lettered b ja triplicated.odhana). which will be found throughout the text. 6 See S rada (loc. Phat. Thus Setu of K l is her own b j (kr m). cit. which is siddhi. r m. its right utterance. 9 Japa of the Mantra is preceded and followed by m seven times. 10 Mantr rthabh vana. for purification of the mouth (mukha.. Ram (Agni). of T r . then one-lettered b ja triplicated. which processes again consist of mantra. 1 See also the mantra portion of the Atharva-Veda to which the Tantra stands in close relation.2 The primary mantra of a Devata is known as the root mantra (m la-mantra). Kr m.5 kulluka. or giving of life or vitality to the mantra. As to the ““birth”” and ““death”” defilements of a mantra.9 mantra-caitanya.6 nirv na. see Tantras ra 75. Hr m (M y ). and Tantras ra). et seq. such as Hr m. Kurcca. Thus Kulluka (which is done over the head) of K lik is M y (see Pura carana-Bodh n . Em (Yoni). S rad -Tilaka.and M trk -b j in the Manip ra. It is also said that the word m la denotes the subtle body of the Devata called K ma-kal . 2 3 Krim (K l ). 10 . Meditating on the m la-mantra in the sahasr ra.3 purification of the tongue (jihva.8 nidhra-bhanga. Om Hsau for Bhairava.7 setu. 7 8 Japa of M la.g. 5 Japa of m la-mantra receded and followed by pranava. etc.

2 D pan is seven japas of the b ja.4 The akti of the mantra is the v caka. Kubijik -Tantra (chap. 3 The mantra itself is Devat . or the means by which the v cya. Both are in reality one and the same. Where hr m is employed instead of Om it is pr na-yoga. 90. These forms are not merely the creatures of the imagination of the worshipper.akti is reached. the forms in which the Deity. 1 2 3 4 5 in the See Tantras ra. Yoni-mudr is meditation on the Guru in the head and on the Istadevat in the heart.1 There are also ten samsk ras of the mantra. The mantra lives by the energy of the former.akti. making japa of the yoni b ja (em) ten times. and from the m l dh ra to the head. piercing the six Cakras. in fact. as some ““modernist”” Hindus suppose.akti or object of the mantra is attained.WORSHIP 87 forming of mental image of the Divinity. such as the pañcada i. and contemplating the spotless One. preceded and followed by om. thinking of meaning of mantra or thinking of the m trk mantra which constitute the Devat from foot to head. As the nirguna (formless) One. but the j va. with H m.. . She is its v cyaakti. appears to the worshipper. p. The sagun akti is awakened by s dhana and worshipped. must first meditate on the gross (sth la) form5 before he can realize the subtle (s ksma) form.akti. Thus the Mother in Her sagun form is the presiding deity (adhisth tr -Devat ) of the G yatr mantra. See Purohita-darpanam. The m la is the principal mantra. according to orthodox notions. Lit. putting away all thought of the letter. and she it is who opens the portals whereby the v cya. by the laws of his nature and its three gunas. but. and again in Sahasr ra. The worshipper awakens and vitalizes it by cit. which is his liberator. v). and then on the Yoni-r p Bhagavati from the head to the m l dh ra.

It runs: Om bh r-bhuvah-svah: tat savitur vareny m bhargo devasya dhimahi dhiyo yo nah pracoday t. Mantras are classified as siddha. Mantrocc ranam trena. s dhya. and celestial spheres. O m. servers. ““Let us contemplate the wondrous spirit of the Divine Creator (Savitr) of the earthly.. susiddha. In it the Veda lies embodied as in its seed. but from it arises the form of the Devat which it is. thus transforming him. and moksa. The rhythmical vibrations of its sounds not merely regulate the unsteady vibrations of the sheaths of the worshipper. v. artha.) Yam Yam pr thayate k mam Tam tam pnoti ni citam. (Whatever the s dhaka desires that he surely obtains) ——Pr na-tosin . Om.88 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA The mantra of a Devata is the Devata. 2 3 Tat is apparently here treated as in the objective case agreeing. and ari. k ma. but others holding that the vy hrti (Bh r-bhuvah-svah) form part of and should be linked with. that is ‘‘towards’’ the attainment of dharma. deva-r pam prajayate.1 Mantra-siddhi is the ability to make a mantra efficacious and to gather its fruit 2 in which case the mantra is called mantrasiddha. that. THE G YATR -MANTRA The G yatr is the most sacred of all Vaidik mantras.”” The G yatr -Vy karana of Yogi Yajnav lkya thus explains the following words: Tat. 619. ——(Brhad-gandharva-Tantra. atmospheric. with varenyam. supporters. etc. or destroyers——a matter which is determined for each s dhaka by means of cakra calculations.3 The word yat 1 rnu dev pravaksy mi b j n m deva-r pat m. May He direct our minds. chap. according as they are friends. the rest of the G yatr treat tat as part of a .

““to bring forth. V yu. Time is of and in Him. The word is derived in two ways: (1) from the root bhrij.1 Savituh is the possessive case of Savitr derived from the root s . destroy. He Himself shines and reveals all things by His light.”” Savitr is. The planets. and of the state in which they exist. As He is in the outer ether. ““ripen. 1 It may. The Bhavisya-Pur na says S rya is the visible Devat . He is the Eye of the world and the Maker of the day.”” In this derivation S rya is He who matures and transforms all things. however. There is no other Devat eternal like unto Him. In short. that Being whom the s dhaka realizes in the region of his heart is the ditya in the heavenly firmament. and in the inner ether He is the wonderful Light which is the Smokeless Fire. dwelling in the region of the Sun (s ryamandala) in all His might and glory. so also is He in the ethereal region of the heart. the Vasus. and the rest are but parts of Him. Though He is in the region of the sun in the outer or material sphere He also dwells in our inner selves. destroy genitive compound connected with the previous vyahrti. Him. He is the light of the light in the solar circle. mature. and is the light of the lives of all beings. Bringing forth and creating all things. in which case it is tes m. The two are one. the Bringer-forth of all that exists. Agni. . He is to the Sun what our spirit ( tm ) is to our body. be said that yat is there in Yo nah. In the outer ether He is S rya. Rudras. it is called Savitr. And it is He who at the final Dissolution (pralaya) will in His image of destructive Fire (k l gni). reveal. shine. By Bhargah is meant the ditya-devat .WORSHIP 89 (which) is understood. This universe has emanated from and will be again absorbed into. therefore. The Sun (S rya) is the cause of all that exists.

and is constantly going and returning. Deva is the radiant and playful (lil maya) one. k ma. wealth. . There is nothing which exists apart from it. or let us meditate upon. The sun divides all things. whether moving or motionless. (Lil . in three lokas (Bh r-bhuvah-svah). artha. meditate upon and adore the Bharga. vide post). which are dhy tmika. Those who fear rebirth. Pracodayat = may He direct. and moksa (piety. who desire freedom from death and liberation and who strive to escape the three kinds of pain (t pa-traya). and Svarloka. (2) From bha = dividing all things into different classes. and liberation. produces the different colours of all things. We meditate upon.) Varenyam = varaniya.90 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA all things.”” Devasya is the genitive of Deva. or adorable. agreeing with Savituh. from the root dhyai. ro = colour. He should be meditated upon and adored that we may be relieved of the misery of birth and death. and by His radiance pleases all. ga. who dwelling in the region of the Sun. Bhuvar-loka. is Himself the three regions called Bh r-loka. which is dharma. and dhibhautika. but it is understood that such direction is along the catur-varga. is in constant play with creation (srsti). The Bhargah is ever directing our inner faculties (buddhi-vrtti) along these paths. existence (sthiti). or four-fold path. as applied to the Brahman. S rya. As the Br hmana-sarvasva says: ““The Bhargah is the tm of all that exists. constantly going and returning. for He produces the colour of all created objects. is the equivalent of m y . and destruction (pralaya). Dhimahi = dhy yema. desire and its fulfilment. The G yatr does not so expressly state. dhidaivika.

3 Or where these are not available then in other substances. 4 ““Principles of Tantra. . karav ra.4 1 2 ““The Great Liberation. and to women of all other castes it is forbidden. jab . In worship it is that by which the mind is fixed on its object. The Tantra which has a Gayatri-Mantra of its own. To the dra. It is also said that yantra is so called because it subdues (niyantrana) lust. (Kaul valiya-Tantra). and the other sins of j va and the sufferings caused thereby. a yantra is appropriate to a specific Devat only.”” (S dh rana-up san -tattva). para-tattvaya dhimahi.2 or yantra. Chapter III.1 YANTRA This word in its most general sense means an instrument. or that by which anything is accomplished.3 At a certain stage of spiritual progress the s dhaka is qualified to worship yantra. verses 109-111. none but the twice-born may utter.WORSHIP 91 The above is the Vaidik G yatr . Let us contemplate the Supreme essence. gives the Brahma-g yatr for worshippers of the Brahman: ““Parame var ya vidmahe. whether man or woman. The difference between a mandala and a yantra is that the former is used in the case of any Devat . The Yogin -Tantra says that the Dev should be worshipped either in pratim (image). And may that Brahman direct us). mandala. according to the Vaidik system.”” A figure frequently drawn or made with various colours. Mah nirv na-Tantra. whereas. drona: etc. anger. the flowers apar jit . shows no such exclusiveness. such as water. The siddha-yogi in inward worship (antar-p j ) commences with the worship of yantra which is the sign (samketa) of brahma-vijñ na as the mantra is the samketa of the Devat . which. tan no Brahma pracoday t”” (May we know the supreme Lord.

paper. 4 In painted yantra serpents are commonly shown crawling outside the bh -pura. according to the objects of worship. and at each inner corner there are the b jas. The yantras are therefore of various designs. These not uncommonly appear in yantras drawn or printed on paper. In this and other metal yantras no figures of Devat are shown. etc. ““Hr m. Hr m and Hrah.92 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA The yantra is a diagram engraved or drawn on metal.1 which is worshipped in the same manner as an image (pratim ). the yantra is enclosed from the outer world. In the centre triangle are engraved in the middle the words. 2 3 A considerable number are figured in the Tantras ra. m. Certain preliminaries precede. In the spaces formed by the intersections of the outer ovoid circles is the b ja ““Hr m.”” The outermost band contains all the matrkas. or other substances. .2 The one on the next page is a G yatr yantra belonging to the author. As different mantras are prescribed for different worships.4 The yantra when inscribed with mantra. r r G yatr sva-pras da siddhim kuru (““ r r G yatr Dev : grant me success””). by which as it were. so are different yantras. human bones. The eight lotus petals which spring from the band are inscribed with the b ja. or letters of the alphahet. as in the case of a 1 Thus the magical treatises speak of yantra designed on leopard’’s and donkey’’s skin. such as the eight Bhairava akti. from ak ra to ksa.”” commonly employed to terminate the feminine mantra or vidy . serves (so far as these are concerned) the purpose of a mnemonic chart of that mantra appropriate to the particular Devat whose presence is to be invoked into the yantra.”” The outside circular band contains the b ja ““Tha”” which indicates ““Svaha. Hrah.3 The whole is enclosed in the way common to all yantras by a bh pura. etc.

and then arouses Him or Her in himself.WORSHIP 93 pratim . the worship of a yantra. . When the Devat G YATR YANTRA. The worshipper first meditates upon the Devat . He then communicates the divine presence thus aroused to the yantra.

e g. which the s dhaka first welcomes and then worships.3 The term means ritual gestures made with the hands in worship or positions of the body in yoga practice. 2 Yantram mantram-mayam proktam mantr tm devataiva hi.. the vital airs (pr na) of the Devat are infused therein by the pr n -pratisth ceremony. but instinct with its aroused presence. Mantra in itself is Devat and yantra is mantra in that it is the body of the Devat who is mantra. yantra-devatayostath (Kaul valiya T ntra)." and in its up sana form is so called because it gives pleasure to the Devas. fish-like. vi. xi.2 MUDR The term mudra is derived from the root mud. vide post sub voce. Deh tmanor-yath bhedo. and mudr . ““to please. Mah -nirv na-Tantra. and the two little fingers is shown with the object of invoking the Devi to come and take Her place before the worshipper. Nirv na Tantra. It is said that there are 108. 3 abda-kalpa-druma——sub voce mudr . of which 55 are commonly used. on each side the two thumbs with the object that the conch which contains water may be regarded as an ocean with aquatic animals. The Devat is thereby installed in the yantra.94 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA has by the appropriate mantra been invoked into the yantra. . Dev n m moda-d mudra tasm t tam yatnata caret.1 which is no longer mere gross matter veiling the spirit which has been always there. and the yoni-mudra which presents that organ as a triangle formed by the thumbs. chap. The process is the same as that employed in the case of images (pratim ). and see chap. 1 See. mantra. Thus of the first class the matsya-(fish) mudr is formed in offering arghya by placing the right hand on the back of the left and extending. the two first fingers. verses 63 et seq. As to the special sense of mudr in p ñcatattva.

