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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

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1.1 BUILDING:
Any structure for whatever purpose and of any material and every part of them whether for
human or any other purpose, including all the structural elements like foundations, masonry,
roofs, etc., with all the services like water closet, bathroom, staircase, etc., is termed as building.
Building does not only refer to house but also implies the masonry the building is providing for
sheltering the human beings.
Building can be classified based on the occupancy and the type of construction. On the basis of
occupancy, the buildings are classified as:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Residential building
Educational building
Institutional building
Assembly building
Mercantile building
Business building
Industrial building
Storage building
Hazardous building

1.1.1. Residential building:
Residential building includes all the building in which the food and lodging
accommodation is provided for normal residential purposes with lodging room, water
closet and bath are included for small family, private dwellers, dormitories, apartments
houses(flats), hotel and hostels.
1.1.2. Educational building:
This building includes any building used for schools and colleges.
1.1.3. Institutional building:
These buildings include hospitals and sanatoria, custodial homes such as homes in firms
and orphanages and penal institutions such as jails, prisons, mental hospitals and
reformatories.
1.1.4. Assembly building:
These are buildings where group of people congregate or gather for amusements,
recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel and similar purposes, theatres, motion
pictures houses, assembly halls, auditorium, exhibition halls, museums, places of
worships, club rooms, etc., are such buildings.
1.1.5

Mercantile building:
These buildings are used for the transactions of business.
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1.1.6

Business building:
These buildings are also used for the transactions of business.

1.1.7

Industrial building:
These are the buildings where products or materials of all kinds and properties are
fabricated, assembled or processed. Assembly plans laboratories, power plants, dry
cleaning plants, refineries, etc., are the example of such buildings.

1.1.8

Storage building:
These buildings are used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, ware or
merchandise. Cold storage, ware houses, freight depots, transit sheds, store houses, etc.,
are the example of such houses.

1.1.9

Hazardous building:
These are buildings which are used for storage, handling and manufacturing of highly
combustible or explosive materials.
Buildings can be classified, based on the construction as:
1. Heat Resistance Building
2. Fire Resistance Building
3. Sound Proof Building, etc.

Before constructing any type of building, each building needs a special type of planning as per
their functions. Similarly it needs a special and different treatment.
1.2 PLANNING OF BUILDING:
Apart from the fact that building must be designed and planned according to the
functional requirement. The basic principles have been enunciated or broad lined only and
may be applied to the problem on its industrial merits. These natures are not as rigid as of
nature. General plan is done with respect to some natural point around its location. It is done
according to its natural surrounding condition such as geographical feature of the area such
as hilly, rocky or plains, climate conditions such as warm or cold, direction of sun rays,
wind, etc. Before planning any type of structure of the building the area should be favorable
for that structure. More attention should be taken in soil test in order to find the bearing
capacity of the soil as the foundation is heavy for structure of multistoried building. In
addition, there are certain principles of planning which should be regarded while planning
the building. These are:
1. Aspects
2. Prospect
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3. Furniture requirement
4. Roominess
5. Grouting
6. Circulation
7. Privacy
8. Sanitation
9. Elegance
10. Economy
11. Flexibility
12. Practical consideration

1.3 MULTISTORIED BUILDING
Reinforced concrete building consists of floor slabs, beams, girders and columns continuously
placed to form a rigid monolithic system. A continuous system leads to greater redundancy,
reduced moments and distributes the load more evenly. The floor slab may rest on a system of
interconnected beams. Thus a building frame is a three dimensional structure or space structure.
It is idealized as a system of interconnected two-dimensional vertical frames along the two
mutually perpendicular horizontal axes for analysis.
The degree of sophistication to which a structural analysis is carried out depends on the
importance of the structure. A wide range of approaches are available which can be carried out
manually or with the aid of pocket calculators to more refined techniques involving computer
solutions. In this project, manual analysis is done using methods such as moment distribution and
portal method. We separate the structural system into two load transmission mechanisms, viz.
gravity load resisting and lateral load resisting, although, in effect, these two systems are
complimentary and interactive. As an integrated system, the structure must resist and transmit all
the effects of gravity loads and lateral loads acting on it to the foundation and the ground below.
1.4 LOADS
The loads acting on the structure are due to dead loads (due to self weight), live loads (due to
occupants, water in tank, and maintenance on the roof etc.), wind loads (acting on the exposed
surface areas of the tank, staging etc.) and seismic loads (due to earthquake induced ground
excitation). Our project work has not been designed for wind loads since earthquake loads
exceed the wind loads.
DEAD LOADS
The dead loads on a frame is calculated floor wise and consists of weight of floors, girders,
partition walls, false ceilings, parapets, balconies, fixed or permanent equipment and half the
column above and below a floor. The load acting on a column is calculated from all the beams
framing into it.
LIVE LOADS
The magnitude of live loads depends upon the type of occupancy of the building. IS: 875 (Part 2)
-1987 has specified certain minimum values of live loads (or imposed loads) for specific
purposes. The live load distribution varies with time. Hence, each member is designed for the
worst combination of dead and live loads.

4

SEISMIC LOADS
Earthquake or seismic load on a building depends upon its geographical location, lateral stiffness
and mass and is reversible. Its effect should be considered along both axes of the building taken
on at a time. A force is defined as the product of mass and acceleration. During an earthquake,
the mass is imparted by the building whereas the acceleration is imparted by the ground
disturbance. In order to have a minimum force, the mass of the building should be as low
possible. There can be no control on the ground acceleration being an act of nature. The point of
application of this inertial force is the centre of gravity of the mass on each floor of the building.
Once there is a force, there has to be an equal and opposite reaction to balance this force. The
inertial force is resisted by the building and the resisting force acts at the centre of rigidity at
each floor of the building. The seismic forces are calculated in accordance to IS: 1893 (Part I) 2002. The wind load and earthquake loads are assumed not to act simultaneously.

1.5 DESIGN METHODOLOGY ADOPTED
The design philosophy that has been adopted in this project is the limit state method. The
philosophy of the limit state method of design represents a definite advancement over the
traditional design philosophies. Unlike working stress method, which is based on calculation on
service load conditions alone and unlike ultimate load method, which is based on calculation on
ultimate load conditions alone, Limit state method aims for a comprehensive and rational
solution to the design problem by considering safety at ultimate loads and serviceability at
working loads.
Limit state design has originated from ultimate or plastic design. The object of design based on
the limit state concept is to achieve an acceptable probability that a structure will not become
unserviceable in its life time for use for which it is intended, that is it will not reach limit state. A
structure with appropriate degrees of reliability should be able to withstand safely all loads that
are liable to act on it throughout and it should also satisfy the serviceability requirements such as
limitations on deflection and cracking. All relevant limit states must be considered in design to
ensure an adequate degree of safety and serviceability.
IS: 456-2000 and Design Aid to IS: 456-1978 (also known as SP 16) is followed in this regard to
ensure this design philosophy.
1.6 PHASES OF THE PROJECT
For the considered structural system, the design problem consisted of the following steps:




Idealization of the structure for analysis
Estimation of loads
Analysis of the idealized structural model to determine axial loads, shear and bending
moments.
Design of various structural elements.
Detailed structural drawing and schedule of reinforcing bars.
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CHAPTER-2

BUILDING PLAN

6

LINE DIAGRAM OF BUILDING PLAN

7

8

Frame of the Building

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ASSUMPTIONS

Dead Load

As per IS 875 (Part 1) : 1987

Live load

As per IS 875 (Part 2) : 1987
i.

Terrace: 1.5 KN/m2

ii.

Typical floors: 2.0 KN/m2

iii.

Balcony and Corridors : 3 KN/m2

iv.

Staircase : 4 KN/m2

Floor finish

1 KN/m2

Wind load

As per IS: 875. Not designed for wind load since seismic loads
exceed the wind loads.

Earthquake load

As per IS: 1893(Part 1)-2002

Depth of foundation below GL

2.1 m

Type of soil

Type II, medium as per IS: 1893 (Part 1)-2002

Allowable bearing capacity

150 KN/m2

Floor

G.F. + 3 upper floors

Walls

150mm (both external and internal walls)

Concrete

M20 conforming to IS: 456-2000

Steel

Fe 415 conforming to IS: 1786-1979

Member Size

Beam
i.

300 mm x 450 mm (Primary)

ii.

250 mm x 300 mm (Secondary)

Column : 300 mm x 450 mm

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CHAPTER-03

GRAVITY ANALYSIS

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FRAME ALONG PRIMARY DIRECTION OF THE BUILDING:

12

GRAVITY ANALYSIS OF FRAME YY
I. Assumptions:
Imposed Load → Residential Building
1)
2)
3)
4)

For Roof
: 1.5 KN/m2
On Balcony
: 3 KN/m2
On Corridors
: 3 KN/m2
On Rooms : 2 KN/m2

3.1 LOAD CALCULATION OF DIFFERENT FLOORS:
3.1.1 Load Calculation at Roof Level:
MEMBER RY1RY2
Area S4 = 0.5 x (0.6+3.3) x 1.35
Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.632 x 4

= 2.632 m2
= 10.528 KN

Imposed Load = 2.632 x 1.5

= 3.948 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 5.399 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 2.025 KN/m

Area S5 = 0.5 x 1.650 x 3.3

= 2.722 m2

Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.722 x 4

= 10.89 KN

Imposed Load = 2.722 x 1.5

= 4.084 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 6.6 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 2.475 KN/m

UDL due to Beam

= 3.375 KN/m

Total Load on the member = (5.399+2.025+6.6+2.475+3.375) = 19.874 KN/m

13

MEMBER RY2RY3
Area S3 = 0.5 x (0.4+3.1) x 1.35
Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.362 x 4

= 2.362 m2
= 9.448 KN

Imposed Load = 2.362 x 1.5

= 3.543 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 5.399 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 2.025 KN/m

UDL due to Beam

= 3.375 KN/m

Total Load on the member = 5.399 + 2.025 + 3.375 = 10.799 KN/m
Point Load on the member due to Secondary beam = 18.72 KN

MEMBER RY3RY4
Area S1 = 0.5 x 1.650 x 3.3
Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.722 x 4

= 2.722 m2
= 10.89 KN

Imposed Load = 2.722 x 1.5

= 4.084 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 6.6 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 2.475 KN/m

Area S2 = 0.5 x (2.7+1.35) x 0.675

= 1.367m2

Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.722 x 4

= 5.468 KN

Imposed Load = 2.722 x 1.5

= 2.051 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 2.7 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 1.013 KN/m

UDL due to Beam

= 3.375 KN/m

Point Load on the member due to Secondary beam = 18.72 KN
Total Load on the member = (6.6+2.475+2.7+1.013+3.375) = 16.163 KN/m
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3.1.2 Load Calculation at Typical Floor Level (1ST, 2ND & 3RD Floor):
MEMBER CY1CY2
Area S4 = 0.5 x (0.6+3.3) x 1.35
Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.632 x 4

= 2.632 m2
= 10.528 KN

Imposed Load = 2.632 x 2

= 5.264 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 5.399 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 2.699 KN/m

Area S5 = 0.5 x 1.650 x 3.3

= 2.722 m2

Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.722 x 4

= 10.89 KN

Imposed Load = 2.722 x 2

= 5.444 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 6.6 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 3.299 KN/m

UDL due to Beam

= 3.375 KN/m

UDL due to Wall

= 8.55 KN/m

Total Load on the member = (5.399+2.699+6.6+3.299+3.375+8.55) = 29.922 KN/m

MEMBER CY2CY3
Area S3 = 0.5 x (0.4+3.1) x 1.35
Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.362 x 4

= 2.362 m2
= 9.448 KN

Imposed Load = 2.362 x 2

= 4.724 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 5.399 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 2.699 KN/m

UDL due to Beam

= 3.375 KN/m
15

UDL due to Wall

= 8.55 KN/m

Total Load on the member = 5.399 + 2.699 + 3.375 + 8.55 = 20.023 KN/m
Point Load on the member due to Secondary beam = 20.115 KN

MEMBER CY3CY4
Area S1 = 0.5 x 1.650 x 3.3
Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.722 x 4

= 2.722 m2
= 10.89 KN

Imposed Load = 2.722 x 2

= 5.444 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 6.6 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 3.299 KN/m

Area S2 = 0.5 x (2.7+1.35) x 0.675

= 1.367m2

Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.722 x 4

= 5.468 KN

Imposed Load = 2.722 x 2

= 2.734 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 2.7 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 1.35 KN/m

UDL due to Beam

= 3.375 KN/m

UDL due to Wall

= 8.55 KN/m

Point Load on the member due to Secondary beam = 10.328 KN
Total Load on the member = (6.6+3.299+2.7+1.35+3.375+8.55) = 25.874 KN/m

16

Table: 1 CALCULATION OF LOAD FOR ROOF LEVEL:

S1=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

Dead load
(KN)FROM
SLAB
INCLUDING
FINISH
(2KN/m2)@ 5
kn/m2
10.888

S2=0.5X(1.35+2.7)X0.675=1.367

5.468

2.7

2.051

1.013

S3=0.5X(0.4+3.1)X1.35=2.362

9.448

5.399

3.543

2.025

S4=0.5X(0.6+3.3)X1.35=2.632

10.528

5.399

3.948

2.025

S5=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

10.888

6.6

4.084

2.475

Area(m2)

Equivalent
dead load
from
Slab(KN/m)

Live load
on Slab@
1.5kKN/m
2

Equivalent
live load on
Slab(KN/m
2)

6.6

4.084

2.475

Dead load
of Beam
(KN/m)

BEAM

Total
load
(KN/m)

12.450
R3-R4
7.088
3.375

R2-R3

10.799
10.799

R1-R2

12.450

Table: 2 CALCULATION OF POINT LOAD FOR ROOF:
BEAM
R2-R3
R3-R4

POINT LOAD(KN)
18.72
9.784

17

Table: 2 CALCULATION OF DEAD LOAD FOR 3RD FLOOR:

S1=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

Dead load
(KN)FROM
SLAB
INCLUDING
FINISH
(1KN/m2)@ 5
KN/m2
10.89

S2=0.5X(1.35+2.7)X0.675=1.367

5.468

2.7

2.734

1.35

S3=0.5X(0.4+3.1)X1.35=2.362

9.448

5.399

4.724

2.699

S4=0.5X(0.6+3.3)X1.35=2.632

10.528

5.399

5.264

2.699

S5=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

10.89

6.6

5.444

3.299

Area(m2)

Equivalent
dead load
from
Slab(KN/m)

Live load
on Slab@
1.5kn/m2

Equivalent
live load on
slab(KN/m2
)

6.6

5.444

3.299

Dead load
of Beam
(KN/m)

Dead
load of
Wall
(KN/m)

BEAM

Total
Load
transferred
on Beam
(KN/m)
21.824

C3-C4
15.975
3.375

8.55

C2-C3

20.023
20.023

C1-C2

21.824

Table: 2 CALCULATION OF POINT LOAD FOR 3RD FLOOR:
BEAM
C2-C3
C3-C4

POINT LOAD(KN)
20.115
10.328

18

Table: 2 CALCULATION OF DEAD LOAD FOR 2ND FLOOR:

S1=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

Dead load
(KN)FROM
SLAB
INCLUDING
FINISH
(1KN/m2)@
KN/m2
10.89

S2=0.5X(1.35+2.7)X0.675=1.367

5.468

2.7

2.734

1.35

S3=0.5X(0.4+3.1)X1.35=2.362

9.448

5.399

4.724

2.699

S4=0.5X(0.6+3.3)X1.35=2.632

10.528

5.399

5.264

2.699

S5=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

10.89

6.6

5.444

3.299

Area(m2)

Equivalent
dead load
from
Slab(KN/m)

Live load
on Slab@
1.5kn/m2

Equivalent
live load on
slab(KN/m2
)

6.6

5.444

3.299

Dead load
of Beam
(KN/m)

Dead
load of
Wall
(KN/m)

BEAM

Total
Load
transferred
on Beam
(KN/m)
21.824

B3-B4
15.975
3.375

8.55

B2-B3

20.023
20.023

B1-B2

21.824

Table: 2 CALCULATION OF POINT LOAD FOR 2ND FLOOR:
BEAM
B2-B3
B3-B4

POINT LOAD(KN)
20.115
10.328

19

Table: 2 CALCULATION OF DEAD LOAD FOR 1ST FLOOR:

Area(m2)

S1=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

Dead load
(KN)FROM
SLAB
INCLUDING
FINISH
(1KN/m2)@ 5
KN/m2
10.89

Equivalent
dead load
from
Slab(KN/m)

Live load
on Slab@
1.5kn/m2

Equivalent
live load on
slab(KN/m2
)

6.6

5.444

3.299

Dead load
of Beam
(KN/m)

Dead
load of
Wall
(KN/m)

BEAM

Total
Load
transferred
on Beam
(KN/m)
21.824

A3-A4
S2=0.5X(1.35+2.7)X0.675=1.367

5.468

2.7

2.734

1.35

S3=0.5X(0.4+3.1)X1.35=2.362

9.448

5.399

4.724

2.699

S4=0.5X(0.6+3.3)X1.35=2.632

10.528

5.399

5.264

2.699

S5=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

10.89

6.6

5.444

15.975
3.375

8.55

A2-A3

20.023
20.023

A1-A2

3.299

21.824

Table: 2 CALCULATION OF POINT LOAD FOR 1ST FLOOR:
BEAM
A2-A3
A3-A4

POINT LOAD(KN)
20.115
10.328

20

TABLE: 9 CALCULATION OF DEAD LOAD OF GROUND FLOOR

On ground floor, the live load on slab will directly go to the ground and there will be no live load on the beam. Also only the self weight
of the beam and walls act on the beams. The weight due to slab and finish do not come.

