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National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology

Power Factor Corrector for AC to DC Boost Converter

Jugnu Patel2, Swapnil Arya2
PG Student, Dept of Electrical Engg., B.V.M Engg. College, Vallabh Vidyanagar Email, power drawn by a load in order to obtain a power factor as close as possible to unity. In most applications, the active PFC controls the input current of the load in such a way that, current waveform is proportional to the mains voltage waveform (sine waveform). The aim of active PFC is to make the input to the power supply look like a resistor. It controls all this by programming the input current in response to the input voltage. Fig.1 shows basic control circuit of an active power factor corrector. The output of the multiplier is the current programming signal and is called Imo for multiplier output current. Multiplier input is from rectified line voltage and the output of voltage error amplifier is divided by the square of the average input voltage before it’s multiplied by the rectified input voltage signal. This extra circuitry keeps the gain of the voltage loop constant, without this the gain of voltage loop would change as the square of the input voltage. Feed forward voltage Vff, provides an open loop correction that is fed forward into the voltage loop, where its squared and then divided by output of voltage error amplifier output voltage (Vvea).

Abstract – This paper covers design and simulation of a boost converter for power factor correction. This also covers the important specifications of boost power circuit design and the IC UC3854A, which regulates the boost converter. In this, input voltage range is (200 – 270Volts) and output voltage is controlled at 450volts.PSIM results prove verification of design. Index Terms: Boost Converter, PFC, PWM.

I. INTRODUCTION PFC converters are an key area of research in power electronics. These AC-DC converters provide stable DC voltage at the output with good input power factor. So PFC converters are good choice for offline power supply and other AC–DC power conversion applications as increasing concerns about power quality and also to meet the need of power quality terms and standards. Several control methods need to be evaluated and developed to meet the target application. These techniques help in the evaluation of a system without risking the huge cost and efforts of developing and testing of actual boost converter. Simulation allows checking of any fault condition and operating mode. These methods allow one to observe and understand how different component interact and influence the overall act of system. II. BOOST CONVERTER A boost converter is a non-linear load device. Therefore it has a poor power factor due to the nonlinear load. Because of any variations in input impedance as a function of the input voltage will cause distortion of the input current and hence leads to poor PF. Distortion increases the rms value of current, without giving rise to total power being drawn from supply. Two techniques are used to regulate PF of a boost converter. (A) Passive power factor correction (B) Active power factor correction Boost Converter with Active PFC: An active power factor corrector is a power electronics system that controls the amount of

Fig.1. Basic Control Circuit for Active Power Factor

Current programming signal must coincides the rectified line voltage as closely as possible to raise the power factor. If bandwidth of voltage loop is large then, it will modulate the input current to maintain the output voltage constant and this result in distortions of the input current horribly. Therefore the bandwidth of voltage

13-14 May 2011

B.V.M. Engineering College, V.V.Nagar,Gujarat,India

III.V.Nagar. If the output of amplifier is clamed at some value which corresponds to the maximum power level.So. 1. Maximum peak line current:- 4. Find Actual Peak Sense Voltage:- 13-14 May 2011 B. Find Ipk (Max):- 2. here in this case we consider C.0V) across resistor. Duty Factor:Duty factor at Ipk where Vinpk is the peak of rectified line voltage at low line 3. Find Current Sense Resistor:2. then the PFC will not draw more than that amount of power from the line as long as the line voltage is within the range. This can be explain by following example.National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology loop should not be greater than the input line frequency.Gujarat.India . But it is divided by the square of the feed forward voltage (four times the input voltage) which will results in the input current being reduced to half of its original value. Ripple Current:∆L 3. Hence the output of voltage error amplifier controls input power level of power factor corrector. Output of the voltage error amplifier controls power delivered to load. But the voltage transient response must be fast so the voltage loop can be set at higher bandwidth.V. SELECT CURRENT SENSING RESISTOR: If CT’s are used then include turns ratio and decide whether the output will be positive or negative relative to circuit common. DESIGN OF BOOST CONVERTER WITH POWER FACTOR CORRECTOR Design of single phase power factor corrector for AC-DC boost converter using IC UC3854A is listed below Specifications: Maximum power output (Po): 1500W Input voltage range: 200-270Vac Line frequency range (fo): 50Hz Output Voltage (Vo): 450Vdc Switching Frequency (fs): 22 KHz A.M. Calculation of the Inductance:- B. INDUCTOR SELECTION: 1. Keep peak voltage (1. OUTPUT CAPACITOR SELECTION: Typical values for Co are 1 uF-2uF per watt. If the output of error amplifier is fixed and the input voltage is doubled then programming signal will also double. V. Engineering College.

