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You are on page 1of 169

INTRODUCTION

1

1.1 BUILDING:

Any structure for whatever purpose and of any material and every part of them whether for

human or any other purpose, including all the structural elements like foundations, masonry,

roofs, etc., with all the services like water closet, bathroom, staircase, etc., is termed as building.

Building does not only refer to house but also implies the masonry the building is providing for

sheltering the human beings.

Building can be classified based on the occupancy and the type of construction. On the basis of

occupancy, the buildings are classified as:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Residential building

Educational building

Institutional building

Assembly building

Mercantile building

Business building

Industrial building

Storage building

Hazardous building

1.1.1. Residential building:

Residential building includes all the building in which the food and lodging

accommodation is provided for normal residential purposes with lodging room, water

closet and bath are included for small family, private dwellers, dormitories, apartments

houses(flats), hotel and hostels.

1.1.2. Educational building:

This building includes any building used for schools and colleges.

1.1.3. Institutional building:

These buildings include hospitals and sanatoria, custodial homes such as homes in firms

and orphanages and penal institutions such as jails, prisons, mental hospitals and

reformatories.

1.1.4. Assembly building:

These are buildings where group of people congregate or gather for amusements,

recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel and similar purposes, theatres, motion

pictures houses, assembly halls, auditorium, exhibition halls, museums, places of

worships, club rooms, etc., are such buildings.

1.1.5

Mercantile building:

These buildings are used for the transactions of business.

2

1.1.6

Business building:

These buildings are also used for the transactions of business.

1.1.7

Industrial building:

These are the buildings where products or materials of all kinds and properties are

fabricated, assembled or processed. Assembly plans laboratories, power plants, dry

cleaning plants, refineries, etc., are the example of such buildings.

1.1.8

Storage building:

These buildings are used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, ware or

merchandise. Cold storage, ware houses, freight depots, transit sheds, store houses, etc.,

are the example of such houses.

1.1.9

Hazardous building:

These are buildings which are used for storage, handling and manufacturing of highly

combustible or explosive materials.

Buildings can be classified, based on the construction as:

1. Heat Resistance Building

2. Fire Resistance Building

3. Sound Proof Building, etc.

**Before constructing any type of building, each building needs a special type of planning as per
**

their functions. Similarly it needs a special and different treatment.

1.2 PLANNING OF BUILDING:

Apart from the fact that building must be designed and planned according to the

functional requirement. The basic principles have been enunciated or broad lined only and

may be applied to the problem on its industrial merits. These natures are not as rigid as of

nature. General plan is done with respect to some natural point around its location. It is done

according to its natural surrounding condition such as geographical feature of the area such

as hilly, rocky or plains, climate conditions such as warm or cold, direction of sun rays,

wind, etc. Before planning any type of structure of the building the area should be favorable

for that structure. More attention should be taken in soil test in order to find the bearing

capacity of the soil as the foundation is heavy for structure of multistoried building. In

addition, there are certain principles of planning which should be regarded while planning

the building. These are:

1. Aspects

2. Prospect

3

3. Furniture requirement

4. Roominess

5. Grouting

6. Circulation

7. Privacy

8. Sanitation

9. Elegance

10. Economy

11. Flexibility

12. Practical consideration

1.3 MULTISTORIED BUILDING

Reinforced concrete building consists of floor slabs, beams, girders and columns continuously

placed to form a rigid monolithic system. A continuous system leads to greater redundancy,

reduced moments and distributes the load more evenly. The floor slab may rest on a system of

interconnected beams. Thus a building frame is a three dimensional structure or space structure.

It is idealized as a system of interconnected two-dimensional vertical frames along the two

mutually perpendicular horizontal axes for analysis.

The degree of sophistication to which a structural analysis is carried out depends on the

importance of the structure. A wide range of approaches are available which can be carried out

manually or with the aid of pocket calculators to more refined techniques involving computer

solutions. In this project, manual analysis is done using methods such as moment distribution and

portal method. We separate the structural system into two load transmission mechanisms, viz.

gravity load resisting and lateral load resisting, although, in effect, these two systems are

complimentary and interactive. As an integrated system, the structure must resist and transmit all

the effects of gravity loads and lateral loads acting on it to the foundation and the ground below.

1.4 LOADS

The loads acting on the structure are due to dead loads (due to self weight), live loads (due to

occupants, water in tank, and maintenance on the roof etc.), wind loads (acting on the exposed

surface areas of the tank, staging etc.) and seismic loads (due to earthquake induced ground

excitation). Our project work has not been designed for wind loads since earthquake loads

exceed the wind loads.

DEAD LOADS

The dead loads on a frame is calculated floor wise and consists of weight of floors, girders,

partition walls, false ceilings, parapets, balconies, fixed or permanent equipment and half the

column above and below a floor. The load acting on a column is calculated from all the beams

framing into it.

LIVE LOADS

The magnitude of live loads depends upon the type of occupancy of the building. IS: 875 (Part 2)

-1987 has specified certain minimum values of live loads (or imposed loads) for specific

purposes. The live load distribution varies with time. Hence, each member is designed for the

worst combination of dead and live loads.

4

SEISMIC LOADS

Earthquake or seismic load on a building depends upon its geographical location, lateral stiffness

and mass and is reversible. Its effect should be considered along both axes of the building taken

on at a time. A force is defined as the product of mass and acceleration. During an earthquake,

the mass is imparted by the building whereas the acceleration is imparted by the ground

disturbance. In order to have a minimum force, the mass of the building should be as low

possible. There can be no control on the ground acceleration being an act of nature. The point of

application of this inertial force is the centre of gravity of the mass on each floor of the building.

Once there is a force, there has to be an equal and opposite reaction to balance this force. The

inertial force is resisted by the building and the resisting force acts at the centre of rigidity at

each floor of the building. The seismic forces are calculated in accordance to IS: 1893 (Part I) 2002. The wind load and earthquake loads are assumed not to act simultaneously.

**1.5 DESIGN METHODOLOGY ADOPTED
**

The design philosophy that has been adopted in this project is the limit state method. The

philosophy of the limit state method of design represents a definite advancement over the

traditional design philosophies. Unlike working stress method, which is based on calculation on

service load conditions alone and unlike ultimate load method, which is based on calculation on

ultimate load conditions alone, Limit state method aims for a comprehensive and rational

solution to the design problem by considering safety at ultimate loads and serviceability at

working loads.

Limit state design has originated from ultimate or plastic design. The object of design based on

the limit state concept is to achieve an acceptable probability that a structure will not become

unserviceable in its life time for use for which it is intended, that is it will not reach limit state. A

structure with appropriate degrees of reliability should be able to withstand safely all loads that

are liable to act on it throughout and it should also satisfy the serviceability requirements such as

limitations on deflection and cracking. All relevant limit states must be considered in design to

ensure an adequate degree of safety and serviceability.

IS: 456-2000 and Design Aid to IS: 456-1978 (also known as SP 16) is followed in this regard to

ensure this design philosophy.

1.6 PHASES OF THE PROJECT

For the considered structural system, the design problem consisted of the following steps:

•

•

•

•

•

**Idealization of the structure for analysis
**

Estimation of loads

Analysis of the idealized structural model to determine axial loads, shear and bending

moments.

Design of various structural elements.

Detailed structural drawing and schedule of reinforcing bars.

5

CHAPTER-2

BUILDING PLAN

6

LINE DIAGRAM OF BUILDING PLAN

7

8

Frame of the Building

9

ASSUMPTIONS

Dead Load

As per IS 875 (Part 1) : 1987

Live load

**As per IS 875 (Part 2) : 1987
**

i.

Terrace: 1.5 KN/m2

ii.

Typical floors: 2.0 KN/m2

iii.

Balcony and Corridors : 3 KN/m2

iv.

Staircase : 4 KN/m2

Floor finish

1 KN/m2

Wind load

**As per IS: 875. Not designed for wind load since seismic loads
**

exceed the wind loads.

Earthquake load

As per IS: 1893(Part 1)-2002

Depth of foundation below GL

2.1 m

Type of soil

Type II, medium as per IS: 1893 (Part 1)-2002

Allowable bearing capacity

150 KN/m2

Floor

G.F. + 3 upper floors

Walls

150mm (both external and internal walls)

Concrete

M20 conforming to IS: 456-2000

Steel

Fe 415 conforming to IS: 1786-1979

Member Size

Beam

i.

300 mm x 450 mm (Primary)

ii.

250 mm x 300 mm (Secondary)

Column : 300 mm x 450 mm

10

CHAPTER-03

GRAVITY ANALYSIS

11

FRAME ALONG PRIMARY DIRECTION OF THE BUILDING:

12

**GRAVITY ANALYSIS OF FRAME YY
**

I. Assumptions:

Imposed Load → Residential Building

1)

2)

3)

4)

For Roof

: 1.5 KN/m2

On Balcony

: 3 KN/m2

On Corridors

: 3 KN/m2

On Rooms : 2 KN/m2

**3.1 LOAD CALCULATION OF DIFFERENT FLOORS:
**

3.1.1 Load Calculation at Roof Level:

MEMBER RY1RY2

Area S4 = 0.5 x (0.6+3.3) x 1.35

Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.632 x 4

= 2.632 m2

= 10.528 KN

Imposed Load = 2.632 x 1.5

= 3.948 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 5.399 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 2.025 KN/m

Area S5 = 0.5 x 1.650 x 3.3

= 2.722 m2

Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.722 x 4

= 10.89 KN

Imposed Load = 2.722 x 1.5

= 4.084 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 6.6 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 2.475 KN/m

UDL due to Beam

= 3.375 KN/m

Total Load on the member = (5.399+2.025+6.6+2.475+3.375) = 19.874 KN/m

13

MEMBER RY2RY3

Area S3 = 0.5 x (0.4+3.1) x 1.35

Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.362 x 4

= 2.362 m2

= 9.448 KN

Imposed Load = 2.362 x 1.5

= 3.543 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 5.399 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 2.025 KN/m

UDL due to Beam

= 3.375 KN/m

**Total Load on the member = 5.399 + 2.025 + 3.375 = 10.799 KN/m
**

Point Load on the member due to Secondary beam = 18.72 KN

MEMBER RY3RY4

Area S1 = 0.5 x 1.650 x 3.3

Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.722 x 4

= 2.722 m2

= 10.89 KN

Imposed Load = 2.722 x 1.5

= 4.084 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 6.6 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 2.475 KN/m

Area S2 = 0.5 x (2.7+1.35) x 0.675

= 1.367m2

Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.722 x 4

= 5.468 KN

Imposed Load = 2.722 x 1.5

= 2.051 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 2.7 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 1.013 KN/m

UDL due to Beam

= 3.375 KN/m

**Point Load on the member due to Secondary beam = 18.72 KN
**

Total Load on the member = (6.6+2.475+2.7+1.013+3.375) = 16.163 KN/m

14

**3.1.2 Load Calculation at Typical Floor Level (1ST, 2ND & 3RD Floor):
**

MEMBER CY1CY2

Area S4 = 0.5 x (0.6+3.3) x 1.35

Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.632 x 4

= 2.632 m2

= 10.528 KN

Imposed Load = 2.632 x 2

= 5.264 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 5.399 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 2.699 KN/m

Area S5 = 0.5 x 1.650 x 3.3

= 2.722 m2

Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.722 x 4

= 10.89 KN

Imposed Load = 2.722 x 2

= 5.444 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 6.6 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 3.299 KN/m