BEAM

Dead load of beam (KN/m)

G1-G2
G2-G3
G3-G4

3.375

Load transferred on beam
(KN/m)
3.375
3.375
3.375

21

3.2 CALCULATIONS OF DISTRIBUTON FACTORS:
TABLES FOR DISTRIBUTION FACTORS:
3.2.1 DETERMINATION OF DISTRIBUTION FACTOR AT ROOF LEVEL:
JOINT
R1
R2

R3

R4

MEMBE
R

L(M)

B(M)

D(M)

I=BD3/1
2

R1-R2
R1-C1
R2-R1

3.3
3.3
3.3

0.3
0.3
0.3

0.45
0.45
0.45

0.002278
0.002278
0.002278

R2-R3
R2-C2

3.1
3.3

0.3
0.3

0.45
0.45

0.002278
0.002278

R3-R2
R3-R4
R3-C3
R4-R3
R4-C4

3.1
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45

0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278

K=I/L
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.00073
5
0.00069
0.00073
5
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069

∑K

DF=K/∑
K

0.001381
0.001381
0.002116

0.50
0.50
0.33

0.002116
0.002116

0.35
0.33

0.002116
0.002116
0.002116
0.001381
0.001381

0.35
0.33
0.33
0.50
0.50

3.2.2 DETERMINATION OF DISTRIBUTION FACTOR AT 3RD FLOOR LEVEL:
JOINT
C1

MEMBE
R

L(M)

B(M)

D(M)

I=BD3/1
2

C1-R1
C1-C2
C1-B1
C2-C1
C2-B2
C2-R2

3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45

0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278

C3

C2-C3
C3-R3
C3-B3

3.1
3.3
3.3

0.3
0.3
0.3

0.45
0.45
0.45

0.002278
0.002278
0.002278

C4

C3-C2
C3-C4
C4-R4
C4-B4
C4-C3

3.1
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45

0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278

C2

DF=K/∑
K

K=I/L

∑K

0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.00073
5
0.00069
0.00069
0.00073
5
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069

0.002071
0.002071
0.002071
0.002806
0.002806
0.002806

0.33
0.33
0.33
0.25
0.25
0.25

0.002806
0.002806
0.002806

0.26
0.25
0.25

0.002806
0.002806
0.002071
0.002071
0.002071

0.26
0.25
0.33
0.33
0.33
22

3.2.3 DETERMINATION OF DISTRIBUTION FACTOR AT 2ND FLOOR LEVEL:
JOINT
B1

B2

B3

B4

MEMBE
R

L(M)

B(M)

D(M)

I=BD3/1
2
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278

B1-C1
B1-B2
B1-A1
B2-B1
B2-C2
B2-A2

3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45

B2-B3

3.1

0.3

0.45 0.002278

B3-B2
B3-B4
B3-C3
B3-A3
B4-B3
B4-C4
B4-A4

3.1
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45

0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278

K=I/L
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.00073
5
0.00073
5
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069

∑K

DF=K/∑
K

0.002071
0.002071
0.002071
0.002806
0.002806
0.002806

0.33
0.33
0.33
0.25
0.25
0.25

0.002806

0.26

0.002806
0.002806
0.002806
0.002806
0.002071
0.002071
0.002071

0.26
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.33
0.33
0.33

3.2.4 DETERMINATION OF DISTRIBUTION FACTOR AT 1ST FLOOR LEVEL:
JOIN
T

MEMBE
R

A1

A1-B1
A1-G1
A1-A2
A2-B2
A2-A1
A2-A3
A2-G2
A3-B3
A3-A2
A3-A4
A3-G3
A4-A3
A4-G4
A4-B4

A2

A3

A4

L(M)

B(M)

D(M)

I=BD3/1
2

K=I/L

∑K

3.3
2.7
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.1
2.7
3.3
3.1
3.3
2.7
3.3
2.7
3.3

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45

0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278

0.00069
0.000844
0.00069
0.00069
0.00069
0.000735
0.000844
0.00069
0.000735
0.00069
0.000844
0.00069
0.000844
0.00069

0.002224
0.002224
0.002224
0.002959
0.002959
0.002959
0.002959
0.002959
0.002959
0.002959
0.002959
0.002224
0.002224
0.002224

DF=K/∑
K
0.31
0.38
0.31
0.23
0.23
0.25
0.29
0.23
0.25
0.23
0.29
0.31
0.38
0.31

23

3.2.5 DETERMINATION OF DISTRIBUTION FACTOR AT GROUND FLOOR
LEVEL:

JOIN
T

MEMBE
R

G1

G1-A1
G1-F1
G1-G2
G2-G1
G2-A2
G2-F2
G2-G3
G3-G2
G3-G4
G3-A3
G3-F3
G4-A4
G4-F4
G4-G3

G2

G3

G4

L(M)

B(M)

D(M)

I=BD3/1
2

K=I/L

2.7
2.1
3.3
3.3
2.7
2.1
3.1
3.1
3.3
2.7
2.1
2.7
2.1
3.3

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45

0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278
0.002278

0.000844
0.001085
0.00069
0.00069
0.000844
0.001085
0.000735
0.000735
0.00069
0.000844
0.001085
0.000844
0.001085
0.00069

∑K
0.002619
0.002619
0.002619
0.003354
0.003354
0.003354
0.003354
0.003354
0.003354
0.003354
0.003354
0.002619
0.002619
0.002619

DF=K/∑
K
0.32
0.41
0.26
0.21
0.25
0.32
0.22
0.22
0.21
0.25
0.32
0.32
0.41
0.26

24

3.3 CALCULATIONS OF FIXED END MOMENTS:
3.3.1 Calculation of FIXED END MOMENT at ROOF Level:

POINT LOAD(KN)
MEMBER

LENGTH(M)

FIXED END
MOMENTS (KNM)

UDL(KN/m)
1.4 m
from C2

R1-R2

3.3

19.874

R2-R3

3.1

10.799

R3-R4

3.3

16.163

2.7 m
from C4

18.72
9.784

FEML

FEMR

+18.036

-18.036

+16.529

-15.139

+18.598

-15.541

3.3.1 Calculation of FIXED END MOMENT at 3RD FLOOR Level:

POINT LOAD(KN)
MEMBER

LENGTH(M)

FIXED END
MOMENTS (KNM)

UDL(KN/m)
1.4 m
from C2

C1-C2

3.3

29.922

C2-C3

3.1

20.023

C3-C4

3.3

25.874

2.7 m
from C4

20.115
10.328

FEML

FEMR

+27.154

-27.154

+24.504

-23.009

+27.628

-24.402

3.3.2 Calculation of FIXED END MOMENT at 2ND FLOOR Level:

POINT LOAD(KN)
MEMBER

LENGTH(M)

FIXED END
MOMENTS (KNM)

UDL(KN/m)
1.4 m
from B2

B1-B2

3.3

29.922

B2-B3

3.1

20.023

B3-B4

3.3

25.874

2.7 m
from B4

20.115
10.328

FEML

FEMR

+27.154

-27.154

+24.504

-23.009

+27.628

-24.402
25

3.3.3 Calculation of FIXED END MOMENT at 1ST FLOOR Level:

POINT LOAD(KN)
MEMBER

LENGTH(M)

FIXED END
MOMENTS (KNM)

UDL(KN/m)
1.4 m
from A2

A1-A2

3.3

29.922

A2-A3

3.1

20.023

A3-A4

3.3

25.874

2.7 m
from A4

20.115
10.328

FEML

FEMR

+27.154

-27.154

+24.504

-23.009

+27.628

-24.402

3.3.4 Calculation of FIXED END MOMENT at GROUND Level:
Fixed end moments (KNm)
MEMBER

LENGTH(M)

UDL(KN/m)

G1-G2

3.3

3.375

FEML
+3.063

FEMR
-3.063

G2-G3

3.1

3.375

+2.703

-2.703

G3-G4

3.3

3.375

+3.063

-3.063

26

3.4MOMENT DISTRIBUTION TABLES:

3.4.1 Moment Distribution table for ROOF LEVEL:
DF
FEM
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
SUM

R1-R2
0.5
0.33
18.036 -18.036
-9.018
0.497
0.249
-4.509
-0.124
1.688
0.844
-0.062
-0.422
0.260
0.130
-0.211
-0.065
0.073
0.037
-0.033
-0.018
0.027
9.648 -20.305

R2-R3
0.35
0.35
16.529 -15.139
0.527
-1.211
-0.605
0.264
1.790
-1.452
-0.726
0.895
0.276
-0.023
-0.012
0.138
0.078
-0.096
-0.048
0.039
0.028
-0.015
17.837 -16.600

R3-R4
0.33
0.5
18.598 -15.541
-1.141
7.771
3.885
-0.571
-1.094
-1.657
-0.829
-0.547
-0.022
0.273
0.137
-0.011
-0.091
0.005
0.003
-0.045
-0.014
0.023
19.433 -10.300

3.4.2 Moment Distribution table for 3RD FLOOR LEVEL:
DF
FEM
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
SUM

C1-C2
0.33
0.25
27.154 -27.154

C2-C3
0.26
0.26
24.504 -23.009

C3-C4
0.25
0.33
27.628 -24.402

-8.961
0.663
0.331 -4.480
-0.109
1.270
0.635 -0.055
-0.210
0.156
0.078 -0.105
-0.026
0.029
0.015 -0.013
-0.005
0.008
18.903 -29.681

0.689 -1.201
-0.600
0.345
1.321 -1.136
-0.568
0.661
0.162 -0.024
-0.012
0.081
0.030 -0.040
-0.020
0.015
0.008 -0.004
25.514 -24.313

-1.155
8.053
4.026 -0.577
-0.862 -1.138
-0.569 -0.431
-0.023
0.142
0.071 -0.011
-0.038
0.004
0.002 -0.019
-0.004
0.006
29.076 -18.374

27

3.4.3 Moment Distribution table for 2ND FLOOR LEVEL:

DF
FEM
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
SUM

B1-B2
0.33
0.25
27.154 -27.154

B2-B3
0.26
0.26
24.504 -23.009

B3-B4
0.25
0.33
27.628 -24.402

-8.961
0.663
0.331 -4.480
-0.109
1.270
0.635 -0.055
-0.210
0.156
0.078 -0.105
-0.026
0.029
0.015 -0.013
-0.005
0.008
18.903 -29.681

0.689 -1.201
-0.600
0.345
1.321 -1.136
-0.568
0.661
0.162 -0.024
-0.012
0.081
0.030 -0.040
-0.020
0.015
0.008 -0.004
25.514 -24.313

-1.155
8.053
4.026 -0.577
-0.862 -1.138
-0.569 -0.431
-0.023
0.142
0.071 -0.011
-0.038
0.004
0.002 -0.019
-0.004
0.006
29.076 -18.374

3.4.4 Moment Distribution table for 1ST FLOOR LEVEL:

DF
FEM
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
SUM

A1-A2
0.31
0.23
27.154 -27.154

A2-A3
0.25
0.25
24.504 -23.009

A3-A4
0.23
0.31
27.628 -24.402

-8.418
0.610
0.305 -4.209
-0.094
1.101
0.550 -0.047
-0.171
0.129
0.065 -0.085
-0.020
0.022
0.011 -0.010
-0.003
0.006
19.379 -29.638

0.663 -1.155
-0.577
0.331
1.197 -1.028
-0.514
0.598
0.140 -0.024
-0.012
0.070
0.024 -0.032
-0.016
0.012
0.007 -0.003
25.415 -24.239

-1.062
7.565
3.782 -0.531
-0.748 -1.008
-0.504 -0.374
-0.022
0.116
0.058 -0.011
-0.029
0.003
0.002 -0.015
-0.003
0.005
29.102 -18.652

28

3.4.5 Moment Distribution table for GROUND FLOOR LEVEL:

DF
FEM
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
C.O.
DISTRB
SUM

G1-G2
0.26
0.21
3.063 -3.063
-0.796
0.076
0.038 -0.398
-0.010
0.092
0.046 -0.005
-0.012
0.011
0.006 -0.006
-0.001
0.001
0.001 -0.001
0.000
0.000
2.333 -3.292

G2-G3
0.22
0.22
2.703 -2.703
0.079 -0.079
-0.040
0.040
0.096 -0.096
-0.048
0.048
0.012
0.000
0.000
0.006
0.001 -0.002
-0.001
0.001
0.000
0.000
2.803 -2.787

G3-G4
0.21
0.26
3.063 -3.063
-0.076
0.796
0.398 -0.038
-0.076 -0.094
-0.047 -0.038
0.000
0.010
0.005
0.000
-0.002
0.000
0.000 -0.001
0.000
0.000
3.265 -2.427

29

3.5 FINAL END MOMENTS BY GRAVITY ANALYSIS:
3.5.1 Calculation of FINAL MOMENTS at ROOF Level:

SPA
N

R1R2
R2R3
R3R4

LENGTH(
m)
L

UDL(KN/
m)
W

MIDSPAN
SAGGING
MOMENT
CONSIDERING
SIMPLY
SUPPORTED, KNm

End hogging moments
as per moment
distribution,

FINAL MOMENTS, KNm

LEFT

RIGHT

MID MOMENT
=(WL2/8)+((ML+MR)/2))
LEFT
MID
RIGHT

KNm

3.3

19.874

-27.053

9.648

20.305

9.648

-12.077

20.305

3.1

10.799

-26.076

17.837

16.600

17.837

-8.858

16.600

3.3

16.163

-24.937

19.433

10.300

19.433

-10.070

10.300

3.5.2 Calculation of FINAL MOMENTS at 3RD FLOOR Level:

SPAN

C1-C2
C2-C3
C3-C4

LENGTH(m) UDL(KN/m)
L
W

3.3
3.1
3.3

29.922
20.023
25.874

MIDSPAN SAGGING MOMENT
CONSIDERING SIMPLY
SUPPORTED, KNm( = WL2/8)

-40.731
-38.134
-38.319

End hogging
moments as per
moment
distribution,

FINAL MOMENTS, KNm

KNm

MID MOMENT
=(WL2/8)+((ML+MR)/2))

LEFT
18.903
25.514
29.076

RIGHT
29.681
24.313
18.374

LEFT
18.903
25.514
29.076

MID
-16.439
-13.220
-14.594

RIGHT
29.681
24.313
18.374
30

3.5.3 Calculation of FINAL MOMENTS at 2ND FLOOR Level:

SPAN

B1-B2
B2-B3
B3-B4

MIDSPAN SAGGING MOMENT
LENGTH(m) UDL(KN/m)
CONSIDERING SIMPLY
L
W
SUPPORTED, KNm( = WL2/8)

3.3
3.1
3.3

29.922
20.023
25.874

End hogging
moments as per
moment
distribution,

FINAL MOMENTS, KNm

MID MOMENT
=(WL2/8)+((ML+MR)/2))
KNm
LEFT
RIGHT LEFT
MID
RIGHT
-40.731
18.903
29.681 18.903 -16.439 29.681
-38.134
25.514
24.313 25.514 -13.220 24.313
-38.319
29.076
18.374 29.076 -14.594 18.374

3.5.4 Calculation of FINAL MOMENTS at 1ST FLOOR Level:

SPAN

A1-A2
A2-A3
A3-A4

MIDSPAN SAGGING MOMENT
LENGTH(m) UDL(KN/m)
CONSIDERING SIMPLY
L
W
SUPPORTED, KNm( = WL2/8)

3.3
3.1
3.3

29.922
20.023
25.874

-40.731
-38.134
-38.319

End hogging
moments as per
moment
distribution,

FINAL MOMENTS, KNm

KNm

MID MOMENT
=(WL2/8)+((ML+MR)/2))

LEFT
19.379
25.415
29.102

RIGHT
29.638
24.239
18.652

LEFT
19.379
25.415
29.102

MID
RIGHT
-16.223 29.638
-13.307 24.239
-14.442 18.652

31

3.5.5 Calculation of FINAL MOMENTS at GROUND FLOOR Level:

SPAN

G1-G2
G2-G3
G3-G4

MIDSPAN SAGGING MOMENT
LENGTH(m) UDL(KN/m)
CONSIDERING SIMPLY
L
W
SUPPORTED, KNm( = WL2/8)