midday. dhy n (q. and cure of disease. leaving his bed and touching the earth with his right foot. and evening.”” He then offers the actions of the day to the Deity. . 10. ““I know dharma and yet would not do it. and bliss. moon. naivedya (offering of food). and visarjana.v. a mantra is said in invocation of the Tri-m rti and the sun.”” After attending to natural calls. v hana (welcoming). SAMDHY The Vaidiki samdhy is the rite performed by the twice-born castes thrice a day.WORSHIP 95 the yoni being considered to be Her p th or yantra. the twice-born does camana (sipping of 1 2 Chapter III. On awakening.”” The Gheranda-samhit 1 says that knowledge of the yoga mudr s grants all siddhis. ““Om. The morning samdhy is preceded by the following acts. japa. confesses his inherent frailty. firmness.) sn na (bathing). O Earth! salutation to Thee. or dismissal of the Devat . kamya-karma (rites done to effect particular objects). Some mudras of hatha yoga are described sub uoc. at morning. I know adharma. verses 4. ““Yoga.). and planets. 2 and prays that he may do right. By nature I am eternally free. and that their performance produces physical benefits such as stability. 8. deteriora sequor. and salutation is made to the Guru. and yet would not renounce it. The up sana mudra is thus nothing but the outward expression of inner resolve which it at the same time intensifies. I am indeed the sorrowless Brahman. the dv -ja says. The Hindu dv -ja then recites the mantra: ““I am a Deva. Mudras are employed in worship (arcana). the Guru of all that is good.”” The Hindu form of the common experience——Video meliora probaque.v. pratisth (q. intelligence. Then. and in the form of existence.

japa of the G yatr a specitied number of times. He then puts on his castemark (tilaka) and makes tarpanam. and in the evening as Rudr n . 1 The householder is required to bathe twice.2 Besides the Brahminical Vaidiki-samdhy from which the dras are debarred. rsi-ny sa and sad ngany sa (vide post). the mantras vary. though as each Hindu is of a particular sect and Veda.96 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA water) with mantra. meditation on the Dev -G yatr in the morning as Brahman . to the Deva. at midday as Vaisnav . there is the T ntrikisamdhy . S. the samdhy differs in detail. or oblation of water. followed by other mantras. and then (the canon of the samdhya) the silent recitation (japa) of the G yatr -mantra.”” The positions and mudr are illustrated in Mrs. and the T ntrika-b jas or ““seed”” mantras are employed. C. Rsi and Pitr. The above is a general outline of the S ma Veda samdhy . The sa mdhya follows. which consists of invocation ( v hana) of the G yatr -Dev . the rite is simpler. m rjana-sn nam (sprinkling of the whole body with water taken with the hand or ku a-grass). and takes his early morning1 bath to the accompaniment of mantra. and r a Chandra-Vasu. pr n y ma (regulation of prana through its manifestation in breath). Belnos’’ ““Samdhy or Daily Prayer of the Brahmin”” (1831). the prayer to the sun. 2 . agha-marsna (expulsion of the person of sin from the body). the ascetic at each of the three samdhyas. The general outline is similar. which consists of camana (sipping of water). dismissal (visarjana) of the Devi. which may be performed by all. See Kriy k ndav ridhi and the Purohita-darpana. cleanses his teeth. ““Daily Practice of the Hindus.

. is worshipped. Gane a. After worship of the Pañcadevata the family Deity (Kula-devat ). are preceded by the samkalpa. (8) sn na (water for bathing). ghee. arhan . who is generally the same as the Ista-devata.1 P j is done daily of the Ista-devat or the particular Deity worshipped by the s dhaka——the Dev in the case of a kta. sandal paste. and so forth. the Dev . (1) sana (seat of the image). (13) dh pa (incense stick). (7) madhuparlia (honey. It runs in the form: ““I——of gotra——etc. durva grass. iva. (10) bharana (jewels). bhajan . (15) naivedya 1 2 Such as arcan . and curd offered in a silver or brass vessel). that is. yet in p j all worship the Pañca-devat . milk. (3) padya (water for washing the feet). which is offered twice). . Arghya is of two kinds——s m nya (general). if any. Visnu in the case of a Vaisnava. P j . a statement of the resolution to do the worship. etc. flowers. saparyy .. (11) gandha (scent and sandal paste is given). namasy . with which it is done. which is k mya.WORSHIP 97 P J This word is the common term for worship of which there are numerous synonyms in the Sanskrit language. (9) vasana (cloth). or the Five Dev s——Aditya (the Sun). arc . to the Devat ) in the kush . or things done or used in p j . But though the Ista-devat is the principal object of worship. vandan . (5 and 6) camana (water for sipping. and in homa.3 etc. (12) puspa (flowers). (2) sv gata (welcome). 3 Ku a grass is used only in pitr-kriy or r ddha. and Visnu or N r yana. and vi esa (special). (vessel). (14) d pa (light). am about to perrorm this p j (or vrata) with the object. (4) arghya (offering of unboiled rice. as also of the particular object.2 There are sixteen upac ras.”” etc. or done to gain a particular end as also vrata.

”” The Sanskrit word is. dhy na (meditation). Ugra (Air). including Vai va1 2 See Chapter V of Todala-Tantra.98 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA (food).uddhi).”” as understood by an English reader.. japa (vide post). retained in the translation. There is ny sa (vide post). the Deva is worshipped under the eight forms: Sarva (Earth). which comes from the root yaj (to worship). Other articles are used which vary with the p j . Salutation being made to the akti of support or the sustaining force ( dh ra. . prayer and obeisance (pran ma). flowers. such as Tulas leaf in the Visnu-p j and bael-(bilva) leaf in the iva-p j .”” and by snapping the fingers (twice) round the head. Bh ma (Ether). uttering the Astra-b ja ““phat. Pa upati (yajam na—— the Sacrifice man). Rudra (Fire). ana (Sun).1 YAJÑA This word. In the asta-m rt -p ja of iva. (16) vandana or namask ra (prayer). the water. Pr n y ma (regulation of breath) is performed and (vide post) the elements of the body are purified (bh ta.akti). etc. The seat ( sana) of the worshipper is purified. is commonly translated ““sacrifice. All obstructive spirits are driven away (bh t pasarpana). Bhava (Water). are purified. The mantras said also very according to the worship. since Yajña means other things also than those which come within the meaning of the word ““sacrifice. however. and the ten quarters are fenced from their attack by striking the earth three times with the left foot. Thus the ““five great sacrifices”” (pañcamah -yajiia) which should be performed daily by the Brahmana are: The homa 2 sacrifice. Mahadeva (Moon). Vide post. offering of the upac ra.

and then clarified butter (ghee) is poured with a wooden spoon into the fire with mantra. 2 or entertainment of guests (atithisapary ). pitr-yajña or tarpana. the organic creation.1 bhatayajiia or bali. It is of various kinds. After the p j of fire. . 3 several of which are referred to in the text.WORSHIP 99 deva offering. sr tikrt-hom . which is the carrier thereof to the Deva. commencing with Om and ending with Sv h . janu-homa. Vam vahnicaitany ya namah. By these five yajñas the worshipper places himself in right relations with all beings. or on special occasions. as in the case of the ordinary nityavai va-deva-homa. Brahmayajña. Spirits. salutation is given as in Sad nga-ny sa. Pitr. dh r homa and others. and himself. Paur nik. Bh ta. 2 3 Also called Nr-yajña (man-sacrifice). p. and the like. Pingala. such as the upanayana or sacred thread ceremony. Homa may be either Vaidik. men. and then saluted and named. The fire is made conscious with the mantra. Meditation is then made on the three n dis (vide ante)——Id . 917). oblations to the pitr. Homa is of various kinds. in which offerings are made to Deva. some of which will be found in the ““Principles of Tantra. Offerings are made to the Istadevata in the fire. and other Spirits and to animals. Horna. or T ntrik. such as prayakittahoma. and Susumn ——and on Agni. is the making of offerings to Fire. p. A firepit (kunda) is prepared and fire when brought from the house of a Br hmana is consecrated with mantra. vrata. 133. marriage. affirming such relation between Deva.”” 1 Offerings of food and other things are made in the domestic fire. (See Kr ya-k nda-v ridhi. and is performed either daily. or Deva-yajña. the Lord of Fire. or study of the Vedas and Manusyayajña. See Kriy -k nda-v ridhi.

such as the S vitr -vrata by women only. There are numerous other vratas which have developed to a great extent in Bengal. mah -vrata in honour of the Dev as Durga. bali). 2 and the K rtikeyap j by men only. T lanavami. While each vrata has its peculiarities. if once commenced. . There is both in preparation and performance samyama. Some of the chief are Janm stam on Krsna’’s birthday. Others are spoken of. nryajña. and is done to achieve its fruit. or voluntary karma. daiva. Yajñas are also classified according to the dispositions and intentions of the worshipper into s tvika. as in the case of homa. 1 2 Vide ante. which will continue as long as the sun and moon endure. Jalasamkr ntivrata and others. dhy na-yajña. such as japa-yajña. and the satpañcami. etc. certain features are common to vratas of differing kinds.1 It is that which is the cause of virtue (punya). such as Madhu-samkr ntivrata. bhauta (where articles and ingredients are employed. Manu speaks of four kinds: deva. 3 To secure children. such as sexual continence.3 The great vrata is the celebrated Durga-p j . and Anantacaturda performed at specified times in honour of Laksmi. and Ananta. and for which there is no stric authority. To attain good wifehood. must always be continued. Durvstami. N r yana. ivar tri in honour of iva. Vratas are of various kinds. and which. Others may be performed at any time. VRATA Vrata is a part of Naimittika. long life for the husband in this world and life with him in the next. and pitr-yajña.100 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA Besides the yajña mentioned there are others. r jasika. and t masika yajña.

96. and the vow or resolution (niyama) is taken. for tapas may be s tvika.WORSHIP 101 eating of particular food such as havisy nn . 1 2 Vide ante. according as it is done To prepare havisy nn . ghee and salt are added. particular kinds of fruit and vegetable such as green bananas. Each of these classes has three subdivisions. After the pot is taken off the fire. or t masika. ar ra. by speech. purity of disposition. and the like. namely. good. manasa. such as the four monthly fasts (c tur-m sya). also a wider meaning. together with unboiled rice are placed in one pot. Only so much water is poured in as is necessary to make the whole boil. sweet potatoes (l l lu. in the vernacular). p. v cika. . The mind is concentrated to its purposes. d l . It includes these. Before the vrata the Sun. bodily cleanliness. silence. The second form includes truth. and the vrata is done before midday. or bodily. reverence and support given to the Guru. and in this wider sense is of three kinds. continence. and the study of the Vedas. Br hmanas and the wise (pr jña). and silence. bathing. The third or mental tapas includes self-restraint. In the vaidika vrata the samkalpa 2 is made in the morning. simplicity of life and avoidance of hurt to any being (ahims ). gentle. The first includes external worship. however.1 fasting. and affectionate speech. It should be boiled until no water is left. the sitting between five fires (pañc gnitapah). r jasika. and by the ““s ryah-somoyamah-k la”” mantra all Devas and Beings are invoked to the side of the worshupper. in mind. Planets. No flesh or fish is taken. and Kula-devat are worshipped. It has. TAPAS This term is generally translated as meaning penance or austerities. tranquility.

or. useless. or is done through pride and to gain honour and respect. is heard. and other Tantras (passim). and. Stambhana. or mental utterance. which is done ignorantly or with a view to injure and destroy others.2 It is according to the Tantras ra of three kinds: V cika or verbal japa. in which the mantra is audibly recited. 2 . or for its fruit. Phet-k rini. according to the Sat-karmad pik . but a repetition in the mind which is fixed on thc meaning of the mantra. JAPA Japa is defined as ““vidh nena mantrocc ranam. lastly. Siddhir na j yate devi kalpa-koti. Siddha-yogesvari-Tantra.”” or the repeated utterance or recitation of mantra according to certain rules. such as the s dhana of the T ntrika-sat-karma. Siddha-N grjuna. One reason given for the differing values attributed to the several forms is that where there is audible utterance the mind thinks of the words and the process of correct utterance. or only a slight whisper. the highest form which is called manasajapa. Up m u-japa. the K maratna of N ga-bhatta.1 when performed for a malevolent purpose (abhic ra). and in which the tongue and lips are moved. distracted from a fixed attention to the nti. the fifty matrkas being sounded nasally with bindu.102 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA with faith. Pustake likit vidy yena sundari japyate. Vidvesana. See Indra-j la-vidy . which is superior to the last kind. lastly. and without regard to its fruit. 1 Though mere book knowledge is. Va ikarana. Ucc tana and M rana. or to a less degree (as in the case of up m ujapa). but no sound.atair api. In this there is neither sound nor movement of the external organs. Kaksa-puta. and is therefore to a greater (as in the case of v cika-Japa). Sat-karmad pik of ri-Krsna Vidy -v gi a Bhatt c rya.

WORSHIP 103 meaning of the mantra. et seq. the first upon the wife perceiving the signs of conception. sixth. The japa is useless unless done a specified number of times of which 108 is esteemed to be excellent. or eighth month of pregnancy.1 SAMSK RA There are ten (or. 1 See as to Japa. . Tantras ra.”” called samskaras. After conception and during pregnancy. relating to physical cleanliness. These are j vasheka. the seat ( sana). The garbh dh na ceremony takes place in the daytime on the fifth day and qualifies for the real garbh dh na at night——that is. and the second during the fourth. Certain conditions are prescribed as those under which japa should be done. attachable to thought and its materialization in sound and word. performed after menstruation. The counting is done either with a m l or rosary (mala-japa). the pumsavana and s mantonnayana rites are performed. nine) purificatory ceremonies. and the nature of the recitation. the placing of the seed in the womb. with the object of insuring and sanctifying conception. in the case of dras. The Japas of different kinds have also the relative values. which are done to aid and purify the j va in the important events of his life. and wearing of silk garments. which is mentioned in Chapter IX of Mah nirv na-Tantra. The method of the counting in the latter case may differ according to the mantra. or ““sacraments. or with the thumb of the right hand upon the joints of the fingers of that hand (kara-japa). the dressing of the hair. 75. the avoidance of certain conditions of mind and actions. also called garbh dh na-rtu-samskara. It is preceded on the first day by the rtu-samsk ra.

by Dr. the stay of the j va has been assured. in the ““Pranava-v da”” of Bhagav n D s. by the formation of trunk. p. whether viewed from the objective (physical) standpoint. or j v tm . on the Samsk ras. 1 For what follows on the medical side. This period includes all the anatomical and physiological modifications by which the embryonic body becomes a viable fœœtus. from the ““fertilization of the ovum”” to the ““critical period. or frorn the subjective (super-physical) standpoint.”” On the birth of the child there is the jata-karma. or the rendering of the latter viable. limbs. whose connection with the pronuclei initiated the pronuclear or formative activity. if the language of comparative embryology is used. performed for the continued life of the new-born child. When the pronuclear activity and differentiation are completed. i. With the attainment of viability.1 The first period includes on the physical side all the structural and physiological changes which occur in the fertilized ovum from the moment of fertilization until the period when the embryonic body. physical life is possible for the child. enters the miniature human form. Thus.”” The second samsk ra denotes the impulse to development from the ““critical period”” to that of the ““viability stage of the fœœtus””. is fit for the entrance of the individualized life. and organs. and the third samsk ra denotes the development from ““viability”” to ““full term. 194. and the second stage of growth and development begins. The second stage is the fixing of the connection between the j va and the body. Louise Appel. the first samsk ra denotes the impulse to development. on the form side. see the Appendix. . vol.104 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA In the ante-natal life there are three main stages. the j v tm . and the third stage in ante-natal life is entered.

