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Impact of Advertisement on Children Buying Behavior

A Thesis Submitted to the Superior University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Bachelors in business administration

By Usman Waheed BBA 8309 Year 2011


Declaration of Originality I hereby declare that this project is entirely my own work and that any additional sources of information have been duly cited. I hereby declare that any Internet sources published or unpublished works from which I have quoted or draw references fully in the text and in the content list. I understand that failure to do this will result in failure of this project due to plagiarism. I understand I may be called for viva and if so must attend. I acknowledge that this is my responsibility to check whether I am required to attend and that I will be available during the viva periods.

Signed….…………………………………… Date………………………………………… Name of Supervisor…………………………


Table of Contents
Declaration of Originality.................................................................................. Abstract................................................................................................................ Acknowledgment................................................................................................. Chapter 1: Introduction………………………………………………………. 1.0 Introduction………………………………………………………. 1.1 Purpose Statement...……………………………………………... 1.2 Significance ……………………………………………………… 1.3 Research Questions...…………………………………………….. 1.4 Research Objectives……………………………………………... 1.5 Key Term Definition………………………………………….…. Chapter 2: Literature Review……………………………………………...…. 2.0 Theoretical Model..…..…………………………………………. Chapter 3: Theoretical Framework…..…………………………………...…. Chapter 4: Methodology. …..…..…………………………………...…. Chapter 5: Analysis………….....…..…..…………………………………...…. 5.1 Results……………………………………………………………. 5.1.1 Descriptive Summary………………………………………. 5.1.2 Histogram…………………………………………………. 5.1.3 Scatter Plot…………………………………………………. 5.1.4 Correlation…………………………………………………. 5.1.5 Regression………………………………………………….. Chapter 6: Discussion/Conclusion…....…………………………………...…..
6.0 Conclusion………………………………………………………..

6.1 Suggestions…...…………………………………………………..
6.2 Future Research………………………………………………….. 6.3 Research Limitations……………………………………………..

29 31 31 31 32 38 44 46 49 49 49 50 50 51 61

I II III 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 11 26 27

References ………………………………………………………………….….. Appendix A ……………………………………………………………….…..


V ads and it encapsulated to determine impact of the advertisements on the children. We have segregated them as advertising agency professionals. how advertisements tailor to the children impact on the overall personality of the children. how they influence their parents to purchase the advertised products. organizied and integrated data to reach the end result. We conducted primary researsech for which we designed questionnaire to collect data from our respondents (parents and professionals. We selected samples of 150 respondents. and teachers. 4 . The research population consists of entire Lahore city and advertising agencies. their buying decision.ABSTRACT This study evaluated the role of advertisement for children particularly to T. We reviewed literature from the articles which we selected from the media journals and internet articles. Then we analyzed data on the SPSS and EXCEL separately. We had to find out whether currents companies are doing any unethical practices in their advertisements for the children. In the methodology we collected. We concluded whole research work at end of the report and gave some suggestion to improve of the standards children advertisements. businessman. employees. We also used secondary research in the form the reviewing the literature. Out of 150 respondents we have selected 15 advertising agency professionals from whom we gathered data regarding kids’ advertisement. Parents.

Miss. advisor. Khansa. 5 . First of all. Abdul Rehman. Ilyas for their devoted teaching and assistance. Equally. for her patient guidance and continuous encouragement during the entire session of this research. and keep my insight strong. I would like to thank my parents who have guided me through his blessings and give me such courage and will to accomplish the difficult task easily. for their continuous support and encouragement because without their support I was not able to complete my last research. Ch. Besides. valuable suggestions.Acknowledgement I wished to express my greater gratitude to all those who have helped directly and indirectly in completion of my thesis. I also want to thank Prof. Prof. I also would like to thank my. I want to thank my friends. Nadeem Iqbal and Prof.

Although the mass media denotes outlets beyond newspapers. wants and demands of the consumers. are powerful because they penetrate every segment of modern-day society and effectively influence how consumers view themselves. This concept has created a war of massive attacks on children of this age and forced to conscious people of society about the negative impacts of these massive advertising attacks on children memory and behavior. advertising and entertainment industries. communities and the world. needs. While common notion is that the mother is the targeted customer for marketers of baby are industry. So marketers are focusing and trying to attract and influence the children by designing ads that are considerably attractive for children and persuasive enough for their emotional attachment with the product. collectively known as mass media. and the scope of media influence now extends to digital spectrum. their neighbors. While talking about the marketing mix now a day’s marketer main focus is on designing persuasive messages/commercials to attract the target customers. and enlighten with glamour as per the emotions. it remains a fact that the 6 . Especially.0 Introduction The consumer in this era is in target of massive media attacks effectively planned. Marketers and companies are spending billions of dollars on consumer research and to know the important factors involved in consumer decision making. cable and satellite technology and the internet. Because the major chunk of the population and among all consumption of household a considerable portion is of children products. radio and television. This notion is quit logical but now media and marketers are succeeded enough to generate emotional attachment of children with the products so that they can insist on purchasing the specific product for their use.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. the media.

All these factors have contributed in the increasing aggressive attitude in youth as they see violence on electronic media in one form or another. which may remain in the minds of television viewers long after the span of the advertising campaign. through increased consumer bank. However it is important to study minutely each and every characteristic of consumer behavior.TV is the single major and foremost communicator of our times. Advertisement guides consumer about product attributes and its availability and gives awareness of choice of suitable brand to get a good value of money. As the world has global village so now through our electronic media.V commercials play a vital role in developing brand image and changing consumer’s perception. It is able to transmit sounds and images carrying message of a varied nature and for a variety of purpose. most persuasive. and attitudes. wants and changing trends. programming or television transmission. Nowadays advertising spread in our entire culture influences in society and our fundamental patterns of life. It is a widely used telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance from all around the world. in the culture and on other media. Many television advertisements are catchy jingles or catchphrases that generate sustained appeal. now a day. their basic values. It has caused the aggression and violence of youth instead of promotion of peace and harmony. Television commercials have become one of the most effective. Advertisement has a sociological significance. because it touches member of society through its persuasive abilities. is promoting violent culture. tastefulness. So only an effective marketing and advertisement plan can change the size of market share. Advertising can be seen as one of the factors that contribute to shape people’s life. truthfulness. access to all international channels is also easy. T. impact on cultural values and lifestyle. which leave a deep impact on youth. and most popular methods of selling products of many sorts. Television belongs to the family of audio-visual communication medium. It has strong influence on people. needs. The media. 7 . The term may also be used to refer specifically to a television set.

Using research that analyzes children’s behavior. advertisers need to know that what makes kids tick. companies are able to craft sophisticated marketing strategies to reach children. With the help of the well paid researchers and pscchologists. This later method appeals to the parents desires to provide the best for their children. Marketing to children is all about creating pester power because advertisers know what a powerful force it can be. advertisers now have access to in depth knowledge about children’s development. those families have more disposable income. so it follows that kids are vocal about what they their parents to buy. According to the marketing industry book kid influence pestering or nagging can be divided into two categories  Persistence  Importance Persistence nagging (a plea that is repeated over and over again) is not an effective ]more sophisticated importance nagging. Parents are willing to buy more for their kid’s trend such as smaller family size. Today’s kids have more 8 . This study investigated the advertising’s effect on the children and children’s participation and influence in the buying decision of the children related products and the techniques which marketers use to exploit the children. Today kid are more autonomy and decision making power within the families than in the previous generation. they influence their parent’s buying decision and they are adult consumers of the future. even their dreams. To effectively market to the children. and plays on any guilty they may have about not having enough time for their children. art work. fantasy lives. Children are an important market in their own right and also important because of their influence in family purchasing.Kids represent an important demographic to the marketer. Pester power refers to children’s ability to nag their parents into purchasing items they may not otherwise buy. Dual income and postponing children until later in life. they have their own purchasing power. emotional and social needs at different ages.

