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By P.Swarnalatha K.Chaitanya B. Ajay Kumar ( 12MEE0040) (12MEE0030) (12MEE0026)

Half-Life It is not possible to predict exactly when a particular radioactive atom will decay. Ionizing radiation may take the form of alpha particles. they are said to decay. the number of neutrons may be different. This time is calledthe half-life. so that Carbon-12 and Hydrogen. Radioactiveatoms are unstable that . The space outside the nucleus is occupied by the electrons. or element. The prefix ―radio-‖ can be added to either term. Isotopes and Nuclides While all atoms of the same element contain the same number of protons. This form. The term nuclide is used to refer to any type of atom. The process of emitting the radiation is called radioactive decay. For example. . carbon atoms have six protons. and electrons. the atom is chlorine. However. They are not isotopes of each other because they differ in the number of protons that they each have in their nucleus. making radioisotope or radionuclide. This Fact Sheet explains the process of radioactive decay. All radioactive atoms decay eventually. The protons and neutrons are packed together in the nucleus at the center of the atom . beta particles.What Is Radioactive Material? Radioactivity is a part of nature. or isotope of carbon is radioactive. the atom is oxygen.2 are nuclides. The time required for decay depends upon the type of atom. whenever the atom referred to is radioactive. The number of protons in the nucleus determines what material. the atom is. If the nucleus contains 17 protons. scientists have determined the time required for half of a large number of identical radioactive atoms to decay. When radioactive atoms spontaneously release their extra energy. Radioactive Decay When the nucleus of a radionuclide spontaneously called ionizing radiation. If a carbon atom also has six neutrons. it is Carbon-12. though they do not all decay at the same rate. they have too much energy. For example. or gamma rays. if the nucleus contains 8 protons. If it has seven neutrons. After releasing all their excess energy. neutrons. The Atom The explanation of radioactive decay begins with a description of the atom. it is Carbron-13. Atoms are made up of three subatomic particles: protons. Everything is made of atoms. the atoms become stable and are no longer radioactive. A carbon atom containing six protons and eight neutrons is Carbon-14. Carbon-14 is radioactive while Carbon-12 and Carbon-13 are stable.

Other radioactive substances which . b) Contain one or several of the substances mentioned in a) or are contaminated with such substances. The ability of certain materials to emit the proton. gamma rays and electrons by their nuclei is known as the radioactivity. The radioactive pollution can also be defined as the physical pollution of air. c) any substance containing one or several of the substances mentioned in a) and b). which can significantly harm the environment. a) plutonium 239 and plutonium 241. like any other kind of pollution. What is Radioactive Pollution? • Radioactive pollution.e. b) uranium enriched with the isotopes 235 or 233. • • Sources of radioactive contaminants: Following are the major sources where most of the radioactive waste is generated and is responsible for causing radioactive pollution: o o o o o o Production of nuclear fuel Nuclear power reactors Use of Radionuclides in industries for various applications Nuclear tests carried out by Defense Personnel Disposal of nuclear wast Uranium Mining .without being nuclear fuel a) spontaneously emit ionizing rays. d) substances which can be used in a suitable plant to maintain a chain reaction which initiates its own repetition and which are determined in an ordinance having the force of law.Radioactive substances within the meaning of the Atomic Energy Act are: Nuclear fuels. in this case. i. the unwanted thing is radioactive material. There are many causes of radioactive pollution. is the release of something unwanted into the environment and. water and the other radioactive materials.

for example medical use. Science is still on its way finding a better way to solve this problem. by any forms of transportation (air.   Nuclear weapon  Transportation Disposal of nuclear waste . is harvested from uranium mining.000 years. etc.  The decaying process of radioactive wastes takes a very long time in progress. land. Transportation of nuclear wastes from one place to another. However. water. brings hazard when unsafely maintained Nuclear power plant accidents. substance that is used in nuclear power plants. mining. There are common ways to dispose nuclear waste (nuclear wastes are resulted from many kinds of use.Sources and Methods of Radioactive Pollution Major sources   Nuclear power plants Methods of pollution The waste resulted. Nuclear weapon tests that are conducted above ground or under water Nuclear bombing such as what have happened in Hiroshima and Nagasaki will create a vast and thorough devastation in a short time. and even an idea that to send them to outer space. in form of radioactivity. if radioactive core is exposed and meltdown is occurring and releasing high amount of radioactivity.  Uranium mining Uranium. sea) will possibly bring serious hazards to the environment if they are not maintained carefully and/or facing accidents. A half-life is the ‘period of time required for the disintegration of half of the atoms in a sample of a radioactive substance’ (Britannica). Some radioactive substances have a half-life of more than 10. they are still dangerous and expensive. Uranium mining results in radioactive waste that pollutes the surrounding environment. will endanger the life and surrounding environment.): burying under ground very deeply and burying under the sea. which means they are dangerous in that great amount of time.