3.3
3.1
3.3

3.375
3.375
3.375

-4.594
-4.054
-4.594

End hogging
moments as per
moment
distribution,
KNm
LEFT
2.333
2.803
3.265

RIGHT
3.292
2.787
2.427

FINAL MOMENTS, KNm
MID MOMENT
=(WL2/8)+((ML+MR)/2))
LEFT
MID
RIGHT
2.333
-1.782
3.292
2.803
-1.259
2.787
3.265
-1.748
2.427

32

3.6 BEAM SHEAR FORCES:

BEAM

R1-R2
R2-R3
R3-R4
C1-C2
C2-C3
C3-C4
B1-B2
B2-B3
B3-B4
A1-A2
A2-A3
A3-A4
G1-G2
G2-G3
G3-G4

LENGTH
L (m)
3.3
3.1
3.3
3.3
3.1
3.3
3.3
3.1
3.3
3.3
3.1
3.3
3.3
3.1
3.3

UDL
(KN/m)
19.874
10.799
16.163
29.922
20.023
25.874
29.922
20.023
25.874
29.922
20.023
25.874
3.375
3.375
3.375

POINT
LOAD(KN)

18.72
9.784
20.115
10.328
20.115
10.328
20.115
10.328

S.F(KN)
LEFT
32.79
27.00
34.67
49.30
42.00
51.14
49.30
42.00
51.14
49.30
42.00
51.14
5.57
5.23
5.57

RIGHT
32.79
25.16
28.45
49.30
40.20
44.56
49.30
40.20
44.56
49.30
40.20
44.56
5.57
5.23
5.57

M1(KNm) M2(KNm)

9.648
17.837
19.433
18.903
25.514
29.076
18.903
25.514
29.076
19.379
25.415
29.102
2.245
3.677
3.447

20.305
16.600
10.300
29.681
24.313
18.374
29.681
24.313
18.374
29.638
24.239
18.652
3.516
3.662
2.355

V=(M1M2)/L
3.230
0.400
2.760
3.260
0.390
3.240
3.260
0.390
3.240
3.100
0.380
3.160
0.380
0.004
0.330

CORRECTED SHEAR
FORCE(KN)
LEFT
36.020
26.600
31.910
52.560
41.610
47.900
52.560
41.610
47.900
52.400
41.620
47.980
5.900
5.234
5.900

MID
3.17
0.85
-7.64
3.29
-9.29
-5.17
3.29
-9.29
-5.17
2.98
-9.53
-5.15
0.34
0
0.34

RIGHT
29.560
25.560
38.750
46.040
40.590
47.800
46.040
40.590
47.800
46.200
40.580
47.720
5.200
5.226
5.200

33

CHAPTER-4

SEISMIC ANALYSIS

34

4.1 Seismic Load diagram

35

4.1 INTRODUCTION
During an earthquake, ground motions occur in a random fashion, both horizontally and
vertically, in all directions radiating from the epicenter. The ground accelerations cause the
structure to vibrate and induce inertial forces on them. Hence, structures in such locations need
to be suitably designed and detailed to ensure stability, strength and serviceability with
acceptable levels of safety under seismic effects. Earthquake can cause damage not only on
account of shaking which results from them but also due to other chain effects like landslides,
floods, fire etc. it is therefore important to take necessary precautions in the design of structures
so that they are safe against such secondary effects also.
The project work being the design of a residential building in Guwahati, which lies in Zone V,
necessitates rigorous seismic analysis for proper subsequent designing and detailing. In this
regard, the various clauses of IS: 1893(Part 1) – 2002 and IS: 13920 – 1993 are followed.

4.2 SEISMIC WEIGHT OF THE BUILDING:
4.2.1 Load calculation by lump mass model (W):
At roof level (W5):
1.
2.
3.
4.

Self weight of slab = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*(3.3+3.1+3.3)*5
= 152.775 KN
Self weight of primary beam = (1.375*4+1.8*4+9.7)*3.375
= 75.6 KN
Self weight of secondary beam = (2.7+1.35+1.8)*1.875
= 10.97 KN
Self weight of wall
= ((3.3-0.3)/2*(2.7/2*3+3.6/2*2) + (3.3-0.25)/2*2.7/2*1+3.6/2*1+ (3.3-0.45)/2*9.7)*3
= 87.58 KN
5. Self wt. of parapet wall = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*2*3
= 18.9 KN
6. Self weight of column = (3.3*0.5*4)*3.375
=22.275 KN
7. Imposed load
= 0.00 KN
W5 = 367.9875 KN

At 3rd floor level (W4):
1.
2.
3.
4.

Self weight of slab = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*(3.3+3.1+3.3)*5
= 152.775 KN
Self weight of primary beam = (1.375*4+1.8*4+9.7)*3.375
= 75.6 KN
Self weight of secondary beam = (2.7+1.35+1.8)*1.875
= 10.97 KN
Self weight of wall
= ((3.3-0.3)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*3+3.6*0.5*2)+(3.3-0.25)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*1+3.6*0.5*1)+(3.30.45)*0.5*9.7+((2.7-0.3)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*3+3.6*0.5*2)+(2.70.25)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*1+3.6*0.5*1)+(2.7-0.45)*0.5*9.7))*3
= 162.16 KN
5. Self weight of column = (3.3*0.5*4)*3.375*2
=44.55 KN
6. Imposed load = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*(3.3+3.1+3.3)*(0.25*2)
=15.28 KN
W4= 474.11KN
36

At 2nd floor level (W3):
1.
2.
3.
4.

Self weight of slab = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*(3.3+3.1+3.3)*5
= 152.775 KN
Self weight of primary beam = ((1.375*4+1.8*4+9.7)*3.375
= 75.6 KN
Self weight of secondary beam = (2.7+1.35+1.8)*1.875
= 10.97 KN
Self weight of wall
= ((3.3-0.3)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*3+3.6*0.5*2)+(3.3-0.25)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*1+3.6*0.5*1)+(3.30.45)*0.5*9.7+((2.7-0.3)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*3+3.6*0.5*2)+(2.70.25)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*1+3.6*0.5*1)+(2.7-0.45)*0.5*9.7))*3
= 162.16 KN
5. Self weight of column = (3.3*0.5*4)*3.375*2
=44.55 KN
6. Imposed load = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*(3.3+3.1+3.3)*(0.25*2)
=15.28 KN
W4= 474.11KN

At 1st floor level (W2):
1.
2.
3.
4.

Self weight of slab = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*(3.3+3.1+3.3)*5
= 152.775 KN
Self weight of primary beam = (1.375*4+1.8*4+9.7)*3.375
= 75.6 KN
Self weight of secondary beam = (2.7+1.35+1.8)*1.875
= 10.97 KN
Self weight of wall
= ((3.3-0.3)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*3+3.6*0.5*2)+(3.3-0.25)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*1+3.6*0.5*1)+(3.30.45)*0.5*9.7+((2.7-0.3)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*3+3.6*0.5*2)+(2.70.25)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*1+3.6*0.5*1)+(2.7-0.45)*0.5*9.7))*3
= 162.16 KN
5. Self weight of column = ((3.3*0.5*4)+(2.7*0.5*4))*3.375
=40.50 KN
6. Imposed load = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*(3.3+3.1+3.3)*(0.25*2)
=15.28 KN
W4= 457.28KN

At plinth level (W1):
1) Self weight of primary beam = (1.375*4+1.8*4+9.7)*3.375
2) Self weight of columns = (2.1*0.5*4)*3.375

= 75.60KN
= 14.18 KN
W5 = 89.78 KN

Hence, Total weight W= W5+W4+W3+W2 + W1 = 1389.15 KN

37

4.3 Calculation of Base Shear (VB):
VB = Ah.W
Ah = Z.I.Sa/ 2Rg
Z = 0.36
I = 1.0
R = 5.0

(as per cl.7.5.3- IS: 1893-2002)
(as per cl.6.4.2- IS: 1893-2002)
(as per Table 2- IS: 1893-2002)
(as per Table 6- IS: 1893-2002)
(as per Table 7- IS: 1893-2002, for SMRF with ductile detailing)

Now, Height h = 3.3 + 3.3 + 3.3 + 2.7+2.1 = 14.2 m
Ta = 0.075 × 14.20.75 = 0.56
(as per cl. 7.6.1 IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002)
Hence, for medium soil, Sa/g = 2.5
(as per cl.6.4.5 IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002)
Ah = 0.36 × 1 × 2.5 / (2 × 5)
= 0.09
VB = 0.09 × 1389.15
= 125.02 KN

4.3.1 Distribution of base shear at each floor (Qi):
Qi = (Wihi2/Σ Wihi2) × VB
Wihi2/ΣWihi

roof
3rd
floor
2nd
floor
1st
floor
PL

Wihi2
Wi
hi
hi2
367.98
8
14.7 216.09
79518.53
474.10
8
11.4 129.96
61615.08
474.10
8
8.1
65.61
31106.23
457.27
8
4.8
23.04
10535.69
89.775
2.1
4.41
395.9077
Σ
Wihi2=183171.4

2

Q=(Wihi2/ΣWihi2)V
B

0.434120816

54.28

0.336379306

42.06

0.169820301

21.23

0.057518171
0.002161406

7.19
0.27
Σ =125.02 = VB

38

SEISMIC ANALYSIS
4.4 ANALYSIS BY CANTILEVER METHOD:
4.4.1 Calculation of distance of centroidal axis:

3.3
A

3.1
A

3.3
A

A

Fig. 4.1
X̅ =
=
= 4.85 m

Fig. 4.2
39

Now, P1 =K x 4.85
P2 = Kx1.55
P3 = Kx1.55
P4 = Kx4.85

P1 = P4
P3 = P2
Equation 1

P2 = 0.319 P1
P3 = 0.319 P1
Plinth level:

Taking moment of all the forces @ the point
-50.69x13.65-39.28x10.35-19.83x7.05-6.72x3.75-0.25x1.05+P1x9.7+P2x6.4-P3x3.3 = 0
Using eqn. 1,
P1 = 118.21KN,

P2 = 37.71 KN,

P3 = 37.71 KN,

P4 = 118.21 KN

For ground floor:
-50.69x11.25-39.28x7.95-19.83x4.65-6.72x1.35+P1x9.7+P2x6.4-P3x3.3 = 0
Using eqn. 1,
P1 = 92.03KN,

P2 = 29.36 KN,

P3 = 29.36 KN,

P4 = 92.03 KN

For 1st floor:
-50.69x8.25-39.28x4.95-19.83x1.65+ P1x9.7+P2x6.4-P3x3.3 = 0
Using eqn. 1
P1 = 60.37 KN,

P2 = 19.25 KN,

P3 = 19.25 KN,

P4 = 60.37 KN

40

For 2nd floor:
-50.69x4.95-39.28x1.65+ P1x9.7+P2x6.4-P3x3.3 = 0
Using eqn 1
P1 = 29.54 KN,

P2 = 9.42 KN,

P3 = 9.42 KN,

P4 = 29.54 KN

P3 = 2.49KN,

P4 = 7.82 KN

For 3rd floor:
-50.69x1.65+ P1x9.7+P2x6.4-P3x3.3 = 0
Using eqn 1
P1 = 7.82 KN,

P2 = 2.49 KN,

4.4.2 CALCULATION OF BEAM SHEAR, BEAM MOMENT, COLUMN SHEAR
AND COLUMN MOMENT
4.4.2.1 Considering the joints J21 – J22 – J23 – J24

Fig. 4.3
Calculation of shear forces in beams
J21- J22 = 7.82
J22 – J23 = 10.31
J23 – J24 = 7.82
Calculation of beam moments
M (J21-J22) = 7.82x3.3/2 = 12.903 KNm
M (J22- J23) = 10.31x3.1/2 = 15.98 KNm
M (J23-J24) = 7.82x3.3/2 = 12.903 KNm

41

Fig. 4.4
Calculation of column moments and column shear:
Joint J21:
M (J21- J17) + M(J21- J22) = 0
⇒ M (J21- J17) = - 12.903 KNm
∴ Column shear = 12.903/(3.3/2) = 7.82 KN
Joint J22:
M (J22- J21) + M (J22- J23) + M (J22- J18) = 0
⇒-2.903+15.98 = M (J22- J18)
⇒ M (J22- J18) = 28.883 KNm
∴ Column shear = 28.883/ (3.3/2) = 17.50 KN
Joint J23:
M (J23- J19) = 28.883 KNm
Column shear = 28.883/ (3.3/2) = 17.50 KN
Joint J24:
M (J24- J20) = 12.903 KNm
∴ Column shear = 12.903/ (3.3/2) = 7.82 KN

42

Fig. 4.5

4.4.2.2 Considering the joints J17 – J18 – J19 – J20
Calculation of shear forces in beams:

Fig. 4.6

J17 – J18 = 21.72 KN
J18 – J19 = 28.65 KN
J19 – J20 = 21.72 KN
Calculation of beam moments:
M (J17-J18) = 21.72x3.3/2 = 35.838 KNm
M (J18- J19) = 28.65x3.1/2 = 44.41 KNm
M (J19-J20) = 21.72x3.3/2 = 35.838 KNm

43

Fig. 4.7
Calculation of column moments and column shear:
Joint J17:
M (J17- J21) + M (J17- J18) + M (J17- J13) = 0
⇒ M (J17- J13) + (35.838- 12.903) = 0 KNm
⇒ M (J17- J13) = 22.935 KNm
∴ Column shear = 22.935/(3.3/2) = 13.9 KN
Joint J18:
M (J18- J22) + M (J18- J19) + M (J18- J17) + M (J18-J14) = 0
⇒ M (J18-J14) = 51.36 KNm
∴ Column shear = 51.36/ (3.3/2) = 31.12 KN
Joint J19:
M (J19- J23) + M (J19- J18) + M (J19- J20) + M (J19- J15) = 0
⇒ M (J19- J15) = 51.36 KN
∴ Column shear = 51.36/ (3.3/2) = 31.12 KN
Joint J20:
M (J20- J24) + M (J20- J19) + M (J20- J16) = 0
⇒ M (J20- J16) = 22.935 KNm
∴ Column shear = 22.935/(3.3/2) = 13.9 KN

44

Fig. 4.8

4.4.2.3 Considering the joints J13 – J14 – J15 – J16

Calculation of shear forces in beams:

Fig. 4.9

J13 – J14 = 30.83 KN
J14 – J15 = 40.66 KN
J15 – J16 = 30.83 KN
45

Calculation of beam moments:
M (J13 – J14) = 30.83x3.3/2 = 50.86 KNm
M (J14 – J15) = 40.66x3.1/2 = 63.023 KNm
M (J15 – J16) = 30.83x3.3/2 = 50.86 KNm

Fig. 4.10
Calculation of column moments and column shear:
Joint J13:
M (J13- J17) + M (J13- J14) + M (J13- J9) = 0
⇒ M (J13- J9) = 27.925 KNm
∴ Column shear = 27.925/(3.3/2) = 16.93 KN
Joint J14:
M (J14- J18) + M (J14- J15) + M (J14- J13) + M (J14 - J10) = 0
⇒ M (J14 - J10) = 62.523 KNm
∴ Column shear = 62.523/(3.3/2) = 37.89 KN
Joint J15:
M (J15- J19) + M (J15- J16) + M (J15- J14) + M (J15 - J11) = 0
⇒ M (J15 - J11) = 62.523 KNm
∴ Column shear = 62.523/(3.3/2) = 37.89 KN

46

Joint J16:
M (J16- J20) + M (J16- J15) + M (J16- J12) = 0
⇒ M (J16- J12) = 27.925 KNm
∴ Column shear = 27.925/(3.3/2) = 16.93 KN

Fig. 4.11

4.4.2.4 Considering the joints J9 – J10 – J11 – J12
Calculation of shear forces in beams:

Fig. 4.12
J9 – J10 = 31.66 KN
J10 – J11 = 41.77 KN
J11 – J12 = 31.66 KN
Calculation of beam moments:
M (J9 – J10) = 31.66 x3.3/2 = 52.239 KNm
M (J10 – J11) = 41.77 x3.1/2 = 64.744 KNm
M (J11 – J12) = 31.66 x3.3/2 = 52.239 KNm
47

Fig. 4.13
Calculation of column moments and column shear:
Joint J9:
M (J9- J13) + M (J9- J10) + M (J9- J5) = 0
⇒ M (J9- J5) = 24.314 KNm
∴ Column shear = 24.314/ (2.7/2) = 18.01 KN
Joint J10:
M (J10- J14) + M (J10- J11) + M (J10- J9) + M (J10 – J6) = 0
⇒ M (J10 – J6) = 54.46 KNm
∴ Column shear = 54.46/ (2.7/2) = 40.34 KN
Joint J11:
M (J11- J15) + M (J11- J10) + M (J11- J12) + M (J11 – J7) = 0
⇒ M (J11 – J7) = 54.46 KNm
∴ Column shear = 54.46/ (2.7/2) = 40.34 KN
Joint J12:
M (J12- J16) + M (J12- J11) + M (J12- J8) = 0
⇒ M (J12- J8) = 24.314 KNm
∴ Column shear = 24.314/ (2.7/2) = 18.01 KN