UDL due to Beam

= 3.375 KN/m

UDL due to Wall

= 8.55 KN/m

Total Load on the member = (5.399+2.699+6.6+3.299+3.375+8.55) = 29.922 KN/m

MEMBER CY2CY3

Area S3 = 0.5 x (0.4+3.1) x 1.35

Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.362 x 4

= 2.362 m2

= 9.448 KN

Imposed Load = 2.362 x 2

= 4.724 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 5.399 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 2.699 KN/m

UDL due to Beam

= 3.375 KN/m

15

UDL due to Wall

= 8.55 KN/m

**Total Load on the member = 5.399 + 2.699 + 3.375 + 8.55 = 20.023 KN/m
**

Point Load on the member due to Secondary beam = 20.115 KN

MEMBER CY3CY4

Area S1 = 0.5 x 1.650 x 3.3

Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.722 x 4

= 2.722 m2

= 10.89 KN

Imposed Load = 2.722 x 2

= 5.444 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 6.6 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 3.299 KN/m

Area S2 = 0.5 x (2.7+1.35) x 0.675

= 1.367m2

Total Self Weight of Slab = 2.722 x 4

= 5.468 KN

Imposed Load = 2.722 x 2

= 2.734 KN

Equivalent UDl for Self-wt. of Slab =

= 2.7 KN/m

Equivalent UDl for Imposed Load =

= 1.35 KN/m

UDL due to Beam

= 3.375 KN/m

UDL due to Wall

= 8.55 KN/m

**Point Load on the member due to Secondary beam = 10.328 KN
**

Total Load on the member = (6.6+3.299+2.7+1.35+3.375+8.55) = 25.874 KN/m

16

Table: 1 CALCULATION OF LOAD FOR ROOF LEVEL:

S1=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

Dead load

(KN)FROM

SLAB

INCLUDING

FINISH

(2KN/m2)@ 5

kn/m2

10.888

S2=0.5X(1.35+2.7)X0.675=1.367

5.468

2.7

2.051

1.013

S3=0.5X(0.4+3.1)X1.35=2.362

9.448

5.399

3.543

2.025

S4=0.5X(0.6+3.3)X1.35=2.632

10.528

5.399

3.948

2.025

S5=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

10.888

6.6

4.084

2.475

Area(m2)

Equivalent

dead load

from

Slab(KN/m)

Live load

on Slab@

1.5kKN/m

2

Equivalent

live load on

Slab(KN/m

2)

6.6

4.084

2.475

Dead load

of Beam

(KN/m)

BEAM

Total

load

(KN/m)

12.450

R3-R4

7.088

3.375

R2-R3

10.799

10.799

R1-R2

12.450

**Table: 2 CALCULATION OF POINT LOAD FOR ROOF:
**

BEAM

R2-R3

R3-R4

POINT LOAD(KN)

18.72

9.784

17

Table: 2 CALCULATION OF DEAD LOAD FOR 3RD FLOOR:

S1=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

Dead load

(KN)FROM

SLAB

INCLUDING

FINISH

(1KN/m2)@ 5

KN/m2

10.89

S2=0.5X(1.35+2.7)X0.675=1.367

5.468

2.7

2.734

1.35

S3=0.5X(0.4+3.1)X1.35=2.362

9.448

5.399

4.724

2.699

S4=0.5X(0.6+3.3)X1.35=2.632

10.528

5.399

5.264

2.699

S5=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

10.89

6.6

5.444

3.299

Area(m2)

Equivalent

dead load

from

Slab(KN/m)

Live load

on Slab@

1.5kn/m2

Equivalent

live load on

slab(KN/m2

)

6.6

5.444

3.299

Dead load

of Beam

(KN/m)

Dead

load of

Wall

(KN/m)

BEAM

Total

Load

transferred

on Beam

(KN/m)

21.824

C3-C4

15.975

3.375

8.55

C2-C3

20.023

20.023

C1-C2

21.824

**Table: 2 CALCULATION OF POINT LOAD FOR 3RD FLOOR:
**

BEAM

C2-C3

C3-C4

POINT LOAD(KN)

20.115

10.328

18

Table: 2 CALCULATION OF DEAD LOAD FOR 2ND FLOOR:

S1=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

Dead load

(KN)FROM

SLAB

INCLUDING

FINISH

(1KN/m2)@

KN/m2

10.89

S2=0.5X(1.35+2.7)X0.675=1.367

5.468

2.7

2.734

1.35

S3=0.5X(0.4+3.1)X1.35=2.362

9.448

5.399

4.724

2.699

S4=0.5X(0.6+3.3)X1.35=2.632

10.528

5.399

5.264

2.699

S5=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

10.89

6.6

5.444

3.299

Area(m2)

Equivalent

dead load

from

Slab(KN/m)

Live load

on Slab@

1.5kn/m2

Equivalent

live load on

slab(KN/m2

)

6.6

5.444

3.299

Dead load

of Beam

(KN/m)

Dead

load of

Wall

(KN/m)

BEAM

Total

Load

transferred

on Beam

(KN/m)

21.824

B3-B4

15.975

3.375

8.55

B2-B3

20.023

20.023

B1-B2

21.824

**Table: 2 CALCULATION OF POINT LOAD FOR 2ND FLOOR:
**

BEAM

B2-B3

B3-B4

POINT LOAD(KN)

20.115

10.328

19

Table: 2 CALCULATION OF DEAD LOAD FOR 1ST FLOOR:

Area(m2)

S1=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

Dead load

(KN)FROM

SLAB

INCLUDING

FINISH

(1KN/m2)@ 5

KN/m2

10.89

Equivalent

dead load

from

Slab(KN/m)

Live load

on Slab@

1.5kn/m2

Equivalent

live load on

slab(KN/m2

)

6.6

5.444

3.299

Dead load

of Beam

(KN/m)

Dead

load of

Wall

(KN/m)

BEAM

Total

Load

transferred

on Beam

(KN/m)

21.824

A3-A4

S2=0.5X(1.35+2.7)X0.675=1.367

5.468

2.7

2.734

1.35

S3=0.5X(0.4+3.1)X1.35=2.362

9.448

5.399

4.724

2.699

S4=0.5X(0.6+3.3)X1.35=2.632

10.528

5.399

5.264

2.699

S5=0.5X(1.650X3.300)=2.722

10.89

6.6

5.444

15.975

3.375

8.55

A2-A3

20.023

20.023

A1-A2

3.299

21.824

**Table: 2 CALCULATION OF POINT LOAD FOR 1ST FLOOR:
**

BEAM

A2-A3

A3-A4

POINT LOAD(KN)

20.115

10.328

20

TABLE: 9 CALCULATION OF DEAD LOAD OF GROUND FLOOR

On ground floor, the live load on slab will directly go to the ground and there will be no live load on the beam. Also only the self weight

of the beam and walls act on the beams. The weight due to slab and finish do not come.

BEAM

Dead load of beam (KN/m)

G1-G2

G2-G3

G3-G4

3.375

**Load transferred on beam
**

(KN/m)

3.375

3.375

3.375

21

**3.2 CALCULATIONS OF DISTRIBUTON FACTORS:
**

TABLES FOR DISTRIBUTION FACTORS:

3.2.1 DETERMINATION OF DISTRIBUTION FACTOR AT ROOF LEVEL:

JOINT

R1

R2

R3

R4

MEMBE

R

L(M)

B(M)

D(M)

I=BD3/1

2

R1-R2

R1-C1

R2-R1

3.3

3.3

3.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

R2-R3

R2-C2

3.1

3.3

0.3

0.3

0.45

0.45

0.002278

0.002278

R3-R2

R3-R4

R3-C3

R4-R3

R4-C4

3.1

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

K=I/L

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.00073

5

0.00069

0.00073

5

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

∑K

DF=K/∑

K

0.001381

0.001381

0.002116

0.50

0.50

0.33

0.002116

0.002116

0.35

0.33

0.002116

0.002116

0.002116

0.001381

0.001381

0.35

0.33

0.33

0.50

0.50

**3.2.2 DETERMINATION OF DISTRIBUTION FACTOR AT 3RD FLOOR LEVEL:
**

JOINT

C1

MEMBE

R

L(M)

B(M)

D(M)

I=BD3/1

2

C1-R1

C1-C2

C1-B1

C2-C1

C2-B2

C2-R2

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

C3

C2-C3

C3-R3

C3-B3

3.1

3.3

3.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

C4

C3-C2

C3-C4

C4-R4

C4-B4

C4-C3

3.1

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

C2

DF=K/∑

K

K=I/L

∑K

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.00073

5

0.00069

0.00069

0.00073

5

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.002071

0.002071

0.002071

0.002806

0.002806

0.002806

0.33

0.33

0.33

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.002806

0.002806

0.002806

0.26

0.25

0.25

0.002806

0.002806

0.002071

0.002071

0.002071

0.26

0.25

0.33

0.33

0.33

22

**3.2.3 DETERMINATION OF DISTRIBUTION FACTOR AT 2ND FLOOR LEVEL:
**

JOINT

B1

B2

B3

B4

MEMBE

R

L(M)

B(M)

D(M)

I=BD3/1

2

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

B1-C1

B1-B2

B1-A1

B2-B1

B2-C2

B2-A2

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

B2-B3

3.1

0.3

0.45 0.002278

B3-B2

B3-B4

B3-C3

B3-A3

B4-B3

B4-C4

B4-A4

3.1

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

K=I/L

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.00073

5

0.00073

5

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

∑K

DF=K/∑

K

0.002071

0.002071

0.002071

0.002806

0.002806

0.002806

0.33

0.33

0.33

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.002806

0.26

0.002806

0.002806

0.002806

0.002806

0.002071

0.002071

0.002071

0.26

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.33

0.33

0.33

**3.2.4 DETERMINATION OF DISTRIBUTION FACTOR AT 1ST FLOOR LEVEL:
**

JOIN

T

MEMBE

R

A1

A1-B1

A1-G1

A1-A2

A2-B2

A2-A1

A2-A3

A2-G2

A3-B3

A3-A2

A3-A4

A3-G3

A4-A3

A4-G4

A4-B4

A2

A3

A4

L(M)

B(M)

D(M)

I=BD3/1

2

K=I/L

∑K

3.3

2.7

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.1

2.7

3.3

3.1

3.3

2.7

3.3

2.7

3.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.00069

0.000844

0.00069

0.00069

0.00069

0.000735

0.000844

0.00069

0.000735

0.00069

0.000844

0.00069

0.000844

0.00069

0.002224

0.002224

0.002224

0.002959

0.002959

0.002959

0.002959

0.002959

0.002959

0.002959

0.002959

0.002224

0.002224

0.002224

DF=K/∑

K

0.31

0.38

0.31

0.23

0.23

0.25

0.29

0.23

0.25

0.23

0.29

0.31

0.38

0.31

23

**3.2.5 DETERMINATION OF DISTRIBUTION FACTOR AT GROUND FLOOR
**

LEVEL:

JOIN

T

MEMBE

R

G1

G1-A1

G1-F1

G1-G2

G2-G1

G2-A2

G2-F2

G2-G3

G3-G2

G3-G4

G3-A3

G3-F3

G4-A4

G4-F4

G4-G3

G2

G3

G4

L(M)

B(M)

D(M)