). or occult. The sacraments of the Catholic Church and others of its ceremonies. the material embodiment of the Divine Savit .2 are Western examples of the same psychic method. with the view to effect results beneficial to the human organism. The samsk ras are intended to be performed at certain stages in the development of the human body. whereas in the samsk ras the superphysical (psychic. There is. 1 A lock of hair is left at the top of the head. when rice is put in the child’’s mouth for the first time. and niskr mana in the fourth month after delivery. or marriage. Herein the j va is reborn into spiritual life. so on the head in whose thousandpetalled lotus the Brahman resides. or metaphysical and subjective) methods of ancient Eastern science are employed. Between the fifth and eight month after birth the annapr ana ceremony is observed. lastly. Medical science of to-day seeks to reach the same results. the royal banner is set up. udv ha. some of which have now fallen into disuse. As when a king visits a place. or investiture with the sacred thread. or tonsure ceremony. These are all described in the Ninth Chapter of this Tantra. There are also ten samsk ras of the mantra (q. ikh is left.. Then follows the c dakarana.g. 2 E. suited to an age of materiality. whereby the unperfected j va insures through offspring that continued human life which is the condition of its progress and ultimate return to its Divine Source.WORSHIP 105 Then follows the n ma-karana. when the child is taken out of doors for the first time and shown the sun.1 and in the case of the first three or ““twice-born”” classes. the vivifying source of life. .v. called ikh . upanayana. or naming ceremony. the blessing of the marital bed. but uses for this purpose the physical methods of modern Western science. which bears analogy to the Hindu garbh dh na rite.

The ritual then prescribes for the tying of the crown lock ( ikha). Moon.4 The ghata or kala a (jar). or 1008 times. There are certain rules as to food both prior to. the two last (except in the case of the pious) in smaller quantity. Three days before p j there is worship of Gan e a and Ksetra-p la.v. 3008. or anything obtained by begging. curd. and of the altar and similar matters. p. The Sun. and on it the ghata is placed. 1 For a short account. by Hara-kum ra-Tagore (1895) and see Tantras ra. and during. see Pura carana-bodhin .). . Then follows the samkalpa. the measurements and decorations of the mandapa. Certain conditions and practices are enjoined for the destruction of sin. and Devas. The s dhaka should eat havisy nna. are eaten. A mandala or figure of a particular design is marked on the ground.v. bathing. and dung. japa (q. (q. the posture ( sana) of the s dhaka.). or pandal. Milk.3 or the five products of the cow.106 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA PURA CARANA This form of s dhana consists in the repetition (after certain preparations and under certain conditions) of a mantra a large number of times. or Indian vegetables. 4 See ante. ny sa. such as continence. and the mantra ritual or process. ghee. its performance. and so forth. japa (q. the entertainment of Br hmanas. urine.v. Pañca-gavya. fruits. Then the five or nine gems are placed on the kala a. are invoked. which is painted with red and covered with leaves. Lord of the Place. The ritual1 deals with the time and place of performance. 2 3 See ante. is then placed into which the Dev is to be invoked. 71.) of the Savitri-mantra 5008. and avoid all food calculated to influence the passions.2 or alternatively boiled milk (ks ra).

and that.3 The process of evolution from the Para-brahman has been described. the latter into Mahat. Chapter V. thus retracing the steps of evolution. again. . Then. By this ritual a mental process of involution takes place whereby the body is in thought resolved into the source from whence it has come. The ““earth”” element is dissolved by that of ““water”” as ““water. is the purification of the elements of which the body is composed. Having dissolved each gross element (mah -bh ta).”” with the tanm tra sound into self-hood (ahamk ra). as directed.WORSHIP 107 There is meditation. the worshipper absorbs the last element. which is described in Mah nirv na-Tantra.: Dev rc -yogyat -pr ptyai bh ta-suddhim sam caret.”” ““fire”” by ““air. verses 93 et seq. Kulluka1 is said and the mantra ““awakened”” (mantra-caitanya). into Prakrti. and so on. until the Source of all is reached.”” This is absorbed by a higher emanation. and the connected organ of sense (indriya) by another.. together with the subtle element (tanm tra) from which it proceeds. BH TA. fire with sight.”” is by ““fire. Kundalin is roused and led to the sv dhisth na Cakra.UDDHI The object of this ritual. air with touch.2 The Mantra-mahodadhi speaks of it as a rite which is preliminary to the worship of a Deva. and recited the number of times for which the vow has been taken. and that by a higher. ““ether. and ether with sound. 3 Taranga i. And not ““removal of evil demons”” as Professor Monier-Williams’’ Dictionary has it.”” and ““air”” by ““ether. Earth is associated with the sense of smell. water with taste. in accordance with the monistic teach1 2 See ante.

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ing of the Vedanta, Prakrti is Herself thought of as the Brahman, of which She is the energy, and with which, therefore, She is already one. Thinking then of the black Purusa, which is the image of all sin, the body is purified by mantra, accompanied by kumbhaka and recaka,1 and the sadhaka meditates upon the new celestial (deva) body, which has thus been made and which is then strengthened by a ““celestial gaze.””2 NY SA This word, which comes from the root ““to place,”” means placing the tips of the fingers and palm of the right hand on various parts of the body, accompanied by particular mantras. The ny sas are of various kinds.3 J va-ny sa4 follows upon bh ta- uddhi. After the purification of the old, and the formation of the celestial body, the s dhaka proceeds by j va-ny sa to infuse the body with the life of the Dev . Placing his hand on his heart, he says the ““soham”” mantra (““I am He””), thereby identifying himself with the Dev . Then placing the eight Kula-kundalin s in their several places, he says the following mantras: im, Kr m, Kl m, Yam, Ram, Lam, Vam, am, Sam, Sam, Hom, Haum, Hamsah: the vital airs of the highly blessed and auspicious Primordial K lik are here.5 ““ im, etc., the embodied spirit of the highly blessed and auspicious K lik is placed here.””6
1 2 3 4

See Pr n y ma, s.v. Yoga, post. Vide post. See Kriya-k da-v ridhi (p. 120, chap. ii et seq.)

See Mah nirv na-Tantra, Chapter V, verse 105, where a fuller account is given of the above.
5 6

rimad- dy -K lik y h pr n iha pr nah. rimad- dy -K lik y h J va iha sthitah.

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““ im, etc., here are all the senses of the highly auspicious and blessed K lik ””;1 and, lastly, ““ im, etc., may the speech, mind, sight, hearing, smell, and vital airs of the highly blessed and auspicious K lik coming here always abide here in peace and happiness Sv h .””2 The s dhaka then becomes devat -maya. After having thus dissolved the sinful body, made a new Deva body, and infused it with the life of the Dev , he proceeds to m trk ny sa. Matrk are the fifty letters of the Sanskrit alphabet; for as from a mother comes birth, so from matrka, or sound, the world proceeds. abdabrahman, the ““Sound,”” ““Logos,”” or ““Word,”” is the Creator of the worlds of name and form. The bodies of the Devat are composed of the fifty matrkas. The s dhaka, therefore, first sets mentally (antar m trk -ny sa) in their several places in the six cakras, and then externally by physical action (B hy m trkany sa) the letters of the alphabet which form the different parts of the body of the Devat , which is thus built up in the sadhaka himself. He places his hand on different parts of his body, uttering distinctly at the. same time the appropriate matrka for that part. The mental disposition in the cakras is as follows: In the jñ Lotus, Ham, Ksam, (each letter in this and the succeeding cases is said, followed by the mantra namah);3 in the Vi uddha Lotus Am, m, and the rest of the vowels; in the An hata Lotus kam, kham to tham; in the Manip ra Lotus, dam, dham, etc., to pham: in the
1 2

rimad- dy -K lik y h sarrvendr y ni sthit ni.

rimad- dy -K lik y h v ng-mana -caksuh- rotra-jihv ghr na-pr nah iha-gatya sukam ciram tisthantu sv h .
3

Thus, Ham namah, Ksam namah, etc.

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Sv dhisth na Lotus bam, bham to lam; and, lastly, in the M l dh ra Lotus, vam, am,1 sam,2 sam. The external disposition then follows. The vowels in their order with anusv ra and visarga are placed on the forehead, face, right and left eye, right and left ear, right and left nostril, right and left cheek, upper and lower lip, upper and lower teeth, head, and hollow of the mouth. The consonants kam to vam are placed on the base of right arm and the elbow, wrist, base and tips of fingers, left arm, right and left leg, right and left side, back, navel, belly, heart, right and left shoulder, space between the shoulders (kakuda), and then from the heart to the right palm am is placed; and from the heart to the left palm the (second) sam; from the heart to the right foot, sam; from the heart to the left foot, ham; and, lastly, from the heart to the belly, and from the heart to the mouth, ksam. In each case om is said at the beginning and namah at the end. According to the Tantras ra, matrka-ny sa is also classified into four kinds, performed with different aims ——viz: kevala where the matrka is pronounced without bindu; bindu-samyuta with bindu; samsarga with visarga; and sobhya with visarga and bindu. R s i-nyasa then follows for the attainment of the caturvarga. 3 The assignment of the mantra is to the head, mouth, heart, anus, the two feet, and all the body generally. The mantras commonly employed are: ““In the head, salutation to the Rsi (Revealer) Brahma;4 in the mouth, salutation to the mantra G yatr ; 5 in the
1 2 3 4 5

T lvya a——soft, palatal sh. M rdhanya sa——hard cerebral sh. Dharm rtha-K ma-moksaye rsi-ny se viniyogah. irasi Brahmarsaye namah. Mukhe G yattryai-cchandase namah.

salutation to G yatr and the other forms of verse. P dayoh Hr m.””10 Then follows anga-ny sa and kara-ny sa. Hr m. These are both forms of sadanga-ny sas. the anus) vyanjan ya b j ya namah.8 in the two feet. salutation to the b ja.””4 Another form in which the b ja is employed is that of the dy . angusthadi sadangany sa. salutation to Brahma and the Brahmarsis. it is called hrday disadanga ny sa. and when done with the five fingers and palms of the hands only. 11 When sadangany sa is performed on the body.9 in all the body.2 salutation to the akti.aktaye namah. and is: ““In the head. anga (limb). that which comes at the end or closes. P dayoh svarebhyoh aktibhyo namah. The hard 1 2 3 4 Hrdaye matrk yai sarasvatyai devat yai namah. Sarv ngesu visarg ya k lak ya (that is. the consonants of the ka-varga group. V.WORSHIP 111 heart. Hrdaye dy yai k lik yai devat yai namah. it is referred to but not given in Chap.7 in the hidden part. the hard breathing) namah. Guhye Kr m-b j ya namah.5 in the mouth. The short vowel a. 10 11 . 6 in the heart salutation to the primordial Devata K l . the k lak in the whole body. are said with ““ iras sv h ”” (sv h to the head). Guhye (that is. the consonants of the ca-varga group.1 in the hidden part.3 salutation to visargah. verse 123. ny sa (placing). the vowels in the feet. and the long vowel . the consonants. and the long vowel are recited with ““hrday ya nam h”” (salutation to the heart). salutation to the Devi Mother Sarasvati. salutation to the b ja. salutation to the K lik r m. Mukhe g yatry dibhya candobhyo namah. Sat (six). salutation to the akti. The short vowel i. 5 6 7 8 9 irasi brahmane brahmarsibhyo namah. Sarv ngesu r m-k lik yai namah. kr m.

sam. the fourth. lam. ksam. The number of P thas is variously given as 50 or 51. are K mar pa and the other places.4 The mantras of sadanga-ny sa on the body are used for kara-ny sa. disposition) of the Devat has come upon him. ham. and the long vowel o are recited with netra-tray ya vausat (vausat to the three eyes). sam. in their ordinary sense. and palms also stimulate the nerve centres and nerves therein.5 For the attainment of that state in which the s dhaka feels that the bh va (nature. The p thas. vam.112 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA ta-varga consonants set between the two vowels u and are recited with ““ ikh yai vasat”” (vasat to the crown lock). ah. the pa-varga. In all cases the letters are sounded with the nasal anusv ra. the p thas are established in place of the m trka. It is. similarly the soft ta-varga between the vowels e and ai are said with ““kavac ya1 hum. the hands clasping the upper part of the arms just beneath the shoulders. ny sa is a great auxiliary. as (in the last) am.”” The short vowel o. am. 2 3 4 Including the central eye of wisdom (jñ na-caksu). These actions on the body. little fingers. in which they are assigned to the thumbs. yam. a list of which is given in the Yogin -hrd ya. 2 Lastly. the wearing of jewels on different parts 1 The Kavaca is the arms crossed on the chest. . ram. as it were. In p tha-ny sa. fingers. etc. and the front and back of the palm. the middle fingers. between bindu and visarga3 the consonants ya to ksa with ““karatalakara prstha-bhyam astraya phat”” (phat to the front and back of the palm). 5 See Bh skarar ya’’s Commentary on loka 156 of the Lalita-sahasran ma and ante. The nasal sound and hard breathing. the ““threatening”” or index fingers.