48

Fig. 4.14

4.4.2.5 Considering the joints J5 – J6 – J7 – J8
Calculation of shear forces in beams:

Fig. 4.15
J5 – J6 = 26.18 KN
J6 – J7 = 34.53 KN
J7 – J8 = 26.18 KN

Calculation of beam moments:
M (J5 – J6) = 26.18 x3.3/2 = 43.197 KNm
M (J6 – J7) = 34.53 x3.1/2 = 53.52 KNm
M (J7 – J8) = 26.18 x3.3/2 = 43.197 KNm
49

Fig. 4.16
Calculation of column moments and column shear:
Joint J5:
M (J5- J9) + M (J5- J6) + M (J5- J1) = 0
⇒ M (J5- J1) = 18.883 KNm
∴ Column shear = 18.883/ (2.1/2) = 17.98 KN
Joint J6:
M (J6- J10) + M (J6- J5) + M (J6- J7) + M (J6 – J2) = 0
⇒ M (J6 – J2) = 42.257 KNm
∴ Column shear = 42.257/ (2.1/2) = 40.24 KN
Joint J7:
M (J7- J12) + M (J7- J6) + M (J7- J8) + M (J7 – J3) = 0
⇒ M (J7 – J3) = 42.257 KNm
∴ Column shear = 42.257/ (2.1/2) = 40.24 KN
Joint J8:
M (J8 – J12) + M (J8- J7) + M (J8- J4) = 0
⇒ M (J8- J4) = 18.883 KNm
∴ Column shear = 18.883/ (2.1/2) = 17.98 KN

50

Fig. 4.17

51

CHAPTER – 5

DESIGN OF SLAB

52

5.1

Desig
n consideration:

Let, Span / effective depth
= 26x1.51
Where 1.51 is the modification factor as per cl. 23.2.1(c), IS 456:2000 (obtained for 25% tension
reinforcement)
⇒ 3600/d = 26x1.51
⇒ d = 91.69 m
Nominal cover = 20 mm (mild exposure)
Diameter of the bar = 8 mm
∴ Total depth = 91.69+20+8/2
= 115.69 < 120
Thus it is satisfactory.
∴ Effective depth provided
d = 120- 20- 8/2 = 96 mm
lx = 3300 mm
ly = 3600 mm
Therefore, ly/lx = 3600/3300 = 1.09 < 2
So the slab is a two way slab
Determination of moments of slabs(Laterally restrained slabs):
According to IS 456: 2000, clause D-1.1 , the maximum B.M. per width in the slab are
given by,
Mx = αxwlx2
My = αywly2
Where, lx and ly

= length of shorter and longer span respectively

αx and αy

= co-efficient

Mx and My

= moments on strips of unit width spanning lx and ly respectively

W

= total design load per unit area
53

5.2 Load diagram for Slab

54

5.3 Design Loads for Slab:
For roof slab:
W1 = 1.5x (0.120x25+1.5+1)
= 8.25KN/m2
For floor slab,
W2 = 1.5x (0.120x25+2+1)
= 9KN/m2
For ly/lx = 1.09 and two adjacent edges discontinuous
Short span co-efficient (αx)
Negative moment at continuous edges = - 0.0524
Positive moment at the midspan = + 0.0395
Long span co-efficient (αy)
Negative moment at the support = - 0.047
Positive moment at the midspan = + 0.035

5.4 Design moments for Slab:
Short span

Long span

Near support
Mroof = 0.0524x8.25x3.32
= -4.71KNm

midspan
Mroof =
0.0395x8.25x3.32
=+3.55KNm

Near support
Mroof =
--0.047x8.25 x3.32
= -4.22KNm

midspan
Mroof =
+0.035x8.25 x3.32
= +3.14KNm

Mfloor=
-0.0524x9x3.32
=-5.136KNm

Mfloor=
0.0395x9x3.32
= +3.87KNm

Mfloor=
-0.047x9x3.32
= -4.61KNm

Mfloor=
0.035x9x3.32
= 3.43KNm

55

Now,
R = Mu/bd2 = (Mx106)/(1000x962)
Ast = bd x fck / 2fy [1 - √1-4.598xR/fck]
Spacing = 1000 x Ab / Ast
For 8mm dia,
Ab = π/4 x 82 = 50 mm2

5.5 Design of Slab:
Short span

R

Support

Midspan

Support

Midspan

0.511

0.39

0.46

0.341

106.14

125.73

92.53

Ast
ROOF

140.12
Spacing

451.08

397.66

540.39

356.83
Provide 8ɸ @
280c/c
0.56

Provide 8ɸ @
280c/c
0.42

Provide 8ɸ @
280c/c
0.50

Provide 8ɸ @
280c/c
0.37

Ast

154.04

114.52

137.01

100.57

Spacing

324.59

436.62

364.93

497.15

Provide 8ɸ @
280c/c

Provide 8ɸ @
280c/c

Provide 8ɸ @
280c/c

Provide 8ɸ @
280c/c

Reinforcement
provided
R

FLOOR

Long span

Reinforcement
provided

5.6 Check for spacing:
cl. 26.3.3 (b)
Spacing should be less than
a.

3xd =
3x96 = 288 mm

56

b.

300
mm

Therefore, spacing < 288 mm i.e. 280mm < 288mm

5.7 Check for thickness of slab:
Maximum B.M. = 5.136KNm
∴ dreqd = √(5.136x106)/(0.138x20x1000) = 43.14mm
∴ Dreqd = 43.14+20+4 = 67.14 mm < 120 mm
Hence safe…..

5.8 Cross section of the Slab

57

CHAPTER- 6

DESIGN MOMENTS AND
SHEAR FORCES
(For Beam)

58

6.1 DESIGN TABLES FOR BENDING MOMENTS

59

A. Load combination for B.M. of beams at ROOF level
MEMBER
Load combination
DL+LL
EL
1.5(DL+LL)
1.2(DL+LL+EL)
1.2(DL+LL-EL)
Design moment

R1-R2
END
MID
9.648 -12.077
-12.903 0.000
14.472 -18.116
-3.906 -14.492
27.061 -14.492
27.943
-12.903 -19.505

END
20.305
12.903
30.458
39.850
8.882
36.744

R2-R3
END
MID
17.837 -8.858
-15.980 0.000
26.756 -13.287
2.228 -10.630
40.580 -10.630
34.038
-15.98 -2.696

END
16.600
15.980
24.900
39.096
0.744
31.134
-7.218

R3-R4
END
MID
19.433 -10.070
-12.903 0.000
29.150 -15.105
7.836 -12.084
38.803 -12.084
33.108
-12.903 -14.534

END
10.300
12.903
15.450
27.844
-3.124
27.409
-3.558

B. Load combination for B.M. of beams at 3RD FLOOR level
MEMBER
Load combination
DL+LL
EL
1.5(DL+LL)
1.2(DL+LL+EL)
1.2(DL+LL-EL)
Design moment

C1-C2
END
MID
18.903 -16.439
-35.838 0.000
28.355 -24.659
-20.322 -19.727
65.689 -19.727
65.689
-35.838 -24.659

END
29.681
35.838
44.522
78.623
-7.388
78.623
-7.388

C2-C3
END
MID
END
25.514 -13.220 24.313
-44.400 0.000 44.400
38.271 -19.830 36.470
-22.663 -15.864 82.456
83.897 -15.864 -24.104
83.897
82.456
-44.4
-19.83 -24.104

END
29.076
-35.838
43.614
-8.114
77.897
77.897
-35.838

C3-C4
MID
-14.594
0.000
-21.891
-17.513
-17.513
-21.891

END
18.374
35.838
27.561
65.054
-20.957
65.054
-20.957

60

C. Load combination for B.M. of beams at 2ND FLOOR level
MEMBER
Load combination
DL+LL
EL

END
18.903
-50.869

B1-B2
MID
-16.439
0.000

END
29.681
50.869

END
25.514
-63.023

B2-B3
MID
-13.220
0.000

END
24.313
63.023

1.5(DL+LL)
1.2(DL+LL+EL)

28.355
-38.359

-24.659
-19.727

44.522
96.660

38.271
-45.011

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

83.726
83.726
-50.869

-19.727

-25.426
96.66
-25.426

106.244
106.244
-63.023

Design moment

-24.659

END
29.076
-50.869

B3-B4
MID
-14.594
0.000

END
18.374
50.869

-19.830 36.470
-15.864 104.803

43.614
-26.152

-21.891
-17.513

27.561
83.092

-15.864

95.934
95.934
-50.869

-17.513

-38.994
83.092
-38.994

-19.83

-46.452
104.803
-46.452

-21.891

D. Load combination for B.M. of beams at 1ST FLOOR level
MEMBER
Load combination
DL+LL
EL
1.5(DL+LL)
1.2(DL+LL+EL)
1.2(DL+LL-EL)
Design moment

END
19.379
-52.239
29.069
-39.432
85.942
85.942
-52.239

A1-A2
MID
-16.223
0.000
-24.335
-19.468
-19.468
-24.335

END
29.638
52.239
44.457
98.252
-27.121
98.252
-27.121

END
25.415
-64.743
38.123
-47.194
108.190
108.19
-64.743

A2-A3
MID
-13.307
0.000
-19.961
-15.968
-15.968
-19.961

END
24.239
64.743
36.359
106.778
-48.605
106.778
-48.605

END
29.102
-52.239
43.653
-27.764
97.609
97.609
-52.239

A3-A4
MID
-14.442
0.000
-21.663
-17.330
-17.330
-21.663

END
18.652
52.239
27.978
85.069
-40.304
85.069
-40.304

61

E. Load combination for B.M. of beams at GROUND FLOOR level

MEMBER
Load combination
DL+LL
EL
1.5(DL+LL)
1.2(DL+LL+EL)
1.2(DL+LL-EL)
Design moment

END
2.245
-43.197
3.368
-49.142
54.530

G1-G2
MID
-1.714
0.000
-2.571
-2.057
-2.057

54.53
-49.142

-2.571

END
3.516
43.197
5.274
56.056
-47.617

END
3.677
-53.522
5.516
-59.814
68.639

56.056

68.639

-47.617

-59.814

G2-G3
MID
-0.385
0.000
-0.578
-0.462
-0.462

-0.578

END
3.662
53.522
5.493
68.621
-59.832

END
3.447
-43.197
5.171
-47.700
55.973

68.621

55.973

-59.832

-47.7

G3-G4
MID
-1.693
0.000
-2.540
-2.032
-2.032

END
2.355
43.197
3.533
54.662
-49.010
54.662

-2.54

-49.01

62

6.2 DESIGN TABLES FOR SHEAR FORCES

63

A. Load Combination for Shear Forces of beams at ROOF level:
R1-R2

R2-R3

R3-R4

Load
combination

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

DL+LL
EL
1.5(DL+LL)
1.2(DL+LL+EL)

36.02
7.82
54.03
52.608

3.17
7.82
4.755
13.188

29.56
7.82
44.34
44.856

26.6
10.31
39.9
44.292

0.85
10.31
1.275
13.392

25.56
10.31
38.34
43.044

31.91
7.82
47.865
47.676

7.64
7.82
11.46
18.552

38.75
7.82
58.125
55.884

Design shear

52.608

13.188

44.856

44.292

13.392

43.044

47.676

18.552

55.884

B. Load Combination for Shear Forces of beams at 3RD FLOOR level:
R1-R2

R2-R3

R3-R4

Load
combination

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

DL+LL
EL
1.5(DL+LL)
1.2(DL+LL+EL)

52.56
21.27
78.84
88.596

3.29
21.27
4.935
29.472

46.04
21.27
69.06
80.772

41.61
28.65
62.415
84.312

-9.29
28.65
-13.935
23.232

40.59
28.65
60.885
83.088

47.9
21.27
71.85
83.004

5.17
21.27
7.755
31.728

47.8
21.27
71.7
82.884

Design shear

88.596

29.472

80.772

84.312

23.232

83.088

83.004

31.728

82.884

C. Load Combination for Shear Forces of beams at 2ND FLOOR level:
R1-R2
Load
combination

END

DL+LL
EL
1.5(DL+LL)
1.2(DL+LL+EL)

52.56
30.83
78.84
100.068

Design shear

100.068

MID

R2-R3
END

R3-R4

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

3.29
46.04
30.83
30.83
4.935
69.06
40.944 92.244

41.61
40.66
62.415
98.724

-9.29
40.66
-13.935
37.644

40.59
40.66
60.885
97.5

47.9
30.83
71.85
94.476

5.17
30.83
7.755
43.2

47.8
30.83
71.7
94.356

40.944 92.244

98.724

37.644

97.5

94.476

43.2

94.356

64

D. Load Combination for Shear Forces of beams at 1ST FLOOR level:
R1-R2
Load
combination

END

DL+LL
EL
1.5(DL+LL)
1.2(DL+LL+EL)

52.4
31.66
78.6
100.872

Design shear

100.872

MID

R2-R3
END

R3-R4

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

2.98
46.2
31.66
31.66
4.47
69.3
41.568 93.432

41.62
41.77
62.43
100.068

-9.53
41.77
-14.295
38.688

40.58
41.77
60.87
98.82

47.98
31.66
71.97
95.568

5.15
31.66
7.725
44.172

47.72
31.66
71.58
95.256

41.568 93.432

100.068

38.688

98.82

95.568

44.172

95.256

E. Load Combination for Shear Forces of beams at GROUND FLOOR level:
R1-R2

R2-R3

Load
combination

END

MID

END

DL+LL
EL
1.5(DL+LL)
1.2(DL+LL+EL)

5.9
26.18
8.85
38.496

0.34
26.18
0.51
31.824

5.2
26.18
7.8
37.656

Design shear

38.496

31.824

37.656

END

MID

R3-R4
END

END

MID

END

5.234
0
5.226
34.53
34.53
34.53
7.851
0
7.839
47.7168 41.436 47.7072

5.9
26.18
8.85
38.496

0.34
26.18
0.51
31.824

5.2
26.18
7.8
37.656

47.7168 41.436 47.7072

38.496

31.824

37.656

65

CHAPTER- 7

DESIGN MOMENTS AND
AXIAL LOADS
(FOR COLUMNS AND
FOOTINGS)

66

7.1 CONSIDERATIONS
For getting worst condition of bending moment in columns, let us consider that, in each floor of
frame F, slab F1-F2 is assumed to be fully loaded and slab F2-F3 (each floor) is loaded only by the dead
load. Similarly, in frame 2, slab G2-F2 (each floor) is assumed to be fully loaded and slab F2-E2 (each
floor) is considered to be loaded only by the dead load.
7.2 FIXED END MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 1 (FRAME YY)

Fig. 7.1
FEM (R1R2) = +18.063 KNm
FEM (C1C2) = +27.154KNm
67

FEM (B1B2) = +27.154KNm
FEM (A1A2) = +27.154KNm
FEM (G1G2) = +3.063KNm
7.2 DESIGN MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 1
MEMBER

R1-C1

C1-B1

B1-A1

A1-G1

G1-F1

DL+LL

-9.030

-8.960

-8.960

-10.32

-1.250

EL

12.903

22.935

27.934

24.305

18.892

1.5(DL+LL)

-13.545

-13.440

-13.440

-15.480

-1.875

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

4.648

16.770

22.769

16.782

21.170

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

-26.320

-38.274

-44.273

-41.550

-24.170

-26.320

-38.274

-44.273

-41.550

-24.170

Load combination

Design moment
7.3 CALCULATION OF COLUMN AXIAL
AT ROOF LEVEL
Load on Column R1C1
= Half of Load carried by Beam (RY1RY2+ RY1Rz1+ Rx1RY1) + Self weight of Column
R1 C1
= 0.5 x (19.874x3.3+13.801x2.7+15.451x3.6) + 3.375 x 3.3
= 90.372 KN
AT 3RD FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column C1B1
= Half of Load carried by Beam (CY1CY2+ CY1CZ1+CX1CY1) + Self weight of Column
C1B1+
= 0.5x (20.027x2.7+21.827x3.6+29.922x3.3) + 3.375x3.3+90.372
= 217.206 KN
68

AT 2ND FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column B1A1
= Half of Load carried by Beam (BY1BY2+ BY1BZ1+BX1BY1) + Self weight of Column
B1A1+217.206
= 0.5x (20.027x2.7+21.827x3.6+29.922x3.3) + 3.375x3.3+217.206
= 348.258 KN
AT 1ST FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column A1G1
= Half of Load carried by Beam (AY1AY2+ AY1AZ1+AX1AY1) + Self weight of Column
A1G1+348.258
= 0.5x (20.027x2.7+21.827x3.6+29.922x3.3) + 3.375x2.7+348.258
= 468.848 KN
AT GROUND FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column G1F1
= Half of Load carried by Beam (GY1GY2+ GY1GZ1+GX1GY1) + Self weight of Column G1F1
= 0.5x (3.375x3.3+3.375x2.7+3.375x3.6) +3.375x2.1+468.848
= 492.136 KN
7.4 DESIGN AXIAL FORCES FOR COLUMN 1
MEMBER

