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Chapter 1

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INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION
Need is mother of invention. After Second World War, concentrating on the needs, Americans and Russians developed high-speed aircrafts. They are associated with many difficulties while take off and landing. Pilot has to concentrate on different things while landing. The pilot should understand the following things while landing.

1. Aerodynamic, propulsive, inertial and external forces acting on the aircraft. 2. Hydroplaning phenomena. 3. Co-efficient of friction and friction forces. 4. Reverse thrust effects. 5. Anti-skid system operation.

Out of these, we are going to consider last two factors i.e. Reverse thrust effects and anti-skid system operation. Before discussing antiskid braking system, knowledge of types of brakes and brake systems in aircrafts is must.

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WHEEL BRAKE SYSTEM: The wheel brakes of a modern aircraft provide a number of functions.

The most vital of which is braking the aircraft on its landing run. They must develop sufficient force to stop the aircraft in a reasonable distance, brakes must hold the aircraft for normal engine turn up and brakes must permit steering of aircraft on ground, during the landing run and also when taxying. Through all these functions, the wheel brakes must provide a capability of progressive braking, differential braking and also some form of emergency braking. Progressive braking is the ability of the system to progressively increase break pressure. Differential braking is the ability of the system to steer the aircraft on the ground.

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Friction braking technology uses the process of converting the kinetic energy of aircraft into thermal energy (heat). fluid filled cylinder. the master cylinder piston is returned to the “off” position by a return spring.3 BRAKES IN AIRCRAFTS: There are various advantages and disadvantages of disc brakes as well as drum brakes. which is hand lever operated and applies brake action to both main wheels simultaneously. The resulting hydraulic pressure is transmitted to the fluid line connected to the brake assembly in the wheels. Some lightweight aircrafts are equipped with a single master cylinder. 3 . The geometry of the break shoe inside the drums can be designed for a mechanical self-boosting action. one or two master cylinders. Now. Steering on the system is accomplished nose wheel linkage. The rotation of the break drum will push a leading shoe brake pad pressing against the drum. They are discussed one by one as follows: 1.In general. When the brake pedal is released. connecting fluid lines. It is as shown in Fig. 2. we will see brakes used in aircrafts. power independent brake system. Drums are inferior to disks in dissipating excessive heat. 1. Fluid that was moved into the brake assembly is then pushed back to the master cylinder by a piston in the brake assembly. 1. Master cylinders similar to those used in the conventional automobile brake system. No. The system is composed of a reservoir. This is a brief outline of the brake system used in the aircrafts. Disk brake system requires an outside mechanical brake booster such as hydraulic pump to generate the pressure for primitive friction materials to apply the necessary braking force. Each master cylinder is actuated by toe pressure on its related pedal. The brake assembly piston is returned to the “off” position by a return spring in the brake. mechanical linkage which connects each master cylinder with its corresponding brake pedal. The enemy of all braking system is excessive heat. “Independent Brake System” is used in fighter aircrafts. The master cylinder builds pressure by the movement of a piston inside a sealed.

let us take a look on strong deceleration (Skidding). 5. The estimation of the braking force is very complicated because of the effect of strong deceleration. The high heat decreases the relative co-efficient of friction between the friction material and the drum or disk. 4 . which claims to have friction coefficient of cast iron but very light in weight. by using disk brakes. multiple disk brakes are used in most of the aircrafts. the same amount of force at the pedal no longer provides the same amount of stopping power. High efforts are needed for steering if brake unit is heavy.e. In aviation industry. All efforts are made for safety and lowering weight of aircrafts. and the actual contact surface is decreased. Most brake drums and disks are made of cast iron for the improved friction qualities. 4. The inside radii of the drum expand. weight is the key factor. Hence. Russian aerospace industry has developed brake disks of silesium.3. Another important advantage of disk brakes over the drum brakes is that of weight. The result of overheated brakes is brake fade i. As very high braking force is required to stop the aircraft and to reduce the length of runway. the brake shoe outside radius no longer matches. easy steering is achieved. Now. Drum brakes also suffer another setback when overheating.