On the other hand. the literature reviews to be presented of the study represents the secondary data of the study. sales promotions and public relations cannot be underestimated as an effective media to reach children. 2004) Recent studies revealed that tweens watch 9 . product placements. (Moore. Advertising to Children Ways of influencing children A great variety of media can be used by advertisers in order to effectively target children. observation and interview results that would be acquired from the respondents. 2004. There are several media options to reach children. Besides. This research also addresses the unethical advertisements on innocent children. However. The data collected was analyzed using the computer software SPSS and excel. Our research will also report that either we should target parents or their children for children products. TV Advertising Television remains as the most effective media to reach children. Elizabeth Moore (2004) affirms that in-school marketing and packaging design are also potential tools for marketing children. The primary data for the study is represented by the questionnaire survey. This research identifies the positive and negative attitude of children towards TV advertisement and flaws in the children advertisement. In the United States there is evidence that children watch television commercial for approximately five hours per week having access to as many as 25. and other continuously evolving and acquiring stronger presence among them. This includes broadcast media. there has been other media progressively emerging as a potential medium to reach children. print advertising. teenagers and inexperienced young people.autonomy and decision making power within the family than in previous generation.000 commercials in a year. being television the most effective medium to reach children Moore. We have selected a sample size of 200 from our target population.

Emerging Media Nowadays new media represents prospective ways to reach children and enhance brand communication. increasing. Studies of media use suggest that other tools as the internet and print advertising used to reach children are supplementing Television rather than dispatching it (Montgomery. the viewer has the opportunity to see all the advertisements associated with any program they watch. therefore. two-thirds of children aged seven to 10 years have a television in their bedrooms. Television is an invasive medium because it reaches children in their own homes. But parental control is obviously weaker if children have access to television independent of their parents. and despite new marketing approaches aimed at children. 10 . but in practice. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Advertising to children is. and there is only limited control over the advertisements that are seen. capitalizing on the specific advantages of the different communication channels. children (and adults) may not always give their full attention to the screen during advertisement breaks because they can turn away or leave the room. Three-quarters of children aged 11 to 14 years not only have a television in their room but a third of that age group also has a video recorder or digital video disk players that in effect allows them access to programs at any time. Parents may restrict the channels that children view or the times that children watch television. 2001) Moreover. such as the Internet. 2003) Television commercials help children to create brand awareness in several product categories and also to create potentially opinion. the predominant way of advertising to children is via television. Of course. and in the United Kingdom. advertising for individual brands now frequently appear in more than one media.TV as the single most important source of product information (Lindstrom and Seybold.

Corporations see children as consumers and have employed successful marketing strategies that result in children asking their parents for specific products. It is estimated that children see more than 40. Kids are exposed to media and advertising on a daily basis. A research has shown that 70% students at the age of 13 buy the clothes with their own choice so in some cases target market can be children and in some cases we have to target parents like pampers and baby food.000 ads each year while watching television. An online poll in 2004 showed that 85% of respondents thought children's television should be free of advertising. 11 . Kids are encouraged through advertisement if their through cartoon character or good story based. Companies market to children today more than ever before.Advertising to children is an effective way to communicate massage to kids and treat them as your consumer.

3 Research Question “What is the impact of advertisement on children buying behavior?” 1. It can also promote family togetherness and discussion and can be used as a catalyst to promote reading and activity. 1.1 Hypothesis H1: there is relationship between the advertisement and brand awareness H0: there is no relationship between the advertisement and brand awareness Hypothesis 2: H1: there is relationship between the brand awareness and children buying behavior 12 . 1.3. TV can be used as a tool of entertainment and education and can expose a child to an entire world of experiences and cultures far outside their own.2 Significance of Research Letting your children watch television should prompt feelings of responsibility from parents rather than guilt. By using a few simple guidelines parents can transform television from a passive babysitter into a valuable part of family life.1 Purpose statement The purpose of the study is to improve public understanding of the role of the children brand positioning.1. Examine whether use of misleading and deception in ads have any influence on children and To improve advertising techniques by making it more attractive and informative and To understand whether parents should be the target for children products.

H0: there is no relationship between the brand awareness and children buying behavior 13 .

and jingles and so on to certain associations in memory.5 Key term definition Advertisement Advertising is the non personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products. use. It helps the customers to understand to which product or service category the particular brand belongs and what products and services are sold under the brand name. See also consumer decision making. logo. It consists of both brand recognition and brand recall. It also ensures that customers know which of their needs are satisfied by the brand through its products (Keller) Children buying behavior The process by which individuals search for. services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media. Bovey. 7 Brand awareness Brand awareness refers to customers' ability to recall and recognize the brand under different conditions and link to the brand name. 1992.1. To examine the impact of advertisement on brand awareness To examine the impact of brand awareness on children buying behavior To examine the impact of children buying behavior on advertisement 1. and dispose of goods and services.4 Research Objectives The main objectives of the study are to find the following. purchase. in satisfaction of their needs and wants. select. p. (2004) 14 . Kotler et al.

Because the major chunk of the population and among all consumption of household a considerable portion is of children products. Number 4 (2010) 664 care industry. Although the mass media denotes outlets beyond newspapers. are powerful because they penetrate every segment of modern-day society and effectively influence how consumers view themselves. radio and television. their neighbors. While common notion is that the mother is the targeted customer for marketers of baby European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 12. While talking about the marketing mix now a days marketers main focus is on designing persuasive messages/commercials to attract the target customers. This concept has created a war of massive attacks on children of this age and forced to conscious people of society about the negative impacts of these massive advertising attacks on children memory and behavior.Chapter 2 Literature Review Introduction: The consumer in this era is in target of massive media attacks effectively planned. advertising and entertainment industries. Especially. needs. Marketers and companies are spending billions of dollars on consumer research and to know the important factors involved in consumer decision making. and enlighten with glamour as per the emotions. As the world has global village so now 15 . the media. it remains a fact that the TV is the single major and foremost communicator of our times. This notion is quit logical but now media and marketers are succeeded enough to generate emotional attachment of children with the products so that they can insist on purchasing the specific product for their use. So marketers are focusing and trying to attract and influence the children by designing ads that are considerably attractive for children and persuasive enough for their emotional attachment with the product. and the scope of media influence now extends to digital spectrum. collectively known as mass media. communities and the world. wants and demands of the consumers. cable and satellite technology and the internet.

toy commercials and music videos. Over 1. children learn that there is few if any repercussion for committing violent acts. According to. is promoting violent culture. 16 . It also says that Media violence is especially damaging to young children (under age 8) because they cannot easily tell the difference between real life and fantasy. Increasing their appetite for more violence in entertainment and in real life. however parents have little say when it comes to their kids watching television or surfing the internet. All these factors have contributed in the increasing aggressive attitude in youth as they see violence on electronic media in one form or another. This is especially true of cartoons. Children would finish their homework and sit before the television set viewing their favorite cartoon shows or dramas. views and updates on a variety of subjects for all masses. The media. How TV Viewing Habits Influence the Young Minds The idiot box has come a long way from being an enriching source of entertainment to a rich provider of news. Media violence often fails to show the consequences of violence. This is the age of the internet. compelling and conveyed some social message. access to all international channels is also easy. Programs that were aired on the television were engaging.through our electronic media. As a result. which leave a deep impact on youth. high definition TVs and information technology. TV was considered a rich source of family entertainment and information. Viewing these images can upset them. Back in the old days. It has caused the aggression and violence of youth instead of promotion of peace and harmony. amusing. now a day.000 studies confirm this link. Making them less sensitive to violence and to victims of violence. Media violence can lead to aggressive behavior in youth. In the modern times. 1995). Media violence affects children by increasing their fear of becoming victims. American Academy for Pediatrics Committee on Communications (AAPCC. Violent images on television and in movies may seem real to young children. There was clarity and understanding in terms of what is good or bad for the kids and children obeyed.

