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CONTROL AND COORDIDINATION COORDINATION IN PLANTS The function of control and coordination in plants is performed by certain chemical substances

known as plant hormones or phytohormones. 1AUXINS i) Promote cell division,and growth of root and shoot tips. ii) Control apical dominance. iii)Promote fruit growth and development of seedless fruits. iv) Photoperiodism is controlled by auxins. GIBBERELLINS i) Promote stem elongation ii) Control seed germination and flowering. iii) The maximum amount of gibberellins is found fruits and seeds. CYTOKININS i) Promote cell division ii)They are found in maximum concentration in dividing cells. iii) Promote seed germination iv) Help in breaking seed dormancy v) Delay ageing in leaves and control stomatal opening ABSCISIC ACID i) It is agrowth inhibitor ie its function is opposite to that of auxins,gibberellins and cytokinins ii) It helps in closure of stomata PLANT MOVEMENTS Plants show various movements like twisting ,bending and coiling in response to external stimuli.Bending of a plant in response to a stimulus is called tropism. STIMULUS It is the change in the external or internal environment of an organism that provokes a physiological and behavioural response in the organism. 1.TROPIC MOVEMENTS The response of an organism in the direction of the stimulus or away from it is known as a tropic movement. a) Phototropism – It is the response of a plant to light. If the plant parts grow towards light source,this is called positive phototropism. If the plant parts grow away from light source it is called negative phototropism. Geotropism – It is the tropic response of plants to gravity. The shoot or the stem tip of aplant shows negative geotropism as it grows away from the pull of gravity. Shoots which are negatively geotropic grow vertically. This lifts the leaves and flowers above the ground and helps the plant to compete for light and carbon dioxide. Positive geotropism in roots By growing towards gravity,roots penetrate the soil which is their mans of anchorage and their source of water and mineral salts. Lateral roots are not positively geotropic they grow at right angle or slightly downwards from the main root. This diageotropism of lateral roots enables a large volume of soil to be exploited and helps to anchor the plant securely. Hydrotropism –It is the response of plants to water.


Neuron carry messages in the form of electrical signals called nerve impulses.neurons are the structural and functional unit of nervous system. v)It controls all the reflex actions in our body . FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM i)It regulates involuntary actions. Transmission of nerve impulse The information acquired at the end of the dendrite tip of aneuron sets off a chemical reaction which creates an electrical impulse. UNIT OF NERVOUS SYSTEM The units which make up the nervous system are called nerve cells or neurons. ii)It controls and coordinates involuntary muscular activities.It is the information in the form of chemical and electrical signals passing through neurons. iii)It keeps us informed about the outside world through sense organs. COORDINATION IN ANIMALS Nervous system It is the system of conducting tissues that receives the stimulus and transmits to other parts of the body forming anetwork. Neuron is the largest cell in the body. T he impulses travel from the neuron to the muscle fibre by means of a neurotransmitter in the same way as the transmission of impulses across a synapse between two neurons.NASTIC MOVEMENT Some movements which are triggered by astimulus are not affected by the direction of stimulus. dendrites and axon. 2. This impulse travels from the dendrirte to 2 .Opening and closing flowers to the intensity of light is called photonasty. These are called nastic movements.relaxation secretions etc. SYNAPSE It is the junction between two adjacent neurons or nerve cells ie between the axon ending of one and the dendrites of the the movements are neither towards nor away from the stimulus .thus protecting it from –not.Chemotropism – It is the response of plants to chemical stimuli. The receptor collects information about changes in the environment of the animal and pass this information to the central nervous system in the form of electrical impulses are analysed and the animal responds to the changes through effector organs such as muscles and glands. These organs receive information through motor neurons and give suitable responses like muscle contraction. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION It is the point where a muscle fibre comes in contact with a motor neuron carrying nerve impulses from the central nervous system. Neuron is an elongated branched cell having three components – cell body.This type of nastic movement is called thigmonasty or haptonasty. An example of a nastic movement is shown by the mimosa plant commonly called touch.Nastic movements are non-directional in nature. Nerve Impulse . So . The leaflets of this plant fold in response to astimulus of touch. These impulses are carried by dendrites towards the cell body. Receptor A receptor is a cell which is sensitive to a particular type of stimulus while the part of the body that responds to the stimuli is called an effector. iv) It enables us to think reason and remember.