R1-C1

C1-B1

B1-A1

A1-G1

G1-F1

DL+LL

90.372

217.206

348.258

468.848

492.136

EL

7.820

29.540

60.370

92.030

118.21

1.5(DL+LL)

135.558

325.809

522.387

703.272

738.204

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

117.830

296.095

490.354

673.054

732.415

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

99.062

225.199

345.466

452.182

448.711

135.558

325.809

522.387

703.272

738.204

Load combination

DESIGN AXIAL
FORCE

69

Fig. 7.2

70

7.5 FIXED END MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 2 (FRAME YY)

Fig. 7.3
FEM (R1R2) = -18.063 KNm
FEM (R2R3) = +16.529 KNm
FEM (C1C2) = -27.154KNm
FEM (C2C3) = +24.504KNm
FEM (B1B2) = -27.154 KNm
FEM (B2B3) = +24.504 KNm
71

FEM (A1A2) = -27.154 KNm
FEM (A2A3) = +24.504 KNm
FEM (G1G2) = -3.063KNm
FEM (G2G3) = +2.703 KNm
7.6 DESIGN MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 2
MEMBER

R2-C2

C2-B2

B2-A2

A2-G2

G2-F2

DL+LL

0.660

0.660

0.660

0.768

0.115

EL

28.883

51.355

62.537

54.445

42.274

1.5(DL+LL)

0.990

0.990

0.990

1.152

0.173

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

35.452

62.418

75.836

66.256

50.867

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

-33.868

-60.834

-74.252

-64.412

-50.591

35.452

62.418

75.836

66.256

50.867

Load combination

Design moment

7.7 CALCULATION OF COLUMN AXIAL
AT ROOF LEVEL
Load on Column R2C2
= Half of Load carried by Beam (RY1RY2+ RY2Rz2+ Rx2Ry2 +RY2RY3) + Self weight of
Column R2C2+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PR1)
= 0.5 x (19.874 x 3.3+10.799 x 3.1 + 18.227 x 2.7+ 16.301 x 3.6) + 10.225+3.375 x3.3
= 124.872 KN
AT 3RD FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column C2B2
= Half of Load carried by Beam (CY1CY2+ CY2CZ2+CX2CY2+CY2CY3) + Self weight of
Column C2B2+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PC1)+124.872
= 0.5x (20.023x3.1+29.922x3.3+28.129x2.7+17.477x3.6)+11.031+3.375x3.3+124.872
= 296.88 KN
72

AT 2ND FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column B2A2
= Half of Load carried by Beam (BY1BY2+ BY2BZ2+BX2BY2+BY2BY3) + Self weight of
Column B2A2+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PB1)+296.88
= 0.5x (20.023x3.1+29.922x3.3+28.129x2.7+17.477x3.6) +11.031+3.375x3.3+296.88
= 473.101 KN
AT 1ST FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column A2G2
= Half of Load carried by Beam (AY1AY2+ AY2AZ2+AX2AY2+AY2AY3) + Self weight of
Column A2G2+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PA1)+473.101
= 0.5x (20.023x3.1+29.922x3.3+28.129x2.7+17.477x3.6) +11.031+3.375x2.7+473.101
= 638.872 KN
AT GROUND FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column G2F2
= Half of Load carried by Beam (GY1GY2+ GY2GZ2+GX2GY2+GY2GY3) + Self weight of
Column G2F2 +638.872
= 0.5x (3.375x3.1+3.375x3.3+3.375x2.7+3.375x3.6) + 3.375x2.1+638.872
= 667.513 KN
7.8 DESIGN AXIAL FORCES FOR COLUMN 2
MEMBER

R2-C2

C2-B2

B2-A2

A2-G2

G2-F2

DL+LL

124.872

296.88

473.101

638.872

667.513

EL
1.5(DL+LL)

2.490
187.308

9.420
445.320

19.250
709.652

29.360
958.308

37.710
1001.270

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

152.834

367.560

590.821

801.878

846.268

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

146.858

344.952

544.621

731.414

755.764

DESIGN AXIAL FORCE

187.308

445.320

709.652

958.308

1001.270

Load combination

73

Fig. 7.4

74

7.9 FIXED END MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 3 (FRAME YY)

Fig. 7.5

FEM (R2R3) = -15.139 KNm
FEM (R3R4) = +18.598 KNm
FEM (C3C4) = +27.628 KNm
75

FEM (C2C3) = -23.009 KNm
FEM (B3B4) = +27.628 KNm
FEM (B2B3) = -23.009 KNm
FEM (A3A4) = +27.628 KNm
FEM (A2A3) = -23.009 KNm
FEM (G3G4) = +3.063KNm
FEM (G2G3) = -2.703 KNm

7.10 DESIGN MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 3
MEMBER

R3-C3

C3-B3

B3-A3

A3-G3

G3-F3

DL+LL

-1.150

-1.150

-1.150

-1.34

-0.115

EL

28.883

51.355

62.537

54.445

42.274

1.5(DL+LL)

-1.725

-1.725

-1.725

-2.010

-0.173

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

33.280

60.246

73.664

63.726

50.591

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

-36.040

-63.006

-76.424

-66.942

-50.867

-36.040

-63.006

-76.424

-66.942

-50.867

Load combination

Design moment

7.11 CALCULATION OF COLUMN AXIAL
AT ROOF LEVEL
Load on Column R3C3
= Half of Load carried by Beam (RY2RY3+ RY3Rz3+ Rx3Ry3 +RY3RY4) + Self weight of
Column R3C3+ Load due to Secondary Beam(PR1)+ Load due to Secondary Beam(PR2)
= 0.5 x (16.163 x 3.3 + 10.799 x3.1 + 16.301 x 3.6 +12.451 x 2.7) + 8.465 + 8.005 +
3.375 x 3.3
= 117.166 KN
76

AT 3RD FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column C3B3
= Half of Load carried by Beam (CY2CY3+ CY3CZ3+CX3CY3+CY3CY4) + Self weight of
Column C3B3+ Load due to Secondary Beam(PC1)+ Load due to Secondary
Beam(PC2)+117.166
= 0.5(25.874x3.3+20.023x3.1+13.277x2.7+17.477x3.6)+9.084+8.45+3.375x3.3+117.166
= 268.938 KN
AT 2ND FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column B3A3
= Half of Load carried by Beam (BY2BY3+ BY3BZ3+BX3BY3+BY3BY4) + Self weight of
Column B3A3+ Load due to Secondary Beam(PB1)+ Load due to Secondary
Beam(PB2)+268.938
= 0.5(25.874x3.3+20.023x3.1+13.277x2.7+17.477x3.6)+9.084+8.45+3.375x3.3+268.938
= 420.711 KN
AT 1ST FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column A3G3
= Half of Load carried by Beam (AY2AY3+ AY3AZ3+AX3AY3+AY3AY4) + Self weight of
Column A3G3+ Load due to Secondary Beam(PA1)+ Load due to Secondary
Beam(PA2)+420.711
= 0.5(25.874x3.3+20.023x3.1+13.277x2.7+17.477x3.6)+9.084+8.45+3.375x2.7+420.711
= 570.458 KN
AT GROUND FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column G3F3
= Half of Load carried by Beam (GY2GY3+ GY3GZ3+GX3GY3+GY3GY4) + Self weight of
Column G3F3+570.458
= 0.5(3.375x3.3+3.375x3.1+3.375x2.7+3.375x3.6) +2.1x3.375+570.458
= 598.976 KN

77

7.12 DESIGN AXIAL FORCES FOR COLUMN 3
MEMBER

R3-C3

C3-B3

B3-A3

A3-G3

G3-F3

117.166

268.938

420.711

570.458

598.976

-2.490

-9.420

-19.250

-29.360

-37.71

1.5(DL+LL)

175.749

403.407

631.067

855.687

898.464

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

137.611

311.422

481.753

649.318

673.519

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

143.587

334.030

527.953

719.782

764.023

175.749

403.407

631.067

855.687

898.464

Load combination
DL+LL
EL

DESIGN AXIAL FORCE

Fig. 7.6

78

7.13 FIXED END MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 4 (FRAME YY)

Fig. 7.7
FEM (R3R4) = -15.541 KNm
FEM (C3C4) = -24.402 KNm
FEM (B3B4) = -24.402 KNm
FEM (A3A4) = -24.402 KNm
FEM (G3G4) = -3.063 KNm
79

7.14 DESIGN MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 4
MEMBER

R4-C4

C4-B4

B4-A4

A4-G4

G4-F4

DL+LL

8.050

8.050

8.050

8.78

1.250

EL

12.903

22.935

27.934

24.305

18.892

1.5(DL+LL)

12.075

12.075

12.075

13.170

1.875

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

25.144

37.182

43.181

39.702

24.170

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

-5.824

-17.862

-23.861

-18.630

-21.170

25.144

37.182

43.181

39.702

24.170

Load combination

Design moment
7.14 CALCULATION OF COLUMN AXIAL
AT ROOF LEVEL
Load on Column R4C4
= Half of Load carried by Beam (RY1RY2+ RY1Rz1+ Rx1Ry1) + Self weight of Column
R1C1+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PR2)
= 0.5 x (16.163 x 3.3 +15.451 x3.6 + 10.09 x 2.7) +3.375 x 3.3 + 5.249 + 1.779
= 86.268 KN
AT 3RD FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column C4B4
= Half of Load carried by Beam (CY1CY2+ CY1CZ1+CX1CY1) + Self weight of Column
C4B4+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PC2)+86.268
= 0.5 x (15.978x2.7+21.827x3.6+25.874x3.3) +5.366+1.878+3.375x3.3+86.268
= 208.2 KN
AT 2ND FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column B4A4
= Half of Load carried by Beam (BY1BY2+ BY1BZ1+BX1BY1) + Self weight of Column
B4A4+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PB2)+208.2
80

= 0.5 x (15.978x2.7+21.827x3.6+25.874x3.3) +5.366+1.878+3.375x3.3+208.2
= 334.345 KN
AT 1ST FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column A4G4
= Half of Load carried by Beam (AY1AY2+ AY1AZ1+AX1AY1) + Self weight of Column
A4G4+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PA2)+334.345
= 0.5 x (15.978x2.7+21.827x3.6+25.874x3.3) +5.366+1.878+3.375x2.7+334.345
= 450.04 KN
AT GROUND FLOOR LEVEL
Load on Column G4F4
= Half of Load carried by Beam (GY1GY2+ GY1GZ1+GX1GY1) + Self weight of Column
G4F4++450.04
= 0.5 x (3.375x3.6+3.375x2.7+3.375x3.3) +2.1x3.375+450.04
= 473.328 KN

7.15 DESIGN AXIAL FORCES FOR COLUMN 4
MEMBER

R4-C4

C4-B4

B4-A4

A4-G4

G4-F4

DL+LL

86.268

208.2

334.345

450.04

473.328

EL

-7.820

-29.540

-60.370

-92.030

-118.21

1.5(DL+LL)

129.402

312.300

501.518

675.060

709.992

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

94.138

214.392

328.770

429.612

426.142

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

112.906

285.288

473.658

650.484

709.846

129.402

312.300

501.518

675.060

709.992

Load combination

DESIGN AXIAL
FORCE

81

Fig. 7.8

82

CHAPTER- 8

DESIGN OF BEAM

83

8.1 DESIGN FOR BENDING MOMENT

84

8.1.1 Design of Beam at Roof level
R1-R2
R2-R3
R3-R4
END
MID
END
END
MID
END
END
MID
END
39.85
40.58
39.096
38.803
27.844
27.061
DESIGN MOMENT
-12.903 -18.116
-15.98 -13.287
-12.903
-15.105
-3.124
0.531
0
0.783
0.797
0
0.768
0.762
0
0.547
Mu/bd2
-0.253
-0.356
0
-0.314
-0.261
0
-0.253
-0.297
-0.061
Pt
0.158
0.233
0.233
0.233
0.233
0.158
Ast
195.288
0 287.988 287.988
0 287.988 287.988
0 195.288
Pt
0.085
0.114
0.099
0.085
0.085
0.085
0.085
Ast
105.06 140.904
0 122.364 105.06
0
105.06
105.06 105.06
NO OF BARS AT TOP
2 nos 16 Ф bars (402 )throughout the length
NO OF BARS AT
BOTTOM
2 nos 16 Ф bars (402) throughout the length

8.1.2 Design of Beam at 3rd FLOOR level

DESIGN MOMENT
Mu/bd2
Pt
Ast
Pt
Ast
no of bars at top
no of bars at top
no of bars at bottom

END
65.689
-35.838
1.303
-0.711
0.392
482.16
0.218
268.14

C1-C2
MID

C2-C3
C3-C4
END
END
MID
END
END
MID
END
78.623 83.897
82.456 77.897
65.054
-24.659
-7.388
-44.4 -19.83 -24.104 -35.838 -21.891 -20.957
0.000
1.559
1.664
0.000
1.635
1.545
0.000
1.290
-0.489
-0.147 -0.880 -0.393
-0.478 -0.711 -0.434 -0.416
0.494
0.53
0.512
0.477
0.392
0 607.62
651.9
0
629.76 586.71
0 482.16
0.143
0.085
0.264
0.114
0.143
0.218
0.128
0.128
175.89 104.55 324.72 140.22
175.89 268.14 157.44 157.44
2 nos 20 Ф bars (628 mm2) throughout the length
1 nos 20 Ф bar (314)
2 nos 16 Ф bars (402) throughout the length
85

8.1.2 Design of Beam at 2ND FLOOR level

DESIGN MOMENT
Mu/bd2
Pt
Ast
Pt
Ast
no of bars at top
no of bars at top
no of bars at bottom

B1-B2
B2-B3
B3-B4
END
MID
END
END
MID
END
END
MID
END
96.66 106.244
104.803 95.934
83.092
83.726
-50.869 -24.659 -25.426 -63.023 -19.83 -46.452 -50.869 -21.891 -38.994
1.660
0.000
1.917
2.107 0.000
2.078
1.902
0.000
1.648
-1.009
-0.489
-0.504
-1.250 -0.393
-0.921 -1.009 -0.434 -0.773
0.53
0.621
0.685
0.67
0.602
0.53
651.9
0
763.83 842.55
0
824.1 740.46
0
651.9
0.327
0.143
0.143
0.376 0.114
0.28
0.295
0.128
0.233
402.21
175.89
175.89 462.48 140.22
344.4 362.85 157.44 286.59
2 nos 20 Ф bars (628 mm2) throughout the length
1 nos 20 Ф bar (314) curtailing
2 nos 20 Ф bars (628) throughout the length

8.1.2 Design of Beam at 1ST FLOOR level

DESIGN MOMENT
Mu/bd2
Pt
Ast
Pt
Ast
no of bars at top
no of bars at top
no of bars at bottom

END
85.942
-52.239
1.704
-1.036
0.53
651.9
0.311
382.53

A1-A2
MID
-24.335
0.000
-0.483
0
0.143
175.89

A2-A3
MID

END
END
END
END
98.252
108.19
106.778
97.609
-27.121 -64.743 -19.961 -48.605 -52.239
1.948
2.145
0.000
2.117
1.936
-0.538
-1.284
-0.396
-0.964
-1.036
0.621
0.701
0.685
0.621
763.83
862.23
0
842.55
763.83
0.158
0.392
0.114
0.295
0.311
194.34
482.16
140.22
362.85
382.53
2 nos 20 Ф bars (628 mm2) throughout the length
1 nos 20 Ф bar (314) curtailing
2 nos 20 Ф bars (628) throughout the length

A3-A4
MID
-21.663
0.000
-0.430
0
0.128
157.44

END
85.069
-40.304
1.687
-0.799
0.53
651.9
0.233
286.59

86

8.1.3 Design of Beam at Ground FLOOR level

DESIGN MOMENT
Mu/bd2
Pt
Ast
Pt
Ast
no of bars at top
no of bars at bottom

G1-G2
G2-G3
G3-G4
END
MID
END
END
MID
END
END
MID
END
54.53
56.056 68.639
68.621 55.973
54.662
-49.142 -2.571
-47.617 -59.814 -0.578 -59.832
-47.7
-2.54
-49.01
1.081
0.000
1.112
1.361 0.000
1.361
1.110 0.000
1.084
-0.974 -0.051
-0.944
-1.186 -0.011
-1.186
-0.946 -0.050
-0.972
0.327
0.343
0.426
0.426
0.343
0.327
404.172
0 423.948 526.536
0 526.536 423.948
0 404.172
0.295
0.085
0.28
0.359 0.085
0.359
0.28 0.085
0.295
362.85 104.55
344.4 441.57 104.55 441.57
344.4 104.55 362.85
2 nos 20 Ф bars (628) throughout the length
2 nos 20 Ф bars (628) throughout the length

87

.