WORSHIP 113 of the body. ““Das denken ist der mass der Dinge. V ra. mudr means ritual gestures or positions of the body in worship and hathayoga. By ny sa he places his Abh stadevat in such parts. manifesting in the three chief physical functions——eating and drinking. but as one of the five elements it is parched cereal. The b ja of the Devat are the jewels which the s dhaka places on the different parts of his body. whereby the annamayako a is maintained. These functions are the subject of the pañcatattva or pañcamakara (““five m’’s””). In ordinary parlance. and sexual intercourse. . Yogin -Tantra (chap. and by vy paka-ny sa.””1 Transformation of thought is Transformation of being. he spreads its presence throughout himself. mudr (parched grain). the animal tendencies. three classes of men—— Pa u. He becomes permeated by it losing himself in the divine Self. on the gross material plane. and maithuna (coition). Nyasa is also of use in effecting the proper distribution of the aktis of the human frame in their proper positions so as to avoid the production of discord and distraction in worship. and is defined2 as Bhristad ny dikam yadyad chavyan yam 1 2 Prantl. by which it is reproduced. m msa (meat). vi). Ny sa as well as sana are necessary for the production of the desired state of mind and of citta uddhi (its purification). PAÑCATATTVA There are as already stated. as they are vulgarly called——viz: madya (wine). and Divya. The operation of the gunas which produce these types affect. This is the essential principle and rational basis of all this and similar T ntrik s dhanas. matsya (fish).

the first four are consumed. iv) says: Parad r nna gaccheran gacchecca prajapedyadi (that is. but he who has controlled his senses. or man of powerful sexual energy. See Tantras ra. which may be consumed or employed only after purification ( odhana) and during worship2 according to the Tantric ritual. as clinging to the male tree. kulatattva. all excess is forbidden. is a truthseeker. and who has sacrificed lust and all other passions. with the appropriate ritual. The Tantras speak of the five elements as pañcatattva. for purpose of worship) and similarly the Uttara-Tantra: P j k lam vin n nyam puru m manas sprset P j leca deve ve yeva paritosayet. (Jitendriyah. The same rule as regards both madya and maithuna is stated in the Kul mrta as elsewhere. citing Bh va-c d man . moreover have various meanings. 1 2 ““Creeper”” to which woman. not he who is of great physical strength and prowess. or divya or s ttvika s dhanas respectively. r jasika (v r c ra). kuladravy . according as they form part of the t masika (pa v -c ra). for wine. the great eater and drinker. and certain of the elements have esoteric names. . The five elements. As regards maithuna. such as k ranav ri or t rthav ri. and this Tantra condemns it in Chapter V. The y m -rahasya says that intemperance leads to Hell. the fifth element being usually called lat s dhana1 (sadhana with woman. is likened. such consumption being followed by lata-s dhana or its symbolic equivalent. or akti). 608.114 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA prachaksate. Then also. ever engaged in worship. the Brh nnilap-Tantra (chap. A well-known saying in Tantra describes the true ““hero”” (v ra) to be. satyav di. The Tantra prohibits indiscriminate use of the elements. sa mudr kath t dev sarves m naganandini. All the elements or their substitutes are purified and consecrated and then.

involving pr yascitta. or taken””). Madyam apeyam adeyam agr hyam (““Wine 1 must not be drunk. The drinking of wine in ordinary life for satisfaction of the sensual appetite is. a substance subject to the three curses of Brahma.. kirttanam (talking of it). Kaca. And this is not only in its literal sense. guhyabh sanam (talk in private with woman). k m di-balid na ca sa vira iti giyate). Nor do high and strict Br hmanas even in that Province. the drinking of wine here referred to is ordinary drinking. in the following terms. according to the Visnu Pur na. keli (play with women). given. chap. The nature of the Pa u requires strict adherence to Vaidik rule in the matter of these physical functions even in worship. eat fish. 2 Visnu-Pur na (Bk. smaranam (thinking upon it). As regards flesh and fish the higher castes (outside Bengal) who submit to the orthodox Sm rtha discipline eat neither. . vi). but in that which is known as Ast nga (eightfold) maithuna——viz. a sin.2 punishment in the same Hell as that to which a killer of a Brahm na goes. Maithuna other than with the householder’’s own wife is condemned. in fact. The elements in their literal sense are not available in s dhana for all. samkalpa (wish or 1 From the standpoint of T ntrika-V r c ra. and men consume the flesh of male goats which have been previously offered to the Deity. and Krsna.WORSHIP 115 nity nusth natatpar h. both men and women. But the bulk of the people there. preksanam (looking upon woman). This rule prohibits the drinking of wine. The Vaidika dharma is equally strict upon the subject of sexual intercourse. and entailing. II. and not the ritual worship (of those qualified for it) with the purified substacce which is T r (the Saviour) Herself in liquid form (dravamay ).

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resolve for maithuna), adhyavas ya (determination towards it), kriy nispati (actual accomplishment of the sexual act). In short, the pa u (and except for ritual purposes those who are not pa us) should, in the words of thc aktakram ya, avoid maithuna, conversation on the subject, and, assemblies of women (maithunam tatkath l pam tadgosthim parivarjayet). Even in the case of the householder’’s own wife marital continency is enjoined. The divinity in woman, which the Tantra in particular proclaims, is also recognized in the ordinary Vaidik teaching, as must obviously be the case given the common foundation upon which all the stras rest. Woman is not to be regarded merely as an object of enjoyment, but as a house-goddess (grhadevat ).1 According to the sublime notions of r ti, the union of man and wife is a veritable sacrificial rite——a sacrifice in fire (homa), wherein she is both hearth (kunda) and flame—— and he who knows this as homa attains liberation. 2 Similarly the T ntrika-Mantra for the Siva akti Yoga runs: ““This is the internal homa in which, by the path of susumna, sacrifice is made of the functions of sense to the spirit as fire kindled with the ghee of merit and demerit taken from the mind as the ghee pot Sv h .””3 It is not only thus that wife and husband are associated; for the Vaidikadharma (in this now neglected) prescribes
1 Cited in the Commentary on the Karp r distotra (verse 15), by Mah mahop dhy ya Krsnan tha Ny ya-pañc nana Bhatt ch ryya. 2 See thirteenth mantra of the Homa-prakarana of the Brhad ranyakaUpanisad. The Niruttara-Tantra (chap. i) says :

Yonir p mah k l avah ayy Prak rtit Sma nam dvividham dev cit yonirmahe vari.
3 Om dharm dharma havird pte tm gnau manas ruc susumn vartman nityam aksavrttirjuhomyaham sv h (Tantras ra, 998, and see Pr natosin ).

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that the householder should worship in company with his wife. 1 Brahm c rya, or continency, is not as is sometimes supposed, a requisite of the student ama only, but is a rule which governs the married householder (grhastha) also. According to Vaidika injunctions, union of man and wife must take place once a month on the fifth day after the cessation of the menses, and then only. Hence it is that the Nity Tantra when giving the characteristic of a pa u, says that he is one who avoids sexual union except on the fifth day (rtuk lamvin dev ramanam parivrajayet). In other words, the pa u is he who in this case, as in other matters, follows for all purposes, ritual or otherwise, the Vaidik injunctions which govern the ordinary life of all. The above-mentioned rules govern the life of all men. The only exception which the Tantra makes is for purpose of s dhana in the case of those who are competent (adhik ri) for v r c ra. It is held, indeed, that the exception is not strictly an exception to Vaidik teaching at all and that it is an error to suppose that the T ntrika-rahasyap j is opposed to the Vedas. Thus, whilst the Vaidik rule prohibits the use of wine in ordinary life and for purposes of mere sensual gratification it prescribes the religious yajña with wine. This ritual use the Tantra also allows, provided that the s dhaka is competent for the s dhana, in which its consumption is part of its ritual and method. The Tantra enforces the Vaidik rule in the cases, ritual or otherwise, for those who are governed by the vaidik c ra. The Nity -Tantra says: ““They (pa u) should never worship the Devi during the latter part of the day,
1

astriko dharmam caret (see also chap, xxxi of the Matsya-

kta-Tantra)

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in the evening or at night”” (r trau naiva yajeddevim samdhy y m va par nhake); for all such worship connotes maithuna prohibited to the pa u. In lieu of it, varying substitutes 1 are prescribed, such as either an offering of flowers with the hands formed into the kaccapamudra, or union with the worshipper’’s own wife. In the same way, in lieu of wine, the pa u should (if a Br hmana) take milk, (if a Ksattriya) ghee, (if a Vai ya) honey, and (if a dra) a liquor made from rice. Salt, ginger, sesamum, wheat, m shkalai (beans), and garlic are various substitutes for meat; and the white brinjal vegetable, red radish, masur (a kind of gram), red sesamum, and p niphala (an aquatic plant), take the place of fish. Paddy, rice, wheat, and gram generally are mudr . The v ra, or rather he who is qualified (adhik ri) for v r c ra——since the true v ra is its finished product—— commences sadhana with the r jasika pañatattva first stated, which are employed for the destruction of the sensual tendencies which they connote. For the worship of akti the pañcatattvas are declared to be essential. This Tantra declares that such worship withou their use is but the practice of evil magic. Upon this passage the commentator Jaganmohana Tark lamk ra observes as follows: Let us consider what most contributes to the fall of a man, making him forget duty, sink into sin, and die an early death. First among these are wine and women, fish, meat and mudra, and accessories. By these things men have lost their manhood. iva then desires to employ these very poisons in order to eradicate the poison in the human system.
1 See as to these and post, the Kulac d mani, and chap. i of Bhairavay mala.

however. prohibited the indiscriminate publication of this. however. to kill the poison of samsara. and where also they are identified with the five pr nas and the five mah pretas. where reasons are given why the worship of Dev is fruitless without the five elements. this can only be attained through the special treatment prescribed by the Tantras. P rva Khanda. The other secret argument Mah nirv na-Tantra. and the work for the desired end of Tantra is as useless as magic which. iva has. If this is not followed. leads only to the injury of others. when he sees a woman. however. Chapter V. an experienced spiritual teacher (guru) will know how. 1 . 24. Though this is true. the patient is likely to die. with men’’s propensities as they are. chap. worked by such a man. and therefore iva has directed that it should not be revealed before anybody and everybody. If that is not attained. It is like pouring ghee on fire. or union with Brahman. This is the right treatment for those who long for drink or lust for women. iva has said that the way of kul c ra is as dificult as it is to walk on the edge of a sword or to hold a wild tiger. and bow before her. be an experienced one. nothing is attained. An initiate. The meaning of this passage would therefore appear to be this: The object of T ntrika worship is brahmas yujya. but the initiate can grasp this argument. The Visnu-Pur na says that by feeding your desires you cannot satisfy them. and those tattvas so understood should be followed by all. then the sensual propensities are not eradicated. xc). (See also Kail saTantra. There is a secret argument in favour of the pañcatattva. And. 1 None. The physician must. verses 23. will worship her as his own mother or goddess (Istadevat ). If there be a mistake as to the application.WORSHIP 119 Poison is the antidote for poison. by the application of this poisonous medicine.

The passage cited refers to the necessity for the spiritual direction of the Guru.120 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA here referred to is that by which it is shown that the particular may be raised to the universal life by the vehicle of those same passions. When the patient ( isya) and the disease are working together. particulary as regards the tattva of madya and maithuna. To the want of such is accredited the abuses of the system. the ““three sweets”” (madhuratraya) are to be substituted for wine. Chapter VIII. the fifth tattva shall 1 2 3 Chapter VIII. the disease. however. verse 171. prescribes in certain cases. and in the case of householders (grhastha) whose minds are engrossed with worldly affairs. Owing. Those who are of virtuous temperament. Verse 67 in Chapter I of Mah nirv na-Tantra is here. . limitations as regards their use. which. according to the current version. this Tantra. this Tantra states2 that men in this Kali age are by their nature weak and disturbed by lust. to abuses. and whose minds are turned towards the Brahman. Chapter VI. in point. are permitted to take five cups of wine. there is poor hope for the former. then nothing can save him from a descent on that downward path which it is the object of the s dhana to prevent. It accordingly3 ordains that when the Kaliyuga is in full sway. when flowing only in an outward and downward current. and the physician (guru) are on one. So also as regards maithuna. It prescribes1 that when the Kaliyuga is in full strength. but when the patient. and that the wrong side. are the most powerful bonds to bind him to the former. and by reason of this do not recognize women ( akti) to be the image of the Deity. verse 14. verse 173.

which had followed upon a relaxation of the original rules and conditions governing them. there is no prohibition as to the mode of lat sadhana. a protest against the misuse of the tattva. prohibited s dhana with the last tattva. action (kriy ) and knowledge (jñ na) Sakti of the Supreme 1 2 Chapter VIII. meat and fish all terrestrial and aquatic animals. meditation by the worshipper upon the lotus feet of the Dev . mudr all vegetable life. 4 For I have not yet had the opportunity of comparing the current Bengali with the Nepalese text.WORSHIP 121 only be accomplished with sviy akti. verse 174. 315. but for those who have by s dhana conquered their passions and attained the state of a true v ra. in this Tantra. together with japa of his ista-mantra. Nigamakalpadruma. seq. and other Tantras and Tantras ra (p. 698 et. p. Wine signifies the power ( akti) which produces all fiery elements. See Uttara. the aktip j cannot be performed. This rule. with parak y . 3 See Mah nirv na-Tantra.4 in fact.3 This Tantra appears to be. The Mother of the Universe must be worshipped with these elements. In the case of other akti (parak y and s dh rani) it prescribes. iva has. however. Without the pañcatattva in one form or another. and maithuna the will (icch ). . Bhakta edition. or the worshipper’’s own wife. the Commentator says. and that union with a woman who is not married to the s dhaka in either Br hma or aiva forms is forbidden. is not of universal application. 1 in lieu of maithuna. and s dh rani akti2 in the case of men of ordinary weak intellect ruled by lust.). By their use the universe (jagatbrahm nda) itself is used as the article of worship. or siddha. Guptas dhana.