bone marrow. On the other hand. genetic defects for the generations to come and even death. blood. Radioactive emissions from nuclear weapons are considered as the most harmful for the environment. it affects several generations. lung cancer. etc. Similarly. cells in human body and causes • • • • • • • Through the Environment • • soil gets contaminated by radioactive substances. if the parents are exposed to nuclear radiation. and gonads. cells that do not undergo rapid cell division like bone cells. A longer exposure to radioactive radiations can damage the DNA cells that results in cancer. Some of the plants may die after such exposure while others may develop weak seeds. The radioactive rays can cause irreparable damage to the DNA molecules and lead to a life-threatening condition. then their child could be born with genetic birth defects and retardation. These ions then form free radicals which slowly and steadily start destroying proteins. In other words. muscle cells. It has a serious threat to various systems of the body that include the cardiac system. Thus. cannot be damaged so easily. are more sensitive towards radioactive emissions. neurological system and reproductive system. The radiations destroy the Radioactive particles forms ions when it reacts with biological molecules. then it causes serious health risks. including the fruits are consumed by human beings. the radioactive substances from the land surface that flows down to the water bodies remain there for years to come • • . People with heavy radiation exposure are prone to skin cancer. The rapidly growing cells like that of the skin. membranes.Impact of Radioactive Pollution on human health • The effects of radioactive pollution or exposure to nuclear radiations were first reported in early 20th century when people working in uranium mines suffered from skin burn and cancer. as they stay in the atmosphere for as long as a hundred years. and nucleic acids. The effects of genetic mutation tend to pass on to the future generations as well. and nervous cells. The effects vary from organism to organism and from level of radioactivity of nuclear isotopes and it largely depends on the level of exposure to the emissions. thyroid cancer. It can lead to genetic mutation of the plants' DNA and affect its normal functioning. It causes genetic mutations that promote the growth of cancerous cells in the body. intestines.When any part of the contaminated plant.

when perfected will effectively solve the problem of radioactive waste.This currently is our most environmentally friendly radioactive waste management technique and. Re-use of radioactive waste Some radioactive isotopes. due to the potential problems which could occur when attempting to carry out the procedure. Transmutation Transmutation of radioactive waste is the process of consuming this radioactive waste and turning it into less harmful waste. Space disposal Space disposal is not currently used to reduce radioactive pollution. for now. a rocket used to launch the waste fails (and bear in mind that many rockets would have to be used due to the large amount of radioactive waste) then huge amounts of radioactive material would be released into the atmosphere. The re-use of radioactive waste means that the quantity of waste produced is reduced. causing significant health risks to people within thousands of miles of the launch. .Sometime in the future this may be possible. If. it is best for us to avoid space disposal.This is currently not used very often due to high costs. effectively. Rooms are then excavated at the bottom of these and radioactive material is stored here until it has decayed enough to not be dangerous any more. however. the burying of radioactive material. as such.Large geologic formations are located and tunnels as deep as 1000m underground are drilled. for example. however. so this serves as another good environmentally friendly management scheme. such as strontium-90 and caesium-137 are able to be extracted for use in other industries such as food irradiation. research is being done to make the process more efficient and more economically viable.Radioactive Waste Management Geological disposal This is.

