You are on page 1of 5

ExceleRICE™

The Perfect “Durable Resistance” Rice Soil Re-Mineralizer    
 

Introduction
For more than two billion people in Asia and hundreds of millions in Africa and Latin America, rice is the world’s most important staple. Within Southeast Asia, rice makes up about 60% of the human food consumption. About 55% of the Asian rice is produced in irrigated areas, which accounts for about 75% of Asia’s total rice production. An estimated 2.2 billion Asian rice farmers and consumers depend upon the sustainable productivity of the irrigated lowland rice ecosystem for their food supply. 1 Rice farmers worldwide continuously look for a fertilizer, soil amendment, or soil re-mineralizer system that will give their rice what they call, “Durable Resistance”. They want their rice to be genetically and environmentally resistant to rice plant diseases, soil infestations, drought stress, fungus, mold, Aflatoxins, weak stalks, nutrition deficiencies, low annual yields, slow germination, and high overall management costs. Until recently, such a material was not available. With the discovery and market development of US Rare Earth Minerals, Inc. ExceleRICE™, the rice farmer now has an all natural and very economical product that is capable of delivering a diverse set of features and benefits critically important to the economic health and welfare of the world’s rice growers. Paddy soil system favors fertility maintenance and build-up of organic matter in soils, and is the backbone of longterm sustainability of the wetland rice systems. Nitrogen (N) status of soils was sustained by maintaining equilibrium between N loss of crop harvest and N gain from biological N fixation in primary rice farming of the pre-chemical period. However, in current intensive rice mono-cropping systems, this equilibrium has been disturbed with inputs of mineral fertilizers now playing a significant role. The application of chemical fertilizers is costly and gradually leads to environmental problems worldwide. Organic residue recycling is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound sustainable agriculture. Now a day, agriculture production based on organic applications is growing in interest and the demands for the resulting products are increasing. Therefore, the effective use of organic materials in rice farming is also likely to be promoted.

 

                        © US Rare Earth, Inc. • PO Box 9759 Bend, OR 97708 • www.us-rem.com

   

 

SOIL
Mineral loss has been observed over an 80 year cultivation period in Chinese rice paddies despite the use of NPK fertilizers. Determinations were made in flood-irrigated paddies cultivated for 3, 10, 15, 30 and 80 years in clay (45 wt.%), red soils derived from red Quaternary sediments. Three clay minerals are initially present in these soils: illite-mica, magnesia chlorite and an interstratified mica-aluminous chlorite mineral. Discrete mica and illite as well as interstratified mica layers are to a large extent, lost while the Fe content decreases in the soil as a whole and increases in the chlorite. The mica component in the mixed-layer mineral decreases also. These changes in clay mineralogy and relative abundance suggest a loss of potassic minerals and an increase in the formation of less siliceous, more ferromagnesian chlorite. These changes occur over 30 years or less, a rather rapid, irreversible transformation of soil clay minerals. Such loss of potassic minerals renders the cultivation more dependent on fertilizer amendment. With scientific literature relating to deficiencies in rice, we are seeing a decrease in N but also of those of P, S, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Si, B, Cl, Mo and other non-plant-food minerals and elements. This is now becoming recognized in critical concentrations in soils, plants, forms and transformations in soils, yield response to natural and manufactured nutrients, and geographical occurrence of deficiencies around the world. Soil submergence greatly influences the availability of nutrients to the rice plant. It improves the availability of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn, and decreases that of Si, S, Cu, and Zn. EXCELERITETM has over 78 minerals and nutrients in a chelated form that is bio-available to the plant, allowing the plant at the roots to up-take what is needed to provide all the essential nutrients. EXCELERITETM is good for development in remediation of heavy metal polluted soils.

Water
In areas where rice and dry land crops were grown alongside each other, water management problems were experienced. Research has shown that Cu pollution is the main reason for the reduction in rice output, which seriously affects the agricultural economy and the life quality of farmers. 2 pH plays an important role in bioavailability of heavy metals. An increase in pH affects metal cations retention, leading to a reduction in bioavailability of heavy metals. Due to the formation of OH complexes, the mobility of Cu is usually slowest in a slightly alkaline soil but it can increase in a highly alkaline soil (pH > 10). 3 The higher the pH value, the easier the molecule is ionized and the smaller the molecular size proportion. Therefore, biological toxicity of heavy metals can be reduced by changing soil properties and components with EXCELERITETM. The swelling of EXCELERITETM, will occur when it is placed in direct contact with pure water. The rate of water uptake varies considerably with the nature of the soil. It tends to be rapid at first but becomes slower with time. Equilibrium for EXCELERITETM usually occurs in 1 to 3 days. Clay particles generally combine together into domains, typically about 10 micros in size, which behave as if they were a single part of the soil. It is the swelling within and between these domains that helps form the structure of macrospores, which is so vital for drainage. For experiments requiring mineral soil component or for researchers reluctant to change methodology, we recommend augmenting minerals soils with to improve drainage.