I=BD3/1

2

K=I/L

2.7

2.1

3.3

3.3

2.7

2.1

3.1

3.1

3.3

2.7

2.1

2.7

2.1

3.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.002278

0.000844

0.001085

0.00069

0.00069

0.000844

0.001085

0.000735

0.000735

0.00069

0.000844

0.001085

0.000844

0.001085

0.00069

∑K

0.002619

0.002619

0.002619

0.003354

0.003354

0.003354

0.003354

0.003354

0.003354

0.003354

0.003354

0.002619

0.002619

0.002619

DF=K/∑

K

0.32

0.41

0.26

0.21

0.25

0.32

0.22

0.22

0.21

0.25

0.32

0.32

0.41

0.26

24

**3.3 CALCULATIONS OF FIXED END MOMENTS:
**

3.3.1 Calculation of FIXED END MOMENT at ROOF Level:

POINT LOAD(KN)

MEMBER

LENGTH(M)

FIXED END

MOMENTS (KNM)

UDL(KN/m)

1.4 m

from C2

R1-R2

3.3

19.874

R2-R3

3.1

10.799

R3-R4

3.3

16.163

2.7 m

from C4

18.72

9.784

FEML

FEMR

+18.036

-18.036

+16.529

-15.139

+18.598

-15.541

3.3.1 Calculation of FIXED END MOMENT at 3RD FLOOR Level:

POINT LOAD(KN)

MEMBER

LENGTH(M)

FIXED END

MOMENTS (KNM)

UDL(KN/m)

1.4 m

from C2

C1-C2

3.3

29.922

C2-C3

3.1

20.023

C3-C4

3.3

25.874

2.7 m

from C4

20.115

10.328

FEML

FEMR

+27.154

-27.154

+24.504

-23.009

+27.628

-24.402

3.3.2 Calculation of FIXED END MOMENT at 2ND FLOOR Level:

POINT LOAD(KN)

MEMBER

LENGTH(M)

FIXED END

MOMENTS (KNM)

UDL(KN/m)

1.4 m

from B2

B1-B2

3.3

29.922

B2-B3

3.1

20.023

B3-B4

3.3

25.874

2.7 m

from B4

20.115

10.328

FEML

FEMR

+27.154

-27.154

+24.504

-23.009

+27.628

-24.402

25

3.3.3 Calculation of FIXED END MOMENT at 1ST FLOOR Level:

POINT LOAD(KN)

MEMBER

LENGTH(M)

FIXED END

MOMENTS (KNM)

UDL(KN/m)

1.4 m

from A2

A1-A2

3.3

29.922

A2-A3

3.1

20.023

A3-A4

3.3

25.874

2.7 m

from A4

20.115

10.328

FEML

FEMR

+27.154

-27.154

+24.504

-23.009

+27.628

-24.402

**3.3.4 Calculation of FIXED END MOMENT at GROUND Level:
**

Fixed end moments (KNm)

MEMBER

LENGTH(M)

UDL(KN/m)

G1-G2

3.3

3.375

FEML

+3.063

FEMR

-3.063

G2-G3

3.1

3.375

+2.703

-2.703

G3-G4

3.3

3.375

+3.063

-3.063

26

3.4MOMENT DISTRIBUTION TABLES:

**3.4.1 Moment Distribution table for ROOF LEVEL:
**

DF

FEM

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

SUM

R1-R2

0.5

0.33

18.036 -18.036

-9.018

0.497

0.249

-4.509

-0.124

1.688

0.844

-0.062

-0.422

0.260

0.130

-0.211

-0.065

0.073

0.037

-0.033

-0.018

0.027

9.648 -20.305

R2-R3

0.35

0.35

16.529 -15.139

0.527

-1.211

-0.605

0.264

1.790

-1.452

-0.726

0.895

0.276

-0.023

-0.012

0.138

0.078

-0.096

-0.048

0.039

0.028

-0.015

17.837 -16.600

R3-R4

0.33

0.5

18.598 -15.541

-1.141

7.771

3.885

-0.571

-1.094

-1.657

-0.829

-0.547

-0.022

0.273

0.137

-0.011

-0.091

0.005

0.003

-0.045

-0.014

0.023

19.433 -10.300

**3.4.2 Moment Distribution table for 3RD FLOOR LEVEL:
**

DF

FEM

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

SUM

C1-C2

0.33

0.25

27.154 -27.154

C2-C3

0.26

0.26

24.504 -23.009

C3-C4

0.25

0.33

27.628 -24.402

-8.961

0.663

0.331 -4.480

-0.109

1.270

0.635 -0.055

-0.210

0.156

0.078 -0.105

-0.026

0.029

0.015 -0.013

-0.005

0.008

18.903 -29.681

0.689 -1.201

-0.600

0.345

1.321 -1.136

-0.568

0.661

0.162 -0.024

-0.012

0.081

0.030 -0.040

-0.020

0.015

0.008 -0.004

25.514 -24.313

-1.155

8.053

4.026 -0.577

-0.862 -1.138

-0.569 -0.431

-0.023

0.142

0.071 -0.011

-0.038

0.004

0.002 -0.019

-0.004

0.006

29.076 -18.374

27

3.4.3 Moment Distribution table for 2ND FLOOR LEVEL:

DF

FEM

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

SUM

B1-B2

0.33

0.25

27.154 -27.154

B2-B3

0.26

0.26

24.504 -23.009

B3-B4

0.25

0.33

27.628 -24.402

-8.961

0.663

0.331 -4.480

-0.109

1.270

0.635 -0.055

-0.210

0.156

0.078 -0.105

-0.026

0.029

0.015 -0.013

-0.005

0.008

18.903 -29.681

0.689 -1.201

-0.600

0.345

1.321 -1.136

-0.568

0.661

0.162 -0.024

-0.012

0.081

0.030 -0.040

-0.020

0.015

0.008 -0.004

25.514 -24.313

-1.155

8.053

4.026 -0.577

-0.862 -1.138

-0.569 -0.431

-0.023

0.142

0.071 -0.011

-0.038

0.004

0.002 -0.019

-0.004

0.006

29.076 -18.374

3.4.4 Moment Distribution table for 1ST FLOOR LEVEL:

DF

FEM

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

SUM

A1-A2

0.31

0.23

27.154 -27.154

A2-A3

0.25

0.25

24.504 -23.009

A3-A4

0.23

0.31

27.628 -24.402

-8.418

0.610

0.305 -4.209

-0.094

1.101

0.550 -0.047

-0.171

0.129

0.065 -0.085

-0.020

0.022

0.011 -0.010

-0.003

0.006

19.379 -29.638

0.663 -1.155

-0.577

0.331

1.197 -1.028

-0.514

0.598

0.140 -0.024

-0.012

0.070

0.024 -0.032

-0.016

0.012

0.007 -0.003

25.415 -24.239

-1.062

7.565

3.782 -0.531

-0.748 -1.008

-0.504 -0.374

-0.022

0.116

0.058 -0.011

-0.029

0.003

0.002 -0.015

-0.003

0.005

29.102 -18.652

28

3.4.5 Moment Distribution table for GROUND FLOOR LEVEL:

DF

FEM

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

C.O.

DISTRB

SUM

G1-G2

0.26

0.21

3.063 -3.063

-0.796

0.076

0.038 -0.398

-0.010

0.092

0.046 -0.005

-0.012

0.011

0.006 -0.006

-0.001

0.001

0.001 -0.001

0.000

0.000

2.333 -3.292

G2-G3

0.22

0.22

2.703 -2.703

0.079 -0.079

-0.040

0.040

0.096 -0.096

-0.048

0.048

0.012

0.000

0.000

0.006

0.001 -0.002

-0.001

0.001

0.000

0.000

2.803 -2.787

G3-G4

0.21

0.26

3.063 -3.063

-0.076

0.796

0.398 -0.038

-0.076 -0.094

-0.047 -0.038

0.000

0.010

0.005

0.000

-0.002

0.000

0.000 -0.001

0.000

0.000

3.265 -2.427

29

**3.5 FINAL END MOMENTS BY GRAVITY ANALYSIS:
**

3.5.1 Calculation of FINAL MOMENTS at ROOF Level:

SPA

N

R1R2

R2R3

R3R4

LENGTH(

m)

L

UDL(KN/

m)

W

MIDSPAN

SAGGING

MOMENT

CONSIDERING

SIMPLY

SUPPORTED, KNm

**End hogging moments
**

as per moment

distribution,

FINAL MOMENTS, KNm

LEFT

RIGHT

MID MOMENT

=(WL2/8)+((ML+MR)/2))

LEFT

MID

RIGHT

KNm

3.3

19.874

-27.053

9.648

20.305

9.648

-12.077

20.305

3.1

10.799

-26.076

17.837

16.600

17.837

-8.858

16.600

3.3

16.163

-24.937

19.433

10.300

19.433

-10.070

10.300

3.5.2 Calculation of FINAL MOMENTS at 3RD FLOOR Level:

SPAN

C1-C2

C2-C3

C3-C4

LENGTH(m) UDL(KN/m)

L

W

3.3

3.1

3.3

29.922

20.023

25.874

**MIDSPAN SAGGING MOMENT
**

CONSIDERING SIMPLY

SUPPORTED, KNm( = WL2/8)

-40.731

-38.134

-38.319

End hogging

moments as per

moment

distribution,

FINAL MOMENTS, KNm

KNm

MID MOMENT

=(WL2/8)+((ML+MR)/2))

LEFT

18.903

25.514

29.076

RIGHT

29.681

24.313

18.374

LEFT

18.903

25.514

29.076

MID

-16.439

-13.220

-14.594

RIGHT

29.681

24.313

18.374

30

3.5.3 Calculation of FINAL MOMENTS at 2ND FLOOR Level:

SPAN

B1-B2

B2-B3

B3-B4

**MIDSPAN SAGGING MOMENT
**

LENGTH(m) UDL(KN/m)

CONSIDERING SIMPLY

L

W

SUPPORTED, KNm( = WL2/8)

3.3

3.1

3.3

29.922

20.023

25.874

End hogging

moments as per

moment

distribution,

FINAL MOMENTS, KNm

MID MOMENT

=(WL2/8)+((ML+MR)/2))

KNm

LEFT

RIGHT LEFT

MID

RIGHT

-40.731

18.903

29.681 18.903 -16.439 29.681

-38.134

25.514

24.313 25.514 -13.220 24.313

-38.319

29.076

18.374 29.076 -14.594 18.374

3.5.4 Calculation of FINAL MOMENTS at 1ST FLOOR Level:

SPAN

A1-A2

A2-A3

A3-A4

**MIDSPAN SAGGING MOMENT
**

LENGTH(m) UDL(KN/m)

CONSIDERING SIMPLY

L

W

SUPPORTED, KNm( = WL2/8)

3.3

3.1

3.3

29.922

20.023

25.874

-40.731

-38.134

-38.319

End hogging

moments as per

moment

distribution,

FINAL MOMENTS, KNm

KNm

MID MOMENT

=(WL2/8)+((ML+MR)/2))

LEFT

19.379

25.415

29.102

RIGHT

29.638

24.239

18.652

LEFT

19.379

25.415

29.102

MID

RIGHT

-16.223 29.638

-13.307 24.239

-14.442 18.652

31

3.5.5 Calculation of FINAL MOMENTS at GROUND FLOOR Level:

SPAN

G1-G2

G2-G3

G3-G4

**MIDSPAN SAGGING MOMENT
**

LENGTH(m) UDL(KN/m)

CONSIDERING SIMPLY

L

W

SUPPORTED, KNm( = WL2/8)