8.2 DESIGN FOR SHEAR FORCE

88

8.2.1
Minimum shear reinforcement, Asv/bSv = 0.4/.87fy

(as per cl.26.5.1.6 of IS 456:2000)

Maximum spacing smaller of, (i) 300mm

(as per cl.26.5.1.5 of IS 456:2000)

(ii) 0.75d = 346.5 mm

(as per cl.26.5.1.5 of IS 456:2000)

(iii) Sv = 0.87x250x56/(250x0.4) = 121.8 (6φ)
Or, Sv = 0.87x250x100/(250x0.4) = 217.5 (8φ)

8.2.2 Design of Beam at Roof level
END
Design shear
τv=Vu/bd
Ast
pt
τc
Spacing

R1-R2
MID

END

END
44.292

R2-R3
MID
13.392

END
43.044

END

52.608

13.188

44.856

47.676

0.390
804
0.7
0.55

0.098
804
0.7
0.55

0.332
0.328
0.099
0.319
0.353
804
804
804
804
804
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
τc>τv , minimum shear reinforcement is required
2 legged 6 φ bars @ 120 mm c/c

R3-R4
MID

END

18.552

55.884

0.137
804
0.7
0.55

0.414
804
0.7
0.55

89

8.2.3 Design of Beam at 3rd Floor level
END
Design shear
τv=Vu/bd
Ast
pt
τc

C1-C2
MID

END

END

23.232

END
83.088

END

88.596

29.472

80.772

0.656
1030
0.763
0.676

0.218
1030
0.763
0.676

0.598
0.625
0.172
0.615
0.615
1030
1344
1344
1344
1030
0.763
0.996
0.996
0.996
0.763
0.676
0.62
0.62
0.62
0.676
τc>τv , minimum shear reinforcement is required
2 legged 6 φ bars @ 120 mm c/c

Sv provided

84.312

C2-C3
MID

83.004

C3-C4
MID

END

31.728

82.884

0.235
1030
0.763
0.676

0.614
1030
0.763
0.676

END

8.2.4 Design of Beam at 2nd Floor level
END

B1-B2
MID

END

END

Design shear

100.068

40.944

92.244

98.724

τv=Vu/bd
Ast
pt
τc

0.741
1570
1.163
0.653

0.303
1570
1.163
0.653

0.683
1570
1.163
0.653

0.731
1570
1.163
0.653

Vus/d=(τv-τc)b
Sv
maximum Sv
Sv provided

0.265
80

0.091
200

0.235
90

B2-B3
MID

END

END

B3-B4
MID

37.644

97.5

94.476

43.2

94.356

0.279
1570
1.163
0.653

0.722
1570
1.163
0.653

0.700
1570
1.163
0.653

0.320
1570
1.163
0.653

0.699
1570
1.163
0.653

0.208
100

0.140
150

0.138
150

80
2 legged 8 φ bars at 80mm c/c
90

8.2.5 Design of Beam at 1st Floor level
END

A1-A2
MID

END

END

A2-A3
MID

END

END

A3-A4
MID

END

Design shear

100.872

41.568

93.432

100.068

38.688

98.82

95.568

44.172

95.256

τv=Vu/bd
Ast
pt
τc
Vus/d=(τvτc)b
Sv
maximum Sv
Sv provided

0.747
1570
1.163
0.653

0.308
1570
1.163
0.653

0.692
1570
1.163
0.653

0.741
1570
1.163
0.653

0.287
1570
1.163
0.653

0.732
1570
1.163
0.653

0.708
1570
1.163
0.653

0.327
1570
1.163
0.653

0.706
1570
1.163
0.653

0.117
180

0.265
80

0.237
90

0.165
130

0.283
70

0.158
130

70
2 legged 8 φ bars at 70 mm c/c

8.2.6 Design of Beam at Ground Floor level
END

G1-G2
MID

END

Design shear

38.496

31.824

37.656

τv=Vu/bd
Ast
pt
τc

0.285
1256
0.930
0.606

0.236
1256
0.930
0.606

spacing

END

G2-G3
MID

END

G3-G4
MID

END

END

47.7168

41.436

47.7072

38.496

31.824

37.656

0.279
0.353
0.307
0.353
0.285
1256
1256
1256
1256
1256
0.930
0.930
0.930
0.930
0.930
0.606
0.606
0.606
0.606
0.606
τc>τv , minimum shear reinforcement is required
2 legged 6 φ bars @ 120 mm c/c

0.236
1256
0.930
0.606

0.279
1256
0.930
0.606

91

8.3 DETAILING OF BEAM

92

Fig 8.1
Beam development length

Fig 8.2
Shear Reinforcement in Beams

93

Fig 8.3
Curtailment of Main reinforcement

Fig 8.4

94

Fig 8.5
Detailing of Beam in second floor

95

CHAPTER-9

DESIGN OF COLUMN

96

9.1 COLUMN 1
9.1.1 Considerations:

Here,

b = 300 mm
D = 450 mm
d’ = 40+20/2 = 50 mm
... d’//D= 50/450 = 0.111

Design
Column moment(Mu)

Design
axial
force (Pu)

Pu/(fckbD)
Mu/(fckbD2)

P/fck

P

P
provided

Ast

R1-C1

26.320

135.558

0.022

0.050

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

C1-B1

38.274

325.809

0.032

0.120

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

B1-A1

44.273

522.387

0.036

0.193

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

A1-G1

41.550

703.272

0.034

0.260

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

R1-C1

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

C1-B1

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

B1-A1

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

A1-G1

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

9.1.2 Lateral ties (As per Cl.26.5.3.2(c) of IS: 456-2000)
Diameter (mm)

Pitch (mm)

should not be less than

should not be more than

(i)

(ii)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

R1-C1

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

C1-B1

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

B1-A1

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

A1-G1

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

Column

Lateral
provided

ties

97

9.2 COLUMN 2:
9.2.1 Considerations:

Here,

b = 300 mm
D = 450 mm
d’ = 40+20/2 = 50 mm
... d’//D= 50/450 = 0.111

Column

Design
moment(Mu)

Design
axial
force (Pu)

R2-C2

35.452

187.308

0.03

0.07

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

C2-B2

62.418

445.320

0.05

0.16

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

B2-A2

75.836

709.652

0.06

0.26

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

A2-G2

66.256

958.308

0.05

0.35

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

Mu/(fckbD2)

Pu/(fckbD)

P/fck

P

P
provided

Ast

R2-C2

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

C2-B2

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

B2-A2

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

A2-G2

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

9.2.2 Lateral ties (As per Cl.26.5.3.2(c) of IS: 456-2000)

Column

Diameter (mm)

Pitch (mm)

should not be less than

should not be more than

Lateral ties
provided

(i)

(ii)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

R2-C2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

C2-B2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

B2-A2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

A2-G2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm
98

9.3 COLUMN 3:
9.3.1 Considerations:

Here,

b = 300 mm
D = 450 mm
d’ = 40+20/2 = 50 mm
... d’//D= 50/450 = 0.111

Column

Design
moment(Mu)

Design
axial
force (Pu)

R3-C3

36.040

175.749

0.03

0.06

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

C3-B3

63.006

403.407

0.05

0.15

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

B3-A3

76.424

631.067

0.06

0.23

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

A3-G3

50.867

855.687

0.04

0.32

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

Mu/(fckbD2)

Pu/(fckbD)

P/fck

P

P
provided

Ast

R3-C3

4 nos. 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

C3-B3

4 nos. 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

B3-A3

4 nos. 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

A3-G3

4 nos. 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

9.3.2 Lateral ties (As per Cl.26.5.3.2(c) of IS: 456-2000)

Column

Diameter (mm)

Pitch (mm)

should not be less than

should not be more than

Lateral ties
provided

(i)

(ii)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

R2-C2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

C2-B2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

B2-A2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

A2-G2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

99

9.4 COLUMN 4:
9.4.1 Considerations:

Here,

b = 300 mm
D = 450 mm
d’ = 40+20/2 = 50 mm
... d’//D= 50/450 = 0.111

Column

design
moment(Mu)

design
axial
force (Pu)

Pu/(fckbD)

P/fck

P

P
provided

Ast

Mu/(fckbD2)

R4-C4

25.144

129.402

0.02

0.05

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

C4-B4

37.182

312.300

0.03

0.11

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

B4-A4

43.181

501.518

0.04

0.18

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

A4-G4

39.702

675.060

0.03

0.25

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

R4-C4

4 nos. 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

C4-B4

4 nos. 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

B4-A4

4 nos.20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

A4-G4

4 nos. 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

9.4.2 Lateral ties (As per Cl.26.5.3.2(c) of IS: 456-2000)

Column

Diameter (mm)

Pitch (mm)

should not be less than

should not be more than

Lateral ties
provided

(i)

(ii)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

R2-C2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

C2-B2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

B2-A2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

A2-G2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

100

DETAILING OF COLUMN

101

Fig. 9.1

102

CHAPTER 10

FOOTING DESIGN

103

10.1 FOOTING DESIGN FOR THE COLUMN R1-F1
Axial load on the column to the footing = 738.204 KN
Moment at the base of the column = 24.17 KNm
SBC of the soil = 150 KN/m2
10.1.1 GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATION
Now,
P = 492 KN
M = 16.11 KNm
Axial Load on the column = 492
Add 10% for self weight = 49.2
Total load on footing
Area required

=

= 541.2 KN
= 3.608 m2

Add 10% for moment= .3608m2
Total area required

= 3.9 m2

L/B = 450/300 = 1.5
L = 1.5 B
1.5 B2 = 3.9 m2
B = 1.59 m
L = 2.4 m
Provide footing size 2.9 m x 1.9 m
Pmax = P/A + M/Z
= 541.2/(2.9x 1.9)+ (16.11 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92)
= 98.3 KN/m2 <150 KN/m2

(hence safe)

P min = P/A - M/Z
= 541.66/(2.9x 1.9) - (16.11 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92) = 80.21KN/m2
104

10.1.2 STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATION
1. CHECK FOR BENDING
a) Longer direction

Fig. 10.1

x = 7.64 KN/m2
y = 90.66 KN/m2
BM at the face of the column, M
= 90.66x1.225 x1.9x1.225 x .5 + .5 x7.64 x1.225 x1.9 x 2/3 x 1.225
M = 133.24 KNm
Mu = 1.5×133.24=200 KNm
Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)
105

= 450 + 1/8(2900-450)
= 756. 25 mm
dreqd = √(200x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 756.25)
= 309.5 mm
Using 50 mm clear cover and 16ᵠ bars
Overall depth = 309.5 + 50 +16/2
= 367.5 mm
We provide overall depth = 700 mm
davailable = 700 – 50- 16/2
= 642 mm
Now
Mu/be = 310/.756=410 and d= 64.2 cm
From chart 15 of SP 16
Pt = 0.3
As = (.3 x 756 x 642)/ 100
= 1457 mm2
From table 96 of SP 16
Provide 16ᵠ bars at 100 mm c/c (2011 mm2)
So actual steel provided = (2011 x 100)/ (756 x 642)
= 0.414

106

b) For shorter direction

Fig. 10.2

X=7.61
Y=90.61

BM at the face of the column = 90.69x 0.8 x 0.8 x 2.9 x .5 + 0.5x 7.61 x 0.8 x 2.9 x 2/3 x 0.8
=88.89 KNm
Mu = 133.33 KNm
Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)
= 300 + 1/8(1900-300)
= 500 mm
dreqd = √(133.83 x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 500) = 310.83
107

Overall depth = 310.83 + 50 +16+16/2
= 384.83 mm
Provided depth = 700 mm
davailable = 700 -50 -16 -16/2 = 626 mm
Now,
Mu/be = 133.3/.500 = 266 and d= 62.6 cm
Pt = 0.18
As = (.18 x 500 x 626)/ 100
= 563.4 mm2

From table 96 of SP 16
We provide 16ᵠ bars at 300 mm c/c (670 mm2)
So actual steel provided = (670 x 100)/ (500 x 626)
= 0.21

108

2. CHECK FOR ONE WAY SHEAR
Critical section for one way shear occurs at a distance of “d” from the face of the column
d= 642 mm

Fig. 10.3

de = (550 x 583)/ 1225
= 261.75 mm
109

Overall depth = 261.75 +150
= 411.75 mm
Available depth = 411.75 – 50 – 16/2 = 353.75 mm
Actual amount of steel = 2011x 2.9 = 5831.9 mm2
Area of trapezoid = 923704mm2
Percentage of steel at critical section
=
=
= .63 %
For Pt= 0.63 %,
τc = .522 N/mm2

X = 2.02
Y = 88.28
V = [.5 x (88.07+90.3)] x .583 x 1.9

Fig. 10.4

= 98.90 KN
Vu = 148.36 KN
τv = (Vu/bd)
= (148.36 x 103)/ [.5 x (1584+2714) x 353.75]
0.19 < τc
Hence safe

110

3. CHECK FOR TWO WAY SHEAR
Critical section for punching shear occurs at a distance of “d/2” from the face of the column
d/2 = 642/2 = 321 mm
b= 2 x 321 + 300
= 942 mm

Now

Fig. 10.5

de = (550 x 904)/ 1225= 405.44 mm
111

Overall depth = 405.44 + 150
= 555.8 mm
Available depth = 555.8 – 50 -16/2
= 497.87 mm
Punching shear stress = (541.2 x 103)/(4x 942 x 497.87)
= 0.28 N/mm2
Permissible punching shear stress = 0.25 √ (fck)
= 0.25 x √20
= 1.12 N/mm2
Hence safe
4. CHECK FOR BEARING
As per clause 34.4 of IS 456
Safe bearing capacity = 0.45 fck √ (A1 / A2)
A1 = (b +4D) 2
A2 = (450 x 300)
Now A1/ A2 = 8.44 and √ (A1 / A2) = 2.97>2
So take √ (A1 / A2) = 2
Actual bearing stress = (column load/column area)
= (492 x 103)/ (450 x 300)
= 3.64 N/mm2
Safe bearing stress = 0.45 fck √ (A1 / A2)
= 0.45 x 20 x √2
= 18 N/mm2
Hence safe

112

5. CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
For 16 ᵠ bars and M20 concrete from table 66 of SP 16
Development length = 752 mm
a) Available length in longer direction = 1225 mm.
b) Available length in shorter direction = 800 mm.

Fig. 10.6

113

10.2 FOOTING DESIGN FOR THE COLUMN R2-F2
Axial load on the column to the footing = 1001.27 KN
Moment at the base of the column = 51 KNm
SBC of the soil = 150 KN/m2
10.2.1 GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATION
Now,
Pu = 667.5 KN
Mu = 42.5 KNm
Axial Load on the column = 667.5
Add 10% for self weight = 66.75
Total load on footing
Area required

=

= 734.25 KN
= 4.89 m2

Add 10% for moment= .489 m2
Total area required

= 5.4 m2

L/B = 450/300 = 1.5
L = 1.5 B
1.5 B2 = 5.4 m2
B = 1.9 m
L = 2.89 m
Provide footing size 2.9 m x 1.9 m
Pmax = P/A + M/Z
= 734.25/(2.9x 1.9)+ (42.5 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92)
= 149.2 KN/m2
P min = P/A - M/Z
= 734.25/(2.9x 1.9) - (42.5 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92) = 117.3 KN/m2
114

10.2.2 STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATION
1. CHECK FOR BENDING
a) Longer direction

Fig. 10.7

x = 13.5 KN/m2
y = 135.7 KN/m2
BM at the face of the column, M
= 135.7x1.225 x1.9x1.225 x .5 + .5 x13.5 x1.225 x1.9 x 2/3 x 1.225
M = 206.34 KNm
Mu = 310 KNm
Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)
= 450 + 1/8(2900-450)
= 756. 25 mm
115

dreqd = √(310 x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 756.25) = 385.4 mm
Using 50 mm clear cover and 16ᵠ bars
Overall depth = 385.4 + 50 +16/2
= 441.4 mm
We provide overall depth = 700 mm
davailable = 700 – 50- 16/2
= 642 mm
Now
Mu/be = 310/.756 and d= 64.2 cm
From table 15 of SP 16
Pt = 0.3
As = (.3 x 756.25 x 642)/ 100
= 1457 mm2
From table 96 of SP 16
Provide 16ᵠ bars at 100 mm c/c (2011 mm2)
So actual steel provided = (2011 x 100)/ (756.5 x 642)
= 0.41

116

b) For shorter direction

Fig. 10.8

X = 13.43
Y = 135.76
BM at the face of the column = .5x (149.2 + 117.3) x 0.8 x 2.9 x 2.9 x .5
= 280.05 KNm
Mu = 420 KNm
Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)
= 300 + 1/8(1900-300)
= 500 mm
dreqd = √(420 x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 500)
= 551.67
Overall depth = 551.67 + 50 +16+16/2
= 625.67 mm
117

Provided depth = 700 mm
davailable = 700 -50 -16 -16/2 = 626 mm
Now
Mu/be = 420/.500 = 840 and d= 62.6 cm
Pt = 0.3
As = (.3 x 500 x 626)/ 100
= 939 mm2
From table 96 of SP 16
We provide 16ᵠ bars at 180 mm c/c (1117 mm2)
So actual steel provided = (1117 x 100)/ (500 x 626)
= 0.35

