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Dysgraphia

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Dysgraphia
ICD-10 ICD-9 MeSH Classification and external resources F81.1, R48.8 315.2, 784.61, 784.69 D000381

Dysgraphia is a deficiency in the ability to write primarily in terms of handwriting, but also in terms of coherence.[1] It occurs regardless of the ability to read and is not due to intellectual impairment.[2] Dysgraphia is a transcription disability, meaning that it is a writing disorder associated with impaired handwriting, orthographic coding (orthography, the storing process of written words and processing the letters in those words), and finger sequencing (the movement of muscles required to write).[2] It often overlaps with other learning disabilities such as speech impairment, attention deficit disorder, or developmental coordination disorder.[3] In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), dysgraphia is characterized as a learning disability in the category of written expression when one’s writing skills are below those expected given a person’s age measured through intelligence and age appropriate education. The DSM is not clear in whether or not writing refers only to the motor skills involved in writing, or if it also includes orthographic skills and spelling.[3] The word dysgraphia comes from the Greek words dys meaning "impaired" and graphia meaning "making letter forms by hand".[2] People with dysgraphia can often write on some level and may lack other fine motor skills, for example they may find tasks such as tying shoes difficult, but it does not affect all fine motor skills. People with dysgraphia often have unusual difficulty with handwriting and spelling[2] which in turn can cause writing fatigue.[3] They may lack basic grammar and spelling skills (for example, having difficulties with the letters p, q, b, and d), and often will write the wrong word when trying to formulate their thoughts on paper. The disorder generally emerges when the child is first introduced to writing.[2] Adults, teenagers, and children alike are all subject to dysgraphia.[4]

Contents

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1 Classification o 1.1 Dyslexic o 1.2 Motor o 1.3 Spatial 2 Signs and symptoms 3 Associated conditions 4 Causes 5 Treatment

Overall. Motor Motor dysgraphia is due to deficient fine motor skills. and drawing is difficult. accompanied by other learning disabilities such as dyslexia or attention deficit disorder. There is little information available about different types of dysgraphia and there are likely more subtypes than the ones listed below.[2][5] and this can impact the type of dysgraphia a person might have. They have normal spelling and normal finger tapping speed. Dyslexic People with dyslexic dysgraphia have illegible spontaneously written work. This shows that there are problems within the fine motor skills of these individuals. one must have a cluster. Their finger tapping speed (a method for identifying fine motor problems) is normal.[2] Spatial A person with spatial dysgraphia has a defect in the understanding of space. Some children may have a combination of two or more of these. and their finger tapping speed is below normal. and individual symptoms may vary in presentation from what is described here. indicating that the deficit does not likely stem from cerebellar damage. Letter formation may be acceptable in very short samples of writing. illegible copied work. not caring. In order to be diagnosed with dysgraphia. and it cannot be sustained for a significant length of time. There are three principal subtypes of dysgraphia that are recognized. unmotivated. They will have illegible spontaneously written work.• • • • 6 In the classroom 7 See also 8 Notes 9 External links Classification Dysgraphia is often. poor dexterity. of the following symptoms: [2] . Signs and symptoms The symptoms to dysgraphia are often overlooked or attributed to the student being lazy. Writing is often slanted due to holding a pen or pencil incorrectly. their written work is poor to illegible even if copied by sight from another document. or unspecified motor clumsiness. but not necessarily all. but this requires extreme effort and an unreasonable amount of time to accomplish. Their copied work is fairly good. but their spelling is usually poor. poor muscle tone. and problems with drawing abilities. Oral spelling for these individuals is normal. suggesting that this subtype is not fine motor based. or having delayed visual-motor processing. but not always.

