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8/24/12

P aint F inishing Q uality and Defect A naly sis

Making robotic paint automation pay. GUARANTEED!

North American Paint Applications Specializing in Industrial Paint Robot Automation
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If your business includes production line painting processes for markets that demand exceptional finish quality, North American Paint Applications can support you at any level applying your equipment to achieve the very best appearance that your system can deliver.

- Paint Process Optimization - Paint System Audit - Paint System Specification a Paint Color Change Efficiency a Paint Shop Throughput a Paint Overspray Reduction a Painting Robot Paths a Paint Finish Quality a Paint System Troubleshooting a Painting System Automation - Paint Supply & Delivery Systems a Dead Head Paint Supply a Recirculating Paint Supply a Flexible Colors Paint Delivery a Piggable Paint Supply System a Self-Flushing Paint Systems a Oil Free Paint Supply a Paint Sheer Reduction a Spray Booth Waste Collection - Paint Flow Control - 2 or 3K Paint Dispensing Systems

FINISH QUALITY Just about anything and everything in and around the paint shop can affect the quality of the finished product. This discussion must therefore be limited to some of the more common defects found in paint application systems and those that are responsible for producing the greatest proportion of imperfections. These are listed up below, along with descriptions, causes, and potential remedies. We hope operation and maintenance will find this helpful when analyzing and troubleshooting finish quality issues.

Paint Defect Analysis NA Paint offers true turn-key services for defect analysis and correction. We identify paint defect root cause. And we fix it. It's that simple. Our working knowledge of industrial paint processes, electrostatics, 1K, 2K, and 3K basecoats, clearcoats and tri-coats, solvent and waterborne chemistry, AdPro, conductive primers, E-Coat, steel, plastics, SMC and carbon fiber, conveyors, washers, air houses, ovens, flash tunnels, air flow, sludge systems, waste recovery and treatment, system controls and integration, robot automation, spray guns, bells, flow control systems, paint supply and distribution, compressed air systems, contaminants, and overall good paintshop practices are extremely beneficial for fast, efficient, and absolute problem solving. For the person who has spent a few days around production paint operations, it should be no trouble to point out dirt, fibers, craters, solvent pop, or even a paint spit. But the elimination of these may be a greater challenge. NA Paint offers turn-key services for defect analysis and correction. We identify paint defect root cause. We eliminate the cause and the defect.

w w w .napaint.com/paint.finish.quality .htm#paint craters

and surface roughness. conveyor speed. dirt can impinge upon the wet finish and create a blemish. production schedules are not met. Uneven film builds have many causes but are most commonly created by robot programs. dirt is the most generic and the most common defect found in paint finishes. And. and color mismatch. which can open another can of worms. Dirt Regardless of the method of application. drips. Give me a call. blistering. Light areas left by the robot may require manual touch-up.finish. or after painting. heavy and light film builds do regularly and significantly contribute to runs. Joe @ (708) 663-8705. you may see pops and sagging in this area that result in increased levels of costly rework and scrap. Spray patterns. during. the target substrate can be contaminated prior to paint. sagging. part location. The process control window shrinks.htm#paint craters . If paint process parameters such as flow control. Sometimes though.8/24/12 P aint F inishing Q uality and Defect A naly sis We fully understand the importance of high yields and efficient paint operations to your business We understand that you may have already invested substantial resources and time chasing paint problems. craters. mottling. these varying builds do not noticeably affect the quality of the finished part. anytime in the wet.napaint. peeling. etc. It can enter the finishing process at any stage prior to. If the robot paint program builds areas of high film on the part. then it is likely you cannot well control the quality of finish on your product. air pressure. solvent pop.quality .com/paint. color mismatch. striping.. are controllable and repeatable. yields decline. speeds. In some cases. mottling. w w w . rework and finesse labor increase sharply. crazing. There is a real dollar cost in lost productivity and increased operating costs that are associated with uneven paint distribution. atomizer positioning. the operator has less control. fish eyes. It is also possible that the paint can be contaminated. and life in paint can quickly become unpleasant and even expose the business. For example. The application process can even create the contamination. Uneven Film Build Distribution Variations in paint thickness across the part are not uncommon in electrostatic or conventional spray applications. Global overrides may fix the pops and sagging but create other problems such as light areas. If you cannot well control the paint distribution across your finished part. then the proper application of equipment can correct the problem. and pathing must be adjusted for uniform application.

The term mottling is generally used when referring to color variations across a single part. or among different parts. striping. and Sags This category of blemishes can also be present in almost any system. On parts painted with metallic paints from the same tote or batch. These can be described as striping or checkerboarding. either in the wet. Sometimes.napaint.com/paint. Striping. shape. there are a number of effective and efficient ways to control both the rate and total of paint build-up on the part. A careful. These defects are also visible. The composition. the applied material must be suitable for the process. The term color mismatch is generally applied when comparing the color of two whole parts such as a car door to the body panels. any color variation is almost always caused by film builds that are below the level at which 100% hiding is achieved. Runs drips and sags are almost always caused by the application on the target of too much paint. head to target distance.quality . film builds that are below the level at which 100% hiding is achieved is but one possible cause of color variations across a single part. Booth conditions can be a contributing factor. Runs. methodical inspection of the painting process should reveal at which stage dirt is introduced. or during and after curing. All aspects of the applicator including size. however. and angle of application can and ought to be used to control finish quality. and metallic flake w w w . regardless of the method of application.finish.htm#paint craters .8/24/12 P aint F inishing Q uality and Defect A naly sis Dirt comes in many forms and it is the painters good fortune that it is usually visible. The level of pigmentation in paint affects color. electrostatic effects. motion. Possible causes of color variation with metallic paints include variations in film build. inconsistent fluid delivery. Accurate and repeatable control of paint application rates can significantly improve this problem. and color mismatch are all terms used to describe color variations on the finished part. dwell time. either generally or locally. and orientation of the target ought to lend itself to the process in the most accommodating way. and Color Mismatch Mottling. spray pattern size and distribution. Finally. improper atomization. there is a distinct pattern and repetition to the color variations. On parts painted with solid color paints from the same tote or batch and have consistent solids suspension. Mottling. paint impact speed. Often these variations in shades of color are random. bell speed. Fortunately. Once the source and type of dirt are identified. voltage levels. spray pattern non-uniformity. Drips. corrective action can be taken.

