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第八章 迷你案例之解答

1. The purpose of the TEXTBOOK INVENTORY SYSTEM at a campus bookstore is to supply
textbooks to students for classes at a local university. The university’s academic departments submit initial data about courses, instructors, textbooks, and projected enrollments to the bookstore on a TEXTBOOK MASTER LIST. The bookstore generates a PURCHASE ORDER, which is sent to publishing companies supplying textbooks. Book orders arrive at the bookstore accompanied by a PACKING SLIP, which is checked and verified by the receiving department. Students fill out a BOOK REQUEST that includes course information. When they pay for their books, the students are given a SALES RECEIPT.
P A D E C P A A D R E T M TI C e x t b o o k M E N T M a s tT e E r XL T s B t O O K i I N V E N T O R Y S Y S T E M P u r c h a s e O a c k in g S l ip P C r d e r U O B M L I S H I N P A N Y G

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2. The purpose of the PLANT SCIENCE INFORMATION SYSTEM is to document the study results
from a wide variety of experiments performed on selected plants. A study is initiated by a researcher who submits a RESEARCH PROPOSAL. After a panel review by a group of scientists, the researcher is required to submit a RESEARCH PLAN AND SCHEDULE. A FDA RESEARCH PERMIT REQUEST is sent to the Food and Drug Administration, which sends back a RESEARCH PERMIT. As the experiment progresses, the researcher fills out and submits EXPERIMENT NOTES. At the conclusion of the project, the researcher’s results are reported on an EXPERIMENT HISTOGRAM.

JOB TICKETS are prepared for each task at each workstation. which is referred to as ROUTING THE ORDER. results in a ROUTE TICKET. and generating JOB TICKETS for the work to be completed at each workstation during the next day (sent to the SHOP FLOOR SHIFT SUPERVISOR). being careful to preserve the required sequence of tasks (determined from the ROUTE TICKET). The reservations that have already been made are recorded in the WORKSTATION LOAD SHEETS. The materials needed are determined from the BILL OF MATERIALS data store. This process. Loading is nothing more than reserving dates and times at specific workstations. we must determine which workstations are needed. J o b T ic k e ts SHOP FLO OR S H IF T S U P E R V IS O R P r o d u c t io n S c h e d u le P r o d u c tio n O r d e r SALES DEPARTMENT P R O D U C T IO N S C H E D U L IN G SYSTEM R a w M a t e r ia l R e q u is itio n M A T E R IA L S M ANAG EM ENT DEPART M ENT Copyright © 2004 by McGraw-Hill Companies. For each product on a PRODUCTION ORDER.Process Modeling 9-2 R e s e a r c h P r o p o s a l R P C N e s e a r c h e r m it E A P e r m i t R F D O M O D I N & I S D T R R A U T G I O N R R E S E A R C e s e a r c h H E R E x p e r i m P l a n P & S c h e d u l e C A M I E N T I O e n t L A N T S I N F O R M N o St e Y s S T E F E x p e r i m e n t H i s t o g r a m D A e q u e s t 3. loading. The purpose of the production scheduling system is to respond to a PRODUCTION ORDER (submitted by the SALES DEPARTMENT) by generating a daily PRODUCTION SCHEDULE. . Given a ROUTE TICKET (for a single product on the original PRODUCTION ORDER). we then LOAD THE REQUEST. The work is described in the following statements. Inc. The production scheduling problem can be conveniently broken down into three functions: routing. All rights reserved. and MATERIAL REQUESTS are generated for appropriate quantities. generating RAW MATERIAL REQUISITIONS (sent to the MATERIALS MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT) for all production orders scheduled for the next day. in what sequence the work must be done. This data is available from the PRODUCTION ROUTE SHEETS. and how much time should be necessary at each workstation to complete the work. the WORKSTATION LOAD SHEETS for each workstation are used to produce a PRODUCTION SCHEDULE. Loading requires us to look for the earliest available time slot for each task. At the end of each day. and releasing.