1. 2. The systems and devices used in brake system of high-speed aircraft to prevent skidding of wheels are known as “ANTISKID”.3. Almost no slipping or skidding of tyre has actually occurred. cal no longer support the force being applied to the rubber. This may cause fire hazards. creating the dragging force. This causes the whole aircraft to decelerate. Operation at the peak of the μ-slip curve gives the highest braking efficiency.2. wheels roll on the runway surface as soon as it touches the ground. HOW SKIDDING TAKES PLACE? As pilot applies brakes on dry runway. These are one of the important safety devices in modern aircrafts. Our aim is to avoid such losses and give safer and satisfactory service to the users. These types of accidents cause substantial loss to property and life. bursting of tyres may take place. but the main emphasis is on the wheel. Other supportive systems are also used to assist antiskid system to function effectively. the wheels are still rolling at 80% of their normal speed and maximum friction is generated at the tyre and runway interface. the friction rises until an 18 – 20% rolling skid is reached. INTRODUCTION One of the major problems in Aviation industry is skidding of high-speed aircraft wheels while landing. Sometimes when the brake pressure is applied too heavily. then true slip begins and the available stopping force begins to diminish. At this point. or when the surface on which the wheel is rolling is slick. Braking is accomplished by a controlled deceleration of the aircraft wheel. Operations just beyond the peak of the curve result in increased 5 . This sliding of wheels on the runway in locked position is called “SKIDDING”. SKIDDING – WHAT AND WHY? After landing aircraft.Chapter 2 ___________________________________________________________ SKIDDING 2. the wheels might stop turning or rolling or lock and just slide along the runway. 2. overturning of aircraft and other accidents. If the level of braking is increased until the co-efficient of friction (μ). Due to skidding of wheels.

The tyres on a locked or skidding wheels will be recipient of all the deceleration energy with extremely unfavorable effects on the thread life as all kinetic energy of the aircraft is converted in friction i. If the brake force is further increased. the wheels are no longer rolling and the brakes are no longer absorbing any of the energy. 2. This has the effect of making the tyre circumference significantly larger than it is without the brakes applied. Skidding sideways is a fast ticket to blown tyres or collapsed landing gear.tyre wear. Modern jet aircraft wheels are equipped with high-speed and highpressure tyres. Next the heat generated by the skid begins to melt these small pieces of rubber into an extremely thin film of lubricant beneath the tyres. the rubber of the tyre begins to stretch in response to friction heating and the force applied to the tyre-pavement interface. a skid develops that may lock the wheel and blow the tyre as braking friction diminishes rapidly because of locking of wheels.5. When the tyre wears through. 6 . totally negating any traction that might have been available. When one of these tyres begins to skid.e. Skidding is a real hazard on while landing. When tyre begins to skid. in heat energy. The aircraft will actually turn away from the skidding wheel. Brakes are now totally ineffective and the only way to regain the control of the situation is to totally release the brakes to get the wheels rolling again. it blows out and the aircraft becomes handful. ILL EFFECTS DUE TO SKIDDING: - 1. When brake force is applied to an aircraft wheel that is in normal contact with the pavement. Aircraft tyres can blow in as little as 300 milliseconds at high speeds if the wheel is locked. small pieces of rubber are torn off and become like small rollers beneath the tyre.

7 . Heat built up in the brakes may literally devulcanize the tyre in the bead area. Automatic detection of skidding of wheels. Dynamic hydroplaning is a condition in which the aircraft rides on a sheet of water rather than on the runway surface because wheels are not touching the runway surface. When the wheels attain full rolling speed. It is similar to tyres being ground against a fast turning emery wheel. Under these circumstances. ANTISKID It is extremely difficult to judge the point at which the 18-20% skidding force has been exceeded and the aircraft is beginning a full skid until the situation is well developed. As soon as the skidding of wheels starts. release of brakes and again reapplication of brakes till aircraft speed is reduces to 24 km/hr is done by antiskid device and revert the braking system to non-automatic operation. 4.5. 2.2. brakes should be reapplied for deceleration. blowout of tyres is very common phenomenon because air under compression must expand when heated. Landing with brakes locked can result in flat spotting of tyres. 3. braking and directional controls are almost nil. When the runway is wet. it should be detected and brakes should be released to roll the wheels again. aircraft may suffer from dynamic hydroplaning.