kids in the US aged 2 to 5 years spend more than 32 hours a week on an average in front of the TV screen. are usually addicted to some television programs particularly family dramas and daily soaps. networking. a comedy act or a song and dance competition. Some of the commercials carry matter that is not suitable for young minds while some need to display a caution message to prevent children from imitating the acts performed by professionals. which was published by The Nielsen Company on October 26. Ask any child today and he or she can tell everything about his or her favorite movie. spend about 28 hours per week. This routine of balancing work with study or accompanying senior actors for shoots can have extreme impact on child behavior and conduct Mothers. headache. Some programs show children displaying their talent along with adults. while children in the age bracket of 6 to 11 years. Analysis and Policy". Whether it is a game show. eye sight problems and sleep ailments.According to a study conducted by Patricia McDonough. children are not only seen glued to their TV sets at home but also participate in these shows with fervor and excitement. Commercials or advertisements form an important part of the television media today. the world over are of the opinion that children who watch TV for long hours are more prone to the risk of obesity. Pediatricians. Every show or program is sponsored by a product or service. back pain. Children are so fascinated by 17 . 2009. People are no longer nervous about sharing their private lives with millions of viewers across the world. "SVP Insights. an interest towards the television grows stronger. It is a common sight to see a child holding the TV remote and surfing channels in haste. favorite actor and even dialogues from his favorite movie. etc. Their children also develop a bond with such shows as they start viewing the idiot box as early an age as 2. TV viewing comes in the way of children engaging in other activities like playing. Reality shows are a common sight on every national television. who stay at home to take care of the house and kids. As the young minds develop. The world is crazy about movies so how can children stay behind. reading.

The small screen can become an important source of education and information for children provided their innocent eyes and ears are exposed to good quality content. 2010 Television is a part of every modern child's life and its influence is undeniable. as well as program content and absolute time spent in front of the TV.The influence of television varies greatly across different age groups and demographics and so guidelines for TV viewing should continue to evolve as children grow. Launched on 11th February 2002. Most parents feel a little guilty about propping their children in front of the television and letting quiet descend on the house. In the long term interest of children it is necessary for parents to educate their children about the positive and negative impacts of the television.the make believe world of movies that at times it reflects a great deal in their social conduct and thought process The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that kids under 2 years should not watch TV at all and older children should not watch more than 1 to 2 hours of TV programs in a day. CBeebies offers a mix of education and entertainment programs for children with different schedules for weekdays and weekends SHIKHA SWAROOP KAPIL Feb 22. Constant exposure to the television and other electronic media can have a deep impact on their psychological and physical mannerism. Read the facts on how TV can impact on your child in good ways and bad. The tender minds of children are innocent in their views and thoughts. As with most things. It is the guilt that they are somehow doing their children harm by turning on the dreaded box. the child’s age and personality. 18 .Since TV viewing habits of children are deeply influenced by parents. it is important that families encourage children to engage in extra curricular actives and playing outdoors with other kids of their age. BBC’s CBeebies television channel is an effort in this direction. television can be helpful or harmful and the difference comes down to a variety of factors such as.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) report that the average US child watches approximately 4 hours of TV per day.000 acts on violence on TV by age 18. Establishing a direct cause / effect is difficult as some children are more vulnerable to violent images than others. Importantly. crime shows and increasingly via current affairs programming.Children aged 2-7 years are particularly disturbed by scary images such as grotesque monsters and cannot be comforted by simply telling them that the images are not real.based violent content. The influence of television violence on children has become a hot topic for debate in recent years with hundreds of studies on the subject reaching varying conclusions. despite their recommendation the children over 2 should watch no more than 1-2 hours per day. This can lead to an increased fear of the ‘mean world’ and anxiety regarding the welfare of their friends and family. What is clear is that preschool children are far more likely to exhibit aggressive behavior after witnessing violent TV. and this incidence is certain to have grown in the years since. Further. cartoon violence is often portrayed as humorous or as having no consequences to the victim. The AAP recommend that children under 2 years should watch no television as it may interfere with the exploration and interaction required during this time of rapid brain development. Older children are better able to distinguish between reality and fantasy and are more disturbed by the threat of violence in current affairs and news coverage. 19 . It is estimated that a US child will witness 200. kids this young are unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality and therefore cartoon violence can be as detrimental as adult . Constant exposure to violent images can also desensitize children to real life aggression. These take the form of cartoons. In 2000 Annenberg Public Policy Center found that 57% of US children ages 8-16 years had a TV in their bedroom.

they can be reasoned with and reassured by discussion of what they have seen and any anxieties they may have. In addition. as little as 1-2 hours of TV per day can detract from academic performance. primarily by taking time away from other activities needed for mental. Television can impact on childhood development in a number of ways. it is also true that sexual issues are rarely dealt with by TV programming in a responsible and meaningful manner. A 2001 Kaiser Family Foundation study ‘Sex on TV’ found that 75% of primetime programs contained sexual references with sitcoms being the most prominent of these. physical and social development. 20 . only 17% of shows portraying teens in sexual situations had any safe sex messages written into the scenes. While it is true that television can be educational. One of the commonest parental battles is over television and homework and according to the Canadian Pediatric Society.As children age. sexual behavior is often linked to other risk-taking behaviors such as alcohol-drinking and there are rarely discussions about consequences. Many shows feature characters which re-enforce ethnic and gender stereotypes and can act as powerful role-models in influencing children’s behavior. In particular. It has been suggested that teens who watch a lot of sexual content on TV are more likely to initiate intercourse or participate in other sexual activities earlier than peers who don't watch sexually explicit shows. A 1996 Children Now Survey found that children want to see people like themselves on television and that those from ethnic minorities feel left out and have lower self-esteem if that is not the case.

Its fair to say that fast food advertising is big business. they are the consumers of tomorrow. I call it nagging. By Charles Young Oct 13. In other words. The majority of these ads are for food and drink that is high in fat.The alarming rate of childhood obesity has been linked. toys. Children today have more purchasing power. calories. both in terms of promoting a sedentary lifestyle and from the relentless marketing of junk food to children through television advertising . trying to curtail children from television viewing is a daunting task particularly since many kids have televisions in their bedrooms.D. sugar. Children are much more vocal than they used to be and they are not afraid to speak up when they want something. salt and low in nutrients. to children’s viewing habits. They know that children can and do influence their parents when it comes to food purchases. Victoria Atkinson Jul 1. 2008. kids aren't afraid to kick and scream to get their parents to buy something. The marketing gurus know how to get into children heads and how to get their most wanted response. 2009 Over 10 billion dollars is spent on fast food advertising to children annually in numerous fashions.000 commercials a year most of which are for candies. Additionally. If it is fast and it is food then it is fast food. The most obvious media venue is television advertisement. On an average children view over 40. Fast food advertising to children is not only limited to fast food restaurants. Fast food advertising to children is all about Pester Power and 21 . Advertisers call this Pester Power. The methods used for advertisement are within the norm for advertising. you'd be hard pressed to find an advertisement on 60 Minutes for Cocoa Kris pies just like you'd be hard pressed to find an advertisement on the Nickelodeon Channel for T. Its not as much the advertisement itself as much as it is the tactic used to entice our children to want their product. cereals. and because they do influence their parents on purchases it opens a whole new audience for marketers. and fast food restaurants. Businesses spend money to get their product noticed by what should be their target audience. Waterhouse. in part. In other words.