2 To the Mother is thus offered the restless life of Her universe. See chap. and maithuna is the union of the akti Kundalin with iva in the body of the worshipper. and K m khy -Tantra. xv of the Hara-Tattvad dhiti. the Yogin -Tantra says. Yogini-Tantra (chap. v. When by such s dhana this guna largely preponderates. According to the gama-s ra. 24. Mudr is the act of relinquishing all association with evil which results in bondage. the Kaivalya3 says that ““wine”” is that intoxicating knowledge acquired by yoga of the Parabrahman. Thus. 85 of Pañcatattvavic ra. xc) identifies the pentad (pañcatattva) with the vital airs (pr n di) and the five mah pretas (vide post and ante). the s ttvika s dhana suitable for men of a high type of divyabh va is adopted.5 is the best of all unions for those who have already controlled their passions (yati). Mah nirv na-Tantra. by Nilamani Mukhyopadhy ya. Maithunam paramam yat n m parik rtitam. Matsya (fish) is that s ttvika knowledge by which through the sense of ““mineness””4 the worshipper sympathizes with the pleasure and pain of all beings. 2 Nigama-Tattvas ra (chap. The Kail sa-Tantra P rva-Khanda (chap. verses 23. . The object of all s dhana is the stimulation of the sattvaguna. In this latter s dhana the names of the pañcatattva are used symbolically for operations of a purely mental and spiritual character. chap. A play upon the word matsya (fish). This. 3 4 5 See p. Meat (mamsa) is not any fleshy thing. ii) says: (Yadr pam param nandam tann sti bhuvanatraye). but the act whereby the s dhaka consigns all his acts to Me (M m). iv). which renders the worshipper senseless as regards the external world. v) : Sahasr ropari bindau kundaly melanam ive. wine 1 iva in the Matrk bheda-Tantra (chap.122 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA Prakrti productive of that great pleasure1 which accompanies the process of creation.

and deliciously cool as ten million moons. Retention of breath in pr n y ma.4 in the shape of bindu. where the tm . The esoteric meaning of maithuna is thus stated by the gama: The ruddyhued letter Ra is in the kunda. for his enjoyment is in the tm in the Sahasr ra. is gained by the s dhaka. 6 For this reason. which corresponds on the r jasika plane to the union of iva and akti in the persons of their worshippers. like mercury. which is the source of supreme Bliss. seated on the Hamsa in the form of Akara (a). .6 This is the union on the purely s ttvika plane. is united with the Dev Kundalin . Bindu is literally the dot which represents the nasal sound.WORSHIP 123 is the somadhara. unites with rakara (r). in ““eating”” it controls his speech. has five corners. is of the colour of the autumnal moon. The Manip ra-Cakra (vide ante). which drops from the brahmarandhra. the name of Ram . 5 That is (here) the lightning-like triangular lines in the Sahasr ra.). The s dhaka. is sattva guna. according to the K madhenu-Tantra (chap. This letter. The coloration of the letters is variously given in the Tantras. of which its part (amsa) is speech.3 and the letter Ma. ““eats”” them by kumbhaka. resplendent as ten million suns. See also Bh skarar ya’’s Commentary on the Lalit citing the Sanatkum ra-Samhit and M trk viveka.v. is equivalent to the liberator Brahman (Ra-a-ma). M msa (meat) is the tongue (ma). and is kaivalyar pa and prakrtir p .1 He who controls his breath by pr n y ma (q. As to its T ntrik sense (vide ante).5 When Makara (m). so called (vide ante). ii). then the Brahmajñ na. is in the mah yoni. or lunar ambrosia. too. 1 2 3 4 The n di.2 Mudra is the awakening of knowledge in the pericarp of the great Sahasr ra Lotus. who is then called tm r ma. which word also means sexual enjoyment. Matsya (fish) are those two which are constantly moving in the two rivers Ida and Pingala.

2 3 4 Ibid. and Chapter VIII gives an account of the Bhairavi and Tattva (or Divya) cakras. as the Y mala says. 703. Samyog jjayate svakhyam param nandalaksanam: Vide ante. be introduced. iva aktisam yog h. of various fruits for the participators therein.2 CAKRAP J Worship with the pañcatattva generally takes place in an assembly called a cakra. arises that joy which is known as the Supreme Bliss. there being no distinction of caste.5 The latter is for worshippers of the Brahma-Mantra. it is said. the akti sitting on the left of' the s dhaka.124 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA The union of iva and akti is described as a true yoga1 from which. Mah cakre samrddhidam. 202. . Mah -Cakras productive. which is composed of men (s dhaka) and women ( akti). and worship together. such as the V ra. et seq. The Lord of the cakra (cakrasv min.4 Chapter VI of the Mah nirv na-Tantra deals with the pañcatattva. There are various kinds of cakras. R ja. During the cakra all eat.3 No pa u should. 1 See Tantras ra. V racakramca moksad m. 5 Verses 153. The Rudra-y mala says: R jacakra r jadam syat. Deva. or Bhairava and Bhairavi. where the wine-jar and other articles used in the worship are kept. Devacakre ca saubh gyam. however. The worshippers sit in a circle (cakra). or cakre vara) sits with his akti in the centre. 702 . Yoga eva na sam ayah. men and women alternately.. drink.

iii. by the destruction of the false appearance of separation. per essentiam ut dans omnibus esse. with the Param tm . 2 Summa Theologiæ Mysticæ. p. which exists. is in grammer samdhi.. communis omnibus et ordinis naturalis . . or the power of the parts taken together and in its most widely known and present sense the union of the j va or embodied spirit.””2 The mystical theologician cited. tom. ratione suæ immensitatis est in omnibus rebus per essentiam.YOGA THIS word. ““Primus modus unionis est. 8. quo Deus. in which all beings are. or Supreme Spirit. for it is only by virtue of this identity in fact that they exist. . derived from the root Yuj (““to join””). . though not in reality more ““supernatural”” than the first. that we here deal. Yoga in its technical sense is the realization of this identity.1 and the practices by which this union may be attained. . There is a natural yoga.”” It is of this special yoga. et potentiam. and no force greater to destroy that bond than yoga. per prmentiam ut omnia prospiciens: per potentiam ut de omnibus disponens.) nor worse enemy than egoism 1 As the rad -tilaka (chap. . though it is not known. in logic avayava akti. There is no better friend than knowledge (jñ na. xxv) says Aikyam-jiv t manor huryogam yogavi rah h. though in practice too frequently overlooked. . ““There is no bond equal in strength to m y . illa namque de qua loquimur est ordinis supernaturalis actualis et fructiva. however proceeds to say: ““sed hæc unio animæ cum Deo est generalis. This position is common ground. præsentiam.

A peculiar feature of Tantrika viracara is the union of the 1 2 Gheranda-Samhit (chap. and from the body flows action. Human action is compared to the bullocks who now raise. bullocks are employed to lower and raise the vessel. It is.2 Through their actions beings continually go from birth to death. The Gheranda-Samhit well defines it to be ““the means whereby the excellent r jayoga is attained. the vessel into the waters (of the Sams ra). so yoga is necessary for the acquirement of tattvajñ na (truth). of which r jayoga is one of the forms. now lower. but the two main divisions are those of the hathayoga (or ghatasthayoga) and sam dhi yoga. et seq. What is suited or necessary in one case may not be so for another. Hathayoga is commonly misunderstood.””1 The animal body is the result of action.126 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA (ahamk ra). Yoga is variously named according to the methods employed. What is necessary must be determined according to the circumstances of each particular case. The complete attainment of the fruit of yoga is lasting and unchanging life in the noumenal world of the Absolute. . or water-lifter. however. As to learn the stra one must learn the alphabet. which is concerned with certain physical processes preparatory or auxiliary to the control of the mind.) In drawing water. both in its definition and aim being frequently identified with exaggerated forms of self-mortification. the process being compared to the see-saw movement of a ghatiyantra. by which alone union may be directly attained.”” Actual union is not the result of Hathayoga alone. not meant that all the processes of Hathayoga here or in the books described are necessary for the attainment of r jayoga. v.

2 (3) sana. This yoga prescribes five exterior (bahiranga) methods for the subjugation of the body——namely (1) Yama. purity of mind and body. charity. seated positions or postures (vide post). religious observances. (4) Pr n y ma. of which samdhi is the highest end. some. an householder. being the union of the Kundalin .1 (2) Niyama. (5) Praty h ra. temperance. avoidance of harm to others (ahims ). This process. in the wellknown ast ngayoga (eightlimbed yoga). i). 16 for a forest recluse. regulation of the breath. This is a process which is expressly forbidden to Pa us by the same Tantras which prescribe it for the V ra. where as to food it is said: ““32 mouthfuls for Ibid. as others do it occasionally and unconsciously (uide post). absence of convetousness. austerities. the doing of good without desire for reward. called the piercing of the six cakras. A yog renders the vital airs equable. the physical conditions and processes known as sana and pr n y ma (vide post) are prescribed. forgiveness. at least. which follows in 1 Yog -Y gnavalkya (chap. Though. persevering devotion to the Lord. The union of iva and akti in the higher s dhana is different in form. are generally considered to be so. and consciously produces the state of respiration which is favourable for mental concentration. all Hathayoga processes are not necessary. etc. is described later on in a separate paragraph. reading of the stra and vara Pran dh na. forbearance or self-control. such as sexual continence. kindness. Thus. however. and 8 for a muni (saint and sage).YOGA 127 sadhaka and his akti in lat s dhana.”” 2 . restraint of the senses.akti of the M l dh ra with the Bindu which is upon the Sahasr ra.

the meaning and the end are in each case the same. seven qualities. attention. in seeking mental control and concentration. . This knowledge. makes use of certain preliminary physical processes (s dhana) such as the satkarma. or as the state of mind in which all outward thought is suppressed. mudr . or Divine spirit. and constituting trance or ecstasy. Pr n and Ap na or N da and Bindu. and pr n y ma. does not produce liberation (moksa). (7) Dhy na or the uniform continuous contemplation of the object of thought. known as odhana. or as the controlling or suppression of the thinking faculty (cittavrtti). but is liberation itself. Yoga. and (8) that sam dhi which is called savikalpas madhi. Whether yoga is spoken of as the union of Kulakundalini with Paramaiva. By these four processes and three mental acts. or as the union of the moon and the sun (Ida and Pingal ). Aham Brahm smi (““I am the Brahman””). Savikalpas madhi is a deeper and more intense contemplation on the Self to the exclusion of all other objects. steadying of the mind.128 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA the path of the other four processes which deal with subjugation of the body. and keeping the mind in its unmodified state. There are then three interior (yog nga) methods for the subjugation of the mind—— namely (6) Dh ran . By vair gya (dispassion). the fixing of the internal organ (citta) in the particular manner indicated in the works on yoga. sana. This ecstasy is perfected to the stage of the removal of the slightest trace of the distinction of subject and object in nirvikalpas madhi in which there is complete union with the Param tm . or the union of the individual soul (j v tm ) with the Supreme Soul (param tm ). yoga is attained. dridhat .

(danta-dhauti). resting on the toes. Dantadhauti is fourfold. cleansing of the teeth. That is squatting. or inward washing (antardhauti). Of these. M ladhauti is done to cleanse the exit of the ap nav yu either with the middle finger and water or the stalk of a turmeric plant. l ghava. v tas ra. Second Upade a (verse 23). Gheranda-Samhit . . In the second form the yog sits in the utkat sana4 posture in 1 2 3 4 Gheranda-Samhit . A j ma is three hours. by which the body is filled with water. nirliptatva1 (vide post). v ris ra. is twofold and is either of the dry ( uska) or watery (jala) kind.YOGA 129 sthirat . by which air is drawn into the belly and then expelled. pratyaksa. the heels off the ground. Antardhauti is also fourfold——namely. is effected by the six processes known as the satkarma. which is then evacuated by the anus. consisting of the cleansing of the root of the teeth and tongue. the second of the satkarma. Vasti. By hrddhauti phlegm and bile are removed. of the ““heart”” (hrddhauti). ODHANA : SATKARMA The first. which is retained half a j ma3 and then sent downward. and of the rectum (m ladhauti). are acquired. the first is Dhauti. First Upade a. or cleansing. Gheranda-Samhit . This is done by a stick (danda-dhauti) or cloth (v so-dhauti) pushed into the throat or swallowed. or washing. vahnis ra. Third Upade a (verse 86). dhairya. the ears and the ““hollow of the forehead”” (kap la-randhra). and buttocks resting on heels. which is fourfold. etc. in which the belly is by k kin -mudr 2 filled with aif.. in which the n bigranthi is made to touch the spinal column (meru): and bahiskrta. or by vomiting (vamanadhauti).