Voltage Error Amplifier Gain 3. Set gain of voltage error amplifier:- 13-14 May 2011 B.V. the voltage on the timing capacitor (5. Engineering College.India . Feed Back Resistors: 1. Voltage Error Amplifier Compensation: 2. Current Error Amplifier Gain at fs This voltage must equal the peak to peak amplitude of Vs.V. V.2 volts).M. Output ripples voltage. Ccz and Ccp Selection: G. 2. Crossover Frequency: 3.Gujarat. CURRENT ERROR AMPLIFIER COMPENSATION: 1.National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology F.Nagar. OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY: 4. H.

Wave-Form of Input Voltage at Vmax = 270 V.4. f =22 kHz. Po=1500 w Fig. Po=1500 w Fig.India .3. Fig. Wave-Form of Input Current at Vmin = 200 V.7. V. Set DC output voltage:- Fig. Wave-Form of Input Current at Vmax = 270 V.Nagar.3-Fig.5. f =22 kHz. Po=1500 w V. Wave-Form of Input Voltage & Current at Vmax = 270 V. f =22 kHz.12 shows waveforms of various quantities associated with the boost converter under voltage range specified (200-270v) Fig.M. Po=1500 w 4.V. Wave-Form of Input Voltage at Vmax = 200 V. f=22 kHz.National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology Fig.Gujarat. SIMULATION RESULTS Simulation of a single phase PFC for AC to DC boost converter is done by use of PSIM software package. Engineering College. Po=1500 w 13-14 May 2011 B.V. f =22 kHz.6.

Wave-Form of output power at Vmax = 270 V.Gujarat.Nagar. Po=1500 w 13-14 May 2011 B. Wave-Form of output Voltage at Vmax = 200v f =22 kHz. Po=1500 w Fig.V.11. V.2. f =22 kHz. Wave-Form of Input Voltage & Current at Vmax = 200 V.10.9.M. Simulation Circuit for Boost Converter with PFC using IC UC 3854 A Fig.India .V. Wave-Form of output Voltage at Vmax = 270v f =22 kHz. f =22 kHz. Engineering College. Po=1500 w Fig. Po=1500 w Fig.National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology Fig.8.

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. [2] C. P. pp. [8] B.V. “The Method of Double Averaging: An Approach for Modeling Power-Factor-Correction Switching Converters” IEEE transactions on circuits and systems. REFERENCES: [1] C. Mohamed Tamotsu Ninomiya. Advanced Power Technology. European Applications.M. Unitrode. products and application handbook In. Hence. 1993/94.1989. “Design and Analysis of an Active Power Factor Correction Circuit”. APEC Conf. V. “control techniques for power factor correction Converters”. which can be clearly seen from the simulation results. the power factor of boost converter will become nearer to unity. G. S. no. M.12.I” [4] L. efficiency and provides unidirectional (dc) power flow in application such as power supplies. "Optimizing Performance in UC3854 power factor correction application”. "Power Factor Correction with the UC3854. Chi K. 2. electronic ballast and low power drive applications.Chen. Po=1500 w VI. 13-14 May 2011 B.Nagar.V. Thesis. [3] Suresh Kumar .India .National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology Fig.Spiazzi.I: regular papers.K. 1993.Lai. D.Silva. CONCLUSION Active power factor corrector using IC UC3854A controls input current of load in such a way that current wave-form is proportional to mains voltage waveform. "Design consideration for power factor correction boost converter.S." Application Note Unitrode IC. 53. February 2006.Andreycak. even if input voltage is under certain variations. “Active power factor correction in ACDC Converters. proc.Zhou. [5] J. “improved power mosfets boost efficiency in a 3. F-24300 Nontron. vol. Thus it’s an optimal converter in terms of performance. operating at the Boundary of continuous conduction and discontinuous conduction mode'’. Boost converter provides fixed DC voltage. and [7] Siu-Chung Wong. Engineering College. IC UC3854A has better power limiting feature and limits the distortion to less than 3 %. f =22 kHz.5kw single phase pfc “ Orabi. Sept.Tse. Wave-Form of output power at Vmax = 200 V. 267-273 [6] Denis Grafham.Tenti.Gujarat...Rossetto.