. t im e r e q u ir e m e n ts P R O D U C T IO N R OU TE SH EETS R ou te T ic k e t R e s e rv a t io n s A lre a d y M a d e LOAD THE R EQU EST W O R K S T A T IO N LOAD SH EETS N e w R e s e r v a tio n s B IL L O F M A T E R IA L S M a te ria ls N e e d e d G ENERATE P R O D U C T IO N SC H EDU LE P ro d u c tio n S c h e d u le M a t e ria l R e q u e s t W o rk s t a t io n L o a d S h e e t M A T E R IA L S M AN AG EM EN T D EPAR TM ENT J o b T ic k e ts SH OP F LO O R S H IF T S U P E R V IS O R Copyright © 2004 by McGraw-Hill Companies.Process Modeling P r o d u c tio n S c h e d u lin g S y s te m 9-3 R o u tin g S u b s y s te m L o a d in g S u b s y s te m R e le a s in g S u b s y s te m P ro c e s s R o u t in g T r a n s a c tio n s P ro ce ss L o a d in g T r a n s a c t io n s P roc e s s R e le a s in g T r a n s a c t io n s G e n e ra te R o u t in g R e p o rts G e n e ra te L o a d in g R e p o r ts G e n e r a te R e le a s in g R e p o rts S ALES DEPAR TM ENT P ro d u c t io n O rd e r R O U T IN G THE OR DER W o r k s t a t io n s n e e d e d . Inc. sequence. All rights reserved.

which is pulled from the OPEN CLAIMS file. Requests that include the EOHCB are then sorted according to type of claim. If proof is available. The EOHCB is placed in a PENDING PROOF file. and re-files the policy. clerks screen the EOHCB for missing data. At the end of each day. and the claim is microfilmed and filed for archival purposes. all these claims are forwarded to the preprocessing department. At the end of the day. a copy of the claim is returned to the policyholder with a letter requesting the missing data. This clerk returns all requests that do not include the EOHCB. In the preprocessing department. Once each week. and a PENDING CLAIM is sent to the claims screening clerk. Inc. and stored by date.Process Modeling 9-4 4. Requests that include an EOHCB REFERENCE NUMBER are matched up with an EOHCB form. . all preprocessed claims are forwarded to Information Systems. Completed claims are assigned a claim number. The original EOHCB is placed in the OPEN CLAIMS file. records policy and action codes on the EOHCB. Policyholders must submit an EXPLANATION OF HEALTH CARE BENEFITS (EOHCB) along with proof that their primary health policy claim has been paid. If it is not available. CLAIMS are initially sorted by the claims screening clerk. All CLAIMS are mailed to the claims-processing department. Claims are automatically purged if they remain in this file for more than 14 days (a letter is sent to policyholders whose claims have been purged). the clerk deletes all tickets that are more than 45 days old and sends a letter to the policyholders notifying them that their case has been closed. a PENDING CLAIM is created. A different clerk checks to see if the PROOF OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE POLICY PAYMENT was included or is on file in the PRIMARY PAYMENT file. the policyholder is sent a letter requesting the proof. They complete the form if possible. another clerk pulls the policyholder’s policy record from the POLICY file. Copyright © 2004 by McGraw-Hill Companies. dated. All rights reserved. Otherwise. For those requests returned.