130 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA water up to the navel.. These are the various processes by which the body is cleansed and made pure for the yoga practice to follow. the acquisition of which is the second of the above-mentioned processes. But the posture is not necessarily a sitting one: for some asanas are done on the belly. and out of these thirty-two are auspicious for men. sanas are postures of the body. hands. ugr sana. of which four are recommended——viz. is attained by sana. gazes at some minute object until the tears start from his eyes. which are described in detail. and the anus is contracted and expanded by aivini mudr . or strength or firmness. Second Upade a. In neti the nostrils are cleansed with a piece of string. Two of the commonest of 1 Gheranda-Samhit . 1. and padm sana.000 of these. The term is generally described as modes of seating the body. or the same is done in the pa cimott n sana. . It is said1 that the sanas are as numerous as living beings. without winking. By this the ““celestial vision”” (divya-drsti) so often referred to in the T ntrika-up san is acquired. In tr tak the yog . vy tkrama by water drawn through the nostrils and ejected through the mouth. and the abdomen below the navel is gently moved. Laulik is the whirling of the belly from side to side. etc. In the iva-Samhit (chap. and that there are 8. back. Kap labhati is a process of the removal of phlegm. verses 84-91) eighty-four postures are mentioned.400. DRDHAT : SANA Dydhata. iii. and is three-fold——v ta-krama by inhalation and exhalation. and itkrama the reverse process. siddh sana. svastik sana.600 are declared to be excellent.

health-giving. .YOGA 131 these are muktapadmasana1 (““the loosened lotus seat””). and the cremation-ground. i. chap. and the left hand the left toe. They also preserve from injury by fire. form part of the discipline for the conquest of fear and the attainment of indifference. and a corpse respectively form the seat of the s dhaka. the chin is placed on the breast. verse 12. The mudr s dealt with in works of hathayoga are positions of the body. the funeral pyre. or fortitude. Ibid. and baddhapadm sana. The interior cremation-ground is there where the k mik body and its passions are consumed in the iire of knowledge. They are gymnastic. STHIRAT : MUDR S Sthirat . and av sana. There are certain other sanas. the lonely empty house and river-side. the left foot on the right thigh and the hands are crossed and placed similarly on the thighs. such as mund sana. and the gaze fixed on the tip of the nose (see also ivaSamhit . These.3 such as the j ladhara 4 and other mudr s. cit sana. Bodily action The right foot is placed on the left thigh. Third Upade a. verse 52). 3 4 Gheranda-Samhit . By this. merely points out what are good conditions. the ordinary position for worship. though they may have other ritual objects. increased pressure is placed on the m l dh ra and the nerves are braced with the tightening of the body. which are peculiar to the Tantras. and destructive of disease and of death. on the subject of sana. 1 2 The same except that the hands are passed behind the back and the right hand holds the right toe. is acquired by the practice of the mudras. And so the Tantras prescribe as the scene of such rites the solitary mountain-top. leaving each one to settle the details for himself according to his own requirements.2 Patañjali. or air. water. in which skulls. which is the quality of a yog .

In the celebrated yonimudr the yog in siddh sana stops with his fingers the ears.1 A vinimudr consists of the repeated contraction and expansion of the anus for the purpose of odhana or of contraction to restrain the ap na in satcakrabheda. and by the union of a perfect mind and body siddhi is by their means attained. Praty h ra.. .2 DHAIRYA: PRATY H RA Dhairya. The process is accompanied by inhalation and the union of pr n and ap na whilst in siddh sana. The rad tilaka defines praty h ra as indriy n m vicarat m visayesu bal d h ranam tebyah Praty h ro vidhiyate (praty h ra is known as the forcible abstraction of the senses wandering over their objects). Praty h ra destroys the six sins. and unites it with ap nav yu.”” and raises Her to the Sahasr ra. Third Upade a. Meditating in their order upon the six cakras. then. and in blissful union (sangama) with iva. nostrils. and mouth. 49. is the restraint of the senses. eyes.3 1 2 3 Gheranda-Samhit . He inhales pr n v yu by k kin -mudr . aktic lana employs the latter mudr . Ibid. or steadiness. is produced by praty h ra. 82. by reason of that union. verses 37. the freeing of the mind from all distractions.. The mind is withdrawn from whatsoever direction it may tend by the dominant and directing Self. he meditates upon himself as. deeming himself pervaded with the akti. which is repeated until v yu manifests in the susumn . The Gheranda-Samhit describes a number of mudr s of which those of importance may be selected. fourth Upade a. Ibid.132 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA and the health resulting therefrom react upon the mind. and the keeping of it under the control of the tm . he arouses the sleeping Kulakundalin by the mantra ““H m Hamsa. Bliss itself and the Brahman.

coition. 20. produces detachment from the world. Where it is above that. according to the Gheranda-Samhit .) arises laghava (lightness). P raka is inspiration. m rchchha. Where the breathing is under the normal distance. bhr mari.YOGA 133 L GHAVA : PR N Y MA From pr n y ma (q. Kumbhaka is the retention of the breath between these two movements. it is shortened. the breath goes forth a distance of 12 fingers’’ breadth. 30. but in singing. sleeping. the distances are 16. the use of b ja. It awakens akti. bhastrik .600 times a day. tali. 24. Pr n y ma is the control of the breath and other vital airs. Ordinarily. Kumbhaka is. and keval . life is prolonged. All beings say the ajap -G yatr . ujj yi. and then exhalation through the solar n di and japa of b ja 32 times. being the best (uttama) where the measure is 20. The cleansing of the n di (n diuddhi) is either samanu or nirmanu——that is. It is of varying values. and inferior (adhama) when at 12 it induces perspiration.”” he does japa through Ida of the b ja 16 times. which is the expulsion of the breath by Hamk ra. and bliss. frees from disease. In violent exercise these distances are exceeded. It is necessary that the n di should be cleansed. and recaka expiration. Fire is raised from mani- . the yog in padmasana does guru-ny sa according to the directions of the guru. Pr n y ma similarly varies. Meditating on ““yam. and its inspiration by Sahk ra. 21. and 36 breadths respectively. walking. kumbhaka with japa of b ja 64 times. middling (madhyama) when at 16 it produces spinal tremour.v. of eight kinds: sahita. s ryabheda. for air does not enter those which are impure. According to the first form. with or without. eating. the greatest distance being 96 breadths.

and inhales Ida with japa of the b ja ““tham”” 16 times. He then meditates on the lunar brilliance gazing at the tip of the nose. For its exercise there must be. such as a forest. kumbhaka with 64 japa. in addition to n di uddhi. a deerskin. as also—— certainly in the case of beginners——sexual intercourse. time and food. It should not be too hot or too cold. He inhales by Id .. He exhales by Pingal with 32 japa of the b ja ““lam. and of a vegetarian character. The food should be pure. As stated. nor in a city or crowded locality. pungent. followed by exhalation through the lunar n di and japa of the b ja 32 times. etc. On the contrary. sour. and the like. red in colour. who is full of rajo-guna. The stomach should only be half filled. Thus. Long walks and other violent exercises should be avoided. Then follows inhalation by the solar n di with the vahni b ja. 16 times. which induces distraction. Kumbhaka is done with the b ja ““vam””64 times. the taking of one meal a day. does pr n y ma. is according to the former form. He then thinks of himself as flooded by nectar. and considers that the n dis have been washed. Yoga should be commenced. and. salt. in spring or autumn. and the image of ak ra. or bitter. as follows: The sadhaka meditates on Vidhi (Brahm ). the forms of pr n y ma vary. He then takes his seat on a mat of ku a-grass. which is either with (sagarbha) or without (nirgarbha) b ja.134 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA p ra and united with prthiv . nor in an unprotected place. consideration of proper place. sahita. Thus. are prohibited. the place should not be so distant as to induce anxiety. it is said. The food taken should be light and strengthening. the Yog should not remain without food for more than one j ma (three hours). facing east or north. Fasting.”” and considers himself thereby as strengthened.

Before kumbhaka he does the uddiy nabhandha mudr . One form of dhy na for this purpose is as follows: Let the s dhaka think of the great ocean of nectar in his heart. is said by Bh skarar ya. In the middle of that ocean is the island of gems. the subtle (s ksma) and the supreme (para). meditating on iva as tamomaya and his white b ja mak ra. P rij ta.. In the midst of the Kadamba forest there rises the beautiful Kalpa tree. he exhales through Pingal with 32 japa of the b ja. is of three kinds: (1) sth la. feet. Campaka. The island is clothed with a kadamba forest in yellow blossom. the shores of which are made of powdered gems. the subtle consists of mantra. or meditation. in the technical sense of the Mantra stra. 1 . Amidst its leaves the black bees hum and the koel birds make love. real or own. Its four branches are the four Vedas. then. The physical form has hands. Under the tree there is a great mandapa of precious stones. the physical (sth la). then. (3) s ksma. that there are three forms of the Dev which equally partake of both the prak a and vimar a aspects——viz.. It. Meditating on Hari (Visnu) as sattvamaya and the black bija uk ra. (2) jyotih. etc. in the Lalit (verse 2).YOGA 135 in six measures (m tr ). or gross. and Gheranda-Samhit . Sixth Upade a. PRATYAKSA: DHY NA Through dhy na is gained the third quality of realization or pratyaksa. or subtle. This forest is surrounded by M lati. inhaling by Pingal .1 In the first the form of the Devat is brought before the mind. he does kumbhaka with 64 japa of the b ja. and the supreme is the v san or. The process is repeated in the normal and reversed order. and exhales by Ida with the same b ja. and other fragrant trees. he does kumbhaka. laden with fresh blossom and fruit. Dhy na.

Third Upade a (verses 65 et seq.136 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA within it a beautiful bed. There the jivatma. In the m l dh ra lies the snakelike Kundalin . with freedom from all samkalpa. and thereafter mukti (liberation) is attained. Jyotirdhy na is the infusion of fire and life (tejas) into the form so imagined. v hana. or. Ibid. alternatively. NIRLIPTATVA: SAM DHI Lastly. dwells. S ksma-dhy na is meditation on Kundalin with mbhav -mudr after She has been roused.2 of six kinds: (1) Dhy na-yoga-s madhi. By this yoga (vide post) the tm is revealed ( tm -s ks tk ra).1 FORMS OF SAM DHI-YOGA This sam dhi yoga is. and attachment to the world. attained by mbhavi-mudr 3 in which after meditation on the Bindu-Brahman and realization of the tm ( tmapratyaksa). Sam dhi considered as a process is intense mental concentration. The Guru will direct him as to the form. (2) 1 2 3 See Commentary on verse 51 of the Satcakranir pana. according to the GherandaSamhit . Considered as the result of such process it is the union of J va with the Param tm . the flame emitting its lustre. . as it were the tapering flame of a candle. raiment. between the eyebrows on pranav tmaka. or detachment.”” or self-interest (mamata). the latter is resolved into the Mah ka a. Seventh Upade a. and all sense of ““mineness. through samadhi the quality of nirliptatva. The S dhaka then meditates upon the tejomaya Brahman.). and the title of the Devat . on which let him picture to himself his Istadevat .

which is ultimately dissolved in the supreme Visnu.YOGA 137 N da-yoga. By daily practice the an hata sound is heard. (6) R jayoga.).4 and becomes Bliss itself. attained by khecar mudr . or the Brahman.. and kumbhaka is done. and the jyoti with the manas therein is seen.. rng ra is the love sentiment or sexual passion and sexual union. Ibid. feels himself in union (samgama) with iva. Fifth Upade a (verses 77 et seq. and is then introduced in a reversed position into the mouth. the first of the eight or nine rasa (sentiments)——viz. 2 in which the s dhaka in a silent place closes both ears and does p raka and kumbhaka until he hears the word n da in sounds varying in strength from that of the cricket’’s chirp to that of the large kettle-drum. and the latter is lengthened until it reaches the space betwee the eyebrows. in which meditation is made on the Istadevat with devotion (bhakti) until. raudra (wrath) to which Manmathabhatta. bhay naka (fear). and enjoys with him the bliss which is rng rarasa.. In the Lalit (verse 142) the Dev is addressed as Layakar ——the cause of laya or mental absorption. accomplished by the aid of the manomurcch kumbhaka. the ecstatic condition is attained. adbhut (wondering). 3 The S dhaka. accomplished by the celebrated yonimudr already described. verses 25 et seq. verse 82. Fifth Upade a. (3) Ras nandayoga. with tears flowing from the excess of bliss. . (4) Laya-siddhi-yoga. v ra (heroism). author of the K vyaprak a adds nti (peace). bibhatsa (disgust). 5 Here the manas detached from all worldly objects is fixed between the eyebrows in the jñ cakra. attained by kumbhaka. karuna (compassion). (5) Bhakti-Yoga.. 1 in which the fraenum of the tongue is cut. rng ra. 4 5 Ibid. thinking of himself as akti and the Paramtm as Purusa. h sya (humour). By the union of 1 2 3 Ibid.

and the five organs of perception (pañcajñ nendriyas) is united with the Kulakundalin . SATCAKRA-BHEDA The piercing of the six cakras is one of the most important subjects dealt with in the Tantra. in which the jñ ni sees all things. 1 Fuller details are given in the author’’s translation from the Sanskrit of the Satcakranir pana by P rn nanda Sv mi. a form of the Ap naV yu. ahamkara. united with the jiv tm . On this upward movement. the receptacle of the five vital airs (pañca-pr n ). the Dev s. are dissolved in the body of Kundalin . r ja-yoga-s madhi is attained. but generally it may be said that the particular is raised to the universal life.138 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA the manas with the tm . D kin akti. enter that door and move upwards. S vitr . . on being roused. Brahm . the coiled and sleeping Kundalin is awakened. The Kandarpa or K ma V yu in the m l dh ra. that lotus which. and buddhi. author of the celebrated S kt nandatarangini (The Serpent Power). and is part of the practical yoga process of which they treat. b ja and vrtti. will. which as cit is realizable only in the sahasr ra in the following manner: The j v tm in the subtle body.”” and the heat of the fire thus kindled. When Kundalin leaves the m l dh ra. By the bija ““Hum. Details of practice1 can only be learnt from a Guru. The Mah -mandala or prthiv is converted into the b ja ““Lam. She who lay asleep around svayambhu-linga.”” and is also merged in Her body. mind in its three aspects of manas. is given a leftward revolution and the fire wich is around Kundalin is kindled. with her coils three circles and a half closing the entrance of the brahmadv ra.