For this reason radioactive waste management is very important and plans stretch up to around 100 years in the future. They must be stored in the safe places and must be changed into harmless form. It includes the stoppage of leakage from the radioactive materials including the nuclear reactors. different materials will in general absorb different amounts of energy. The nuclear power plants must follow all the safe instructions. Competent user training is also essential for correct interpretations on the results obtained bythe instrument and for assessing appropriate doses received by humans. Using the right type of radiation detection equipment provides an effective means of limiting exposures and assists in minimizing doses.Human senses cannot detect ionizing radiation.A fundamental distinction exists between radiation or radioactivity and dose.RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION CONTROLLING AND MONITORING The radioactive pollution can be controlled by number of ways. Basic terminology associated with measuring instruments .Part of the reason that radioactive pollution is a problem is that radiation can remain for up to a million years if levels of certain isotopes are high enough. the higher the absorbed dose. radioactivity is measured in counts per minute (which when a correcting factor called efficiency is applied) and can be converted to disintegrations per minute. It is equally important that the correct monitoring instrument is selected and used in an emergency setting. with ongoing evaluations and research into these to make sure radioactive pollution affects us as little as possible. industries and laboratories.It is vital that correct radiation monitoring is carried out when there is likelihood for radiation exposure. In general. . The natural radiation must be at the permissible limits and they must not cross it. whereas others measure the dose to a human. Because both physical and chemical changes can occur as a result of this absorbed radiation. However. the higher the activity. it is not a one to one relationship. some types of detectors count radiation events. This then is referred to as absorbed dose or simply dose. the absorbed dose will be a reasonable measure of the chemical or physical effects created by absorbed energy of a radioactive source. If subjected to gamma radiation. In fact. excess and longterm exposure may cause adverse health effects. Hand-held radiation measuring instruments are the tools used as a first line of defense in the detection of the presence of such radiations and are often used to avoid unwarranted exposure to radiation. and the absorbed dose is a measure of a specific amount of energy absorbed by the human body [usually measured in roentgen equivalent man (rem) or Sievert (Sv)]. The protective garments must be worn by the workers who work in the nuclear plants. the radiation source is measured in counts per unit time (usually counts per minute). principal types and respective applications to a radiological event. Again. The wastes with a very low radiation must be put into the sewage. In short. the absorbed energy most often described as energy per unit mass. In general. The disposal of radioactive material must be safe and secure. However.

as follows: 1. which indicate the potential internal exposure when a radioactive substance is distributed within an atmosphere . aerosols or liquids). Four basic types of nuclear detection instruments are recommended for use during a radiological emergency.Aerosol or gas contamination monitors. and ionizing radiation sources in a form that has the capability of entering the human body (primarily as surface contamination such as radioactive dust.TYPES OF NUCLEAR DETECTION EQUIPMENT Nuclear detection instruments are necessary to detect and quantify two fundamental types of radiation exposure: ionizing radiation sources outside the human body.Dosimeters for measuring the cumulative external exposure 2.

TLD store radiation energy in a crystal such as lithium fluoride that is later ―read‖ by heating the crystal and measuring the glow of light that is proportional to the radiation level that first struck the crystal. parameterscan be set on the device to warn individuals that they are approaching a certain limit of exposure.Film dosimeters are processed in the sameway as photographic film. Several types of dosimeters are available.Dose rate meters for measuring an immediate external human exposure to radiation Dosimeters Dosimeters measure the total energy absorbed as a consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation. This information determines the quantity and type of radiation exposing the film.Electronic dosimeters measure radiation exposure on a real-time basis and provide immediate dose rate readings. The dosimeter can be instantaneously processed and read by an on-site reader. which indicates the potential internal exposure when a radioactive substance is distributed over a surface 4.Nuclear rate meter for measuring surface contamination. optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Dose rate meters provide direct measurements of external exposure.3.OSLs are a relatively new technology that differs from TLDs in that trapped charges are released using optical rather than thermal energy.A dose rate meter measures external hazards in units of dose equivalent rate. and direct ion storage. A calibrated light source and sensitive detectors are used to measure the amount of light that can pass through the film.Direct ion storage measures radiation by absorbing charges into a miniature (MOSFET) ion chamber. Depending on the environment. including thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). electronic dosimeter. film dosimeter. Personnel dosimeters should be worn by all .