who responds with either an OFFER ACCEPTANCE or a COUNTEROFFER. the agent will find a particular house that satisfies most or all of a specific buyer’s requirements.Process Modeling 9-5 5. a PURCHASE AGREEMENT is signed by all parties. Agency sends a request to a appraiser to have house appraised. as indicated in the BUYER’S REQUIREMENTS STATEMENT distributed weekly to all agents. The agency also notifies its finance company with a FINANCING APPLICATION. When a buyer contacts the agency. When the buyer selects a house. Personal information about the sellers is copied by the agent into a sellers file. The purpose of the GREEN ACRES REAL ESTATE SYSTEM is to assist agents as they sell houses. . and an agent is assigned to help the seller complete a LISTING REQUEST. Information about the house and lot taken from that request is stored in a file. he or she fills out a BUYER REQUEST. All rights reserved. EVENT LIST Trigger (Inputs) Event Description Seller enters into agreement to have agency sell house. After an offer is accepted. the agency sends an APPRAISAL REQUEST to an appraiser. Every two weeks. Seller accepts buyer’s offer. Agency notifies financial company of opportunity to finance house. who appraises the value of the house and lot. Offer Purchase Agreement Counteroffer Appraisal Request Financing Application Financing Program Offer Copyright © 2004 by McGraw-Hill Companies. Listing Request Create Listing Create Seller Area Real Estate Listing Address Cross-Reference Multiple Listing Statement Buyer’s Requirement Statement Offer Document Notarized Purchase Agreement Counteroffer document Appraisal of House report Responses (Outputs) Buyer Request Buyer makes offer on house. Sellers contact the agency. the agency sends prospective buyers AREA REAL ESTATE LISTINGS and an ADDRESS CROSS-REFERENCE LISTING containing actual street addresses. The agent will occasionally photocopy a picture of the house along with vital data and send the MULTIPLE LISTING STATEMENT (MLS ) to the potential buyer. Seller makes counteroffer to seller. Inc. Periodically. Buyer initiates contact with agency about buying a home. he or she fills out a OFFER that is forwarded through the real estate agency to the seller. After a PURCHASE AGREEMENT is notarized.

who responds by sending in a PREMIUM after which new INSURANCE COVERAGE STATEMENTS ARE ISSUED. The agent determines the best policy for the type and level of coverage desired and gives the customer a copy of the INSURANCE POLICY PROPOSAL AND QUOTE. . Periodically. Both a vehicle owner and the insurance company are required to provide annual PROOF OF LIABILITY INSURANCE to the Bureau of Motor Vehicles. he or she pays the INITIAL PREMIUM and is issued both the policy and a state-required INSURANCE COVERAGE STATEMENT (a card to be carried at all times when driving a vehicle). PROPOSED POLICIES are sent in by various insurance companies who will underwrite those policies based on a quoted fee. The purpose of the OPEN ROAD INSURANCE SYSTEM is to provide automotive insurance to car owners. The customer information is now stored. customers are required to fill out an INSURANCE APPLICATION. a PREMIUM NOTICE is generated. Copyright © 2004 by McGraw-Hill Companies. Initially. If the customer accepts.Process Modeling 9-6 S ig n e d P u r c h a s e A g r e e m e n t L is t i n g S E L L E R R e q u e s t B u y e r 's R e q u ir e m A e n t S G E N T e n t t a t e m B u y e r O f f e r S i g n e d P u r c h a s e A g r e e m e n t O f f e r A c c e p t a n c e F i n a n c i n g A G R E E N A C R E S C o u n t e r O f f e r R E A L E S T A T E S Y S T E M A r e a E s t a t e A d d r e p p l ic a t io n B u y eR r e f e r e R e q u e s t o r u l t L is t S t a t e A p p r a i R e q u e M ip le i n g m e n t s a l s t R e L is s s n c O f f e r a l t i n g s & C r o s s e L is t i n g A F C I N A N C E O M P A N Y p p r a i s a l B U Y E R A P P R A I S E R 6. which—along with POLICY COVERAGE CHANGES—is sent to the customer. a VEHICLE TITLE AND REGISTRATION is requested from the Bureau of Motor Vehicles. Also. Inc. All rights reserved. A DRIVER’S TRAFFIC RECORD REQUEST is requested from the local police department.