such as the Dunlop Maxaret.1. Locked wheel skid control. NORMAL SKID CONTROL:Normal skid control comes into play when wheel rotation slows down but has not come to the stop. Normal skid control 2. The same company found its application to the disk brakes of aircraft in the late 1940’s. the wheel sliding action has begun.2. The skid detection and control of each wheel is completely independent of the other. 3.Chapter 3 _____________________________________________________________________ ANTISKID SYSTEMS HISTORY: The Westing-house Air Brake Company in America first employed the basic idea of anti-skid control for railway braking system. 3. The more intense the skid is. more braking pressure is removed. LOCKED WHEEL SKID CONTROL: The locked wheel skid control causes the brakes to be fully released when wheels locks. By the early 1950’s similar anti-skid controls. FUNCTIONS: The skid control system should perform four functions: 1.2. but not yet reached a full-scale slide. let us discuss each function one by one. A locked wheel easily occurs on a patch of ice due to lack of tyre friction with the tyre surface.2. Fail safe protection. It will occur if the normal skid control does not prevent the wheel from reaching the full skid. 8 . In this situation the skid control removes some of the hydraulic pressure to the wheel. 3. Touchdown protection. Now. 4. 3.2. This permits the wheel to rotate a little faster and stop its sliding. When this slowing down happens. To relieve the locked wheel skid. were also being developed for the aircraft industry.1. 3.

3 TOUCHDOWN PROTECTION:The touchdown protection circuit prevents the brakes from being applied during landing approach even when the brake pedals are depressed. An uneven and prolonged deceleration. Two conditions must exist before the speed control permits brake application. 2) Unmodulated antiskid system. This prevents the wheels from being locked when they contact the runway. i) ii) Mechanically controlled – Maxaret Unit. 3) Modulated antiskid system. 3. It automatically returns the brake system to full manual in case of system failure. CLASSIFICATION OF ANTISKID SYSTEM: 1) Skid warning system.3.4 FAIL SAFE PROTECTION: The fail-safe protection circuit monitors operation of the skid control system. It also turns a warning light. The wheels have a chance to begin rotating before they carry the full weight of the aircraft. 3. DRAWBACKS: 1.the pressure is bled off longer than in normal skid function. The second is that wheel speed should be more than 25-35 km/hr. The pilot is then required to reapply the brakes until the release signal was again received. This is to give time to the wheel to regain speed. SKID WARNING SYSTEM: A transducer in the axle senses a differential in the wheel speed or an excessive deceleration of one or more wheels and transmits a signal to the pilot who is then required to release the brake pressure. The first condition is that weight of aircraft is on the wheels. 3.3.1. 9 . Electronically controlled – Dual Servo Valve.2.2. 3.

skid warning will be continuously on and skidding will result damage. By modulating and controlling the pressure to the brakes.2. Pilot has to concentrate on the brake release signals and act accordingly and reapply the brakes again. MODULATED ANTISKID SYSTEM: 1) This system is sensitive to the rate of wheel speed change. 3) These systems allow automatic reapplication of brakes and so are able to keep the brakes just shy of skid point in the area of optimal braking. the antiskid system can give the maximum allowable braking effect for the condition of the runway.3. In case of emergency braking. as might occur during a rejected take off. 4. No pressure is applied to brakes during the release phase.3. This system only prevented total wheel lock up. 10 .2. 3. 2) It removes and replaces brake pressure several times per second if necessary. When this standard was exceeded. brake pressure was automatically released. Prolonged the landing roll. 4) This system requires that the wheels be spun up to a speed equivalent to ground speed of 12 knots before being activated.3. it in effect senses the co-efficient of friction between runway surface and tyres. 3. UNMODULATED ANTISKID SYSTEM: These systems simply compare the rate of wheel speed change with a predetermined rate standard. This prevents landing with locked wheel. DRAWBACKS: 1. It does not actually prevent the skidding phenomenon but gives only indication to the pilot about the skidding. 3. heavy vibration of bumping could occur as the brake release valve rapidly shuttled on and off. During heavy emergency braking. 2. 5) Antiskid systems senses the rate of deceleration of the wheel. 3.