Passive dosimeters routinely monitor cumulative doses that result from an external exposure. for example: (1) A task of short duration has to be carried out in the presence of high dose rates. Active dosimeters provide an immediate reading of the dose in microsieverts (mSv) and may also provide an immediate alarm signal when the measured dose approaches a value preset by the manufacturer or the health physics specialist.Instruments for monitoring airborne contamination normally draw suspect contaminated air at a constant rate through a filter or past a detector with instantaneous feedback. emergency responders while in a radiological zone to assess their radiation exposure.Personnel dosimeters and integrating dose rate meters have the ability to measure the dose equivalent caused by an external hazard that is rapidly changing. Thus. the harm on a very localized scale can be more severe to those who breathe these much smaller particles. condensation aerosols (smoke). The problem with the former is that .g. Fallout particles from a nuclear weapons detonation or improvised nuclear device (IND) liberate large particles from 50 to 200 mm (1/1000th of a millimeter).provide a measurement of cumulative exposure to radiation. Submicron particles also present a mechanism for easily entering the lungs. although an RDD presents a much smaller activity level than an IND or nuclear detonation. This means that fallout from nuclear weapons or INDs can be easily filtered and/or blocked from entering a shelter or well-sealed house. or liquid aerosols (mists).. and (2) The source [e. Integrating dose rate meters and dosimeters can be used to assess an external exposure which is rapidly changing. Dosimeters. Particles from an RDD can be on the submicron level which means that Hepa filters must be used to remove them from contaminated air. These may be dispersion aerosols (dusts). however. high dose rates while near the release point of a radiological dispersion device (RDD)] emits radiation within a short distance of a radiological device AIRBORNE CONTAMINATION METERS AND GAS MONITORS Airborne contamination meters are used to detect radioactive aerosols that may be present after a nuclear detonation or a chemical explosion involving a RDD.

More than likely.Gas monitoring detectors provide monitoring by simply moving the radioactive gas past a detector. PAS systems are used to monitor the more significant hazard within the breathing zone of an individual worker. These instruments are often passive devices that do not provide immediate measurements. SURFACE CONTAMINATION METERS Surface contamination meters are used to detect the presence of radioactive substances on accessible surfaces. A PAS is simply a small pump usually worn on a belt that pulls air through a filter at chest level. Airborne contamination meters and gas monitors may be used to assess airborne contamination in the event of a radiological event. However. filters need to be measured elsewhere. alpha-emitting radionuclides present the most significant challenge in being measured because almost anything stops an alpha. such instruments will be flown on small aircraft. one may wish to use personnel air samplers (PAS). Airborne contamination meters are used to detect and measure particulate radioactivity in the atmosphere. most gas monitoring systems measure in units of becquerels per cubic meter (Bq/m3). The advantage to air filters is that they can be retained for additional analyses. if such equipment is not available or is not used. Even low concentrations of such substances may present a potential internal exposure. For example. Gas monitors are used to detect and measure radioactive gases in the atmosphere. each instrument will have detection efficiencies that range from near 0% to 30% (at best) depending on what types of radionuclides are present. . In general. However.It is highly recommended that emergency response personnel use a personal breathing apparatus while in a declared ―hot zone‖ after a radiological event.Personnel and static samplers as well as gas monitors are used to monitor airborne contamination. The advantage of gas monitors is that they give direct and immediate feedback of the presence of airborne radioactive gases. They only provide a total measurement of radioactivity that is trapped on a filter. these results may not necessarily reflect actual intake by the emergency response personnel.

millirad per hour (mrad/hr). A smaller number of instruments indicate the absorbed dose rate in micrograys per hour (mGy/hr). predetermined detection efficiency for the contaminant. and milliroentgen per hour (mR/hr)—are still displayed on some instruments (10 mSv/hr is equivalent to 1 .Some surface contamination meters are programmable. A surface contamination meter can indicate a potential for uptake and internal exposure to radiation. gamma. and/or beta radiations. DOSE RATE METERS A dose rate meter measures absorbed energy from penetrating radiation.Surface contamination meters are used to detect and measure radioactive substances on surfaces. in counts per second (cps or s–1). need to be converted to becquerels per square centimeter (Bq/cm2). Dose rate meters provide direct measurements of external exposure Specialized instruments are necessary to measure neutron dose equivalent rates. Measurements must be made using a calibrated instrument with the best available. The measurements. The user sets the instrument’s likely response to the radionuclide in use and obtains a direct measurement of surface contamination (in Bq/cm2). These instruments usually respond only to X-rays. A suitable and efficient instrument that is matched to the specific task should be capable of providing direct readings of the dose equivalent rate in microsieverts per hour (mSv/hr or mSv/hr). A dose rate meter measures external hazards in units of dose equivalent rate. Older units of dose rate—millirem per hour (mrem/hr).