© US Rare Earth, Inc. • PO Box 9759 Bend, OR 97708 • www.us-rem.com    

Product
The use of EXCELERITETM in the short term can provide information for the farmers who are willing to start making the right choice and to refer to this as a management procedure and application amount. Current fertilizer recommendations in Asia typically consist of blanket recommendations with fixed rates and timings for large rice-growing areas. The increase in yield per unit of applied N decreases with increasing N. Recently, farmers profit maximization with proper management practices to improve indigenous soil N supply, reduce amount of applied fertilizer without yield loss with the use of EXCELERITETM. The greater part of N in paddy soil exists in soil organic matter. This tends to be conserved more in paddy soils than in upland soils, because of the anaerobic conditions. Microbial decomposition of the organic matter gradually releases ammonium N (NH4-N). As NH4-N is stable under anaerobic conditions, it is retained as a cation on negatively charged soil mineral and organic particles, until the time when rice roots take it up. The rice plant acquires half to two-thirds of its N requirement from the soil mineralizable N pool even in a well-fertilized paddy.4 EXCELERITETM minerals are abundant and ubiquitous for soils and sediments. Along with microorganisms, EXCELERITETM provides some of the most catalytic surfaces in sedimentary environments, which are important to a variety of biogeochemical cycles. Several scientists consider Si essential for rice growing because yield increase that cannot be explained otherwise attributed to it. Silica concentration in rice varies with the availability of the soil Si, N in the growth media, and plant age, and varies among the plant parts. The Si-N ratio in the plant was an additional criterion for plant diagnosis of rice nutrition. A yield of more than 10t/ha was produced when whole aerial parts of the rice crop had a SiO2-N ratio of 11.2. Low silicon in rice reduces yields in some areas. An optimum SiO2- organic matter is about 100. 5 EXCELERITETM Contains 64.32 ppm of Silicon.

Application
Applying EXCELERITETM is commonly recommended for basal application, but top dressing at panicle initiation gives the same effect in grain yield increase. EXCELERITETM balances the pH, encourages the volatilization of ammonia and increases mineralization. Interrupting N uptake, soon after panicle initiation, is considered desirable. The application of organic materials is fundamentally important in that they supply various kinds of plant nutrients including macro and micronutrients to improve soil physical and chemical properties and hence nutrient holding and buffering capacity, and consequently enhance microbial activities. In addition, organic matter continuously releases N as plant need it. N is the most limiting nutrient in irrigated rice systems, but P and K deficiencies are also the constraints increasing yield for consecutive planting of rice. Therefore, use of EXCELERITETM in agricultural soils has been an increasing interest due to the possibility of valuable components such as organic matter, N, P and K and a balanced ratio of many other minerals and elements.

                                                                                                                Photo showing the difference growing with  EXCELERITETM     © US Rare Earth, Inc. • PO Box 9759 Bend, OR 97708 • www.us-rem.com    

Although Trichoderma species and Bacillus species are naturally present at low levels in most cultivated soils, soils treated with high levels of herbicides, insecticides, fertilizers, and pesticides over several seasons have been shown to have severely reduced populations of the natural beneficial bacteria and fungi. Basically, the harsh chemical treatments are working to kill the bad bacteria and bad fungi. Unfortunately, these chemicals are also killing the good, beneficial microorganisms as well. As a result, in these soils, the plants are usually smaller, produce diminished yields, and have many more disease problems. Fortunately, these organisms can be replaced through Agricultural Bio-Augmentation, which is defined as the addition of laboratory cultivated organisms. With the use of EXCELERITETM, microorganisms will grow in very large numbers within days, thus adding to the soil in order to replace or increase populations of beneficial bacteria and/or fungi.

                                     
On the right side, you can see the blades are very yellow as well as very few tillers (approx. 5-7) per plant. On the left, The EXCELERITETM side is very green, thick, and tall and has approx. 40- 43 tillers per plant. Both sides are 24 days old.

                              © US Rare Earth, Inc. • PO Box 9759 Bend, OR 97708 • www.us-rem.com    

 

     

ExceleRICE™ Soil Re-mineralizer™ Features & Benefits Summary:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.         REFERENCES  
1. Buresh, R. J., Larazo, W. M., Laureles, E. V., Samson, M. I. & Pampolino, M. F. (2005). Sustainable Soil Management in Lowland Rice Ecosystems. In: Organic-based Agriculture for Sustained Soil Health and Productivity. Proceedings of the 9th PSSST annual scientific conference, Central Luzon State University, Philippines, pp.116−125

It will increase the rice plants overall growth rate It will increase the rice crops annual yield It will increase the nutrient content in the rice crop It will increase the Mycorrhizal population in the rice paddy soil It will strengthen the rice plants stalks for easier harvesting It will increase the disease resistance within the rice plant It will reduce the fungal growth in the rice plant due to a stronger stalk It will reduce insect attacks on rice plants because they are healthier It will replenish mineral depleted soils caused by over farming and seasonal river flooding It will detoxify toxic rice paddy soils It will rapidly convert conventional rice farmlands to Organic farmlands It will reduce Phosphate and Chemical runoff into streams and lakes It will clarify polluted rice paddy waters It will improve the overall health of animals and humans when the rice is eaten It is easily applied in the paddy either in solid powder or foliar form It will reduce the amount of water needed in the paddy to support healthy rice crop growth It will significantly reduce the overall cost of fertilizing the rice crop It is 100% non-toxic It is free of hazardous Dioxins. It provides the broadest spectrum of bio-available Chelated Trace Minerals in the world today It is available in 100’s of millions of tons It exhibits a neutral PH in the range of 6.7 - 7.3 It can be easily surface mined without crushing, and bulk or tote transported It is applied every other year at a rate of ~500 lbs./acre It is a rare mineral rich clay that rejuvenates the Clay within which rice is typically grown

 
2. LiuLN,ChenHS,CaiP,LiangW,HuangQY,2009. Immobilization and phytotoxicity of Cd in contaminated soil amended with chicken manure compost. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 163: 563–567. 3. ChenSB,XuMG,MaYB,YangJC,2007.Evaluationof different phosphate amendments on availability of metals in contaminated soil. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 67: 278–285. 4. Sahrawat, K. L. (2006). Organic matter and mineralizable nitrogen relationships in wetland rice soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 37:787-796.

 
5. Yoshida, S., 1975c The physiology of silicon in rice. Tech. Bull. 25 AATC. Taipei, Taiwan.

 

© US Rare Earth, Inc. • PO Box 9759 Bend, OR 97708 • www.us-rem.com