Inc. Copyright © 2004 by McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. .Process Modeling 9-7 D r i v e r 's T r a f f i c R e c o r d R e q u e s t LO C AL P O L IC E DEPAR TM ENT D r i v e r 's T r a ffic R e c o rd O PEN RO AD IN S U R A N C E SYSTEM CU STOM ER In s u r a n c e A p p lic a t io n In s u r a n c e P o lic y P ro p o s a l & Q u o te (c o p y ) P re m iu m In s u r a n c e C o v e ra g e S t a t e m e n t V e h ic le T it le & R e g is t r a t i o n R e q u e s t P r e m iu m N o t ic e & P o lic y C o v e r a g e C h a n g e s V e h ic le T it le & R e g is t r a t io n P ro p o se d P o l ic y BUREAU OF M OTOR V E H IC L E S P r o o f o f L ia b ilit y In s u r a n c e IN S U R A N C E C OM PANY Answer continued on next page.

. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2004 by McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.Process Modeling 9-8 N ew A p p lic a t io n IN S U R A N C E A P P L IC A T I O N A p p li c a n t I n f o r m a t io n D r i v e r 's T r a f f i c R e c o r d R e q u e s t PROCESS A P P L IC A T IO N I n s u r a n c e A p p lic a t io n REQUEST D R I V E R 'S R ECO RD D r i v e r 's T r a f fic R e c o rd LO CA L P O L IC E DEPAR TM ENT A p p lic a n t I n f o r m a t io n A p p lic a n t D r iv e r R e c ord D R IV E R R EC ORD CU STOM ER V e h ic le T it le & R e g is tra tio n R e q u e s t I n s u r a n c e P o lic y P r o p o s a l & Q u o te (c o p y ) REQUEST D R I V E R 'S V E H IC L E T IT L E & R E G IS T R A T IO N D r i v e r 's V e h ic le T itle V e h ic le T it le & R e g is tra tio n In it ia l P r e m iu m In s u r a n c e C o v e ra g e S ta te m e n t & P o lic y PROCESS IN IT IA L P R E M IU M A p p lic a n t I n f o r m a t io n BU REAU O F M OTO R V E H IC L E S D r i v e r 's V e h ic le R e g is t r a t io n V E H IC L E T IT L E V E H IC L E R E G IS T R A T IO N P re m iu m I n f o r m a t io n C u s to m e r V e h ic le T it le & R e g is tra tio n I n f o r m a t io n P ro o f o f L ia b ilit y In s u ra n c e G EN ER ATE CO VERAG E STATEM ENT & P O L IC Y A p p li c a n t I n f o r m a t io n IN S U R A N C E A P P L IC A T I O N C USTOM ER C USTOM ER P O L IC Y C u s to m e r & P o lic y I n fo r m a t io n G EN ER ATE CO VER AG E STATEM ENT & P O L IC Y N ew C u stom e r I n f o r m a t io n N ew C u stom e r P o lic y I n f o r m a t io n D E T E R M IN E A P P R O P R IA T E P O L IC Y I n s u r a n c e P o lic y C USTOM ER P ro p o s e d In s u ra n c e P o l ic y IN S U R A N C E C OM PANY P ro p o s e d P o lic y P O L IC Y C USTOM ER P O L IC Y PR OCESS PR OPOSED P O L IC Y Answer continued on next page.