they do. The Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood is based in Boston and is made up of parents. 200 Learn about the harmful effects of marketing to kids and what you can to do to protect your little ones. In order to get the freebie an e-mail address is required and thus cross promotion campaigns begin creating fast food advertisement to children via e-mail marketing. If it says click here . Persistence nagging and importance nagging. Companies market to children today more than ever before. Less time in front of the television as a family could reduce the pestering for fast food and create a more nutritious and healthy family environment . Corporations see children as consumers and 22 . The internet. They know that marketing to children will net higher results.marketers rely on children to nag the parents rather than market to the parents directly. on the other hand. Importance nagging. This is all about providing for their children and the guilt that comes with not being available enough for their kids. Many websites offer free ring tones and music downloads. Fast food advertising to children is not only limited to television. educators. Marketers break Pester Power down into 2 categories. Persistence nagging is begging repeatedly. There are many tactics used in fast food advertising to children such as toys included with meals and monopoly game pieces. They also know that children love to click on links. Fast food businesses will claim that this is to provide a more pleasant visit to their store for the parents but in reality it is baiting children to desire fast food. We can't stop fast food advertising to children but we can control the television viewing time. which is more cost effective and viral marketing have also become advertising venues. James Rouse Nov 6. and health professionals who are concerned about the commercialization of childhood. is what marketers rely on. Internet marketers know how kids use the net and how popular sites such as MySpace and Facebook are.

While the products aren't actually shown.000 ads each year while watching television. Cheese and McDonald's. infant toys. and at the local fast food joint. They see their favorite television characters at the toy store. Why? They come with names and established storylines! • Kids who have been exposed to a large number of advertisements are more likely to be materialistic. at their school book fair. resulting in brand recognition at an early age. An online poll in 2004 showed that 85% of respondents thought children's television should be free of advertising. • Marketing to children is seen by many as playing a role in the childhood obesity epidemic. with 23 . Even PBS stations which claim to be "commercial-free" promote companies like Chuck E. the logos and jingles often are. Other channels geared towards kids (with the exception of Noggin) air advertisements for toys and junk food during children's programming. Some would argue that popular children's shows are advertisements. Kids are exposed to media and advertising on a daily basis. • Corporations even market to babies and toddlers with crib mobiles.have employed successful marketing strategies that result in children asking their parents for specific products. • Young children are vulnerable and don't understand where the program ends and the advertising begins. and board books featuring licensed media characters. So what's the problem? • • It is estimated that children see more than 40. • Toys based on TV characters actually discourage creative play.

Nickelodeon launched a new campaign last year in which characters like Dora would be used to promote healthy food choices such as fresh fruit and vegetables. Effective character-driven marketing practices can be used to help children make good choices. The booklet includes lists of resources categorized by topic for parents who want to learn more about marketing to kids and what they can do to help. So what can parents do who are concerned about advertising. It summarizes current facts on marketing to children and covers more than toys and food products. Buzz Light-year. This is an excellent resource for parents of children of all ages--even teenagers. sex. violence. or puzzle will result in children asking for that item. In addition. He already had a race car themed set. popular characters have been used to market food and beverages that are good for kids. companies spend more than $15 billion a year for marketing to kids. According to The Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood. and some companies are doing this in response to criticism for using popular characters to promote junk food. room decor. The Facts about Marketing to Kids. Recently. Annie's Homegrown Noodles (a healthy alternative to Spaghettis) currently feature Arthur from the award-winning children's show. and tobacco are also discussed in the booklet. but said that he just "had to have" sheets inspired by the hit movie. junk food. Its big business because companies realize that putting Elmo.extensive product lines inspired by characters such as Dora the Explorer and her cousin. By remember the old slogan that "children should be seen and not heard?" 24 . especially on children's television? They can download the 28 page free booklet. For example. Diego. One four year old in Florida (the author's son) recently asked for a Cars sheet set along with the matching comforter. alcohol. pair of shoes. body image issues. from The Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood. and other products that feature licensed characters. or Blue on a lamp. It's easy to find toys. and children influence more than $500 billion a year in purchases.

since kids often decide which fast food store to visit. Extensive market research shows that those 11 and older don't consider themselves children anymore. positioning you for future long term success. The 25 million tweens in the USA spend $51 billion each year. the tobacco and liquor industries have tried to reach kids with messages saying." For years. after mom decides that "she deserves a break today. These days. Though not always old enough to buy our products. starting now. get to them at age 8 or 9 "at the cusp of freedom. In their own minds. One high school senior in three carries a major credit card. The teen market has $175 billion in annual sales. that no longer applies to teens and tweens. mostly by having their own cell phones and/or laptops. 60% of tween boys make their own fast food dining choices. As an example." Dad lamely completes the deal as chauffeur and treasurer. please use our brand. teens and tweens are seen and heard. 25 . They aim their TV commercials at children. that can develop a positive relationship between tweens and teens and your business. And 63% of teens are very well wired. A majority of 18 to 24 year olds eat most meals in fast food places. The marketing payoff for fast food companies comes from promotion to tweens and teens when they reach the 18 to 24 age group. Properly done.Clearly. those over 11 are now adults. mostly by parents and relatives. we need continuous marketing communications to teens and tweens. prepubescent 8 to 14 years old."The fast food chains market to kids. loudly and clearly. "When you're old enough to drink or smoke. not at all! You need to take action now. What should business people do about these two groups? Just wait until they grow up? No. the heaviest fast food user group. and another $170 billion is spent on them annually. 70% of boys and girls at age 13 select their own clothes. too. Most boys at age 10 already know what kind of car they'd like to buy. As author Anne Southerland writes.

2. 4. This is a cost-efficient way to communicate. Cone headed. Serious marketing futurists think that today's tweens can eventually replace boomers financially. as a business person? Plenty! There are four major issues to consider: 1. tweens and teens are strongly influenced by peer groups and marketers.Very interesting. Marketers have been blessed for many years by Baby Boomers (born 1946 to 1964). The authority of parents is waning-because some parents are too wimpy to "train up their children in the way they should go. That being the case. But Boomers are starting to retire and. since tweens are extremely quality and brand conscious and are very glib spenders. 26 . their purchasing power will wane. my business believes that we should start relationship building with tweens and teens right now to help create our long term business success for these reasons: 1." today's term for word of mouth advertising. In the absence of consistent. why shouldn't long term marketers start cultivating tweens now? While we deplore the decline in effective parenting. wise parental leadership. Tweens and teens are excellent practitioners of "viral marketing." the Bible way. permissive Doctor Spock mushiness prevails in many homes ("the children are our friends and we dare not offend them"). within 10 to 20 years. 3. you say--but what's really at stake here for me. research shows.

since parents often don't know these things and most schools are still creating employees suitable to staff the Industrial Revolution. because IM is very popular with younger generations. So. as is text messaging. business planning. 27 . David Letterman's Show and appearances on the Simpsons-to name a few. Explaining Tony's career resurgence. his son and manager. we're starting to put my business and myself in tweens and teen places where it's cool to be. especially tweens and teens. which no longer exists." These include Tony in concert with BB King. And one consulting professional is teaching clients how to mine existing portal directories to find business partner prospects. they should learn from marketers now how to take care of a car--specifically. Danny. 3. Tweens and teens need to learn about selling. Now what is my business doing to start communicating with tweens and teens? We're taking the Tony Bennett approach. John has added Internet Messenger. he's been contacted by a local computer service and repair firm and a lady selling mortgage refinancing.2. We put him in places where it was cool to be. "talking" with prospects using IM. and how to develop themselves personally and professional to be successful self-employed persons. which products and services they'll need. the late Ray Charles. said. Tweens and teens are unaware of the benefits of self-employment. "We didn't make it cool to be Tony Bennett. In just one week. Since 10 year old boys know what kind of car they want.