On passing through the gas inside the counter. . we are dependent on instruments to indicate the presence of ionizing radiation`n. By placing a very sensitive current measuring device between the wires from the cathode and anode. These charges are collected by the anode and cathode which then form a very small current in the wires going to the detector. Proportional Counter A gas-filled discharge device for the detection of ionizing particles and quanta. the more current displayed by the instrument. a charged particle produces in its path ionelectron pairs. the positive ions will be attracted to the negative side of the detector (the cathode) and the free electrons will travel to the positive side (the anode). The most common type of instrument is a gas filled radiation detector.Dose rate meters may not be able to provide an accurate response to rapidlychanging or pulsed radiation fields. The counter produces a signal with an amplitude proportional to the energy of the particle being detected. the small current measured and displayed as a signal. ionization of the molecules in the air occur. The more radiation which enters the chamber. the number of pairs depending on the energy lost by the particle in the gas. Integrating dose rate meters and dosimeters are more appropriate in such circumstances Different types of detectors Gasfiller detctors Since we cannot see. When a high voltage is placed between two areas of the gas filled space. smell or taste radiation.mrem/hr). This instrument works on the principle that as radiation passes through air or a specific gas.

At a radius of approximately 1 cm and a pressure of approximately 1 atmosphere. which absorbs the photons formed in the avalanches. interactions with the gas filling the counter are employed to produce secondary charged particles that lend themselves to detection.A cylinder usually serves as the cathode in a proportional counter. on the time required for the electrons to drift to the wire. Proportional counters usually have a gas amplification factor of ~103-104 (which may reach 106 or more) and and an impulse amplitude of ~10-2 V when the capacitance of the proportional counter is about 20 picofarads. that is. electrons. and a fine (10–100 μ) metal wire. where semiconductor detectors cannot be used. played an important role in nuclear physics in the 1920’s and 1930’s as virtually the only spectrometric detector. nuclear fission fragments. the field near the anode of the proportional counter is so strong that the electrons acquire energy sufficient for secondary ionization.When the particle is brought to a full stop in a proportional counter. In contrast to the ionization chamber. However. Such a device makes it possible not only to measure the ionization of a particle in each individual counter but also to locate the . beyond this region. The proportional counter. which consists of a large number (102–103) of proportional counters arranged in coplanar fashion in a gas-filled enclosure. the physics of high-energy particles found a new use for the proportional counter in the form of a proportional chamber.Proportional counters are used to detect all types of ionizing radiation.‖ Proportional counters are filled with an inert gas (the gas must not absorb drifting electrons) with the addition of a small amount of a polyatomic gas. and the total number of electrons thus collected far exceeds the number of primary electrons. the impulse is proportional to the particle’s energy. gamma quanta. Gas amplification occurs near the anode at a distance comparable to the wire’s diameter. the delay time of the signal with respect to the particle’s passage is ~106 sec. In the case of proportional counters that detect neutrons.In the late 1960’s. The sensitivity of the proportional counter surpasses that of the scintillation counter but is less than that of the semiconductor detector. proportional counters allow work in the energy range below 1 kiloelectron volt. stretched along the axis of the cylinder. and X-ray quanta. alpha particles. for example. and X-ray quanta. serves as the anode . an electric field sends the electrons toward the anode and the ions toward the cathode. As a result. but the instant at which a signal appears at the output of the proportional counter depends on the path of the ionizing particle. An avalanche develops in ~10-9–10-8 sec. neutrons. gamma. instead of a single primary electron. together with the ionization chamber. the electrons drift under the action of the electric field without ―multiplication. As in the ionization chamber. There are counters designed to detect. The ratio of the total number of collected electrons to the number of primary electrons is called the gas amplification factor (ions also take part in the formation of the impulse). an avalanche of electrons arrives at the anode.