which rotates the flywheel. termed main spring. 2. A coiled spring. mounting brackets and valve block. which is attached either to the brake torque plate or to the oleo leg. 11 . the drive spring drives the drum. the friction drive tends to collapse. flywheel and shell assembly. Contacts between the drums and flywheel are provided by two segments on the drum engaging with the flywheel web. there are a drive ring.1. Shell is fitted with a coiled spring to provide a friction drive to the drum. the tendency of drive spring is to expand. housed in flywheel connects the drum to the flywheel. the direction of winding on a drive spring is so arranged that when the shell rotates. 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION This unit is fitted in Hunter aircrafts. Each wheel operates a unit. This unit provides automatic braking control and permit maximum braking effort to be applied to the landing gear wheels without the fear of wheel locking and skidding. Under normal conditions. which in turn drives flywheel until all the parts attain the same rotational speed.2. They are as shown in fig. thus allowing the flywheel to override the drum. Under certain circumstances. 4.1 4. or to the beam of the bogie undercarriage. drum and flywheel.Chapter 4 _____________________________________________________________________ ANTISKID DEVICES MAXARET ANTISKID UNIT. The drive ring is rotated by the shell. The shell is fitted with a rubber tyre which contracts the inner rim of landing wheel. DESCRIPTION: Each hydraulic Maxaret unit consist primarily of four main Components: back plate. Thus spring ensures that the drum segments are in contact with the flywheel web whenever working under normal condition. Thus the sequence of operation is that the shell drives the drive ring. which in turn drives the drum. Inside the shell.

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Keyed into the center of the drum is a cam with a V-section channel (As shown in fig. Movement of the thrust rod operates the valve block mechanism. OPERATION:- A. 4: 13 .3. which engages two steel balls. In this condition. Pressure from the brake control is then transmitted freely to the brake unit. 3). the drive ring and the drive spring is driven by the landing wheel. with the landing wheels rotating normally. which are opened or closed by a system of levers operated by the action of thrust rod. one port connected with the reservoir (when inlet valve is closed) and the other port connects with the brake pressure line. This movement of the balls pushes a thrust pad. the assembly comprising the rubber tyred shell. Appropriate sealing rings gauge filters and an indicator rod are also fitted. The tendency of the drive spring to expand imparts a drive to the drum.1. while the exhaust valve is mounted in a two way port. 4. The mechanism includes an exhaust valve and an inlet valve. which in turn drives the flywheel. When the drum and the flywheel are in their normal relative positions. But when the flywheel moves relative to the drum. the balls lie in the apex of the cam. The connection from the brake supply line is connected to the inlet valve port. the steel balls lie in the apex of cam profile and the spring loaded thrust rod holds the inlet valve open. DURING BRAKE APPLICATION: When the brakes are applied. Working during brake application is as shown in fig. the balls move up the cam profile. housed in clearance holes in the web of the flywheel. which moves a spring-loaded thrust rod projecting through the hollow boss in the shell cover.

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The steel balls realign with the apex of V-channel. Brakes are applied as the wheel accelerates.1. flywheel and drum resume their original relative positions under the action of main spring. In the event of the wheel bouncing clear of the ground during the brake application. This change in the relative position of the flywheel to drum causes the two steel balls carried in the flywheel web to ride up the cam profile and move the thrust pad and rod thus closing exhaust valve. DURING SKIDDING: When conditions cause the landing wheel and consequently the shell and drive ring to decelerate suddenly. this characteristic ensures that brakes are held off until the wheel assumes contact with ground. When the landing wheel accelerates as a result of reduction in brake operating pressure. Under landing speed condition the flywheel has sufficient energy to continue. which temporarily relieves the pressure in the brake unit. This is shown in fig. They are coupled into the normal brake pressure line and the only additional piping necessary is an exhaust connection to the reservoir for the hydraulic type. 3. It will be noted that the landing wheel must be spinning before the Maxaret unit operate. 4.B. thus rotating the drum and holding the brake off for several seconds before stopping. 4. after which flywheel drives the drum. during this period the relative movements between the drum and the spring drive tends to collapse. the inertia of the flywheel is absorbed in the driving drum on the plain bearing in the shell and against the frictional contact of the drive spring. 2.5. This overrun is limited to 60º by the drum segments. the flywheel overruns the drum against the action of main spring. The pilot can apply any degree of braking without fear of locking the wheels. Maximum brake torque and retardation is possible through the landing run. Excessive tyre wear due to scrubbing when skidding is eliminated. thereby releasing normal driving contacts. ADVANTAGES: 1. If the shell is stopped instantaneously. 15 .4. Maxaret units are available for both pneumatic and hydraulic brakes and are entirely self-contained. thus exhaust valve is closed and inlet valve opened.