. They're outraged that psychologists and others are revealing such tidbits as why 3. "The sheer volume of advertising is growing rapidly and invading new areas of childhood. Berkeley. 2006 Some psychologists cry foul as peers help advertisers target young consumers. multi-million dollar project that's having an enormous impact on child development. Ever since he first started practicing." For Kanner. he says. "Advertising is a massive. the result is not only an epidemic of materialistic values among children. 28 . has been asking his younger clients what they wanted to do when they grew up." says Kanner. What will yours be? How soon will you start? John Alquist June 01. Now Kanner and several colleagues are up-in-arms about psychologists and others who are using psychological knowledge to help marketers target children more effectively." "astronaut" or some other occupation with intrinsic appeal. psychologist Allen D. Today the answer is more likely to be "make money. Thanks to 12-year-olds love to collect things." According to Kanner. Kanner. Calif. Last fall. PhD.That's just our initial start toward teens and tweens. but also something he calls "narcissistic wounding" of children. The answer used to be "nurse. who is also an associate faculty member at a clinical psychology training program called the Wright Institute. children have become convinced that they're inferior if they don't have an endless array of new 7-year-olds gravitate toward toys that transform themselves into something else and why 8. like our schools. one explanation for that shift can be found in advertising.

public statement denouncing the use of psychological principles in marketing to children. at its June meeting. In response. and helping the public develop informed judgments." the letter asks APA to: • Issue a formal. The group will also explore implications for public policy. The group will look at the role psychologists play in what some consider the exploitation of children and consider how psychology can help minimize advertising's harmful effects and maximize its positive effects. The letter calls marketing to children a violation of APA's mission of mitigating human suffering. The letter protesting psychologists' involvement in children's advertising was written by Commercial Alert. advocacy organization. improving the condition of both individuals and society. APA's Board of Directors acted on a recommendation from the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest and approved the creation of a task force to study the issue. 29 . • Amend APA's Ethics Code to limit psychologists' use of their knowledge and skills to observe. Task force members will be chosen in consultation with Div. study. The task force will examine the research on advertising's impact on children and their families and develop a research agenda. D. Youth and Family Services) and other relevant divisions.Kanner and a group of 59 other psychologists and psychiatrists sent a controversial letter protesting psychologists' involvement to APA. Urging APA to challenge what it calls an "abuse of psychological knowledge. 37 (Child. a Washington. mislead or exploit children for commercial purposes.C..

and promote strategies to protect children against commercial exploitation by psychologists and others using psychological principles. "Psychologists who help advertisers are essentially helping them manipulate children to believe in the capitalistic message. he found many studies about how to make effective ads but not a single study addressing ads' impact on children. McNeal." says Kanner. Instead. children under 12 already spend a whopping $28 billion a year. According to marketing expert James U. Kasser has found that people who strongly value wealth and related traits tend to have higher levels of distress and lower levels of well-being. "The information psychologists are giving to advertisers is being used to increase profits rather than help children. "The whole enterprise of advertising is about creating insecure people who believe they need to buy things to be happy. he points to research done by Tim Kasser. PhD.• Launch an ongoing campaign to investigate the use of psychological research in marketing to children. when all the evidence shows that believing in that message is bad for people." says Kasser. worse relationships and less connection to their communities. I don't think most psychologists would believe that's a good thing. "That's unethical." 30 . Children also influence another $249 billion spent by their parents. In a series of studies." Advertisers' efforts seem to work. The effect this rampant consumerism has on children is still unknown. There's an inherent conflict of interest. Ill. who helped collect signatures for the letter. author of "The Kids Market: Myths and Realities" (Paramount Market Publishing. says Kanner. an assistant professor of psychology at Knox College in Galesburg. PhD. Teen-agers spend $100 billion. publish an evaluation of the ethics of such use. In an informal literature review. 1999).

31 . who received a copy of the Commercial Alert letter. He believes that having general guidelines as to appropriate uses and areas of concern would be beneficial to all parties. PhD. PhD." The problem with trying to regulate the use of psychological principles is that "people acting in ways psychologists find objectionable probably aren't members of APA anyway.Psychologists who help companies reach children don't agree. immediate past president of Div.J. "People who have a lot less sensitivity to the unique vulnerabilities of children. Such activities will actually help his business. 23 (Consumer Psychology) and a associate professor of marketing at Ohio State University in Columbus. Paine. he says. "If you remove ethical psychologists from the decision-making process in an ad's creation. What Paine does have a problem with is driving psychologists out of the business. by giving him leverage when clients want to do something that would inadvertently harm children. Paine has no problem with launching a dialogue about psychologists' ethical responsibilities or creating standards similar to ones used in Canada and Europe to protect children from commercial exploitation. who's left?" he asks. an assistant professor of business studies at Richard Stockton College in Pomona. Paine helps Fortune 500 companies market to children." says Haugtvedt. Haugtvedt." says Curtis P. "The same issue exists for all sciences: the information is available in public libraries." "We can't stop alcohol or tobacco companies from using the basic research findings and theories found in textbooks and academic journals. As principal of a Philadelphia consulting firm called Kid2Kid. N. Take Whiton S.

If a child wants something in their kid's locker. they turn down assignments dealing with violent video games. the letter to APA is not only an "unconstitutional" attempt to limit how professionals make their living but also a misguided overgeneralization. As a result. for example. president of Youth Market Systems Consulting in Sherman Oaks. To Acuff. draws on the child development courses he took during his graduate schooling in education to advise such clients as Disney.Daniel S. Calif. such as snacks and sugary foods parents can use as special treats. "I don't agree with black-and-white thinking. 1997) draws on child development research to show product developers and marketers how to reach children more effectively. Their work focuses instead on products that they consider either good for children or neutral." says Acuff. they have had a policy guiding their choice of projects. "Psychology in itself is neither good nor bad. Anyone who has seen a kid pester their parents knows the lengths kids can go to. they will prod and annoy their parents until their decorative shelving has what they want. 32 . PhD. they are great at encouraging parents to buy these products." REBECCA A. Vol 31. Acuff. Not only are they easily swayed by advertising. he says. The letter to APA fails to acknowledge that psychological principles can be used for good as well as bad. Hasbro and Kraft. No. Since Acuff and his partner started their business in 1979. and all it takes is a little suggestion from a single advertisement to send them on their way. It's just a tool like anything else. 8 Print version: page 52 Children represent a great target for advertisers and marketers across the world. His book "What Kids Buy and Why: The Psychology of Marketing to Kids" (Free Press. CLAY September 2000. action figures armed with weapons and other products they believe are bad for children.

It brings up a real moral dilemma for those who make the advertising decisions. who act as advertisers themselves when they encourage other children and their parents to use a certain product? One of the problems with today's society is we think in terms such as those used in the paragraph above. naturally. 33 . The reason for this. they genuinely believe what an advertiser tells them about the place they are selling. the money that can potentially be made is just so good. This is because children are so naïve. was not because the McDonald's corporation cares deeply about the well-being of children everywhere. There is a belief that the impact on children in experiencing damaging media can be "weighed up" against how much money can be made and power can be gained. How do you say no to an opportunity to have such a wide audience of children. In a campaign titled. and that out the back of every McDonald's are a bunch of kids working in uncomfortable conditions for low pay. happy people and animated characters are all that is needed to encourage children into thinking a certain product is something they want. While manipulating children into believing lies. They do not realize that Ronald McDonald is just a guy in a costume and make-up. it is no wonder the world of today is rife with so many problems. When thinking like this is involved. but that the pester-power that children have is extraordinarily effective at bringing parents back. or at least it should.The food company of McDonald's at one stage advised employees to specifically target children. is obviously bad. bright lights. The way that advertisers target children is simple. especially encouraging them to eat unhealthy foods. "Kid's are the Star" employees were encouraged to pay special attention to the children in the restaurant. and make sure they have a positive experience while they are eating at McDonald's. Big.

and by the time they're "coming down". This is not a coincidence. It is bad for their brain.The superficial reactions they get from eating McDonald's last about as long as they are at the place. sugar and fat. Their body gives an instant positive reaction. The goal is that kids arrive and consume high amounts of caffeine. salt. it is a deliberately created ploy. you're on the way home If you want what's best for your kids. and ultimately bad for your wallet! 34 . keep them away from the television as much as you possibly can.