118

2. CHECK FOR ONE WAY SHEAR
Critical section for one way shear occurs at a distance of “d” from the face of the column
d= 642 mm

Fig. 10.9

de = (550 x 583)/ 1225
= 261.75 mm
Overall depth = 261.75 +150= 411.75 mm
119

Available depth = 411.75 – 50 – 16/2 = 353.75 mm
Actual amount of steel = 2011 x 2.9 = 5831.9 mm2
Area of trapezoid = .5 x (1584+2900) x412
= 923704 mm2
Percentage of steel at critical section
=
=
= .63 %
For Pt 0.63 %,
τc = .552 N/mm2

X = 6.413
Y = 142.8
V= [.5 x(142.8+149.2)] x .583 x 1.9
= 161.72 KN
Vu = 242.58 KN
τv = (Vu/bd)
= (242.58 x 103)/ [.5x (1584+2714) x 353.75]
0.32 < τc
Hence safe

120

3. CHECK FOR TWO WAY SHEAR
Critical section for punching shear occurs at a distance of “d/2” from the face of the column
d/2 = 642/2 = 321 mm
b= 2 x 321 + 300
= 942 mm

Fig. 10.10
Now

de = (550 x 904)/ 1225
= 405.44 mm
121

Overall depth = 405.44 + 150
= 555.8 mm
Available depth = 555.8 – 50 -16/2
= 497.87 mm
Punching shear stress = (734.25 x 103)/(4x 942 x 497)
= 0.39 N/mm2
Permissible punching shear stress = 0.25 √(fck)
= 0.25 x √20
= 1.12 N/mm2
Hence safe
4. CHECK FOR BEARING

As per clause 34.4 of IS 456
Safe bearing capacity = 0.45 fck √ (A1 / A2)
A1 = (b +4D)2
A2 = (450 x 300)
Now A1/ A2 = 8.44 and √(A1 / A2 ) = 2.97>2
So take √ (A1 / A2 ) = 2
Actual bearing stress = (column load/column area)
= (667.5 x 103)/(450 x 300)
= 4.94 N/mm2
Safe bearing stress = 0.45 fck √(A1 / A2)
= 0.45 x 20 x √2
= 18 N/mm2
Hence safe

122

5. CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
For 16 ᵠ bars and M20 concrete from table 66 of SP 16
Development length = 752 mm
c) Available length in longer direction = 1225 mm.
d) Available length in shorter direction = 800 mm.
DETAILING OF FOOTING:

Fig. 10.11

123

10.3 FOOTING DESIGN FOR THE COLUMN R3-F3
Axial load on the column to the footing = 898.46 KN
Moment at the base of the column = 50.867 KNm
SBC of the soil = 150 KN/m2
10.3.1 GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATION
Now,
P = 599 KN
M = 34 KNm
Axial Load on the column = 599
Add 10% for self weight = 59.1
Total load on footing
Area required

=

= 658.9 KN
= 4.4 m2

Add 10% for moment= 0.44m2
Total area required

= 4.84 m2

L/B = 450/300 = 1.5
L = 1.5 B
1.5 B2 = 4.84 m2
B = 1.79 m
L = 2.69 m
Provide footing size 2.9 m x 1.9 m
Pmax = P/A + M/Z
= 658.9/(2.9x 1.9)+ (34 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92)
= 132.34 KN/m2 <150 KN/m2

(hence safe)

P min = P/A - M/Z
= 658.9/(2.9x 1.9) - (34 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92) = 107 KN/m2
124

10.3.2 STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATION
1. CHECK FOR BENDING
a) Longer direction

Fig. 10.12

x = 14.63 KN/m2
BM at the face of the column, M
= (107+14.63) x1.225 x1.9x1.225 x .5 + .5 x(132.34-107-14.63) x1.225 x1.9 x 2/3 x
1.225
M = 184 KNm
Mu = 1.5×184=276 KNm
125

Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)
= 450 + 1/8(2900-450)
= 756 mm
dreqd = √(276x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 756)
= 363.69 mm
Using 50 mm clear cover and 16ᵠ bars
Overall depth = 363.69 + 50 +16/2
= 421.7 mm
We provide overall depth = 800 mm
davailable = 800 – 50- 16/2
= 742 mm
Now
Mu/be = 276/.756=365 and d= 74.2 cm
From chart 15 of SP 16
Pt = 0.28
As = (.28 x 756 x 742)/ 100
= 1570.68 mm2
From table 96 of SP 16
Provide 16ᵠ bars at 120 mm c/c (1675 mm2)

126

b) For shorter direction

Fig. 10.13
BM at the face of the column =0.5(107+132.34) x 0.8x2.9x2.9x0.5
= 402.6 KNm
Mu = 603.8 KNm
Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)
= 300 + 1/8(1900-300)
= 500 mm
dreqd = √(603.8 x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 500)
= 661.46 mm
Overall depth = 661.46 + 50 +16+16/2
= 735.46 mm
Provided depth = 800 mm
127

davailable = 800 -50 -16 -16/2 = 726 mm
Now
Mu/be = 603.8/.500 = 1207 and d= 72.6 cm
Pt = 0.78
As = (0.78 x 500 x 726)/ 100
= 2831.4 mm2
From table 96 of SP 16
We provide 16ᵠ bars at 60 mm c/c (3351 mm2)
2. CHECK FOR ONE WAY SHEAR
Critical section for one way shear occurs at a distance of “d” from the face of the column
d= 742 mm

128

Fig. 10.14

129

de = (650 x 483)/ 1225
= 256.3 mm
Overall depth = 256.3 +150
= 406.3 mm
Available depth = 406.3 – 50 – 16/2 = 348.3
mm
Actual amount of steel = 1675x 2.9 = 4857.9
mm2
Percentage of steel at critical section
=
=
= .97 %
For Pt= 0.97 %,
τc = .62 N/mm2

Fig. 10.15

V= [.5 x (107+21.2+132.34)] x .483 x 1.9
= 119.50 KN
Vu = 179.3 KN
τv = (Vu/bd)
= (179.3 x 103)/ [.5x (1934+2762) x 348.3]
0.21 < τc
Hence safe

130

3. CHECK FOR TWO WAY SHEAR
Critical section for punching shear occurs at a distance of “d/2” from the face of the column
d/2 = 742/2 = 371 mm
b= 2 x 0.371+0.300
= 1.042 m

Now

Fig. 10.16

de = (650 x 0.854)/ 1.225= 453.1 mm
131

Overall depth = 453.1 + 150
= 603.1 mm
Available depth = 603.1 – 50 -16/2
= 545.1 mm
Punching shear stress = (658 x 103)/(4x 1042 x 545.1)
= 0.29 N/mm2
Permissible punching shear stress = 0.25 √(fck)
= 0.25 x √20
= 1.12 N/mm2
Hence safe
4. CHECK FOR BEARING

As per clause 34.4 of IS 456
Safe bearing capacity = 0.45 fck √ (A1 / A2)
A1 = (b +4D)2
A2 = (450 x 300)
Now A1/ A2 = 8.44 and √ (A1 / A2 ) = 2.97>2
So take √ (A1 / A2 ) = 2
Actual bearing stress = (column load/column area)
= (599 x 103)/ (450 x 300)
= 4.4 N/mm2
Safe bearing stress = 0.45 fck √ (A1 / A2)
= 0.45 x 20 x √2
= 18 N/mm2
Hence safe

132

5. CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
For 16 ᵠ bars and M20 concrete from table 66 of SP 16
Development length = 752 mm
e) Available length in longer direction = 1225 mm.
f) Available length in shorter direction = 800 mm.

DETAILING OF FOOTING:

Fig. 10.17
133

10.4 FOOTING DESIGN FOR THE COLUMN R4-F4
Axial load on the column to the footing = 709.9 KN
Moment at the base of the column = 24.17 KNm
SBC of the soil = 150 KN/m2
10.4.1 GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATION
Now,
P = 473.328 KN
M = 16.11 KNm
Axial Load on the column = 473.328
Add 10% for self weight = 47.33
Total load on footing
Area required

=

= 520.66 KN
= 3.47 m2

Add 10% for moment= .347m2
Total area required

= 3.8 m2

L/B = 450/300 = 1.5
L = 1.5 B
1.5 B2 = 3.8 m2
B = 1.59 m
L = 2.4 m
Provide footing size 2.9 m x 1.9 m
Pmax = P/A + M/Z
= 520.66/(2.9x 1.9)+ (16.11 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92)
= 100.5 KN/m2 <150 KN/m2

(hence safe)

P min = P/A - M/Z
= 520.66/ (2.9x 1.9) - (16.11 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92) = 88.4 KN/m2
134

10.4.2 STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATION
1. CHECK FOR BENDING
a) Longer direction

Fig. 10.18
x = 7 KN/m2
y = 107 KN/m2
BM at the face of the column, M
= (88.4+7) x1.225 x1.9x1.225 x .5 + .5 x(100.5-88.4-7) x1.225 x1.9 x 2/3 x 1.225
M = 140.84 KNm
Mu = 1.5×140.84=211.3 KNm
Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)
= 450 + 1/8(2900-450)
= 756. 25 mm

135

dreqd = √(211.3 x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 756.25)
= 318.2 mm
Using 50 mm clear cover and 16ᵠ bars
Overall depth = 318.2 + 50 +16/2
= 376.2 mm
We provide overall depth = 700 mm
davailable = 700 – 50- 16/2
= 642 mm
Now
Mu/be = 211.3/.756=280 and d= 64.2 cm
From chart 15 of SP 16
Pt = 0.2
As = (.2 x 756 x 642)/ 100
= 970.704 mm2
From table 96 of SP 16
Provide 16ᵠ bars at 180 mm c/c (1117 mm2)
So actual steel provided = (1117 x 100)/ (756 x 642)
= 0.23

136

b) For shorter direction

Fig. 10.19
BM at the face of the column = .5x (88.4+100.5) x 0.8 x 2.9 x 2.9 x .5
= 317.7 KNm
Mu = 476.6 KNm
Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)
= 300 + 1/8(1900-300)
= 500 mm
dreqd = √(476.6 x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 500)
= 587.6
Overall depth = 587.6 + 50 +16+16/2
= 661.6 mm
Provided depth = 700 mm
137

davailable = 700 -50 -16 -16/2 = 626 mm
Now
Mu/be = 626/.500 = 1252 and d= 62.6 cm
Pt = 0.95
As = (.95 x 500 x 626)/ 100
= 2973.5 mm2
From table 96 of SP 16
We provide 16ᵠ bars at 60 mm c/c (3351 mm2)
So actual steel provided = (3351 x 100)/ (500 x 626)
= 1.07

2. CHECK FOR ONE WAY SHEAR
Critical section for one way shear occurs at a distance of “d” from the face of the column
d= 642 mm

138

Fig. 10.20

de = (550 x 583)/ 1225
= 261.75 mm
Overall depth = 261.75 +150
= 411.75 mm
139

Available depth = 411.75 – 50 – 16/2 = 353.75 mm
Actual amount of steel = 1117x 2.9 = 3239.3 mm2
Area of trapezoid = .5 x(1584+2900)x412
= 923704 mm2
Percentage of steel at critical section
=
=
= .35 %
For Pt= 0.35 %,
τc = .415 N/mm2

X = 2.43
Y = 98.07
V= [.5 x(98.07+100.5)] x .583 x 1.9
= 109.97 KN
Vu = 165 KN
τv = (Vu/bd)
= (165 x 103)/ [.5x (1584+2714) x 353.75]
0.21 < τc
Hence safe

140

3. CHECK FOR TWO WAY SHEAR
Critical section for punching shear occurs at a distance of “d/2” from the face of the column
d/2 = 642/2 = 321 mm
b= 2 x 321 + 300
= 942 mm

Fig. 10.21

Now

de = (550 x 904)/ 1225
= 405.44 mm
141

Overall depth = 405.44 + 150
= 555.8 mm
Available depth = 555.8 – 50 -16/2
= 497.87 mm
Punching shear stress = (520.66 x 103)/(4x 942 x 497)
= 0.27 N/mm2
Permissible punching shear stress = 0.25 √ (fck)
= 0.25 x √20
= 1.12 N/mm2
Hence safe
4. CHECK FOR BEARING

As per clause 34.4 of IS 456
Safe bearing capacity = 0.45 fck √(A1 / A2 )
A1 = (b +4D)2
A2 = (450 x 300)
Now A1/ A2 = 8.44 and √(A1 / A2 ) = 2.97>2
So take √(A1 / A2 ) = 2
Actual bearing stress = (column load/column area)
= (473.328 x 103)/ (450 x 300)
= 3.50 N/mm2
Safe bearing stress = 0.45 fck √ (A1 / A2)
= 0.45 x 20 x √2
= 18 N/mm2
Hence safe

142

5. CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
For 16 ᵠ bars and M20 concrete from table 66 of SP 16
Development length = 752 mm
g) Available length in longer direction = 1225 mm.
h) Available length in shorter direction = 800 mm.

DETAILING OF FOOTING:

Fig. 10.22

143

CHAPTER- 11

DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

144

DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

Fig. 11.1

Fig. 11.2

145

11.1 AVAILABLE DATA:
Storey height

= 3.3m

Height of each flight = 3.3/2 = 1.65m = 1650 mm
Let us provide a riser, R= 160mm
And tread, T = 250mm
Therefore number of risers in each flight = 1650/160 = 10.33 ≈ 11
Number of tread in each flight = 11-1 = 10
Space provided for going = 10×250 = 2500mm = 2.5m
Space provided for landing slab = 1500mm = 1.50m
Horizontal space available = 3300mm
CHECK FOR THUMB RULE:
i)
ii)
iii)

2R + T = 2×160 + 250 = 570mm< 600mm
R + T = 160 + 250 = 420 mm, which is in between 400mm and 450mm
RT = 160×250 = 40000 mm2, which is in between 40000mm and 50000mm

Thus riser and tread satisfies all the thumb rules.
Corrected rise = 1650/11 = 150mm
Hence for design purpose rise and tread are taken as 150mm and 250mm respectively.
11.2 DESIGN OF WAIST SLAB:
α=

=

= 1.17

Let us provide thickness of waist slab = 200 mm
Let us use M20 grade of concrete and Fe – 415 steel.
Therefore, fy = 415 N/mm2 and fck = 20 N/mm2
11.3 DESIGN OF EACH FLIGHT:
Let us design the landing slab, flight and passage as a single slab which would be supported at
each end by means of landing beam.

146

So, effective span of slab = 5.50m
Using 10ϕ bars and 15mm effective cover
Effective depth = (220-15-10/2) = 200mm
LOADING ON EACH FLIGHT:
Considering 1m width of the waist slab,
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

Steps
0.5×0.15×1×25 = 1.875 KN/m2
Waist slab
0.2×1.17×25
= 5.850 KN/m2
Floor finish (assumed)
= 1.000 KN/m2
SIL (as per IS 875 1987, Part 2) = 3.000 KN/m2
Total load,
w = 11.725 KN/m2

Considering partial fixity,
Maximum bending moment, Mmax = 0.1wl2 = 0.1×11.725×5.52
= 35.468 KNm
Factored bending moment, Mu = 1.5 × Mmax = 53.202 KNm
Effective depth required, deff,req =
=
= 138.838 mm
Therefore, overall depth required, D= 138.838+25+5 = 168.838 mm < 200mm
Hence,safe.
Let us provide overall depth, D= 190mm
So, effective depth provided, deff = 190 – 25- 5= 160mm
REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED:
Mu/bd2= (53.202 x 106/ 1000 x 1602) = 2.078
Pt = 100Ast / bd
Ast = (.670 x 1000 x 160) / (100) = 1072 mm2.
Spacing for 10 mm dia bars, S = 70 mm (from table 96 of SP16)
147

Let us provide 10ϕ bars @ 70 mm c/c (1122 mm2)
Distribution steel = 0.0012×200×1000 = 240 mm2
Spacing required for 8ϕ bar = 50×1000/240 = 208.33 mm
Let us use 8ϕ bars @ 300 mm c/c (240 mm2 )

11.4 DESIGN OF LANDING BEAM:
Load calculation:
i)
ii)
iii)

Load from stairs: 0.5wL = 0.5×11.725×5.5
= 32.244 KN/m
Load from wall: 0.15×20×3.3/2
= 4.95 KN/m
Self weight(200 x 350): =25×0.20×(0.35-0.20) = 0.75 KN/m
Total load
w = 37.944 KN/m

Maxm BM, Mmax = 37.944×2.552/10 = 24.67 KNm
Mu = 1.5×24.67 = 37.005 KNm
Effective depth required, deff = √ (37.005x106/(0.138×20×200))
= 258.917 mm
Davailable = 350 – 25 – 16/2 = 317 mm
Let us adopt landing beam = 200×300
Effective depth = 300 – 25 – 16/2 = 267 mm
Hence, Area of steel required, Ast = 37.005×106/0.696×415×267
= 479.835mm2
Provide 4 nos. 16 ϕ bars (800 mm2).
11.5 CHECK FOR SHEAR

Maximum SF, Vmax = 0.5×37.944×2.55= 48.378
Vu = 1.5×48.378 = 72.56 KN
Nominal shear stress, τv = 72.56×1000/200×267 = 1.35 N/mm2
148

Pt = 603.2×100/200×267 = 1.12
τc = 0.644 N/mm2
τc max = 2.8 N/mm2
τc < τc max, the section need not redesign
τv > τc, hence additional shear reinforcement is required.
Vus = (1.35 – 0.644)×200×267 = 37700.4 N
Assuming 2 legged 6ϕ stirrup, spacing reqd.
S = 0.87×250×2× (π/4×62) ×267/37700.4 = 87.06 mm < 0.75 d (= 200.25)
Hence, spacing 80 mm c/c

Fig. 11.3

149

CHAPTER – 12

DESIGN OF CHAJJA

150

12.1 ASSUMPTIONS
Let us provide a Chajja projection beyond external wall = 600 m and
use 6 mm dia. bars as reinforcement.