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we can reduce the speed while landing and maximum speed while take off.2. Mostly supportive systems used in fighter aircrafts are: 1. The braking parachute is as shown in fig. kinetic energy is to be absorbed by the brakes is reduced.2. Working of thrust reverser is as shown in fig. 2. This is mostly used in all types of jet fighter aircrafts. This can be achieved by diverting or reversing the thrust by means of baffles or buckets at the engine exhaust when the aircraft is landed. Maximum reverse thrust should be applied after main gear touchdown. The buckets are operated hydraulically on the landing so that they reverse the direction of jet and reduce the speed without affecting the wheels.4. When aircraft speed is reduced to the controlled value (24 km/hr) brake parachute is positioned at the runway end and collected by the ground crew later on.2. 6. 7: 17 . It is to be checked for damage. parachute is operated at the tail of aircraft. SUPPORTIVE SYSTEMS: There are number of systems used in high speed aircrafts to reduce the risk of wheel skidding in addition to the antiskid devices. These systems reduce the speed of aircrafts after landing. This brake parachute increases the drag on the aircraft and acts like a supplementary brakes without the risk of wheel locking and skidding.1. this is when it is more effective. This mechanism is known as thrust reversers. As soon as the Aircraft touches down on runway. THRUST REVERSERS. BRAKE PARACHUTE. Thus. 4. repaired and refolded and fitted back in the parachute stowage on the aircraft for the next operation. If we reduce the jet thrust. 4.2. THRUST PARACHUTE: - Forward movement of the aircraft is achieved by applying jet Propulsion principle. BRAKE PARACHUTE: These parachutes are often used on military aircrafts.

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hard surfaces. manufacturers and operators.  Substantial increase in ‘Landings per Tyre’ and ‘Landings per Brake’ The number of landings per tyre can be increased by a factor of 10 or more (up to 20) with the use of an antiskid system. BENEFITS OF ANTISKID UNITS: The following is an overview of benefits that such modern antiskid systems provide to aircraft designers.Chapter 5 _____________________________________________________________________ CONCLUSION 5. They enhance system safety by ensuring greatly reduced stopping distances and improved concerning capability. Shortens the ground roll up to 60% on wet or icy surfaces. Landings per brake can be increased by even greater factors. sufficient for the Antiskid system to operate normally. 19 .  Improved Braking Performance Shortens the ground roll by 30% to 40% on dry. Today’s modern antiskid systems prevent blown tyres as a result of skidding and locked wheels.1. Listed below are a number of significant operational and performance benefits:  Prevents Lockup of Tyres due to Pilot Applied Pressure Eliminates tyre damage and damage to airframe due to tyre lockup (blowout). Also prevents the brakes from being applied upon landing until the main wheels have spun up to a safe speed.  Substantial improved operation on All Runway conditions Greatly reduced risk of aircraft loss due to runway accidents and hydroplaning.

As the speed of the aircraft increases. Reduced Maintenance Cost Increases the life span of wheels. damage to the aircraft and life. Pilot of aircraft can concentrate on other landing procedures without bothering about skidding of wheels.  Pilot Safety Provides pilots of all experience levels with a dependable system that can be relied upon during all landing operations. tyres and brakes by eliminating brake energy cycles and eliminating wheel lockups. flat spots and blown tyres. antiskid devices become more and more vital and important from the safety point of view. These systems also ensure minimum length of the runway required for landing run of aircraft. These safety systems avoid major accidents. Prevents excess tyre slippage during braking. 20 . 5.2. CONCLUSION: By introducing “ANTISKID DEVICES” and supportive systems for effective braking of the wheel. aircraft can be brought to halt safely after landing.

www. Chapter 5. Systems and Components of Aircrafts Training Notes. Airframe and Power-plant Mechanics. Air force Station – Tambaram. The professional Pilot study Guide Series (Hydraulics) By -Mike Burton. www. www. 1. Department of Transportation. 3. By-Mair and Birdsall (Series 5) 5.S. Federal Aviation Administration. Chennai. -Mechanical Training Institute.cyberair.howstuffworks. U.com 6. -General Handbook. 21 .hydroaire.com 4. Aircraft Performance.com 7. Chapter 6 2.REFERENCES.