0 theoretical Model Advertisement Brand Awareness Children Buying Behavior 35 .2.

36 .

1989). Most of the research In consumer behavior and specially on advertisement impact on children has focused two major points :(1) impact of TV commercials in shaping behavior and its positive or negative influence on children life and habits. Those children demand advertised food products and toys while moving in market with their parents.Till 1988 advertising expense of TV program raised up to $500 million approximately (Leccese. Meyer and Henke. 1984). The figure shows the Theoretical framework for the study consists of ‘children buying behavior’ as the dependent variable as it can easily be affected by the mentioned independent and mediating variable 37 . 1982).000 advertisements (Adler et al.At kin (1981) also confirmed these findings in his experimental study and found that the children with heavy exposure to TV advertisements are more likely to recall those brands while shopping in the market and with their parents. the following Theoretical framework has been developed in order to study the relationship between advertisement impacts on children buying behavior.(2) Role of TV commercials on the development and growth mental as well as physical of the children’s(Donohue.Chapter 3 Theoretical frame work In last 20 years impact of TV advertisements on children memory and behavior is the major topic of debates in countries open for market competition (Boddewyn.While looking at the children responses to TV advertisement a research experiment revealed that children’s food choices specially in snacks are based on their exposure to TV commercials (Gorn and Goldberg.1978) A Theoretical framework is used in research to summarize possible courses of action or to describe a preferred approach to an idea or thought. Therefore based on the literature review in Chapter 2 of this study.1980). Children ranging in between 6 to 11 years of age watch TV commercials 3 hours a day and it is estimated that over the period of a year average child see about 20.

which can easily influence the dependent variable in either positively or negatively according to the situation. 38 .

. Pragmatism is one in which the researcher tends to base knowledge claims on realistic grounds (e. Questionnaire is pre-formulated written set of questions to which respondents record their answers. Positivism is a formal. In other words it generates theory.Chapter 4 Data/ Methodology 4. Structured Interview is the process of administering an interview schedule by an interviewer. Interpretivism and Pragmatism. I will work on Questionnaire because it has more reach than other types of research instruments. Structured Interview and Structured Observation. and pluralistic). objective. There paradigms are Positivism. It nor verify theory neither generates theory. It is an interpretative framework. a way of breaking down the complexity of the real world. I am going to choose Positivism paradigm. systematic process in which numerical data are utilized to obtain information about the world“.g. Structured Observation is a purposeful. 39 . systematic and selective way of watching and listening to an interaction or phenomenon as it takes place. subjective research approach that usually emphasizes words rather than numbers in the collection and analysis of data” and that is inductive in nature. consequence-oriented. it believe in problem solving. The aim is for all interviewees to be given exactly the same context of questioning. It is inclined to be deductive.0 Methodology A research paradigm is a world view. a general perspective. There are three types of paradigms that are used in research. problem-centered. which is guided by "a set of beliefs and feelings about the world and how it should be understood and studied. Interpretivism is “an informal. \There are different ways to collecting data in positivism paradigm which are Questionnaire. In other words it tests/verify theory.

4. graphs and diagrams and findings averages and other measures which would describe the data. such as tables.1 Reliability Reliability analysis is an analysis in which the instrument developed for data collection is checked whether it is reliable or not. making the estimates and drawing conclusions from limited information taken on sample basis and testing the reliability of the estimates. Table1. no control over those who do respond. In descriptive analysis. easier to leave a mail questionnaire unanswered than to say “no” to an interviewer. Correlation and Regression for the analysis of my research data. Histogram & Normality Curve. standardization of questions.There are some pros and cons of questionnaire. In inferential statistics. Scatter plot. secrecy of respondent is high and data accuracy chances increase. I will use both analysis and I will apply Descriptive Statistics. its presentation in various forms. Population is the universe of units from which the sample is to be selected.1. I will choose 150-200 respondents as my sample size because my observation will increase and I will get more authentic results. Cons: Questionnaires are at risk of response bias. Reliability is the stability or consistency of the measurement. it deals with collection of data.1 40 . It is a test for a model or survey's internal consistency also called a 'scale reliability coefficient’.1 Data 4. For my research my population will be the Parents. it deals with techniques used for analysis of data.I will select 150-200 respondents as my sample size. greater anonymity than personal interviews. There are 2 types of analysis used in research: 1) Descriptive Analysis 2) Inferential Analysis. less costly and speedier. Pros: Advantage of a questionnaire are that it can be piloted with members of the sample group which would highlight any design faults.

Histogram 3. Unlike the 41 . Regression Descriptive statistics is the test that is used for the description of data. reliability test named as Cronbach Alpha is applied to test the reliability of the data collection instrument. Histogram is basically graphical representation of the data and tells about the distribution of the data whether it is normally distributed or skewed. Scatter Plot 4.After encoding all the data collected from respondents. 4.1. Histogram is a form of a bar graph used with numerical (scale) variable preferably of continuous nature.2 Analysis After reliability analysis we will be going to apply further tests for the confirmation of our hypothesis. All the Cronbach Alpha Values are greater than . Correlation 5. After applying reliability tests following results shown in Table 1. means show the average response of the respondents and standard deviations show how much deviation between these variables. standard deviation and mean of the variables. Descriptive Statistics 2. Maximum and minimum value show how much minimum and maximum respondent response in the questionnaires.1 are given. Descriptive statistics will be used to see the four things that are minimum values. There are list of tests that can be applied for the confirmation of our result in the positivism paradigm.70 which is typically considered as a rule of thumb to donate an acceptable level of internal reliability. maximum values. The intervals are shown on the X-axis and the number of scores in each interval is represented by the height of a rectangle located above the interval. 1. I will be going to make discussion on the following tests.

Scatter plot is a plot or graph of two variables that shows how the score on one variable associates with his or her score on the other variable. There are two types of correlation: 1) Pearson graph. in a histogram there is no space between the bars. Correlation is a statistical process that determines the mutual (reciprocal) relationship between two (or more) variables which are thought to be mutually related in a way that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other and vice versa. or outcome) variable and the other is called Independent (explanatory or predictor) variables. 42 . Each dot or circle on the plot represents a particular individual’s score on the two variables with one variable being represented on the X axis and the other on the Y axis. The data is continuous so the lower limit of any one interval is also the upper limit of the previous interval. 2) Spearman Correlation. Regression analysis is used to measure the relationship between two or more variables. Correlation is a statistical measurement of the relationship between variables. If the assumptions for Pearson correlation are not fulfilled then consider the Spearman correlation with the assumption that the Relationship between two variables is monotonically non-linear Linear regression is a technique for estimating the value of dependent variable from a set of one or more independent variables. The Pearson Correlation is used when you have two variables that are normal/scale an assumption of the Pearson correlation is that the variables are related in a linear (straight line) way so we will examine the scatter plots to see if that assumption is reasonable. One variable is called dependent (response. The measurement for both variables is continuous (measurement data).