The documents are sorted twice because of the sheer volume of the returns.Process Modeling 9-9 CU STOM ER C o v e ra g e S ta te m e n t G ENER ATE COVERAG E STATEM ENT C u sto m e r P o lic y In fo rm a tio n C u s to m e r In fo r m a t io n C u s to m e r In fo r m a t io n CUSTO M ER P r e m iu m N o t i c e & P o l ic y C o v e ra g e C h a n g e s R enew al P r e m iu m G ENER ATE P R E M IU M N O T IC E & P O L IC Y CHAN G ES C u s to m e r P o lic y In fo r m a t io n CUSTO M ER P O L IC Y U p d a te d C u s to m e r P o lic y In fo r m a t io n U p d a te d C u sto m e r In fo r m a t io n PROCESS R ENEW AL P R E M IU M 7. The data is read by the main computer. and other communications are sent to local IRS sites around the country. returns are sorted into blocks of batches to be processed as single units. Others are quarterly estimated tax payments. The sorted envelopes are sent to Receipt and Control. Why so many types? Some returns are requests for extensions for filing. long forms requesting refunds.000 returns in one day. The first sort divides that total to make the job more manageable. The refund information is sent to the National Computing Center. from which appropriate information is sent to taxpayers. etc. Also. Batches are numbered to ensure that no returns are lost or excessively delayed. The examiners check for and correct errors and code the returns for processing. in order to process short forms requesting refunds. It’s not unusual for the IRS to receive more than 200. The envelopes are then sorted by type of return—for example. to the processing of the short forms because the long forms usually include multiple schedules of information. Letters. long form versus short form and whether or not the envelope contains a payment. where they are further separated into 27 types falling into three general categories: short forms requesting refunds. Postal Service trucks bring tax returns to the regional center. notices. First. which subsequently triggers the Treasury Department to issue the actual refund checks. but not identical. Initially. It determines the correct tax. and returns containing tax payments. such as itemized deductions. There are over 500 official government forms for filing tax returns! For example. The examiners send back to the taxpayers any returns with incomplete or uncorrectable data. updates taxpayers’ files. liens. All rights reserved. and prints letters. clerks stamp a document locator number on each return for additional tracking Copyright © 2004 by McGraw-Hill Companies. decides whether a refund should be sent. operators submit forms to a machine that scans the returns and stores the data for later processing. Inc. The batches are then forwarded to examiners. notices. . The processing of long forms requesting refunds is similar.

from which appropriate information is sent to taxpayers. decides whether a refund should be sent. physical. It determines the correct tax. The data is read by the main computer. ANSWER: The narrative is replete with opportunities for interpretation. updates taxpayers’ files. At this point. The following logical DFD represents one interpretation of the essence of the system. code the returns for processing. . Error reports are sent to examiners. Then. we must effectively strip out the bureaucratic. the processing is similar to the short form. the preceding steps are repeated using different operators. To draw the logical DFD. For returns containing tax payments. and prints letters. Note: Like the students. implementation details in the narrative. Refund information is sent to the National Computing Center. we don’t know what details may have been left out or misinterpreted by the author. we had to make some assumptions (as noted in parentheses on the diagram. Accurate data is stored for subsequent processing. and other such details represent the way the system is physically implemented.Process Modeling 9-10 capability as the return moves through the system. The data from the second operators is checked against the first set for accuracy. Data is stored for subsequent processing. Sorting. examiners check for and correct errors.) (Continued on next page. notices. and send back to taxpayers any returns with incomplete or uncorrectable data. correcting any errors they can. duplicate data entry. Checks are collected for daily deposit into the Federal Reserve Bank. Returns are input to the computer system. Notices and information regarding audits are sent to local IRS sites around the country. etc. selects returns for possible tax audits. All rights reserved. The computer checks taxpayer calculations and amounts. Also. Returns are entered into the computer. Inc. which subsequently triggers the Treasury Department to issue the actual refund checks. liens. Draw the logical data flow diagram for the physical description. and write the taxpayers for any missing information. the returns follow identical processing as described for the long forms requesting refunds. routing. From this point. assigns document locator numbers. and stores the data. Examiners check for errors.] Copyright © 2004 by McGraw-Hill Companies.