The development of microelectronics and the introduction of electronic computers in experimental techniques have made possible the development of systems consisting of tens of thousands of individual wires connected directly to a computer. electrons build up around the anode and a momentary drop in the inter-electrode potential occurs which appears as a voltage pulse in an associated counting circuit. and acts as the cathode. geology. astrophysics. beta particles. By alternating the anodes and cathodes of the individual proportional counters in one plane and measuring the drift time of electrons. an X-ray fluorescence analysis of the lunar soil was carried out by means of a proportional counter mounted on Lunokhod 1. the potential between them being about 1. leaving the counter ready to detect further incoming particles. For example.000 volts. which uses the drift of electrons preceding the formation of an avalanche to measure the track of a particle. it is possible to measure the track of a particle through the chamber with a high degree of precision (~0. Typical parameters of proportional chambers are a distance between adjacent anode wires of ~ 1–2 mm.Proportional counters are used not only in nuclear physics but also in such fields as the physics of cosmic rays. . Such systems thus function simultaneously as both high-speed spectrometers and track registration detectors. The methane quenches the ionization. contains a mixture of argon or neon and methane at low pressure. and a resolution time of ~ 10-7sec. appeared in the 1970’s. A fine-wire anode runs along the axis of a metal cylinder which has sealed insulating ends. Geiger-Muller Counter Also called a Geiger counter or Geiger tube. and archaeology.The drift chamber. an instrument for detecting the presence of and measuring ionizing radiation such as alpha particles.1 mm) with only one-tenth as many wires as in a proportional chamber. which stores and processes all information from the proportional chamber.track of the particle. a distance between anode and cathode planes of approximately 1 cm.000 per second and is used widely in medicine and in prospecting for radioactive ores. A Geiger-Müller counter an count individual particles at rates up to about 10. Particles entering through a thin window cause ionization in the gas. medicine. engineering. and gamma rays.

g. antimony doped with cesium) on the photomultiplier window. They include materials such as solid organics (anthracene and stilbene). Scintillation devices on the front side of the photomultiplier tube turn the light into electrons. Principles of surface barrier solid-state counter—shown enlarged and in section. When light is absorbed. SOLID STATE DETECTORS Solid-state detectors are made of semiconductor materials such as high-purity silicon and high purity germanium. The number of electrons is multiplied by a factor of 1 million to 10 million. liquid scintillants. Two groups of detectors are junction detectors and bulk conductivity detectors. Solid-state counters contain semiconductor devices . with a lightsensitive coating of material (e. The number of electrons increases at each dynode. A successively increased potential difference (about 2000 V overall) draws electrons to each dynode in turn. which in turn immediately converts some absorbed energy into photons. L—Light guide transfers the scintillation to the photocathode (C) of the photomultiplier tube (M). which are activated by trace amounts of thallium [NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl)]..SCINTILLATION COUNTERS The essential components of a scintillation counter are as follows: S—Scintillator. C—Photocathode is a type of vacuum tube that is translucent. M—Photomultiplier tube includes electrodes called dynodes. and solid plastic scintillants and activated inorganic crystals such as sodium iodide and cesium iodide. A phosphor contained within a nontransparent enclosure.Ionizing radiations interact with the scintillator. it produces electrons that cascade down the dynodes and are multiplied by a factor of 1E6 to 1E7.

www.ors.www. and buries nuclear materials with totally inadequate safeguards.physics. 7. References 1. a prepared surface of intrinsic material to change a layer of ―p-type‖ semiconductor from or to ―n-type. 5.iopscience. and in nuclear power plants of all 8.iaea. They also operate like ionization counters but with a higher density than gases and a 10-fold greater ionization per unit absorbed dose. Citizens throughout the world must educate themselves and bring pressure to bear on governments and corporate interests to dismantle the industry altogether and provide for the safe. and its invisibility. because of its endurance over time.rgu.www.www.wikipedia. .ac. More amplification by the detector creates outputs of about 1 mA at 10 mSv/hr. its ubiquity. conclusion Radioactive pollution constitutes one of the most menacing threats to the present and future of 6.‖ When a voltage (reverse bias) is applied to the surface barrier 3. it behaves like a solid ionization chamber. Although no one has found any permanent means of safely containing radioactive materials. or spontaneously oxidized onto.Junction detectors are either the diffused junction or the surface barrier type: An impurity is either diffused into.www. so that future generations will be protected as much as possible and enabled to continue the guardianship of this legacy as long as 4. is free of charge in the absence of ionizing radiations N—n-type semiconductor B—thin metal electrode that provides a positive potential at the n-type semiconductor Bulk conductivity detectors are formed from intrinsic semiconductors of very high-bulk-resistivity such as CdS and CdSe. the nuclear industry continues to produce more and The industry mines. A—very thin metal (gold) electrode P—thin layer of p-type semiconductor D—depletion region. as threatening life and health at every step of the 2. accessible storage and monitoring of all radioactive materials. 3–10 mm thick formed by the voltage.www.www. through weapons research and production.