On this account the directions of an experienced Guru are necessary. and therefore also other modes of yoga have been recommended for those to whom they are applicable: for in such modes. and lifts its flowers upwards. ““Ram. which remains in the body of the Dev as the B ja ““Ram. The piercing of this cakra may involve considerable pain. Deva.. etc. mantra. This cakra is known as Visnugranthi (knot of Visnu). Upon the entrance of Kundalin Mah visnu. Golaka. that lotus opens out. Sarasvat . and even disease. The b ja of Tejas. which itself being transformed into the b ja ““Ham. M tr s and vrtti. Kundalin next reaches the an hata cakra. where all which is therein is merged in Her. are dissolved in the body of Kundalin . and the Deva and Dev residing therein are dissolved in the body of Kundalin . ““yam. Vaikunthadhama. again closes and hangs downward. Arddha-n r vara iva.”” The cakra is called the Brahmagranthi (or knot of Brahma).”” is merged in the body of . As Kundalin reaches the sv dhisth na-cakra. Upon Her entrance. R kini akti.YOGA 139 on the awakening of Kundalin had opened and turned its flower upwards. or ““earth”” b ja ““Lam”” is dissolved in apas. and apas converted into the b ja ““Vam”” remains in the body of Kundalin . The b ja of V yu. Mah laksm . The prthivi. activity is provoked directly in the higher centre and it is not necessary that the lower cakra should be pierced.”” is dissolved in k a. The varuna b ja ““Vam”” is dissolved in fire.”” disappears in V yu and V yu converted into its b ja ““Yam”” merges in the body of Kundalin . the sixteen vowels. physical disorder. When the Dev reaches the manip ra cakra all that is in the cakra merges in Her body. Kundalin then ascends to the abode of Bharati (or Sarasvati) or the vi uddha-cakra. kin .

Kundalin of Her own motion unites with Parama.iva. Thereafter the s dhaka. This is the maithuna (coition) of the s ttvika-pañca-tattvas. taking rest at intervals in the secret places (cakra). n da. and all else therein. The nectar1 which flows from such union floods the ks drabr hmanda or human body. After this cakra has been pierced. forgetful of all in this world. are absorbed into Her body. embraces the Supreme Spouse and makes the nectar to flow (in the sahasr ra). gunas. V (verses 98. the Dev reaches the jñ cakra. and so thinking he exhales through the right nostril Pingala.iva. . 99). closing both nostrils. thinking of the v yu b ja ““yam”” as being in the left nostril. etc. As She proceeds upwards from the two-petalled lotus. is immersed in ineffable bliss.140 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA Kundalin . The Kundalin has then in her progress upwards absorbed in herself the twenty-four tattvas commencing with the gross elements. The b ja of k a.”” is merged in the manascakra. the Deva.. Piercing the lalan -cakra. he makes japa of the b ja sixty-four times. making japa of the b ja thirty-two times. entering the royal road (susumn ).iva. inhales through Id . The jñ cakra is known as Rudra-granthi (or knot of Rudra or iva). inhales. and then unites Herself and becomes one with Parama. are merged in Her. Siddha-k l . making sixteen japas of b ja and then 1 In the Cint manistava attributed to ri amkar c rya it is said ““This family woman (kundalin ). making japa of the b ja sixteen times. It is then that the s dhaka. ““Ham. The s dhaka then meditating upon the red-coloured b ja ““ram”” in the manip ra. where Parama. He then thinks that black ““man of sin””2 (P papurusa) in the left cavity of the abdomen is being dried up (by air). and mind itself in the body of Kundalin .”” 2 As to Papa-purusa see Mah nirv na-Tantra Ull sa. the nir lambapuri. pranava. Then.

YOGA 141 closes the nostrils. He then meditates upon the white candra-bija ““ham. but no special directions are given. During inhalation. closes both nostrils with japa done sixtyfour times. . and with the b ja ““lam”” it is completed and strengthened. In this manner she again reaches the m l dh ra. on her return journey the way she came. with the mantra ““Soham. who has enjoyed Her union with Parama iva. holding of breath. Lastly. making japa of the bija sixteen times. Thus Kundalin . and exhales through Pingala with thirty-two japas. The Guru’’s instructions are to go above the jñ cakra. The instructions of the seventh amnaya are not expressed (aprak ita). He then exhales through the right nostril with thirty-two japas. Below the ““seventh mouth of iva”” the relationship of Guru and isya ceases. he should consider that a new celestial body is being formed by the nectar (composed of all the letters of the alphabet.”” the sadhaka leads the j v tm into the heart. matrka-varna) dropping from the moon.”” He next inhales through Ida. when all that is described to be in the cakras are in the position which they occupied before her awakening. sets out.”” the formation of the body is continued. and exhalation. for after this cakra has been pierced the s dhaka can reach the brahmasth na un-aided. While making the japa he thinks that the body of ““the man of sin”” is being burnt and reduced to ashes (by fire). making sixty-four japas. In a similar way with the b ja ““vam. As she passes through each of the cakras all that she has absorbed therefrom come out from herself and take their several places in the cakra.

and in this lies its positive significance for the origin of a bias of life against God. and reason subject to God. as manifested at the particular time in the general direction taken by the cosmic process. vii. as the former is the contrary. the pneumatic law. which is the goal of the path of return (nivrttim rga) where inclinations should cease.1 sin is a violation of the personal will of. in the original state. and right) have a wider content. 8.SIN AND VIRTUE ACCORDING to Christian conceptions.”” These and similar notions involve a religious and moral conscious judgment which is assumed to exist in humanity alone. Hindu notions of p pa (wrong) and punya (that which is pure. and apostasy from. Thomas. meets with opposition from the ““law in the members. the impulse towards individuality which is necessary and just on the path of inclination or ““going forth”” (pravrttim rga). In short. Paul says (Rom. 1 See authorities cited in Schaaff Herzog Dict. The two terms are relative to the state of evolution and the surrounding circumstances of the j va to which they are applied. God. holy. the lower powers were subordinate to reason. is wrongful as a hindrance to the attainment of unity. no longer held as the normal. 14). According to St. Thus.”” and materially ““concupiscence. The latter is accordance and working with the will of vara (of whom the j va is itself the embodiment).”” As St. The flesh is the source of lusts which oppose God’’s commands. . ““Original sin”” is formally a ““defect of original righteousness. which declares war on the lusts.

and sloth which if deliberately persisted in. is not (except. sometimes popularly) viewed from the juristic standpoint of an external Law-giver. in the YogaVa istha it is said that even a creeping plant acquired merit by association with the holy muni on whose dwelling it grew. but a part of the action itself——namely. anger. Thus. when rightly understood. Further. however. What the j va actually does is the result of his karma. though commonly applicable to the human embodiment of the tm . is. krodha.SIN AND VIRTUE 143 what makes for progress on the one path is a hindrance on the other. the part of it which belongs to the future. It is that which has been. it has been said. envy. lust. Both p pa and punya may therefore be manifested in beings of a lower rank than that of humanity in so far as what they (whether consciously or unconsciously) do is a hindrance to their true development. The pain as the consequence of the action done need not be immediate. pride and envy. drive from the soul all state of grace. For the same reason wrong is its destruction. ignorance or delusion. and those subject to it. Objectively considered. Morality. the consequence of the action is not really something separate. The matter. His commands. 1 1 This in part corresponds with the Christian classification of the ““seven deadly sins””: pride. Though. in past. perhaps. the suffering may be experienced as a result later than the action of which it is the cause. moha. m tsarya——lust. coveteousness. mental or physical. and will be the cause of pain. mada. but from that in which the exemplification of the moral law is regarded as the true and proper expression of the j va’’s own evolution. gluttony. anger. present and future births. is not limited to it. The six chief sins are k ma. covetousness. the term j va. sin is concisely defined as duhkhajanakam p pam. . is the true nature of a being. lobha.

na prajay . As is his thought. so is his thought. This good karma produces pleasant fruit. so is his action. which. iv. and effect. The icch . Virtue (punya). As is his desire. Virtue is that which leads towards the unity whose substance is Bliss ( nanda). so his attainment. 5.”” 1 It is only by escape through knowledge. is that which is the cause of happiness (sukhajanakam punyam).””3 ““As he thinks. which are categories of phenomenal being. 2 3 . in ignorance or disregard of the unity of the Self in all creatures.144 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA All wrong is at base self-seeking. exist. nor action without effect. but by renunciation that men have attained liberation. Chapter IV. 6. That happiness is produced either in this or future births. so he 1 Na karman . and action. It is obvious that for those who obtain such release neither vice nor virtue. the present. iv. There is no uncaused action. therefore. and the future are linked together as one whole. knowledge. jñ na.”” 2 These fashion the individual’’s karma. ““He who desires goes by work to the object on which his mind is set. its cause. as the contrary of sin. that the j va becoming one with the unchanging Absolute attains lasting rest. and kriy aktis manifest in the j vtm living on the worldly plane as desire. As ruti says: ““It is not by acts or the pindas offered by one’’s children or by wealth. (Taittiriyopanisad). is transitory. As the Brhad ranyaka Upanisad says: ““Man is verily formed of desire. KARMA Karma is action. The past. dhanena Ty gena eke amrtatvam na uh. or leads to the enjoyment of heaven (Svarga). Chapter IV. like all the results of karma. As is his action.

If anything is caused. 1.”” The matter is not one of punishment and reward. but of consequence. which continues. The third is the new karma. which has still to be worked out. xiv. 12. 14. Tepi k lesu l yante k lo hi balavattarah. 13. So it is said: Nasmastat karmabhyo vidhirapi na yebhyah prabhavati.4 By his karma a jiva may become an Indra. xxviii. cci. and is called vartam na and g mi. 1 2 3 4 Ch ndogya Upanisad. the result being part of the original action. is by its nature ever making present karma and experiencing the past. VI. its result is caused. or that part of the first which is ripe. 5 Dev -Bh gavata. This past karma is the cause of the character of the succeeding births. whether good or bad. 23. ccxi. 9. as to action.SIN AND VIRTUE 145 becometh. is called samsk ra. The j v tm experiences happiness for his good acts and misery for his evil ones. Mah bh rata. as such. the whole vast accumulated mass of the unexhausted karma of the past.. inti-Parva.3 The embodied soul (j v tm ). 18-20. and Ye samastajagat rstisthitisamh rakeng h. and is transformed into the result. and which is worked out and bears fruit in the present birth.5 Karma is thus the invisible (adrsta). Dev -Bh gavata. or v san . x. and. 12. ““whatsoever a man sows that shall he reap. which man is continually making by his present and future actions. IX. The second form of karma is pr rabdha. whilst in the samsara or phenomenal world. .””1 Then.2 Karma is of three kinds——viz. samcita-karma——that is. III. the product of ordained or prohibited actions capable of giving bodies. Even the Devas themselves are subject to time and karma. and the consequence of action is but a part of it.

. Some systems prescribe the same method for men of diverse tendencies. the destruction of the will to separate life. With the cessation of desire the tie which binds man to the samsara is broken. As regards prarabdha-karma. Those who think of the reward will receive benefit in the shape of that reward. Even good action. and realization of unity with the Supreme. All accompanying action must be without thought of self. Thus. The needs of each vary. A man’’s tendencies. as also the methods which will be the best suited to each to lead them to the common goal.akti. and moulds its methods to the temperament produced by it. According to the Tantra. The guru must determine that for which the s dhaka is qualified (adhik r ). forms of worship which are permissible to the v ra are forbidden to the pa u. Nothing can be done but to work it out. can never secure liberation. the s dhana and c ra (q. when done with a view to its fruits. character and temperament is moulded by his samcita karma. it is unavoidable. and altogether these are called the impurity of action (karma-mala).146 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA It is either good or bad. and is gained only by brahmajñ na.v. Liberation is the work of iva.) appropriate to an individual depends upon his karma. But the Tantra recognizes the force of karma.

The path of outgoing is the way of pravrtti. not in the created worlds. who is Itself the Source and Essence of all Bliss. As Mah m y She recalls it to Herself. that of return nivrtti.FOUR AIMS OF BEING THERE is but one thing which all seek——happiness—— though it be of differing kinds and sought in different ways. chap. or spiritual. which is Itself the great Bliss (rasam hi vayam labdhv nand bhavati). Those on the path of desire (pravrtti m rga) seek it through the enjoyments of this world (bhukti) or in the more durable.1 And in the third chapter of the work cited it is said that of Visnu and iva mukti only can be had. in a peculiar sense the source whence those material things come from which 1 As also Svarg (see kt nanda-tarangini. . Though issuing from the same source. He who is on the path of return (nivrtti-m rga) seeks happiness. intellectual. and thus it is said that man can never be truly happy until he seeks shelter with Brahman. or permanent. though still impermanent delights of heaven (svarga). i). transitory or durable. but of Dev both bhukti and mukti and this is so in so far as the Dev is. and Bliss itself (rasovai sah). Dev as M y evolves the world. Each of these movements is divine. The eternal rhythm of the Divine Breath is outwards from spirit to matter and inwards from matter to spirit. Enjoyment (bhukti) and liberation (mukti) are each Her gifts. are from the Brahman. All forms. whether sensual. but in everlasting union with their primal source (mukti). pleasure differs in its forms in being higher and lower.