Process Modeling 9-11 i d N o t ic e s ( p r o b a b ly a c o m ( p e q u e s t f o r L ie n F ( a s s u m e d g o v t w o C u n e e d t o f i le f o r t h is R p o s i t e d a t a R C a l c u la t e T a x f lo w ) o f n o t ic e s ) r o b a b ly ) e d e r a l l od u r t e c o r d E o r l ie n s A b b r T a x p E a r n S t a n a n d W it h ( = s h e a in d h v ia t e d y e r g s . e f u n d s u m p d E a r n in g s i o n s . u c t i o n i d s F R e d e r a l e s e r v e B a n k a t a ) C h e c k f o r E r r o r s R T a x I n v o i c e T a x e s D u e e c o r d o f P a y m e n t P a y m e n t D e p o s i t P a y m e n t D e p o s i t Copyright © 2004 by McGraw-Hill Companies. a r d D e a r n i n g s . o r t f o r m d a t a ) R e f u n d A u t h o r i z a t io n i d T a x p a y e r R R e f u n d I s s u e R e f u n d e c o r d o f R e f u n d ( p T a x p a y e r R e c o r d s r o b a b ly in lc u d e s W . y m e nD t a li d a t e d a r n in g s a n d es d. All rights reserved. E n s . Inc. o n s . . .2 d a t T a I t e B u E s a n W ( = x p a m i z s i n t im d it h h l o n y e r E a r e d D e d e s s D e d a t e d T a o ld i n g s g f o r m d n in u c t u c x P g i o t i a V s . o ld in g s . W i t h h o l d i n g s ( a s s u m p t io n o f n e e d ) A D C T R ( a d j u s t e e d u c t r e d it s a x e s . s t i o n o f n e e d u c t i o n s .

Obviously.number of absences A = 0-3 U = 3+ 1 Cond A Cond B Cond C Grade A Grade B Grade C Grade D Grade F A P A X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 2 B P A 3 C P A 4 D P A 5 F P A 6 A N A 7 B N A 8 C N A 9 D N A 1 0 F N A 1 1 A P U 1 2 B P U 1 3 C P U 1 4 D P U 1 5 F P U 1 6 A N U 1 7 B N U 1 8 C N U 1 9 D N U 20 F N U There are no undefined rules in this grading policy. The simplified decision table follows: 1 Cond A Cond B Cond C Grade A Grade B Grade C Grade D Grade F A P A X X X X X X X X X X 2 B P A 3 C P A 4 D P A 5 F P -6 -N -7 A P U 8 B P U 9 C P U 10 D P U Copyright © 2004 by McGraw-Hill Companies.Process Modeling 9-12 8. the longer the narrative got and the more cryptic it seemed. Inc.the students score for the fourth assignment P = 70-100 N = 0-69 Condition C --.the students total score for the first 3 assignments or exams: A = 90-100 B = 80-89 C = 70-79 D = 60-69 F = 0-59 Condition B --. those rules would have represented grading loopholes that could be used against the instructor. Ironically. First. notice how cryptic the narrative got. Had there been undefined rules in this policy. the more we tried to clarify the narrative. but the following decision table reflects the intended policy: Condition A --. . there is some room for interpretation here. The instructor would need to determine how to handle those rules or make it impossible for that combination of conditions to occur. All rights reserved.

Process Modeling 9-13 9. X X X ? X X 2 W W 3 W B W B 4 W B 5 B W W B 6 B W 7 B B W B 8 B B Joe Gordon Susan X ? ? X So how did Susan eliminate Rule 7 as a possibility? Because neither Joe nor Gordon could have seen two WHITE chips. Because Susan requested her blindfold NOT be removed. hers could not possibly be WHITE. Joe would have known his was BLACK. Inc. because all remaining combinations result in her chip being BLACK. we could not evaluate this rule. Obviously. Obviously he did not see this. it is still POSSIBLE This is the critical rule! By eliminating the possibility of this rule (which would have meant her chip was WHITE. Gordon would have known his was BLACK. . Susan knew her chip was BLACK because … … all of these remaining rules result in an answer of BLACK! That’s why Susan was absolutely certain her chip was BLACK. 1 W W W B Impossible–the were only two WHITE chips Seeing both WHITE chips. The answer to the poker chip problem is illustrated in the following decision table. Thus. therefore. he did not see this. All rights reserved. Seeing both WHITE chips. it must be BLACK! Copyright © 2004 by McGraw-Hill Companies.