[2] More specifically.[5] In dysgraphia. their disability causes them emotional trauma often due to the fact that no one can read their writing and they are aware that they are not performing to the same level as their peers.[5] Associated conditions There are some common problems not related to dysgraphia but often associated with dysgraphia. or paper orientations such as bending an arm into an L shape Excessive erasures Mixed upper case and lower case letters Inconsistent form and size of letters. This can be a result of any symptom of dysgraphia. lowered self-efficacy. it is a working memory problem.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cramping of fingers while writing short entries Odd wrist. This frustration can cause the child (or adult) a great deal of stress and can lead to stress-related illnesses. pout. arm. or refuse to complete written assignments.[5] Dysgraphia is a hard disorder to detect as it does not affect specific ages. and depression. younger children may cry. sometimes using the wrong words altogether May feel pain while writing[2] Students with dysgraphia are not unmotivated.[5] People with dysgraphia have difficulty in automatically remembering and mastering the sequence of motor movements required to write .[5] Having dysgraphia is not related to a lack of cognitive ability. individuals fail to develop normal connections among different brain regions needed for writing.[2] and it is not uncommon in intellectually gifted individuals. the most common of which is stress.[2][5] They may put in extra efforts in order to have the same achievements as their peers. but due to dysgraphia their intellectual abilities are often not identified. heightened anxiety. gender.[5] The main concern in trying to detect dysgraphia is that people hide their disability behind their verbal fluency because they are ashamed that they cannot achieve the same goals as their peers. Emotional problems that may occur alongside dysgraphia include impaired self-esteem. but often get frustrated because they feel that their hard work does not pay off. body. or intelligence. or unfinished letters Misuse of lines and margins Inefficient speed of copying Inattentiveness over details when writing Frequent need of verbal cues Referring heavily on vision to write Poor legibility Handwriting abilities that may interfere with spelling and written composition Having a hard time translating ideas to writing. Often children (and adults) with dysgraphia will become extremely frustrated with the task of writing (and spelling). [4][5] Causes Dysgraphia is a biologically based disorder with genetic and brain bases.

and sentences. or a laptop in class so that they do not have to deal with the frustration of falling behind their peers. Clinicians will have the client self-generate written sentences and paragraphs. and graphmotor output (the movements that result in writing) by one’s hands. and guided practice will help students achieve automatic handwriting performance before they use letters to write words.[2] in the United States. Some physicians recommend that individuals with dysgraphia use computers to avoid the problems of handwriting.[5] .[5] Treatment Treatment for dysgraphia varies and may include treatment for motor disorders to help control writing movements. Dysgraphia can be overcome with appropriate and conscious effort and training. help translating across multiple levels of language. connected through sequential finger movement for motor output through the hand with feedback from the eye. and will ask the client to either tap their finger or turn their wrists repeatedly to assess fine motor skills. explicit instruction on letter formation.[2] Some older children may benefit from the use of a personal computer. this means that each set of instructions may be different for each child.[4] Students with dysgraphia often cannot complete written assignments that are legible.[2] The International Dyslexia Association suggests the use of kinesthetic memory through early training by having the child overlearn how to write letters and to later practice writing with their eyes closed or averted to reinforce the feel of the letters being written. fingers and executive functions involved in letter writing. appropriate in length and content.[5] Direct. Other treatments may address impaired memory or other neurological problems. and copy age-appropriate text.[2] It is suggested that students with dysgraphia receive specialized instructions that are appropriate for them. because cursive letters are generally attached within a word. The use of educational therapy can be effective in the classroom as long as teachers are well informed about dysgraphia. They also suggest teaching the students cursive writing as it has fewer reversible letters and can help lessen spacing problems. at least within words.It is suggested that those who believe they may have dysgraphia seek a qualified clinician to be tested. or within given time. Diagnosing dysgraphia can be challenging but can be done at facilities specializing in learning disabilities. and review and revision of assignments or writing methods. their grip on the writing instrument.letters or numbers. In the classroom There is no special education category for students with dysgraphia. The National Center for Learning Disabilities suggests that children with dysgraphia be handled in a case-by-case manner with an Individualized Education Program. Children will mostly benefit from explicit and comprehensive instructions. phrases.[2] Dysgraphia is also in part due to underlying problems in orthographic coding. as well as observe the client's posture while writing.[2] The orthographic loop is when written words are stored in the mind’s eye. or provided individual accommodation to provide alternative ways of submitting work and modify tasks to avoid the area of weakness. They will assess the output of writing. the orthographic loop.

and up to 20 percent in middle school because written compositions become more complex.[4] The number of students with dysgraphia may increase from 4 percent of students in primary grades. composing. due to the overall difficulty of handwriting.[2] There are slight gender differences in association with written disabilities. and orthographic abilities than females. it is beneficial that students are taught how to read cursive writing as it is used daily in classrooms by teachers. With this in mind.It is also suggested by Berninger that teachers with dysgraphic students decide if their focus will be on manuscript writing (printing). In either case. overall it is found that males are more likely to be impaired with handwriting. or keyboarding. an example would be oral testing. spelling.[2] It may also be beneficial for the teacher to come up with other methods of assessing a child's knowledge other than written tests. This causes less frustration for the child as they are able to get their knowledge across to the teacher without worrying how to write their thoughts.[5] Source:wikipedia . there are no exact numbers of how many individuals have dysgraphia due to its difficulty to diagnose.