Multiple regressions is used to check the contribution of independent variable(s) in the dependent variable if the independent variables are more than one. There are two types of regressions: 1) Simple Regression. This will be our proposed regression line. y = a + Bx 43 .It is used to check that due to one unit change in the independent variable(s) how much change occurs in dependent variable. 2) Multiple Regression Simple regression is used to check the contribution of independent variable(s) in the dependent variable if the independent variable is one.

disagree. and strongly agree).88832 .3.82624 Table 1. children buying behavior) the average response rate of responded is lie within the option 2-3 (2 is for disagreeand 3 is for natural). For example if we observe the above output to assess the average response rate or the respondent then we come to know the mean of different variables like Advertisement(mean:2.4000). Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable. agree.00 4.60 2.57711 .Chapter 5 Analysis 5. There were scales of 5 responses that lead to the options (strongly disagree. neutral.1 presents the descriptive statistics that show the overall picture of all the four variables. Brand awareness(mean:3.The 44 .25 Maximum 3.4000 3.50 Mean 2.5850) If we observe then for all variables (Advertisement.5200).5200 3.1 Results: In this portion all the results with their interpretation were shown and being discussed one by one 5. Children buying behavior (mean:. In the above table the mean values and the values of standard deviation of all the variables have been shown.33 4. Number of observations of each variable is 100. Brand awareness.5850 Std.1 Descriptive Summary Table1.1 Descriptive Statistics N Advertisement Brand Awareness Children Buying Behavior Valid N (list wise) 50 50 50 50 Minimum 1.00 2.1. Deviation .

1.57711) which is the lowest value as compare to other variable values. if we observe then in the response rate for the variable of Advertisement is value of standard deviation is (S. So.D . Let’s discuss the result of each variable’s histogram one by one Figure 1.D.1 45 .2 Histogram This shows the graphical representation of the variables with the curve to check the normality of the response rate. Which shows that most of the respondent answers were same for the variable of Advertisement and have consistency in their response rate but if we observe then for Brand awareness the value of standard deviation is (S.minimum option that is ticked by responded is 1 and the maximum option that is ticked by responded is 5.88832) which is quite high as compare to other variables which clearly shows that the response regarding Brand awareness of mostly respondents were not the same and they don’t have consistency in their answers. 5. Standard deviation gives the idea about the dispersion of the values of a variable from its mean value.

frequency distribution of the perceived organizational support is normal.4 (3 is for neutral and 4 is for agree).2 46 . Figure 1.Strongly Disagree = Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree = = = = 1 2 3 4 5 The fig. bell shaped curve. Thus.1. Similarly small numbers of respondents were marked very low and very high options. The bars in the histogram from a distribution (pattern or curve) that is similar to the normal. Most of the participant’s lies in the option 3 .1 shows the graphical representation of the bars that is showing the response of the respondents regarding Advertisement.

Similarly small numbers of respondents were marked very low and very high options. Most of the participant’s lies in the option 3 . Figure 1. bell shaped curve. frequency distribution of the brand awareness is normal.2 shows the graphical representation of the bars that is showing the response of the respondents regarding per brand awareness.1. The bars in the histogram from a distribution (pattern or curve) that is similar to the normal. Thus.3 47 .4 (3 is for neutral and 4 is for agree).Strongly Disagree = Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree = = = = 1 2 3 4 5 The fig.

Similarly small numbers of respondents were marked very low and very high options.3 Scatter Plots 48 . frequency distribution of the children buying behavior is normal.4 (3 is for neutral and 4 is for agree). Most of the participant’s lies in the option 3 . bell shaped curve.Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree = = = = = 1 2 3 4 5 The fig. 5. Thus.1 shows the graphical representation of the bars that is showing the response of the respondents regarding children buying behavior. The bars in the histogram from a distribution (pattern or curve) that is similar to the normal.1.

.2 49 . This means that if the organization gives high support to advertisement then there is also increase in the brand awareness level of an children and the above results have been confirmed by the table of correlations.1 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the relationship between advertisement and brand awareness. If we observe then the flow of line is come from right to left which shows the positive relationship between advertisement and brand awareness. Figure 1. Let’s discuss each plot or graph one by one Figure 1.1 Figure 1.Scatter plot or graph of two variables shows how the scores for an individual on one variable associates with his or her scores on the other variable.

Figure 1.1 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the relationship between brand awareness and children buying behavior. If we observe then the flow of line is come from right to left which shows the positive relationship between brand awareness and children buying behavior. This means that if the organization gives high brand awareness then there is also increase in the children buying behavior and the above results have been confirmed by the table of correlations.

5.1.4 Correlation

Correlation is used to check the mutual relationship among variables. For checking the relationship we will make two hypotheses: null (H0) and alternative (H1). We interpret the findings on the acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis. We used correlation matrix to check the mutual relationship of different variables. The hypothesis which we developed are given below Table 1.1

Correlations Advertisement Advertisement Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Brand Awareness Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Children Buying Behavior Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) 150 .135 .349 150 -.054 .710 150 .057 .694 150 150 1 Brand Awareness .135 .349 150 1 Children Buying Behavior -.054 .710 150 .057 .694 150 1

N 150 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 1.1 represents the table of correlations, where three variables – Advertisement, Brand Awareness, Children Buying Behavior– are positively correlated to Price (brand awareness= .135, children buying behavior = -.054, BA= .385, respectively). Children buying behavior is negatively but not correlated to the advertisement. The magnitudes of the correlations between advertisement, brand awareness and children buying behavior are greater than 0.33 in the absolute terms, which shows the moderate correlations between the said pairs of the variables but there is no correlation of advertisement and children buying behavior. If we see the correlation of brand awareness and children buying behavior (brand awareness = .135, children buying behavior (CBB= .057,) then there is no correlation exist

between these variables. If we see All the above correlations are statistically significant at less than five percent level of significant. In the case of these correlations the null hypothesis that were stated above of no correlation are rejected as the P-values are lesser than 0.05. 5.1.5 Regression Regression is used to check the effect size of independent variable to dependent variable. Let’s discuss the results of regression

Variables Entered/Removedb Model 1 Variables Entered Advertisement Variables Removed Method

. Enter

a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: Children Buying Behavior


The adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. R2) shows is adjusted for the degrees of freedom.097 33. The value of the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj.83359 a.Model Summary Std.054. This shows that the correlation between the observed values of advertisement.018.054a R Square . R2) is -. The value of the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. . Advertisement Dependent Variable: Children Buying Behavior b. Sum of Squares .451 df 1 48 49 Mean Square . Error of the Model 1 R . 53 .097 .710a Predictors: (Constant). which shows that -18% variations in Brand Equity. brand awareness and children buying behavior and the fitted value of the Brand Equity is -. Advertisement ANOVAb Model 1 Regression Residual Total a.695 F . R2) is not affected.354 33.003 Adjusted R Square -. The value of F-statistic is statistically significant at less than five percent that exhibits that in the estimated model at least one of the partial regressions coefficients is different from zero.52% percent.140 Sig. The value of the coefficient of determination (R2) is .018 Estimate . Predictors: (Constant).

This test shows that the coefficients of the predictor are statistically significant at less than five percent level of significance. .054 Coefficients Beta t 7.089 -.077 Std. T-test is used to test the significance of the individual partial regression coefficients.780 -. 54 . Dependent Variable: Children Buying Behavior The coefficient table presents the results of the regression analysis.710 a.000 .206 -. Null hypothesis in this test is set as the partial regression coefficient is zero. The specified regression equation takes the following form: y = a + Bx CBB= 3. The objective of the regression in this study is to find such an equation that could be used to find the impact of Advertisement on Children Buying Behavior.Coefficientsa Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Advertisement B 3.533 .780+0.374 Sig. Error .077(Advertisement) The results show that the independent variables less significantly affect the Brand Equity as shown by the values of the t-statistic and the corresponding P-values.

55 .