touch.salivation at the sight of the food.equilibrium and posture.medulla oblongata and pons.midbrain.olfactory lobes and diencephalons. ii) Sensory organs carries message in the form of sensory impulse to the spinal cord.heart beat and breathing. iii) The spinal cord acts as modulator .temperature. Cerebrum is the largest part of brain. In this way nerve impulse travel in the body.which cross the synapse and start asimilar electrical impulse in a dendrite of the next neuron. Cerebellum maintains balance. It controls reflex movements of the head . Advantages of reflex action i)It enable the body to give quick responses to harmful stimuli and thus protects our body. It is situated in the cranial knee jerk.This fluid reduces friction.Occipital lobe for visual reception.coughing.The space between the meninges and also the cavities in the brain are filled with afluid called cerebrospinal fluid.absorbs shockand also lessens the weight by providing buoyancy.vomiting.thirst and body temperature etc. Hind brain – It consist of cerebellum. REFLEX ARC The pathway followed by the different sensory and motor nerves in a reflex action is called reflex arc.and conscious association.The neurons of spinal cord transmit the sensory nerve impulse to the effectors like leg muscles which responds by pulling back the organ away from the harmful stimulus. coughing.brain .sleep. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM It is made up of 100 billion nerve cells. 3 . Brain is divisible into three major divisions. hiccups.temporal lobe for auditory reception.steady and regulated like riding a bicycle walking straight etc. It tunes the body movements by making them smooth. It consist of right and left cerebral hemisphere. FORE BRAIN – This is the front part of the brain divided into cerebrum. The cerebrum is the seat of thinking.learning and intelligence.neck and trunk in response to visual and auditory stimulus. For each type of stimulus there are specific regions which process them.forebrain.sneezing. Olfactory lobes are the centers of smell in the form of a pair of small bodies. MECHANISM OF REFLEX ACTION i)Receptor organs like skin perceives the stimulus and activates a sensory nerve impulse. sneezing. Pons regulate respiration. Diencephalon – It posses control centres for hunger. At the end of the axon .It provides CNS with nutrients and hormones.Medulla oblongata controls reflex actions such as swallowing. blinking. Mid brain – Connects the fore brain to hind. ii) It minimizes the overloading of brain.yawning.the cyton along the axon to its end.reasoning.Parietal lobe is for pain.and hind brain.the electrical impulse sets off the release of some chemicals . It is covered by amembrane known as meninges. REFLEX ACTION A reflex action is defined as a spontaneous automatic and mechanical response to a stimulus which is controlled by the spinal cord.

SPINAL CORD It is a cylindrical structure that extends from the medulla oblongata . They are produced as chemical messengers in trace amounts.Secretions are discharged into body cavities or ducts. These have ducts 2. Hormones are specific in nature ie they act on particular target organ. Autonomous nervous system controls the internal functions of the body . The Endocrine system There are special chemicals which regulate the physiological processes in animals. 3. The autonomic nervous system can be classified into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. 2.Exocrine secretions are called enzymes. called endocrine glands directly into the blood. 4. 3.such as heart beat . It conducts sensory and motor impulses to and from the brain.gut movement etc. Difference between endocrine and exocrine glands Endocrine glands 1.The site of action is far away from the gland. Their activity can cause widespread effects on the body.The site of action is just near the gland.Endocrine secretions are called hormones Exocrine glands 1.Sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. work antagonistic to each other eg the sympathetic system speeds heart rate and the parasympathetic system slows it. 4. Spinal nerves – These are 31 pairs arising from each segment of the spinal cord. 2. Secretions are directly passed into the blood stream. It lies outside and parallel to CNS. They are known as hormones and are secreted by ductless glands.It mainly consist of nerves that are of two types. These lack ducts. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM The communication between the central nervous system and the other parts of the body is facilitated by a special nervous system. 1. GLAND POSITION HORMONE RESPONSE OF BODY ABNORMAL FUNCTIONS 4 . ANS consist of a pair of chain of nerves and ganglia found on both side of the vertebral column.Cranial nerves – These are the ones that arise from different parts of the brain. thus called ductless glands. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM means self governing nervous system.It also controls the reflex actions . Autonomic nervous system is called visceral nervous system. It is enclosed within the vertebral column and covered by meniges. Characteristics of hormones They are released directly into the blood or lymph and are carried to the target organ.

etc.increased blood sugar. There are some glands that are both exocrine and endocrine in nature.dialates coronary artery. secondary these changes. COMPARISON OF SPINAL REFLEX AND VOLUNTARY ACTION SPINAL REFLEX VOLUNTARY ACTION Stimulus affects external or internal Initiated from the brain at the conscious receptor. The path of nerve impulse is by the The response can be delayed. The response is in skeletal muscle only. increased heart beat. shortest route. Deficiency causes Controls growth of delay of appearance of uterus. Controls the growth of Deficiency causes bones and muscles dwarfism and over production causes gigantism. level. development of these changes. Spinal cord only involved. spinal cord. Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice as exocrine secretion helpful in digestion and insulin and glucagons as endocrine secretion that regulate glucose content in the blood. sugar in the blood. Controls response for Deficiency results in fight or flight. control of will.Over production causes Controls balance of increased metabolism.dialates pupil. The response is immediate. These glands are called heterocrine glands. sexual characters. The response is in the skeletal or internal Voluntary muscle 5 . Where the exocrine secretion is sent through ducts while endocrine secretions are discharged straight away into the blood. The impulse travels from the brain down the The impulse travels only up or down the spinal cord. Testes produce male gametes called sperms and male hormone called diabetes mellitus.Thyroid Neck Thyroxin Islets of Langerhans Adrenal gland Pancreas Attached to kidneys Insulin Adrenalin Ovary Testis Dorsal abdominal wall In the scrotum Beneath the brain Oestrogen Testosterone Pituitary Growth hormones Controls basic Deficiency causes metabolism and growth dwarfism and mental rate.not under the Forebrain involved under the control of will. The path of nerve impulse is much longer. Ovaries produce female gametes called ova and secrete hormones estrogen and progesterone as its endocrine secretion. Development of Deficiency causes secondary sexual delay or lack of characters. retardation in childhood.

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