12.2 Effective depth calculations
As per Cl 23.2.1 of IS 456:2000, for cantilever slab

1
=7
deff
=> deff =

1
7

⇒ d eff =

600
7

=> deff = 85.714 mm
Let us provide overall thickness of chajja = 100
... Effective depth provided, deff = 100 -15 -6/2 = 82 mm

12.3 Load calculations for chajja at roof
Self Weight of Chajja = 0.1 x 25
= 2.5 KN/m2
Finish =0.2 x 2.5
= 0.5 KN/m2
Live load
= 1.5 KN /m2
Total Load, W = 4.5 KN/m2

12.4 Bending moment and shear force calculations:
Considering 1 m width of strip of cantilever slab, we have
Maximum

BM

=

Wl 2
2

=

4.5 × 0.60 2
2

= 0.81 KNm
... Factored moment, Mu = 1.5 x 0.81 = 1.215 KNm
151

Also, Max. S.F.

= wl
= 4.5 x 0.60
= 2.7 KN

... Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x 2.7 = 4.05 KN

12.5 Check for effective depth:
We know,
Effective depth required, d =

=

Mu
0.138 f ck b

1.215x10 6
0.138 x 20 x1000

= 20.98 mm < 82 mm (d provided), hence safe
Now, Mu = 0.87 f y Ast d (1 −

Ast f y
bdf ck

)

=> 1.215 x10 6 = 0.87 x 415 xAst x82 (1 −

Ast 415
)
1000 x82 x 20

=> Ast = 41.50 mm2 or 3911.09 mm2
Neglecting the very high value obtained from the above equation, let us accept
Ast = 41.50 mm2
As per Cl. 26.5.2.1 of IS 456: 2000,
Minimum reinforcement required =

0.12
x100 x1000 = 120mm 2
100

From Table 96 of Design Aid SP-16,
Let us provide 6 mm dia. bars @ 200 mm C/C. (A st, provided = 141mm2)

152

12.6 Check for shear:
Induced shear stress, τv

Now

Pt, provided =

=

Vu
bd

=

4.05 x1000
= 0.049N/mm2
1000 x82

100 xAst
bd

= 0.17%
From Table 61 of Design Aid SP-16, the value of τc corresponding to Pt = 0.20 (minimum) is,
τc = 0.33 N/mm2
Since τv < τc hence the design is safe in shear.

12.7 Distribution reinforcement:
Minimum distribution steel =
=

0.12 xDxb
100

0.12 x100 x1000
100

= 120 mm2
From Table 96 of Design Aid SP-16;
Let us provide 6 mm dia. Bars @ 200 mm C/C. (Ast, provided = 141mm2)

12.8 Load calculations for chajja at floor
Self Weight of Chajja = 0.1 x 25
Finish =0.2 x 2.5
Live load
Total Load, W

= 2.5 KN/m2
= 0.5 KN/m2
= 2.0KN /m2
= 5.0 KN/m2

153

12.9 Bending moment and shear force calculations:
Considering 1 m width of strip of cantilever slab, we have
Maximum

=

Wl 2
2

=

5 × 0.602
2

BM

= 0.9 KNm
... Factored moment, Mu = 1.5 x 0.9 = 1.35 KNm
Also, Max. S.F.

= wl
= 5 x 0.60
= 3KN

... Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x 3= 4.5 KN

12.10 Check for effective depth:
We know,
Effective depth required, d =

=

Mu
0.138 f ck b

1.35 x106
0.138 x20 x1000

= 22.12 mm < 82 mm (d provided), hence safe
Now, Mu = 0.87 f y Ast d (1 −

Ast f y
bdf ck

)

=> 1.35 x106 = 0.87 x 415 xAst x82(1 −

Ast 415
)
1000 x82 x 20

=> Ast = 46.14mm2 or 3906.61 mm2
Neglecting the very high value obtained from the above equation, let us accept
Ast = 46.14mm2

154

As per Cl. 26.5.2.1 of IS 456: 2000,
Minimum reinforcement required =

0.12
x100 x1000 = 120 mm 2
100

From Table 96 of Design Aid SP-16,
Let us provide 6 mm dia. bars @ 200 mm C/C. (A st, provided = 141mm2)

12.11 Check for shear:
Induced shear stress, τv

Now

Pt, provided =

=

Vu
bd

=

4.5 x1000
= 0.055N/mm2
1000 x82

100 xAst
bd

= 0.17%
From Table 61 of Design Aid SP-16, the value of τc corresponding to Pt = 0.20 (minimum) is,
τc = 0.33 N/mm2
Since τv < τc hence the design is safe in shear.

12.12 Distribution reinforcement:
Minimum distribution steel =
=

0.12 xDxb
100
0.12 x100 x1000
100

= 120 mm2
From Table 96 of Design Aid SP-16;
Let us provide 6 mm dia. Bars @ 200 mm C/C. (Ast, provided= 141mm2)

155

CHAPTER-11

DESIGN OF LINTEL

156

13.1 Introduction:
It becomes necessary to provide openings in walls for doors, windows, cupboards, etc. Such
opening must be bridged over so as to support the load of the wall above them. This is accompanied by
providing a lintel.
13.2 Design of Lintel:

Assumptions:
Let lintel beam size = 125 mm x 250 mm
Main beam size = 300mm x 450 mm
Wall thickness = 150 mm
Projection of Chajja = 600 mm
A. Load calculations for external lintel (for roof)
1. Wall load = (3.2 – 2.1 – 0.45 – 0.25) x 0.15 x 20
= 1.2KN/m
2. Load from Chajja =
4.5 x 0.6
= 2.70 KN/m
3. Self weight of lintel
0.125 x 0.25x 25
= 0.781KN/m
Total, w = 4.681KN/ m
Bending moment and shear force calculations:
Max.B.M =

=

wl 2
8

4.681x3.6 2
8

= 7.58KNm
... Factored moment, Mu = 1.5 x 7.58= 11.37KNm
Also, Max. S.F. =

wl
2

=

4.681* 3.6
2

= 8.43KN
... Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x 8.43= 12.64KN
157

Check for effective depth:
Here effective depth provided, d available = 250 − 25 −

12
mm
2

= 219 mm
(Providing 25 mm clear cover and using 12 mm dia. bars)
We know,
Effective depth required, d required =

Mu
0.138 f ck b

11.37 x106
=
0.138x20 x125
= 181.54 mm
..

. d available > dreqd

... Safe

Calculation of required reinforcement:
M u 11.37 x106
=
= 1.90 N / mm 2
2
2
bd
125 x 219

Therefore, from Table 2 of Design Aid SP-16, we provide
pt= 0.602%
...

100xAst
= 0.602
bd

=>

100xAst
= 0.602
125x 219

=> Ast = 164.79 mm2
... No. of bars required = 2 (as per table 95 of SP 16)
Let us provide 2-12 mm dia. (226 mm2) bars as tensile reinforcement and 2-12 mm dia. Bars as
nominal reinforcement at top layers.
Check for shear:
Induced shear stress, τ v =

Vu
bd

158

=

12.64 x1000
125x 219

= 0.46N/mm2
Now,

Pt, provided =

100x 226
= 0.82
125x 219

From Table 61 of Design Aid SP-16, the value of τ c corresponding to Pt = 0.82 is

τ c = 0.57 N/mm2

Since τ c > τ v , hence shear reinforcement is not reqd. but nominal shear reinforcement has to be provided
in accordance with Cl. 26.5.1.6 of IS: 456-2000
Using 6 mm dia. bars we have
Asv =

2 xπx 6 2
= 56.55mm 2
4

We have,
Asv
0 .4
=
bS v 0.87 f y

Sv = 408.35 mm
As per Cl. 26.5.1.5 of 456-2000 spacing should in no case exceed 300 mm
Let us provide 6 mm 2 – legged vertical stirrups @ 300 mm c/c.

B. Load calculations for external lintel (for floor)
1. Wall load = (3.2 – 2.1 – 0.45 – 0.25) x 0.15 x 20
= 1.2KN/m
2. Load from chajja =
5.0 x 0.6
= 3 KN/m
3. Self weight of lintel
0.125 x 0.25x 25
= 0.781KN/m
Total, w = 4.981KN/ m

Bending moment and shear force calculations:
Max.B.M =

wl 2
8

159

=

4.981x3.6 2
8

=8.07KNm
... Factored moment, Mu = 1.5 x8.07= 12.1KNm

wl
2

Also, Max. S.F. =

=

4.981* 3.6
2

=8.97KN
... Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x8.97= 13.45KN
Check for effective depth:
Here effective depth provided, d available = 250 − 25 −

12
mm
2

= 219 mm
(Providing 25 mm clear cover and using 12 mm dia. bars)
We know,
Effective depth required, d required =

=

Mu
0.138 f ck b

12.1x106
0.138x 20 x125

= 187.27mm
..

. d available > dreqd

... Safe

Calculation of required reinforcement:
Mu
12.1x106
=
= 2.02 N / mm 2
2
2
bd
125 x 219

Therefore, from Table 2 of Design Aid SP-16, we provide
pt= 0.647%
...

100xAst
= 0.647
bd
160

=>

100xAst
= 0.647
125x 219

=> Ast = 177.12 mm2
... No. of bars required = 2 (as per table 95 of SP 16)
Let us provide 2-12 mm dia. (226 mm2) bars as tensile reinforcement and 2-12 mm dia. Bars as
nominal reinforcement at top layers.
Check for shear:
Induced shear stress, τ v =

Vu
bd
=

13.45x1000
125x 219

= 0.49 N/mm2
Now,

Pt, provided =

100x 226
= 0.82
125x 219

From Table 61 of Design Aid SP-16, the value of τ c corresponding to Pt = 0.82 is

τ c = 0.57 N/mm2

Since τ c > τ v , hence shear reinforcement is not reqd. but nominal shear reinforcement has to be provided
in accordance with Cl. 26.5.1.6 of IS: 456-2000
Using 6 mm dia. bars we have
Asv =

2 xπx 6 2
= 56.55mm 2
4

We have,
Asv
0.4
=
bS v 0.87 f y

Sv = 408.35 mm
As per Cl. 26.5.1.5 of 456-2000 spacing should in no case exceed 300 mm
Let us provide 6 mm 2 – legged vertical stirrups @ 300 mm c/c.

161

C. Load calculations for internal lintel:
1. Wall load = (3.2 – 2.1 – 0.45 – 0.25) x 0.15 x 20
= 1.2 KN/m
2. Self weight of lintel
0.125 x 0.25x 25
= 0.781KN/m
Total, w = 1.981KN/ m
Bending moment and shear force calculations:
wl 2
Max.B.M =
8
=

1.981x3.6 2
8

= 3.21KNm
... Factored moment, Mu = 1.5 x 3.21= 4.81 KNm
Also, Max. S.F. =

wl
2

=

1.981x3.6
2

= 3.56KN
... Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x 3.56= 5.35 KN
Check for effective depth:
Here effective depth provided, d available = 250 − 25 −

12
mm
2

= 219 mm
(Providing 25 mm clear cover and using 12 mm dia. bars)
We know,
Effective depth required, d required =

=
..

. d available > dreqd

Mu
0.138 fck b

4.81x106
= 118.07 mm
0.138x20 x125

... Safe

162

Calculation of required reinforcement:
Mu
4.81x10 6
=
= 0.80 N / mm 2
2
2
bd
125 x 219

Therefore, from Table 2 of Design Aid SP-16, we provide
pt= 0.233%
...

100 xAst
= 0.233
bd

=>

100 xAst
= 0.242
125 x 219

=> Ast = 63.78 mm2
... No. of bars required = 2 (as per table 95 of SP 16)
Let us provide 2-12 mm dia. (226 mm2) bars as tensile reinforcement and 2-12 mm dia. Bars as
nominal reinforcement at top layers.
Check for shear:
Induced shear stress, τ v =

Vu
bd
=

5.35 x1000
125 x 219

= 0.19N/mm2
Now,

Pt, provided =

100x 226
= 0.82
125x 219

From Table 61 of Design Aid SP-16, the value of τ c corresponding to Pt = 0.82 is

τ c = 0.57 N/mm2

Since τ c > τ v , hence shear reinforcement is not reqd. but nominal shear reinforcement has to be provided
in accordance with Cl. 26.5.1.6 of IS: 456-2000
Using 6 mm dia. bars we have
Asv =

2 xπx 6 2
= 56.55mm 2
4
163

Again we have,
Asv
0.4
=
bS v 0.87 f y

Sv = 408.35 mm
As per Cl. 26.5.1.5 of 456-2000 spacing should in no case exceed 300 mm
Let us provide 6 mm 2 – legged vertical stirrups @ 300 mm c/c.

164

CHAPTER-14

CONCLUSION

165

This project aims at the structural design of a multi-storied residential building in
Guwahati City. The first phase of the project was to plan a building according to the existing
Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority (GMDA) bye laws. The planning of the building
has been done to arrange the location of various rooms and their sizes so that it fulfills the
functional requirements of the intended purpose.
After the planning stage, estimation of the various loads, viz. gravity and seismic loads
are carried out. During this stage, analysis has been done by approximate methods such has
moment distribution and portal methods to yields the various bending moments, shear forces and
axial loads acting at the various section at different levels. The results of the computations are
then subjected to load combination that can be accepted as the design values, i.e. that values for
which the various components of the structure has to be designed.
The design phase consisted of designing of the various components that constitutes the
structure such as beams, columns, slabs, staircase, Chajja/sunshade, lintels and footing. The final
output is in the form of reinforcement detailing of the various constituents parts as they are
essential for the execution of the actual construction work. Ductile detailing has been
incorporated as per IS 13920: 1993.

166

ANNEX A
LIST OF REFERRED INDIAN STANDARDS AND CLAUSES
IS: 875 (Part II)– 1987:Code of practice for Design loads (other than earthquake) for Building
and Structures
• Clause.3.1.2
IS: 1983 (Part II) – 2002: Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures Part I General
provision and buildings

Clause.6.4.2

Clause.7.3.1

Clause.7.3.2

Clause.7.4.2

Clause.7.5.3

Clause.7.6.1

Table 2

Table 6

Table 7

Fig. 2

IS 456- 2000 – Plain and Reinforced Concrete Code of Practice

Clause 23.2.1

Clause 26.2.1

Clause 26.3.2

Clause 26.4.1

Clause 26.5.1.1

Clause 26.5.1.5

Clause 26.5.1.6

Clause 26.5.2.1

Clause 26.5.2.1

Clause 26.5.3.1(a)
167

Clause 26.5.3.2 (C)

Clause D.1.1

Clause D.1.8

Clause D.1.9

Clause D.2.1

Table 26

DESIGN AID TO IS: 456-1978 (SP-16)

Chart 11

Chart 12

Chart 13

Chart 14

Chart 15

Chart 44

Table 2

Table 37

Table 61

Table 62

Table 96

IS: 13920-1993- Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic
Forces.
• Clause 3.4
• Clause 5.1
• Clause 5.2
• Clause 5.3
• Clause 6.2.1
• Clause 6.2.2
• Clause 6
• Clause 6.2.12.3
• Clause 6.2.4
168

ANNEX B

LIST OF REFERRED BOOKS AND REPORTS
1. Jain , Ashok K. (2006) Reinforced Concrete- Limit State Design, 6th Edition ,
NemChand & Bros, Roorkee.
2. Ramamrutham, S (2006), Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Sixteenth Edition,
Dhanpat Rai Publishing Company (P) Ltd, New Delhi.
3. Saran, Swami (2006), Analysis and Design of Substructures – Limit state Design, Second
Edition Oxford & IBH published Co.Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
4. Shah, Dr. H.J. and Jain DrSudhir K, Design example of a Six Storey Building, Document
No. IITK –GSDMA –EQ26 –V3.0 IITK-GSDMA Project on Building Codes.
5. Ramamrutham, S and Narayana, R (2003), Theory of Structures, Seventh Edition,
DhanphatRai Publishing Company (p) Ltd, New Delhi.
6. Guide Lines for Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority (GMDA),
Guwahati.(Building Permission.)

169