these cracks are quite numerous and have random axis. Generally. In other words. Craters. between primer and basecoat. variations in the orientation of the metal flakes relative to the surface is a cause of color mismatch in metallic paints. They are akin to the crazing seen in pottery glazes. and another part has them lying flat. When these strips are perpendicular to the surface. Crazing Crazing describes small cracks that appear in the finish. e.com/paint. standing on end. Generally. which stage of heating or cooling. it is convenient to visualize the metallic flakes as tiny strips of aluminum foil. If part of a surface has the strips standing on end. So. and Fish Eyes w w w . by electrostatic or other forces. To help understand the cause of color variation in metallic paints. chemical.8/24/12 P aint F inishing Q uality and Defect A naly sis damage. This is why air-atomized guns. The expansion and contraction can be caused by thermal. the most desired appearance of metallic finishes is when all the flakes are lying somewhat flat. either by less abrupt temperature changes or by using materials with more closely matched coefficient of expansions. resembling a dry lake bed. have traditionally been used. or between basecoat and clear coat. variations in film build affect the metallic flakes by providing 'deeper pools' of wet material in which the flakes can reorientate. If it is thermal related. Usually.napaint. it is often easy to determine the conditions under which the crazing occurs. thermally induced crazing is controllable. there will be a noticeable difference in color. as usually is the case. they reflect very little light. Metallic flake damage is often caused by the paint supply and recirculation system and is discussed more fully in the chapter on paint supply sytem sheer. some tri-coats the possible exception. Blistering. which apply paint at higher speeds. Crazing is caused when two materials bonded together expand or contract at different rates causing lateral surface forces greater than the strength of bond. It is often easy to determine which adhesion point cracks and whether or not the cause is thermal. Metallic applications generally require a sufficient paint impact velocity to flatten out the flakes on the surface. When these strips are laid flat on a surface they reflect light. Solvent Pop. Crazing can appear at any adhesion interface including that between substrate and primer.g.htm#paint craters .finish. or mechanical forces.quality .

8/24/12 P aint F inishing Q uality and Defect A naly sis These terms are often used to describe relatively small circular blemishes in the finished surface with a void of paint. This occurs when conditions do not permit adequate flashing of solvents. film builds.quality .htm#paint craters . often concentrically.napaint. to leave a spot with no paint. Orange peel is tightly controlled on Class A automotive finishes. substrate properties. and occasionally improper paint application process control.com/paint. either locally or across the finished part. A blister is a raised area in the dry paint finish with a hollow center that is crusted over. Fish eyes are craters that have a bit of material remaining in the center.napaint. Excessive orange peel is commonly caused by a paint process in which the paint does not sufficiently ‘flow out’ on the part in either the application. Foreign materials painted over on the substrate can cause blistering by evaporation during curing. flash and cure cycles. the following definitions are widely accepted. Solvent pop is closely scattered small blistering caused by solvent evaporation during curing. It can appear in a wide range of geometries. Peeling Paint peeling refers to paint that does not long adhere to the surface. and application parameters are determining factors controlling the level of orange peel in the final product. flash. part orientation and geometry. Long Color Change Times Paint Overspray Control Disc/Bell Paint Build-up Robot Path Programming Robot System Paint Blistering Integration Metallic Flow Meter Striping Plugging High Voltage Uneven Film Build Crazing Faults Paint Transfer Bell Speed ControlPart Recognition Closed Loop Flow Control 2 Component Mixing Dynamic Head Pressures Changing Totes Efficiently Poor Transfer Efficiency Hazardous Locations w w w . Contact Information Quick Links Fish Eyes Solvent Pop Paint Peeling Gun Spray Patterns Part Identification Color Carry Over North American Paint Application Co. info@napaint. or was crusted over with paint.finish. Paint properties. booth conditions. Orange Peel Orange peel refers to texture in the finished painted surface similar to that of an orange skin.com w w w . once coated. has receded.com All rights reserv ed. Cratering is caused by incompatible foreign materials either in the paint or on the substrate. It is usually caused by incompatible foreign materials either in the paint or on the substrate. but can also be caused by incompatible substrate material. Craters are spots where the paint on the surface. Although they are sometimes interchanged. or curing phases.

com/paint.htm#paint craters .quality .8/24/12 P aint F inishing Q uality and Defect A naly sis Efficiency Paint Craters Paint Defect Analysis Paint Robot Integrators w w w .napaint.finish.