3.3

3.1

3.3

3.375

3.375

3.375

-4.594

-4.054

-4.594

End hogging

moments as per

moment

distribution,

KNm

LEFT

2.333

2.803

3.265

RIGHT

3.292

2.787

2.427

**FINAL MOMENTS, KNm
**

MID MOMENT

=(WL2/8)+((ML+MR)/2))

LEFT

MID

RIGHT

2.333

-1.782

3.292

2.803

-1.259

2.787

3.265

-1.748

2.427

32

3.6 BEAM SHEAR FORCES:

BEAM

R1-R2

R2-R3

R3-R4

C1-C2

C2-C3

C3-C4

B1-B2

B2-B3

B3-B4

A1-A2

A2-A3

A3-A4

G1-G2

G2-G3

G3-G4

LENGTH

L (m)

3.3

3.1

3.3

3.3

3.1

3.3

3.3

3.1

3.3

3.3

3.1

3.3

3.3

3.1

3.3

UDL

(KN/m)

19.874

10.799

16.163

29.922

20.023

25.874

29.922

20.023

25.874

29.922

20.023

25.874

3.375

3.375

3.375

POINT

LOAD(KN)

18.72

9.784

20.115

10.328

20.115

10.328

20.115

10.328

S.F(KN)

LEFT

32.79

27.00

34.67

49.30

42.00

51.14

49.30

42.00

51.14

49.30

42.00

51.14

5.57

5.23

5.57

RIGHT

32.79

25.16

28.45

49.30

40.20

44.56

49.30

40.20

44.56

49.30

40.20

44.56

5.57

5.23

5.57

M1(KNm) M2(KNm)

9.648

17.837

19.433

18.903

25.514

29.076

18.903

25.514

29.076

19.379

25.415

29.102

2.245

3.677

3.447

20.305

16.600

10.300

29.681

24.313

18.374

29.681

24.313

18.374

29.638

24.239

18.652

3.516

3.662

2.355

V=(M1M2)/L

3.230

0.400

2.760

3.260

0.390

3.240

3.260

0.390

3.240

3.100

0.380

3.160

0.380

0.004

0.330

CORRECTED SHEAR

FORCE(KN)

LEFT

36.020

26.600

31.910

52.560

41.610

47.900

52.560

41.610

47.900

52.400

41.620

47.980

5.900

5.234

5.900

MID

3.17

0.85

-7.64

3.29

-9.29

-5.17

3.29

-9.29

-5.17

2.98

-9.53

-5.15

0.34

0

0.34

RIGHT

29.560

25.560

38.750

46.040

40.590

47.800

46.040

40.590

47.800

46.200

40.580

47.720

5.200

5.226

5.200

33

CHAPTER-4

SEISMIC ANALYSIS

34

4.1 Seismic Load diagram

35

4.1 INTRODUCTION

During an earthquake, ground motions occur in a random fashion, both horizontally and

vertically, in all directions radiating from the epicenter. The ground accelerations cause the

structure to vibrate and induce inertial forces on them. Hence, structures in such locations need

to be suitably designed and detailed to ensure stability, strength and serviceability with

acceptable levels of safety under seismic effects. Earthquake can cause damage not only on

account of shaking which results from them but also due to other chain effects like landslides,

floods, fire etc. it is therefore important to take necessary precautions in the design of structures

so that they are safe against such secondary effects also.

The project work being the design of a residential building in Guwahati, which lies in Zone V,

necessitates rigorous seismic analysis for proper subsequent designing and detailing. In this

regard, the various clauses of IS: 1893(Part 1) – 2002 and IS: 13920 – 1993 are followed.

**4.2 SEISMIC WEIGHT OF THE BUILDING:
**

4.2.1 Load calculation by lump mass model (W):

At roof level (W5):

1.

2.

3.

4.

**Self weight of slab = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*(3.3+3.1+3.3)*5
**

= 152.775 KN

Self weight of primary beam = (1.375*4+1.8*4+9.7)*3.375

= 75.6 KN

Self weight of secondary beam = (2.7+1.35+1.8)*1.875

= 10.97 KN

Self weight of wall

= ((3.3-0.3)/2*(2.7/2*3+3.6/2*2) + (3.3-0.25)/2*2.7/2*1+3.6/2*1+ (3.3-0.45)/2*9.7)*3

= 87.58 KN

5. Self wt. of parapet wall = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*2*3

= 18.9 KN

6. Self weight of column = (3.3*0.5*4)*3.375

=22.275 KN

7. Imposed load

= 0.00 KN

W5 = 367.9875 KN

**At 3rd floor level (W4):
**

1.

2.

3.

4.

**Self weight of slab = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*(3.3+3.1+3.3)*5
**

= 152.775 KN

Self weight of primary beam = (1.375*4+1.8*4+9.7)*3.375

= 75.6 KN

Self weight of secondary beam = (2.7+1.35+1.8)*1.875

= 10.97 KN

Self weight of wall

= ((3.3-0.3)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*3+3.6*0.5*2)+(3.3-0.25)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*1+3.6*0.5*1)+(3.30.45)*0.5*9.7+((2.7-0.3)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*3+3.6*0.5*2)+(2.70.25)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*1+3.6*0.5*1)+(2.7-0.45)*0.5*9.7))*3

= 162.16 KN

5. Self weight of column = (3.3*0.5*4)*3.375*2

=44.55 KN

6. Imposed load = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*(3.3+3.1+3.3)*(0.25*2)

=15.28 KN

W4= 474.11KN

36

**At 2nd floor level (W3):
**

1.

2.

3.

4.

**Self weight of slab = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*(3.3+3.1+3.3)*5
**

= 152.775 KN

Self weight of primary beam = ((1.375*4+1.8*4+9.7)*3.375

= 75.6 KN

Self weight of secondary beam = (2.7+1.35+1.8)*1.875

= 10.97 KN

Self weight of wall

= ((3.3-0.3)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*3+3.6*0.5*2)+(3.3-0.25)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*1+3.6*0.5*1)+(3.30.45)*0.5*9.7+((2.7-0.3)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*3+3.6*0.5*2)+(2.70.25)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*1+3.6*0.5*1)+(2.7-0.45)*0.5*9.7))*3

= 162.16 KN

5. Self weight of column = (3.3*0.5*4)*3.375*2

=44.55 KN

6. Imposed load = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*(3.3+3.1+3.3)*(0.25*2)

=15.28 KN

W4= 474.11KN

**At 1st floor level (W2):
**

1.

2.

3.

4.

**Self weight of slab = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*(3.3+3.1+3.3)*5
**

= 152.775 KN

Self weight of primary beam = (1.375*4+1.8*4+9.7)*3.375

= 75.6 KN

Self weight of secondary beam = (2.7+1.35+1.8)*1.875

= 10.97 KN

Self weight of wall

= ((3.3-0.3)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*3+3.6*0.5*2)+(3.3-0.25)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*1+3.6*0.5*1)+(3.30.45)*0.5*9.7+((2.7-0.3)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*3+3.6*0.5*2)+(2.70.25)*0.5*(2.7*0.5*1+3.6*0.5*1)+(2.7-0.45)*0.5*9.7))*3

= 162.16 KN

5. Self weight of column = ((3.3*0.5*4)+(2.7*0.5*4))*3.375

=40.50 KN

6. Imposed load = (2.7/2+3.6/2)*(3.3+3.1+3.3)*(0.25*2)

=15.28 KN

W4= 457.28KN

**At plinth level (W1):
**

1) Self weight of primary beam = (1.375*4+1.8*4+9.7)*3.375

2) Self weight of columns = (2.1*0.5*4)*3.375

= 75.60KN

= 14.18 KN

W5 = 89.78 KN

Hence, Total weight W= W5+W4+W3+W2 + W1 = 1389.15 KN

37

**4.3 Calculation of Base Shear (VB):
**

VB = Ah.W

Ah = Z.I.Sa/ 2Rg

Z = 0.36

I = 1.0

R = 5.0

**(as per cl.7.5.3- IS: 1893-2002)
**

(as per cl.6.4.2- IS: 1893-2002)

(as per Table 2- IS: 1893-2002)

(as per Table 6- IS: 1893-2002)

(as per Table 7- IS: 1893-2002, for SMRF with ductile detailing)

Now, Height h = 3.3 + 3.3 + 3.3 + 2.7+2.1 = 14.2 m

Ta = 0.075 × 14.20.75 = 0.56

(as per cl. 7.6.1 IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002)

Hence, for medium soil, Sa/g = 2.5

(as per cl.6.4.5 IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002)

Ah = 0.36 × 1 × 2.5 / (2 × 5)

= 0.09

VB = 0.09 × 1389.15

= 125.02 KN

**4.3.1 Distribution of base shear at each floor (Qi):
**

Qi = (Wihi2/Σ Wihi2) × VB

Wihi2/ΣWihi

roof

3rd

floor

2nd

floor

1st

floor

PL

Wihi2

Wi

hi

hi2

367.98

8

14.7 216.09

79518.53

474.10

8

11.4 129.96

61615.08

474.10

8

8.1

65.61

31106.23

457.27

8

4.8

23.04

10535.69

89.775

2.1

4.41

395.9077

Σ

Wihi2=183171.4

2

Q=(Wihi2/ΣWihi2)V

B

0.434120816

54.28

0.336379306

42.06

0.169820301

21.23

0.057518171

0.002161406

7.19

0.27

Σ =125.02 = VB

38

SEISMIC ANALYSIS

4.4 ANALYSIS BY CANTILEVER METHOD:

4.4.1 Calculation of distance of centroidal axis:

3.3

A

3.1

A

3.3

A

A

Fig. 4.1

X̅ =

=

= 4.85 m

Fig. 4.2

39

Now, P1 =K x 4.85

P2 = Kx1.55

P3 = Kx1.55

P4 = Kx4.85

P1 = P4

P3 = P2

Equation 1

P2 = 0.319 P1

P3 = 0.319 P1

Plinth level:

**Taking moment of all the forces @ the point
**

-50.69x13.65-39.28x10.35-19.83x7.05-6.72x3.75-0.25x1.05+P1x9.7+P2x6.4-P3x3.3 = 0

Using eqn. 1,

P1 = 118.21KN,

P2 = 37.71 KN,

P3 = 37.71 KN,

P4 = 118.21 KN

**For ground floor:
**

-50.69x11.25-39.28x7.95-19.83x4.65-6.72x1.35+P1x9.7+P2x6.4-P3x3.3 = 0

Using eqn. 1,

P1 = 92.03KN,

P2 = 29.36 KN,

P3 = 29.36 KN,

P4 = 92.03 KN

**For 1st floor:
**

-50.69x8.25-39.28x4.95-19.83x1.65+ P1x9.7+P2x6.4-P3x3.3 = 0

Using eqn. 1

P1 = 60.37 KN,

P2 = 19.25 KN,

P3 = 19.25 KN,

P4 = 60.37 KN

40

**For 2nd floor:
**

-50.69x4.95-39.28x1.65+ P1x9.7+P2x6.4-P3x3.3 = 0

Using eqn 1

P1 = 29.54 KN,

P2 = 9.42 KN,

P3 = 9.42 KN,

P4 = 29.54 KN

P3 = 2.49KN,

P4 = 7.82 KN

**For 3rd floor:
**

-50.69x1.65+ P1x9.7+P2x6.4-P3x3.3 = 0

Using eqn 1

P1 = 7.82 KN,

P2 = 2.49 KN,

**4.4.2 CALCULATION OF BEAM SHEAR, BEAM MOMENT, COLUMN SHEAR
**

AND COLUMN MOMENT

4.4.2.1 Considering the joints J21 – J22 – J23 – J24

Fig. 4.3

Calculation of shear forces in beams

J21- J22 = 7.82

J22 – J23 = 10.31

J23 – J24 = 7.82

Calculation of beam moments

M (J21-J22) = 7.82x3.3/2 = 12.903 KNm

M (J22- J23) = 10.31x3.1/2 = 15.98 KNm

M (J23-J24) = 7.82x3.3/2 = 12.903 KNm

41

Fig. 4.4

Calculation of column moments and column shear:

Joint J21:

M (J21- J17) + M(J21- J22) = 0

⇒ M (J21- J17) = - 12.903 KNm

∴ Column shear = 12.903/(3.3/2) = 7.82 KN

Joint J22:

M (J22- J21) + M (J22- J23) + M (J22- J18) = 0

⇒-2.903+15.98 = M (J22- J18)

⇒ M (J22- J18) = 28.883 KNm

∴ Column shear = 28.883/ (3.3/2) = 17.50 KN

Joint J23:

M (J23- J19) = 28.883 KNm

Column shear = 28.883/ (3.3/2) = 17.50 KN

Joint J24:

M (J24- J20) = 12.903 KNm

∴ Column shear = 12.903/ (3.3/2) = 7.82 KN

42

Fig. 4.5

**4.4.2.2 Considering the joints J17 – J18 – J19 – J20
**

Calculation of shear forces in beams:

Fig. 4.6

J17 – J18 = 21.72 KN

J18 – J19 = 28.65 KN

J19 – J20 = 21.72 KN

Calculation of beam moments:

M (J17-J18) = 21.72x3.3/2 = 35.838 KNm

M (J18- J19) = 28.65x3.1/2 = 44.41 KNm

M (J19-J20) = 21.72x3.3/2 = 35.838 KNm

43

Fig. 4.7

Calculation of column moments and column shear:

Joint J17:

M (J17- J21) + M (J17- J18) + M (J17- J13) = 0

⇒ M (J17- J13) + (35.838- 12.903) = 0 KNm

⇒ M (J17- J13) = 22.935 KNm

∴ Column shear = 22.935/(3.3/2) = 13.9 KN

Joint J18:

M (J18- J22) + M (J18- J19) + M (J18- J17) + M (J18-J14) = 0

⇒ M (J18-J14) = 51.36 KNm

∴ Column shear = 51.36/ (3.3/2) = 31.12 KN

Joint J19:

M (J19- J23) + M (J19- J18) + M (J19- J20) + M (J19- J15) = 0

⇒ M (J19- J15) = 51.36 KN

∴ Column shear = 51.36/ (3.3/2) = 31.12 KN

Joint J20:

M (J20- J24) + M (J20- J19) + M (J20- J16) = 0

⇒ M (J20- J16) = 22.935 KNm

∴ Column shear = 22.935/(3.3/2) = 13.9 KN

44

Fig. 4.8

4.4.2.3 Considering the joints J13 – J14 – J15 – J16

Calculation of shear forces in beams:

Fig. 4.9

J13 – J14 = 30.83 KN

J14 – J15 = 40.66 KN

J15 – J16 = 30.83 KN

45

**Calculation of beam moments:
**

M (J13 – J14) = 30.83x3.3/2 = 50.86 KNm

M (J14 – J15) = 40.66x3.1/2 = 63.023 KNm

M (J15 – J16) = 30.83x3.3/2 = 50.86 KNm

Fig. 4.10

Calculation of column moments and column shear:

Joint J13:

M (J13- J17) + M (J13- J14) + M (J13- J9) = 0

⇒ M (J13- J9) = 27.925 KNm

∴ Column shear = 27.925/(3.3/2) = 16.93 KN

Joint J14:

M (J14- J18) + M (J14- J15) + M (J14- J13) + M (J14 - J10) = 0

⇒ M (J14 - J10) = 62.523 KNm

∴ Column shear = 62.523/(3.3/2) = 37.89 KN

Joint J15:

M (J15- J19) + M (J15- J16) + M (J15- J14) + M (J15 - J11) = 0

⇒ M (J15 - J11) = 62.523 KNm

∴ Column shear = 62.523/(3.3/2) = 37.89 KN

46

Joint J16:

M (J16- J20) + M (J16- J15) + M (J16- J12) = 0

⇒ M (J16- J12) = 27.925 KNm

∴ Column shear = 27.925/(3.3/2) = 16.93 KN

Fig. 4.11

**4.4.2.4 Considering the joints J9 – J10 – J11 – J12
**

Calculation of shear forces in beams:

Fig. 4.12

J9 – J10 = 31.66 KN

J10 – J11 = 41.77 KN

J11 – J12 = 31.66 KN

Calculation of beam moments:

M (J9 – J10) = 31.66 x3.3/2 = 52.239 KNm

M (J10 – J11) = 41.77 x3.1/2 = 64.744 KNm

M (J11 – J12) = 31.66 x3.3/2 = 52.239 KNm

47

Fig. 4.13

Calculation of column moments and column shear:

Joint J9:

M (J9- J13) + M (J9- J10) + M (J9- J5) = 0

⇒ M (J9- J5) = 24.314 KNm

∴ Column shear = 24.314/ (2.7/2) = 18.01 KN

Joint J10:

M (J10- J14) + M (J10- J11) + M (J10- J9) + M (J10 – J6) = 0

⇒ M (J10 – J6) = 54.46 KNm

∴ Column shear = 54.46/ (2.7/2) = 40.34 KN

Joint J11:

M (J11- J15) + M (J11- J10) + M (J11- J12) + M (J11 – J7) = 0

⇒ M (J11 – J7) = 54.46 KNm

∴ Column shear = 54.46/ (2.7/2) = 40.34 KN

Joint J12:

M (J12- J16) + M (J12- J11) + M (J12- J8) = 0

⇒ M (J12- J8) = 24.314 KNm

∴ Column shear = 24.314/ (2.7/2) = 18.01 KN

48

Fig. 4.14

**4.4.2.5 Considering the joints J5 – J6 – J7 – J8
**

Calculation of shear forces in beams:

Fig. 4.15

J5 – J6 = 26.18 KN

J6 – J7 = 34.53 KN

J7 – J8 = 26.18 KN

**Calculation of beam moments:
**

M (J5 – J6) = 26.18 x3.3/2 = 43.197 KNm

M (J6 – J7) = 34.53 x3.1/2 = 53.52 KNm

M (J7 – J8) = 26.18 x3.3/2 = 43.197 KNm

49

Fig. 4.16

Calculation of column moments and column shear:

Joint J5:

M (J5- J9) + M (J5- J6) + M (J5- J1) = 0

⇒ M (J5- J1) = 18.883 KNm

∴ Column shear = 18.883/ (2.1/2) = 17.98 KN

Joint J6:

M (J6- J10) + M (J6- J5) + M (J6- J7) + M (J6 – J2) = 0

⇒ M (J6 – J2) = 42.257 KNm

∴ Column shear = 42.257/ (2.1/2) = 40.24 KN

Joint J7:

M (J7- J12) + M (J7- J6) + M (J7- J8) + M (J7 – J3) = 0

⇒ M (J7 – J3) = 42.257 KNm

∴ Column shear = 42.257/ (2.1/2) = 40.24 KN

Joint J8:

M (J8 – J12) + M (J8- J7) + M (J8- J4) = 0

⇒ M (J8- J4) = 18.883 KNm

∴ Column shear = 18.883/ (2.1/2) = 17.98 KN

50

Fig. 4.17

51

CHAPTER – 5

DESIGN OF SLAB

52

5.1

Desig

n consideration:

**Let, Span / effective depth
**

= 26x1.51

Where 1.51 is the modification factor as per cl. 23.2.1(c), IS 456:2000 (obtained for 25% tension

reinforcement)

⇒ 3600/d = 26x1.51

⇒ d = 91.69 m

Nominal cover = 20 mm (mild exposure)

Diameter of the bar = 8 mm

∴ Total depth = 91.69+20+8/2

= 115.69 < 120

Thus it is satisfactory.

∴ Effective depth provided

d = 120- 20- 8/2 = 96 mm

lx = 3300 mm

ly = 3600 mm

Therefore, ly/lx = 3600/3300 = 1.09 < 2

So the slab is a two way slab

Determination of moments of slabs(Laterally restrained slabs):

According to IS 456: 2000, clause D-1.1 , the maximum B.M. per width in the slab are

given by,

Mx = αxwlx2

My = αywly2

Where, lx and ly

= length of shorter and longer span respectively

αx and αy

= co-efficient

Mx and My

= moments on strips of unit width spanning lx and ly respectively

W

**= total design load per unit area
**

53

5.2 Load diagram for Slab

54

**5.3 Design Loads for Slab:
**

For roof slab:

W1 = 1.5x (0.120x25+1.5+1)

= 8.25KN/m2

For floor slab,

W2 = 1.5x (0.120x25+2+1)

= 9KN/m2

For ly/lx = 1.09 and two adjacent edges discontinuous

Short span co-efficient (αx)

Negative moment at continuous edges = - 0.0524

Positive moment at the midspan = + 0.0395

Long span co-efficient (αy)

Negative moment at the support = - 0.047

Positive moment at the midspan = + 0.035

**5.4 Design moments for Slab:
**

Short span

Long span

Near support

Mroof = 0.0524x8.25x3.32

= -4.71KNm

midspan

Mroof =

0.0395x8.25x3.32

=+3.55KNm

Near support

Mroof =

--0.047x8.25 x3.32

= -4.22KNm

midspan

Mroof =

+0.035x8.25 x3.32

= +3.14KNm

Mfloor=

-0.0524x9x3.32

=-5.136KNm

Mfloor=

0.0395x9x3.32

= +3.87KNm

Mfloor=

-0.047x9x3.32

= -4.61KNm

Mfloor=

0.035x9x3.32

= 3.43KNm

55

Now,

R = Mu/bd2 = (Mx106)/(1000x962)

Ast = bd x fck / 2fy [1 - √1-4.598xR/fck]

Spacing = 1000 x Ab / Ast

For 8mm dia,

Ab = π/4 x 82 = 50 mm2

5.5 Design of Slab:

Short span

R

Support

Midspan

Support

Midspan

0.511

0.39

0.46

0.341

106.14

125.73

92.53

Ast

ROOF

140.12

Spacing

451.08

397.66

540.39

356.83

Provide 8ɸ @

280c/c

0.56

Provide 8ɸ @

280c/c

0.42

Provide 8ɸ @

280c/c

0.50

Provide 8ɸ @

280c/c

0.37

Ast

154.04

114.52

137.01

100.57

Spacing

324.59

436.62

364.93

497.15

Provide 8ɸ @

280c/c

Provide 8ɸ @

280c/c

Provide 8ɸ @

280c/c

Provide 8ɸ @

280c/c

Reinforcement

provided

R

FLOOR

Long span

Reinforcement

provided

**5.6 Check for spacing:
**

cl. 26.3.3 (b)

Spacing should be less than

a.

3xd =

3x96 = 288 mm

56

b.

300

mm

Therefore, spacing < 288 mm i.e. 280mm < 288mm

**5.7 Check for thickness of slab:
**

Maximum B.M. = 5.136KNm

∴ dreqd = √(5.136x106)/(0.138x20x1000) = 43.14mm

∴ Dreqd = 43.14+20+4 = 67.14 mm < 120 mm

Hence safe…..