2 3 See Cand . verse 39 and Chapter I. remain on the path of desire. and rightly seek the enjoyment which is appropriate to their stage of evolution. Devi hereself is both desire2 and that light of knowledge which in the wise who have known enjoyment lays bare its futilities. according to a caustic observer. are both subservient to her (prakrti). Desire is not to be let loose without bridle. See notes to same as to bhoga. and so of the world-process itself it is said. 4 But enjoyment itself is not without its law. verse 51. the Purusas. etc. and leave Her by reason of viveka. ibid. where the Tantras are described as the givers of both bhukti and mukti.3 Provision is made for the wordly life which is the ““outgoing”” of the Supreme. In the hands of Dev is the noose of desire. 5 As to sveccha. the large number of men who may be more properly described as candidates for humanity. Man must.148 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA enjoyment (bhoga) arises. Ajo hyeko j sam no’’ nu ete Jah tyen m bhukta-bhog majonyah: and see Samkhya Tattva-Kaumudi. that the unborn ones. Contrary to 1 Including. are on the forward path. .5 The mental self is.ranyaka) says: Aj mek m lohita ukla krsn m. see notes to Chapter III. 1 and the bulk of humanity itself. Bahv m praj m janayantim ar p m. of which the senses are the horses. All j vas on their way to humanity. But one cannot renounce until one has enjoyed. And so it is said that the T ntrika has both enjoyment (bhukti) and liberation tion (mukti). as is commonly said. 4 See Mah nirv na Tantra chapter IV. verse 96. The thirst for life will continue to manifest itself until the point of return is reached and the outgoing energy is exhausted. And so ruti (Taittiriya. Dev is manifested in desire. the charioteer of the body. until such time.

”” It is. The mark of dharma and of the good is c ra (good conduct). civ. from which dharma is born and fair fame is acquired here and hereafter. equity. religion. not an artificial rule. good works. thought and action must be controlled by Dharma. duty. . but also its application. nti-Parva (cic.”” ““It was declared for well-being and bringeth well-being. custom. ““That which supports and holds together the peoples (of the universe) is dharma. That course of meritorious action by which man fits himself for this world. in short. 110). piety. 108. Because it supports and holds together. it is called Dharma. Pur na. The basis of the san tanadharma is revelation ( ruti) as presented in the various stras——Smrti. Hence the first three of the aims of life (trivarga) on the path of pravrtti are dharma. usage. but the principle of right living. in short. and Tantra. Anu sana-Parva.FOUR AIMS OF BEING 149 mistaken notions on the subject. 88). right. It is. the merit acquired thereby. By Dharma are the people upheld. In the Dev -Bh 1 2 Mah bh rata. Manusmrti (I. heaven. the eternal and immutable (san tan ) principles which hold together the universe in its parts and in its whole whether organic or inorganic matter. If one would not be swept away and lost in the mighty force which is the descent into matter. Dharma is also the result of good action——that is. and liberation. DHARMA Dharma means that which is to be held fast or kept ——law.1 The sages embraced cara as the root of all tapas. It upholds and preserves. artha and k ma.2 Dharma is not only the principle of right living. the Tantras take no exception to the ordinary rule that it is necessary not to let them run away. and morality.

and hence unable to master the whole. for man is subject to dharma. house. which are equally so governed. such as that for wealth. family. which must be cultivated whilst man is upon the pravrtti 1 I. with the desire to benefit men. money. land and other property. and so forth. K MA K ma is desire. aid given to others. 99. In short. must however. iii. and with the knowledge that they are short-lived and of small intelligence. which regulates it. drink. It also involves the notion of the necessity for the possession of great and noble aims. food. for which artha may be necessary. As the desire must be a right desire——for man is subject to dharma. This dharma is the first of the four leading aims (caturvarga) of all being. The first group is known as the trivarga. position. and in the higher sense the means by which effect may be given to the higher desires.150 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA gavata1 it is said that in the Kaliyuga Visnu in the form of Vy sa divides the one Veda into many parts. for such possession is the characteristic of greatness of soul. success. whether of the lower or higher kinds. Desire. which regulates them——so also must be the means sought. may be fulfilled. such as that of worship. it is all the necessary means by which all right desire. be lawful. or other forms of happiness for self or others. whether of the higher or lower kinds. ARTHA Artha (wealth) stands for the means by which this life may be maintained——in the lower sense. desires and ambitions. .

where inclination ceases (nivrtti-marga).. and by the lawful means (artha) whereby the lawful desires which give birth to righteous acts are realized. when adopting the specifically religious life. for instance.FOUR AIMS OF BEING 151 m rga. Unless and until there is renunciation on entrance upon the path of return.”” as also other Christian terms. moksa or mukti is the truly ultimate end.1 MOKSA Of the four aims. mukti means loosening from the bonds of the samsara (phenomenal existence). ““either one thing or the other. According to the Christian doctrine (soteriology). desires (k ma).2 Mukti means ““loosening”” or liberation. man must work for the ultimate goal by meritorious acts (dharma). for the other three are ever haunted by the fear of Death. who spends all his time in worship to the neglect of his family and worldly estate. analogous ideas. 35. It is advisable to avoid the term ““salvation. and admitting to the Kingdom of God. IV. for he who is addicted to one only is despicable”” (dharm rthak m h samameva sevy h yo hyekasaktah sa jano-jaganyah). leave it””——a statement of the maxim ““be thorough. though in a loose sense. The stra says. Whilst on the pravrtti-m rga ““the trivarga should be equally cultivated. when in the world be rightly of it. resulting in a union (of various degrees of completeness) of the embodied spirit (j v tm ) or individual life with the Supreme Spirit (param tm ). the Ender. a householder. faith in Christ’’s Gospel and in His Church effects salvation. On the other hand. saving from judgment.”” 2 Visnu-Bh gavata. . which is the forgiveness of sins mediated by Christ’’s redeeming activity. Liberation can be attained by spiri1 As. 34. which connote different. xxii.

some more perfect than the others. by freedom from sin and right action through adherence to dharma. rightly.. or of the Deva regarded as distinct from the worshipper and with . or without images. living in the same loka. s r pya.152 INTRODUCTION TO TANTRA STRA tual knowledge ( tm jñ na) alone. though it is obvious that such knowledge must be preceded by. The idealistic system of Hinduism. or region. for default of a better term. as the trivarga appertain to the pravrtti-m rga. which is the source of the modifications which it is man’’s final aim to suppress. as is generally supposed one state. being in the nature of abodes——viz. which posits the ultimate reality as being in the nature of mind. with the Deva worshipped. but regards it as subsidiary and powerless of itself to achieve that extinction of the modifications of the energy of consciousness which constitutes the supreme mukti known as Kaivalya. nature. or pada. can only be attained in the sense of actual realization. which may be with. and. and s yujya——that is. The abode to which the j va attains depends upon the worshipper and the nature of his worship. Not that it fails to recognize the importance of the latter. whether good or evil. receiving the same form or possessing the same ai arya (Divine qualities) as the Deva. There are various degrees of mukti. s m pya. indeed. being near the Deva. and accompanied with. insists on what. There are four future states of Bliss. may be described as the intellectual. Moksa belongs to the nivrtti m rga. in such cases. for such conduct. and becoming one with the Deva worshipped. produces karma. and it is not. as opposed to the ethical. Such extinction cannot be effected by conduct alone. s lokya.

loka 125. and any appearance to the contrary is illusory. the state in which. vijñ nam ilpa. modification of the energy of consciousness is extinct. Mah nirv na. in which case there exists a state of j vanmukti celebrated in the J vanmukti-git of Dattatreya. means must be taken to remove the illusion. and when it is established in its own real nature. whilst yet living. transitory and conditioned. and attain to that unconditioned Bliss which transcends them all. friend and foe.FOUR AIMS OF BEING 153 attributes. There is. because of the illusion that it is not yet attained. recognizing that the worlds resulting from action are imperfect. but though moksa is already in possession. or Kaivalya. 1 That is which gives moksa. still. Mokse dhir jñ nam anayatra. and so forth. The means whereby mukti is attained is the yoga process (vide ante). is not really fettered. . other forms being called vijñ na. The soul. though in the body. The four abodes are the result of action. in fact. the real moksa. Those who know the Brahman. and freed from all attachment he is J vanmukta.strayoh. or liberated. The enlightened Kaula. He knows that the Brahman is all. 2 See Bh skarar ya’’s Commentary on Lalit Sahasran ma. it is true. reject them. and the j va who succeeds in this is j vanmukta. freedom. sees no difference between mud and sandal.2 Liberation is attainable while the body is yet living. is the result of spiritual knowledge (jñ na). and is freed from future embodiments. according to the Nityanita. a dwelling-house and the cremation-ground. as the Yoga-s tra says.1 and is unconditioned and permanent. Kaivalya is the supreme state of oneness without attributes. that the Supreme soul (param tm ) and the individual soul (j v tm ) are one.

garim .”” since the greatest of all siddhis is full liberation (mah nirv na) from the bonds of phenomenal life and union with the Param tm . A person is siddhi also who has perfected his spiritual development. and fruition of all kinds. The former term. prapti. achievement. which is the supreme object (param rtha) to be attained through human birth. and the like——are known as the eight siddhis. heavy. light. The thirty-ninth chapter of the Brahmavaivarta Pur na mentions eighteen kinds. great. success. anim . siddhi in mantra. A person may thus gain siddhi in speech. va tva——the powers of becoming small. which literally means ““success.”” includes accomplishment. ahima.”” The great siddhi is spiritual perfection. pr k my . itva. Even the mighty powers of the ““eight siddhis”” are known as the ““lesser siddhi. etc. attaining what one wills.SIDDHI SIDDHI is produced by s dhana. but there are many others including such minor accomplishments as nakhadarpanasiddhi or ““nail-gazing. . The various powers attainble——namely.

Since this book has gone through a number of editions. this text originally formed the extended Introduction to a translation of the Mah nirv na Tantra. A few apparent errors have been conjecturally fixed. the principal castes. Madras. This edition of Introduction to Tantra stra was OCRed and proofed from a copy of the 1973 ““sixth edition”” issued by Ganesh & co. I am not entirely sure of the value of this work as an ““introduction”” to the subject. culture and religion. layout and style of my copy text.. printing. or at all (and even MonierWillaims’’ dictionary is unhelpful with many of these. where I wasn’’t actually sure which... which was not always (e.g. designated ““second edition. technical Sanskrit terms are thrown around left right and centre without being defined clearly. indicating either (a) some revision by the author after the first publication or (b) the interpolations of an anonymous later editor. On the one hand he felt the need to explain things like the Indian version of the descent of the ages. works which are difficult of access and in many cases have had no English translation are routinely .EDITORIAL NOTE TO THE CELEPHAÏS PRESS EDITION Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law. no attempt has been made to retain pagination. which have not been typographically identical. giving at best the literal meaning only). The few notes in square brackets are due to the present typesetter. &c.”” However. was correct). As noted on the imprint. these have been made consistent where possible. India. or how much Woodroffe assumed his readers already knew. if either. the ““ rama”” or traditional stages of life. or at best first appearing many pages before they are actually defined. implying that at least some of his readership was assumed to be unacquainted with basic aspects of Indian society. on the other hand. In this print edition there were minor discrepancies in the romanization of Sanskrit between the body text and some footnotes. published in London in 1913 under the name ““Arthur Avalon”” (which Woodroffe later admitted to be a collective pseudonym for himself and an anonymous collaborator). the footnotes contain a number of references to works published after 1913. The first edition as an independent work which I have been able to find cited is the 1952 Ganesh & co.

he asserts that Sellon ““for reasons which I need not here discuss. a partial exception being found in the writings of Edward Sellon (see his Annotations on the Sacred Writings of the Hindüs and ““Remarks on Indian Gnosticism. Woodroofe whitewashed (in akti and kta. Woodroffe. love under will. Love is the law. did not view [the kta mysteries] from the right standpoint.S. or when all else failed relegating to the realm of ““abuses”” of a minority. p. This will go some way to explaining the seeming credulity of a number of passages in his works. There are other caveats which perhaps need to be entered into in respect of this author’’s writings. 6. 62 notes 2 and 5). who had trained and practiced as a lawyer before serving as a High Court judge in the colonial administration.g. April 2008 anno tenebrarum . Another thing to remember is that Woodroffe did not follow a ““comparative religion”” perspective of attempting to analyse and critique other peoples’’ belief-systems in familiar terms. and occasionally words or phrases in romanized Sanskrit which do not obviously appear to be technical terms appear in the middle of English sentences (e. where Sellon sensationalised and other Victorians vilified. While most of what was published in English previously on the subject of kta T ntrik doctrine and ritual was largely worthless.stra generally with ruti and Smrti (those scriptures which are. or akti P j ””). To gratuitously alliterate. glossing over. almost by definition. accepted by all Hindus) while minimising.156 EDITORIAL NOTE cited in notes. any practices which English readers of the time might have found distasteful. seems to have appointed himself counsel for the defence of the ktas against charges of heresy and immorality (the latter considered both by the lights of Vaidik orthodoxy and the standards of a Britain to which more than a trace of the mire of the nineteenth century still clung) and thus argued strongly in favour of the ktas’’ orthodoxy and the compatability of the Tantra. T. for which purpose it was necessary to adopt their position.””). Leeds. cap. but rather sought to expound the kta doctrines more or less in their own terms.