Generally children believe that their own influence is higher than what parents believe. Then managerial implications will be drawn. TV advertisements influence children’s behavior about brand advertised. they do need 56 . First. Marketer should understand the children’s psychic before launching any advertisement. That is accustomed to accessing information instantaneously and with little efforts. It is also clear that advertisement can be a good effective media to convey the required message in child segments if they are created professionally. Data shows that Children are very much aware of TV advertisements in Pakistan and advertising has a impact on their purchase behaviors. 6. Finally. Lastly advertisers cannot rely only on comic and colors in children related advertisements. So for the advertisers it’s very important to realize that children are not ignorant from the content of their campaigns.Chapter 6 Discussion & Conclusion In this chapter.0 Conclusions Children today have grown up as part of the first fully interactive generation. I will integrate those results and other findings into conclusions for this study. As children’s behavior change it also changes their buying pattern and this is the purpose behind the advertisements. As children are very much aware of TV advertisements and they know good and bad aspects of them. the future research and research limitations will be offered. the research findings and conclusions will be summarized. We also got that they evaluate and compare the different product’s TV Advertisements. This contributes to their attitude towards advertising. and while developing their campaigns they must address the issues with a professional approach. Children also know the degree of truthfulness in add.

They think that children are not in the stage to make this type of the decisions. Parents think that is negative impact of the advertisements just because children like to do those stunts which they saw in the advertisement. 57 . Children are attracted towards animation while parents want that advertisements should contain informative element in it. Children get inspiration from these advertisements and it creates violence in them. Parents have this point of view that company should advertise their products to the children but in the informative way. It was clear that children do not want to see advertisements during the shows. The parents are also satisfied with standards of advertisements yet they think there is much room for the improvement as compared to other countries. When children go with their parents for the shopping they are more attracted towards those products which have been advertised to them. Mostly they purchase the products on daily basis like sweets and snacks because the advertisements of these products are directly hit to them. From our research we came to the conclusion that children have more influence on the confectionary items as compared to other items like beverages. Children find it harder to think of ads targeted specifically at their own age group. When the children do see advertisements of food items. Advertisements should have some purpose in itself. stationary and food items. Children do help in buying the products which are not directly relevant to them but as they are less mature so they can be attracting with packaging. But they are clearly influenced. they must avoid over promising in their advertisement campaigns. Parents are normally not accepting their kid’s choice in the products which are not related to focus on the content of the advertisements. The result was mixed even we asked to recall any recently seen advertisements. they felt hungry.

services. The tragedy is that most of the marketing companies have not done research on the children psychology in Pakistan. Marketers think there is not negative impact of the advertisements on children but reality is totally opposite.From the companies point of view the children are important market even though if the products is not directly related to them. In the currents marketing scenario of Pakistan jingle and animated advertisements are being made. 6. Companies think it is better to build a brand in the mind of the children so that in near future these children can be loyal customers to that product. Mostly upper class is not influenced by the ads.1 Suggestions  The standards of advertisements should be improved to capture the intention of children. Social class of the children is very important to advertise the products. Marketing is perhaps best exemplified by the strategy of branding products.  The marketers should conduct the proper research for the better understanding of the psychology of children to save them from the exploitation of the advertising. Marketers use brands to build relationships that enhance value of the products and service for the consumers. The middle class do influenced by the ads and normally marketers target them to sell their products. Animated ads are more expensive so organizations are going for jingle to influence the children and to sell their products. 58 . Marketers do consider social class of children while advertised the products but it also depends on the nature of the products. organization and ideas. There is negative impact of the advertisements so for this ethics of advertisements should be followed.

Marketers should create ads which can have positive influence on the children’s mind so that can easily recall the brands.  Fast food and soft drinks are also doing excessive marketing to the children the results can be obesity and overweight.  Young children have understanding between advertising and reality in the ads and ads can distort the views of the world parents should protect their children from the invasive marketing. The school setting delivers a captive 59 .  Marketers should plants the seeds of the brand recognition in mind of every young child in the hope that seeds will grow into lifetime relationship. There is surely negative impact in the advertisement so marketers should take some steps to reduce this. There should be properly instruction to prohibit the children not to do the stunts which have been shown in the ads. The psychology of the children should be kept in the mind before the creating the advertisement.  Schools were the place where children were protected from the advertising and consumers messages that permeated their world but not anymore. Parents should be careful to handle with these types of the ads. Corporation realizes the power of the school environment for promoting their name and products.  Create events or other child related marketing activities in food shops to attract children’s awareness. It is a good tactic to capture the future market.

Marketers are eagerly exploiting this medium in number of the ways.young audience and implies the endorsement of the teachers and educational system.  Data has not been collected from all over the Pakistan because different areas and regarding their culture have different impact on the brand equity  As it was not likely to use advanced psychometric tools and means for the study on children. A more accurate picture can be  portrayed by using psychometric tools.3 Research limitions This study had the following limitations  Some of the respondents do not answer the question seriously.  There should be no advertisement of the unrelated products for the children.  so.  Companies should ethical ways to promote the products and they should not exploit the children. 60 . a simple five point rating scale was used for this purpose. 6.

RERERNCES         o      SHIKHA SWAROOP KAPIL Feb 22. 1982 61 . 1992. 2004 Elizabeth Moore (2004) Lindstrom and Seybold. 2007 John Alquist June 01. 1989 Gorn and Goldberg. (2004) European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 12. CLAY September 2000. 2003 Montgomery. 1984 Leccese. 2008 Charles Young Oct 13. No. p. 2009 James Rouse Nov 6. 8 Print version: page 52 Connor R Sullivan Feb 25. 2006 REBECCA A. 7       Keller Kotler et al. 2008 Jan Zeiger Mar 28. 2010 Victoria Atkinson Jul 1. 2010 Bovey. Number 4 (2010) Boddewyn. 1992. 7 Moore. p. 2001 Bovey. Vol 31.

J.1980 Donohue. Introducing Marketing Research published by John Willey & Sons Ltd.Children and Media. Malhotra(2009) Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation. Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective. 6/e Sachiko. Journal of Children as Consumer: Insight and Ideasof Responsible Marketers 62 . K.  Paul Baines & Bal Chansarka (2002). M (2004).1978 Chan.   Adler et al. Naresh K.  George Belch & Michael Belch 2009. & McNeal. International Journal of Advertising and Marketing to Children. Meyer and Henke. (2002). Children’s perceptions of television advertising. 8/e.

This survey is aimed at analyzing the “Impact of advertisement on children”.  Above 45 63 . student of BBA in Superior University. It is conducted by the Usman Waheed. Your cooperation in this regard will be highly appreciated. It would not take more than 05 minutes to fill out this survey. It is ensured that all the information provided in this survey will be kept confidential and anonymous and will be used only to improve the quality of such events to be conducted onwards. Thank you.  35 – 45 Years. Name (Optional) _______________________________________________ Gender:  Male  Female Age:  25 – 35 Years.Appendix QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PARENTS Questionnaire Dear Participant.

my child. is exposed to. My child does not pay attention to advertisements. Television advertisements are harmful for my children.# Statement SA 5 A 4 AV 3 D 2 SD 1 Tv advertisement 1. 2. My child starts demanding much more when he/she gets to know about new products through 64 . Awareness through TV Advertisement 6. TV advertisements add value to children knowledge 4. My child remembers all the advertisements that he/she 3.Salary:     Less than 15000 15000 to 30000 30000 to 45000 More than 45000 Rank the facilities and services provided in this job fair using following scale Strongly Agree = 5 Agree = 4 Average =3 Disagree = 2Strongly Disagree = 1 S. about brands TV advertisements encourage unhealthy food habits in 5.

my child buying intentions. The themes of TV ads are easy for my child to 8. Children buying behavior TV commercials influence my child to purchase even 9. products when he/she watch interesting commercials. Obesity in children is being increased via 12. advertisements. remember. My Child becomes very keen about knowing a thing 7. The popular characters in TV commercials influence 10.advertisements. those products which he/she already has. My child asks for candies and other low nutritional 11. Thank you for your Participation! 65 . which is broadcasted in ads.