5.8 Cross section of the Slab

57

CHAPTER- 6

**DESIGN MOMENTS AND
**

SHEAR FORCES

(For Beam)

58

6.1 DESIGN TABLES FOR BENDING MOMENTS

59

**A. Load combination for B.M. of beams at ROOF level
**

MEMBER

Load combination

DL+LL

EL

1.5(DL+LL)

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

Design moment

R1-R2

END

MID

9.648 -12.077

-12.903 0.000

14.472 -18.116

-3.906 -14.492

27.061 -14.492

27.943

-12.903 -19.505

END

20.305

12.903

30.458

39.850

8.882

36.744

R2-R3

END

MID

17.837 -8.858

-15.980 0.000

26.756 -13.287

2.228 -10.630

40.580 -10.630

34.038

-15.98 -2.696

END

16.600

15.980

24.900

39.096

0.744

31.134

-7.218

R3-R4

END

MID

19.433 -10.070

-12.903 0.000

29.150 -15.105

7.836 -12.084

38.803 -12.084

33.108

-12.903 -14.534

END

10.300

12.903

15.450

27.844

-3.124

27.409

-3.558

**B. Load combination for B.M. of beams at 3RD FLOOR level
**

MEMBER

Load combination

DL+LL

EL

1.5(DL+LL)

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

Design moment

C1-C2

END

MID

18.903 -16.439

-35.838 0.000

28.355 -24.659

-20.322 -19.727

65.689 -19.727

65.689

-35.838 -24.659

END

29.681

35.838

44.522

78.623

-7.388

78.623

-7.388

C2-C3

END

MID

END

25.514 -13.220 24.313

-44.400 0.000 44.400

38.271 -19.830 36.470

-22.663 -15.864 82.456

83.897 -15.864 -24.104

83.897

82.456

-44.4

-19.83 -24.104

END

29.076

-35.838

43.614

-8.114

77.897

77.897

-35.838

C3-C4

MID

-14.594

0.000

-21.891

-17.513

-17.513

-21.891

END

18.374

35.838

27.561

65.054

-20.957

65.054

-20.957

60

**C. Load combination for B.M. of beams at 2ND FLOOR level
**

MEMBER

Load combination

DL+LL

EL

END

18.903

-50.869

B1-B2

MID

-16.439

0.000

END

29.681

50.869

END

25.514

-63.023

B2-B3

MID

-13.220

0.000

END

24.313

63.023

1.5(DL+LL)

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

28.355

-38.359

-24.659

-19.727

44.522

96.660

38.271

-45.011

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

83.726

83.726

-50.869

-19.727

-25.426

96.66

-25.426

106.244

106.244

-63.023

Design moment

-24.659

END

29.076

-50.869

B3-B4

MID

-14.594

0.000

END

18.374

50.869

-19.830 36.470

-15.864 104.803

43.614

-26.152

-21.891

-17.513

27.561

83.092

-15.864

95.934

95.934

-50.869

-17.513

-38.994

83.092

-38.994

-19.83

-46.452

104.803

-46.452

-21.891

**D. Load combination for B.M. of beams at 1ST FLOOR level
**

MEMBER

Load combination

DL+LL

EL

1.5(DL+LL)

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

Design moment

END

19.379

-52.239

29.069

-39.432

85.942

85.942

-52.239

A1-A2

MID

-16.223

0.000

-24.335

-19.468

-19.468

-24.335

END

29.638

52.239

44.457

98.252

-27.121

98.252

-27.121

END

25.415

-64.743

38.123

-47.194

108.190

108.19

-64.743

A2-A3

MID

-13.307

0.000

-19.961

-15.968

-15.968

-19.961

END

24.239

64.743

36.359

106.778

-48.605

106.778

-48.605

END

29.102

-52.239

43.653

-27.764

97.609

97.609

-52.239

A3-A4

MID

-14.442

0.000

-21.663

-17.330

-17.330

-21.663

END

18.652

52.239

27.978

85.069

-40.304

85.069

-40.304

61

E. Load combination for B.M. of beams at GROUND FLOOR level

MEMBER

Load combination

DL+LL

EL

1.5(DL+LL)

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

Design moment

END

2.245

-43.197

3.368

-49.142

54.530

G1-G2

MID

-1.714

0.000

-2.571

-2.057

-2.057

54.53

-49.142

-2.571

END

3.516

43.197

5.274

56.056

-47.617

END

3.677

-53.522

5.516

-59.814

68.639

56.056

68.639

-47.617

-59.814

G2-G3

MID

-0.385

0.000

-0.578

-0.462

-0.462

-0.578

END

3.662

53.522

5.493

68.621

-59.832

END

3.447

-43.197

5.171

-47.700

55.973

68.621

55.973

-59.832

-47.7

G3-G4

MID

-1.693

0.000

-2.540

-2.032

-2.032

END

2.355

43.197

3.533

54.662

-49.010

54.662

-2.54

-49.01

62

6.2 DESIGN TABLES FOR SHEAR FORCES

63

**A. Load Combination for Shear Forces of beams at ROOF level:
**

R1-R2

R2-R3

R3-R4

Load

combination

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

DL+LL

EL

1.5(DL+LL)

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

36.02

7.82

54.03

52.608

3.17

7.82

4.755

13.188

29.56

7.82

44.34

44.856

26.6

10.31

39.9

44.292

0.85

10.31

1.275

13.392

25.56

10.31

38.34

43.044

31.91

7.82

47.865

47.676

7.64

7.82

11.46

18.552

38.75

7.82

58.125

55.884

Design shear

52.608

13.188

44.856

44.292

13.392

43.044

47.676

18.552

55.884

**B. Load Combination for Shear Forces of beams at 3RD FLOOR level:
**

R1-R2

R2-R3

R3-R4

Load

combination

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

DL+LL

EL

1.5(DL+LL)

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

52.56

21.27

78.84

88.596

3.29

21.27

4.935

29.472

46.04

21.27

69.06

80.772

41.61

28.65

62.415

84.312

-9.29

28.65

-13.935

23.232

40.59

28.65

60.885

83.088

47.9

21.27

71.85

83.004

5.17

21.27

7.755

31.728

47.8

21.27

71.7

82.884

Design shear

88.596

29.472

80.772

84.312

23.232

83.088

83.004

31.728

82.884

**C. Load Combination for Shear Forces of beams at 2ND FLOOR level:
**

R1-R2

Load

combination

END

DL+LL

EL

1.5(DL+LL)

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

52.56

30.83

78.84

100.068

Design shear

100.068

MID

R2-R3

END

R3-R4

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

3.29

46.04

30.83

30.83

4.935

69.06

40.944 92.244

41.61

40.66

62.415

98.724

-9.29

40.66

-13.935

37.644

40.59

40.66

60.885

97.5

47.9

30.83

71.85

94.476

5.17

30.83

7.755

43.2

47.8

30.83

71.7

94.356

40.944 92.244

98.724

37.644

97.5

94.476

43.2

94.356

64

**D. Load Combination for Shear Forces of beams at 1ST FLOOR level:
**

R1-R2

Load

combination

END

DL+LL

EL

1.5(DL+LL)

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

52.4

31.66

78.6

100.872

Design shear

100.872

MID

R2-R3

END

R3-R4

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

2.98

46.2

31.66

31.66

4.47

69.3

41.568 93.432

41.62

41.77

62.43

100.068

-9.53

41.77

-14.295

38.688

40.58

41.77

60.87

98.82

47.98

31.66

71.97

95.568

5.15

31.66

7.725

44.172

47.72

31.66

71.58

95.256

41.568 93.432

100.068

38.688

98.82

95.568

44.172

95.256

**E. Load Combination for Shear Forces of beams at GROUND FLOOR level:
**

R1-R2

R2-R3

Load

combination

END

MID

END

DL+LL

EL

1.5(DL+LL)

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

5.9

26.18

8.85

38.496

0.34

26.18

0.51

31.824

5.2

26.18

7.8

37.656

Design shear

38.496

31.824

37.656

END

MID

R3-R4

END

END

MID

END

5.234

0

5.226

34.53

34.53

34.53

7.851

0

7.839

47.7168 41.436 47.7072

5.9

26.18

8.85

38.496

0.34

26.18

0.51

31.824

5.2

26.18

7.8

37.656

47.7168 41.436 47.7072

38.496

31.824

37.656

65

CHAPTER- 7

**DESIGN MOMENTS AND
**

AXIAL LOADS

(FOR COLUMNS AND

FOOTINGS)

66

7.1 CONSIDERATIONS

For getting worst condition of bending moment in columns, let us consider that, in each floor of

frame F, slab F1-F2 is assumed to be fully loaded and slab F2-F3 (each floor) is loaded only by the dead

load. Similarly, in frame 2, slab G2-F2 (each floor) is assumed to be fully loaded and slab F2-E2 (each

floor) is considered to be loaded only by the dead load.

7.2 FIXED END MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 1 (FRAME YY)

Fig. 7.1

FEM (R1R2) = +18.063 KNm

FEM (C1C2) = +27.154KNm

67

**FEM (B1B2) = +27.154KNm
**

FEM (A1A2) = +27.154KNm

FEM (G1G2) = +3.063KNm

7.2 DESIGN MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 1

MEMBER

R1-C1

C1-B1

B1-A1

A1-G1

G1-F1

DL+LL

-9.030

-8.960

-8.960

-10.32

-1.250

EL

12.903

22.935

27.934

24.305

18.892

1.5(DL+LL)

-13.545

-13.440

-13.440

-15.480

-1.875

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

4.648

16.770

22.769

16.782

21.170

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

-26.320

-38.274

-44.273

-41.550

-24.170

-26.320

-38.274

-44.273

-41.550

-24.170

Load combination

Design moment

7.3 CALCULATION OF COLUMN AXIAL

AT ROOF LEVEL

Load on Column R1C1

= Half of Load carried by Beam (RY1RY2+ RY1Rz1+ Rx1RY1) + Self weight of Column

R1 C1

= 0.5 x (19.874x3.3+13.801x2.7+15.451x3.6) + 3.375 x 3.3

= 90.372 KN

AT 3RD FLOOR LEVEL

Load on Column C1B1

= Half of Load carried by Beam (CY1CY2+ CY1CZ1+CX1CY1) + Self weight of Column

C1B1+

= 0.5x (20.027x2.7+21.827x3.6+29.922x3.3) + 3.375x3.3+90.372

= 217.206 KN

68

**AT 2ND FLOOR LEVEL
**

Load on Column B1A1

= Half of Load carried by Beam (BY1BY2+ BY1BZ1+BX1BY1) + Self weight of Column

B1A1+217.206

= 0.5x (20.027x2.7+21.827x3.6+29.922x3.3) + 3.375x3.3+217.206

= 348.258 KN

AT 1ST FLOOR LEVEL

Load on Column A1G1

= Half of Load carried by Beam (AY1AY2+ AY1AZ1+AX1AY1) + Self weight of Column

A1G1+348.258

= 0.5x (20.027x2.7+21.827x3.6+29.922x3.3) + 3.375x2.7+348.258

= 468.848 KN

AT GROUND FLOOR LEVEL

Load on Column G1F1

= Half of Load carried by Beam (GY1GY2+ GY1GZ1+GX1GY1) + Self weight of Column G1F1

= 0.5x (3.375x3.3+3.375x2.7+3.375x3.6) +3.375x2.1+468.848

= 492.136 KN

7.4 DESIGN AXIAL FORCES FOR COLUMN 1

MEMBER

R1-C1

C1-B1

B1-A1

A1-G1

G1-F1

DL+LL

90.372

217.206

348.258

468.848

492.136

EL

7.820

29.540

60.370

92.030

118.21

1.5(DL+LL)

135.558

325.809

522.387

703.272

738.204

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

117.830

296.095

490.354

673.054

732.415

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

99.062

225.199

345.466

452.182

448.711

135.558

325.809

522.387

703.272

738.204

Load combination

DESIGN AXIAL

FORCE

69

Fig. 7.2

70

7.5 FIXED END MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 2 (FRAME YY)

Fig. 7.3

FEM (R1R2) = -18.063 KNm

FEM (R2R3) = +16.529 KNm

FEM (C1C2) = -27.154KNm

FEM (C2C3) = +24.504KNm

FEM (B1B2) = -27.154 KNm

FEM (B2B3) = +24.504 KNm

71

**FEM (A1A2) = -27.154 KNm
**

FEM (A2A3) = +24.504 KNm

FEM (G1G2) = -3.063KNm

FEM (G2G3) = +2.703 KNm

7.6 DESIGN MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 2

MEMBER

R2-C2

C2-B2

B2-A2

A2-G2

G2-F2

DL+LL

0.660

0.660

0.660

0.768

0.115

EL

28.883

51.355

62.537

54.445

42.274

1.5(DL+LL)

0.990

0.990

0.990

1.152

0.173

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

35.452

62.418

75.836

66.256

50.867

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

-33.868

-60.834

-74.252

-64.412

-50.591

35.452

62.418

75.836

66.256

50.867

Load combination

Design moment

**7.7 CALCULATION OF COLUMN AXIAL
**

AT ROOF LEVEL

Load on Column R2C2

= Half of Load carried by Beam (RY1RY2+ RY2Rz2+ Rx2Ry2 +RY2RY3) + Self weight of

Column R2C2+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PR1)

= 0.5 x (19.874 x 3.3+10.799 x 3.1 + 18.227 x 2.7+ 16.301 x 3.6) + 10.225+3.375 x3.3

= 124.872 KN

AT 3RD FLOOR LEVEL

Load on Column C2B2

= Half of Load carried by Beam (CY1CY2+ CY2CZ2+CX2CY2+CY2CY3) + Self weight of

Column C2B2+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PC1)+124.872

= 0.5x (20.023x3.1+29.922x3.3+28.129x2.7+17.477x3.6)+11.031+3.375x3.3+124.872

= 296.88 KN

72

**AT 2ND FLOOR LEVEL
**

Load on Column B2A2

= Half of Load carried by Beam (BY1BY2+ BY2BZ2+BX2BY2+BY2BY3) + Self weight of

Column B2A2+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PB1)+296.88

= 0.5x (20.023x3.1+29.922x3.3+28.129x2.7+17.477x3.6) +11.031+3.375x3.3+296.88

= 473.101 KN

AT 1ST FLOOR LEVEL

Load on Column A2G2

= Half of Load carried by Beam (AY1AY2+ AY2AZ2+AX2AY2+AY2AY3) + Self weight of

Column A2G2+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PA1)+473.101

= 0.5x (20.023x3.1+29.922x3.3+28.129x2.7+17.477x3.6) +11.031+3.375x2.7+473.101

= 638.872 KN

AT GROUND FLOOR LEVEL

Load on Column G2F2

= Half of Load carried by Beam (GY1GY2+ GY2GZ2+GX2GY2+GY2GY3) + Self weight of

Column G2F2 +638.872

= 0.5x (3.375x3.1+3.375x3.3+3.375x2.7+3.375x3.6) + 3.375x2.1+638.872

= 667.513 KN

7.8 DESIGN AXIAL FORCES FOR COLUMN 2

MEMBER

R2-C2

C2-B2

B2-A2

A2-G2

G2-F2

DL+LL

124.872

296.88

473.101

638.872

667.513

EL

1.5(DL+LL)

2.490

187.308

9.420

445.320

19.250

709.652

29.360

958.308

37.710

1001.270

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

152.834

367.560

590.821

801.878

846.268

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

146.858

344.952

544.621

731.414

755.764

DESIGN AXIAL FORCE

187.308

445.320

709.652

958.308

1001.270

Load combination

73

Fig. 7.4

74

7.9 FIXED END MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 3 (FRAME YY)

Fig. 7.5

**FEM (R2R3) = -15.139 KNm
**

FEM (R3R4) = +18.598 KNm

FEM (C3C4) = +27.628 KNm

75

**FEM (C2C3) = -23.009 KNm
**

FEM (B3B4) = +27.628 KNm

FEM (B2B3) = -23.009 KNm

FEM (A3A4) = +27.628 KNm

FEM (A2A3) = -23.009 KNm

FEM (G3G4) = +3.063KNm

FEM (G2G3) = -2.703 KNm

**7.10 DESIGN MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 3
**

MEMBER

R3-C3

C3-B3

B3-A3

A3-G3

G3-F3

DL+LL

-1.150

-1.150

-1.150

-1.34

-0.115

EL

28.883

51.355

62.537

54.445

42.274

1.5(DL+LL)

-1.725

-1.725

-1.725

-2.010

-0.173

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

33.280

60.246

73.664

63.726

50.591

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

-36.040

-63.006

-76.424

-66.942

-50.867

-36.040

-63.006

-76.424

-66.942

-50.867

Load combination

Design moment

**7.11 CALCULATION OF COLUMN AXIAL
**

AT ROOF LEVEL

Load on Column R3C3

= Half of Load carried by Beam (RY2RY3+ RY3Rz3+ Rx3Ry3 +RY3RY4) + Self weight of

Column R3C3+ Load due to Secondary Beam(PR1)+ Load due to Secondary Beam(PR2)

= 0.5 x (16.163 x 3.3 + 10.799 x3.1 + 16.301 x 3.6 +12.451 x 2.7) + 8.465 + 8.005 +

3.375 x 3.3

= 117.166 KN

76

**AT 3RD FLOOR LEVEL
**

Load on Column C3B3

= Half of Load carried by Beam (CY2CY3+ CY3CZ3+CX3CY3+CY3CY4) + Self weight of

Column C3B3+ Load due to Secondary Beam(PC1)+ Load due to Secondary

Beam(PC2)+117.166

= 0.5(25.874x3.3+20.023x3.1+13.277x2.7+17.477x3.6)+9.084+8.45+3.375x3.3+117.166

= 268.938 KN

AT 2ND FLOOR LEVEL

Load on Column B3A3

= Half of Load carried by Beam (BY2BY3+ BY3BZ3+BX3BY3+BY3BY4) + Self weight of

Column B3A3+ Load due to Secondary Beam(PB1)+ Load due to Secondary

Beam(PB2)+268.938

= 0.5(25.874x3.3+20.023x3.1+13.277x2.7+17.477x3.6)+9.084+8.45+3.375x3.3+268.938

= 420.711 KN

AT 1ST FLOOR LEVEL

Load on Column A3G3

= Half of Load carried by Beam (AY2AY3+ AY3AZ3+AX3AY3+AY3AY4) + Self weight of

Column A3G3+ Load due to Secondary Beam(PA1)+ Load due to Secondary

Beam(PA2)+420.711

= 0.5(25.874x3.3+20.023x3.1+13.277x2.7+17.477x3.6)+9.084+8.45+3.375x2.7+420.711

= 570.458 KN

AT GROUND FLOOR LEVEL

Load on Column G3F3

= Half of Load carried by Beam (GY2GY3+ GY3GZ3+GX3GY3+GY3GY4) + Self weight of

Column G3F3+570.458

= 0.5(3.375x3.3+3.375x3.1+3.375x2.7+3.375x3.6) +2.1x3.375+570.458

= 598.976 KN

77

**7.12 DESIGN AXIAL FORCES FOR COLUMN 3
**

MEMBER

R3-C3

C3-B3

B3-A3

A3-G3

G3-F3

117.166

268.938

420.711

570.458

598.976

-2.490

-9.420

-19.250

-29.360

-37.71

1.5(DL+LL)

175.749

403.407

631.067

855.687

898.464

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

137.611

311.422

481.753

649.318

673.519

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

143.587

334.030

527.953

719.782

764.023

175.749

403.407

631.067

855.687

898.464

Load combination

DL+LL

EL

DESIGN AXIAL FORCE

Fig. 7.6

78

7.13 FIXED END MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 4 (FRAME YY)

Fig. 7.7

FEM (R3R4) = -15.541 KNm

FEM (C3C4) = -24.402 KNm

FEM (B3B4) = -24.402 KNm

FEM (A3A4) = -24.402 KNm

FEM (G3G4) = -3.063 KNm

79

**7.14 DESIGN MOMENTS FOR COLUMN 4
**

MEMBER

R4-C4

C4-B4

B4-A4

A4-G4

G4-F4

DL+LL

8.050

8.050

8.050

8.78

1.250

EL

12.903

22.935

27.934

24.305

18.892

1.5(DL+LL)

12.075

12.075

12.075

13.170

1.875

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

25.144

37.182

43.181

39.702

24.170

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

-5.824

-17.862

-23.861

-18.630

-21.170

25.144

37.182

43.181

39.702

24.170

Load combination

Design moment

7.14 CALCULATION OF COLUMN AXIAL

AT ROOF LEVEL

Load on Column R4C4

= Half of Load carried by Beam (RY1RY2+ RY1Rz1+ Rx1Ry1) + Self weight of Column

R1C1+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PR2)

= 0.5 x (16.163 x 3.3 +15.451 x3.6 + 10.09 x 2.7) +3.375 x 3.3 + 5.249 + 1.779

= 86.268 KN

AT 3RD FLOOR LEVEL

Load on Column C4B4

= Half of Load carried by Beam (CY1CY2+ CY1CZ1+CX1CY1) + Self weight of Column

C4B4+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PC2)+86.268

= 0.5 x (15.978x2.7+21.827x3.6+25.874x3.3) +5.366+1.878+3.375x3.3+86.268

= 208.2 KN

AT 2ND FLOOR LEVEL

Load on Column B4A4

= Half of Load carried by Beam (BY1BY2+ BY1BZ1+BX1BY1) + Self weight of Column

B4A4+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PB2)+208.2

80

**= 0.5 x (15.978x2.7+21.827x3.6+25.874x3.3) +5.366+1.878+3.375x3.3+208.2
**

= 334.345 KN

AT 1ST FLOOR LEVEL

Load on Column A4G4

= Half of Load carried by Beam (AY1AY2+ AY1AZ1+AX1AY1) + Self weight of Column

A4G4+ Load due to Secondary Beam (PA2)+334.345

= 0.5 x (15.978x2.7+21.827x3.6+25.874x3.3) +5.366+1.878+3.375x2.7+334.345

= 450.04 KN

AT GROUND FLOOR LEVEL

Load on Column G4F4

= Half of Load carried by Beam (GY1GY2+ GY1GZ1+GX1GY1) + Self weight of Column

G4F4++450.04

= 0.5 x (3.375x3.6+3.375x2.7+3.375x3.3) +2.1x3.375+450.04

= 473.328 KN

**7.15 DESIGN AXIAL FORCES FOR COLUMN 4
**

MEMBER

R4-C4

C4-B4

B4-A4

A4-G4

G4-F4

DL+LL

86.268

208.2

334.345

450.04

473.328

EL

-7.820

-29.540

-60.370

-92.030

-118.21

1.5(DL+LL)

129.402

312.300

501.518

675.060

709.992

1.2(DL+LL+EL)

94.138

214.392

328.770

429.612

426.142

1.2(DL+LL-EL)

112.906

285.288

473.658

650.484

709.846

129.402

312.300

501.518

675.060

709.992

Load combination

DESIGN AXIAL

FORCE

81

Fig. 7.8

82

CHAPTER- 8

DESIGN OF BEAM

83

8.1 DESIGN FOR BENDING MOMENT

84

**8.1.1 Design of Beam at Roof level
**

R1-R2

R2-R3

R3-R4

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

39.85

40.58

39.096

38.803

27.844

27.061

DESIGN MOMENT

-12.903 -18.116

-15.98 -13.287

-12.903

-15.105

-3.124

0.531

0

0.783

0.797

0

0.768

0.762

0

0.547

Mu/bd2

-0.253

-0.356

0

-0.314

-0.261

0

-0.253

-0.297

-0.061

Pt

0.158

0.233

0.233

0.233

0.233

0.158

Ast

195.288

0 287.988 287.988

0 287.988 287.988

0 195.288

Pt

0.085

0.114

0.099

0.085

0.085

0.085

0.085

Ast

105.06 140.904

0 122.364 105.06

0

105.06

105.06 105.06

NO OF BARS AT TOP

2 nos 16 Ф bars (402 )throughout the length

NO OF BARS AT

BOTTOM

2 nos 16 Ф bars (402) throughout the length

8.1.2 Design of Beam at 3rd FLOOR level

DESIGN MOMENT

Mu/bd2

Pt

Ast

Pt

Ast

no of bars at top

no of bars at top

no of bars at bottom

END

65.689

-35.838

1.303

-0.711

0.392

482.16

0.218

268.14

C1-C2

MID

C2-C3

C3-C4

END

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

78.623 83.897

82.456 77.897

65.054

-24.659

-7.388

-44.4 -19.83 -24.104 -35.838 -21.891 -20.957

0.000

1.559

1.664

0.000

1.635

1.545

0.000

1.290

-0.489

-0.147 -0.880 -0.393

-0.478 -0.711 -0.434 -0.416

0.494

0.53

0.512

0.477

0.392

0 607.62

651.9

0

629.76 586.71

0 482.16

0.143

0.085

0.264

0.114

0.143

0.218

0.128

0.128

175.89 104.55 324.72 140.22

175.89 268.14 157.44 157.44

2 nos 20 Ф bars (628 mm2) throughout the length

1 nos 20 Ф bar (314)

2 nos 16 Ф bars (402) throughout the length

85

8.1.2 Design of Beam at 2ND FLOOR level

DESIGN MOMENT

Mu/bd2

Pt

Ast

Pt

Ast

no of bars at top

no of bars at top

no of bars at bottom

B1-B2

B2-B3

B3-B4

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

96.66 106.244

104.803 95.934

83.092

83.726

-50.869 -24.659 -25.426 -63.023 -19.83 -46.452 -50.869 -21.891 -38.994

1.660

0.000

1.917

2.107 0.000

2.078

1.902

0.000

1.648

-1.009

-0.489

-0.504

-1.250 -0.393

-0.921 -1.009 -0.434 -0.773

0.53

0.621

0.685

0.67

0.602

0.53

651.9

0

763.83 842.55

0

824.1 740.46

0

651.9

0.327

0.143

0.143

0.376 0.114

0.28

0.295

0.128

0.233

402.21

175.89

175.89 462.48 140.22

344.4 362.85 157.44 286.59

2 nos 20 Ф bars (628 mm2) throughout the length

1 nos 20 Ф bar (314) curtailing

2 nos 20 Ф bars (628) throughout the length

8.1.2 Design of Beam at 1ST FLOOR level

DESIGN MOMENT

Mu/bd2

Pt

Ast

Pt

Ast

no of bars at top

no of bars at top

no of bars at bottom

END

85.942

-52.239

1.704

-1.036

0.53

651.9

0.311

382.53

A1-A2

MID

-24.335

0.000

-0.483

0

0.143

175.89

A2-A3

MID

END

END

END

END

98.252

108.19

106.778

97.609

-27.121 -64.743 -19.961 -48.605 -52.239

1.948

2.145

0.000

2.117

1.936

-0.538

-1.284

-0.396

-0.964

-1.036

0.621

0.701

0.685

0.621

763.83

862.23

0

842.55

763.83

0.158

0.392

0.114

0.295

0.311

194.34

482.16

140.22

362.85

382.53

2 nos 20 Ф bars (628 mm2) throughout the length

1 nos 20 Ф bar (314) curtailing

2 nos 20 Ф bars (628) throughout the length

A3-A4

MID

-21.663

0.000

-0.430

0

0.128

157.44

END

85.069

-40.304

1.687

-0.799

0.53

651.9

0.233

286.59

86

8.1.3 Design of Beam at Ground FLOOR level

DESIGN MOMENT

Mu/bd2

Pt

Ast

Pt

Ast

no of bars at top

no of bars at bottom

G1-G2

G2-G3

G3-G4

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

END

MID

END

54.53

56.056 68.639

68.621 55.973

54.662

-49.142 -2.571

-47.617 -59.814 -0.578 -59.832

-47.7

-2.54

-49.01

1.081

0.000

1.112

1.361 0.000

1.361

1.110 0.000

1.084

-0.974 -0.051

-0.944

-1.186 -0.011

-1.186

-0.946 -0.050

-0.972

0.327

0.343

0.426

0.426

0.343

0.327

404.172

0 423.948 526.536

0 526.536 423.948

0 404.172

0.295

0.085

0.28

0.359 0.085

0.359

0.28 0.085

0.295

362.85 104.55

344.4 441.57 104.55 441.57

344.4 104.55 362.85

2 nos 20 Ф bars (628) throughout the length

2 nos 20 Ф bars (628) throughout the length

87

.

8.2 DESIGN FOR SHEAR FORCE

88

8.2.1

Minimum shear reinforcement, Asv/bSv = 0.4/.87fy

(as per cl.26.5.1.6 of IS 456:2000)

Maximum spacing smaller of, (i) 300mm

(as per cl.26.5.1.5 of IS 456:2000)

(ii) 0.75d = 346.5 mm

(as per cl.26.5.1.5 of IS 456:2000)

**(iii) Sv = 0.87x250x56/(250x0.4) = 121.8 (6φ)
**

Or, Sv = 0.87x250x100/(250x0.4) = 217.5 (8φ)

**8.2.2 Design of Beam at Roof level
**

END

Design shear

τv=Vu/bd

Ast

pt

τc

Spacing

R1-R2

MID

END

END

44.292

R2-R3

MID

13.392

END

43.044

END

52.608

13.188

44.856

47.676

0.390

804

0.7

0.55

0.098

804

0.7

0.55

0.332

0.328

0.099

0.319

0.353

804

804

804

804

804

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

τc>τv , minimum shear reinforcement is required

2 legged 6 φ bars @ 120 mm c/c

R3-R4

MID

END

18.552

55.884

0.137

804

0.7

0.55

0.414

804

0.7

0.55

89

**8.2.3 Design of Beam at 3rd Floor level
**

END

Design shear

τv=Vu/bd

Ast

pt

τc

C1-C2

MID

END

END

23.232

END

83.088

END

88.596

29.472

80.772

0.656

1030

0.763

0.676

0.218

1030

0.763

0.676

0.598

0.625

0.172

0.615

0.615

1030

1344

1344

1344

1030

0.763

0.996

0.996

0.996

0.763

0.676

0.62

0.62

0.62

0.676

τc>τv , minimum shear reinforcement is required

2 legged 6 φ bars @ 120 mm c/c

Sv provided

84.312

C2-C3

MID

83.004

C3-C4

MID

END

31.728

82.884

0.235

1030

0.763

0.676

0.614

1030

0.763

0.676

END

**8.2.4 Design of Beam at 2nd Floor level
**

END

B1-B2

MID

END

END

Design shear

100.068

40.944

92.244

98.724

τv=Vu/bd

Ast

pt

τc

0.741

1570

1.163

0.653

0.303

1570

1.163

0.653

0.683

1570

1.163

0.653

0.731

1570

1.163

0.653

Vus/d=(τv-τc)b

Sv

maximum Sv

Sv provided

0.265

80

0.091

200

0.235

90

B2-B3

MID

END

END

B3-B4

MID

37.644

97.5

94.476

43.2

94.356

0.279

1570

1.163

0.653

0.722

1570

1.163

0.653

0.700

1570

1.163

0.653

0.320

1570

1.163

0.653

0.699

1570

1.163

0.653

0.208

100

0.140

150

0.138

150

80

2 legged 8 φ bars at 80mm c/c

90

**8.2.5 Design of Beam at 1st Floor level
**

END

A1-A2

MID

END

END

A2-A3

MID

END

END

A3-A4

MID

END

Design shear

100.872

41.568

93.432

100.068

38.688

98.82

95.568

44.172

95.256

τv=Vu/bd

Ast

pt

τc

Vus/d=(τvτc)b

Sv

maximum Sv

Sv provided

0.747

1570

1.163

0.653

0.308

1570

1.163

0.653

0.692

1570

1.163

0.653

0.741

1570

1.163

0.653

0.287

1570

1.163

0.653

0.732

1570

1.163

0.653

0.708

1570

1.163

0.653

0.327

1570

1.163

0.653

0.706

1570

1.163

0.653

0.117

180

0.265

80

0.237

90

0.165

130

0.283

70

0.158

130

70

2 legged 8 φ bars at 70 mm c/c

**8.2.6 Design of Beam at Ground Floor level
**

END

G1-G2

MID

END

Design shear

38.496

31.824

37.656

τv=Vu/bd

Ast

pt

τc

0.285

1256

0.930

0.606

0.236

1256

0.930

0.606

spacing

END

G2-G3

MID

END

G3-G4

MID

END

END

47.7168

41.436

47.7072

38.496

31.824

37.656

0.279

0.353

0.307

0.353

0.285

1256

1256

1256

1256

1256

0.930

0.930

0.930

0.930

0.930

0.606

0.606

0.606

0.606

0.606

τc>τv , minimum shear reinforcement is required

2 legged 6 φ bars @ 120 mm c/c

0.236

1256

0.930

0.606

0.279

1256

0.930

0.606

91

8.3 DETAILING OF BEAM

92

Fig 8.1

Beam development length

Fig 8.2

Shear Reinforcement in Beams

93

Fig 8.3

Curtailment of Main reinforcement

Fig 8.4

94

Fig 8.5

Detailing of Beam in second floor

95

CHAPTER-9

DESIGN OF COLUMN

96

9.1 COLUMN 1

9.1.1 Considerations:

Here,

b = 300 mm

D = 450 mm

d’ = 40+20/2 = 50 mm

... d’//D= 50/450 = 0.111

Design

Column moment(Mu)

Design

axial

force (Pu)

Pu/(fckbD)

Mu/(fckbD2)

P/fck

P

P

provided

Ast

R1-C1

26.320

135.558

0.022

0.050

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

C1-B1

38.274

325.809

0.032

0.120

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

B1-A1

44.273

522.387

0.036

0.193

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

A1-G1

41.550

703.272

0.034

0.260

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

R1-C1

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

C1-B1

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

B1-A1

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

A1-G1

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

**9.1.2 Lateral ties (As per Cl.26.5.3.2(c) of IS: 456-2000)
**

Diameter (mm)

Pitch (mm)

should not be less than

should not be more than

(i)

(ii)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

R1-C1

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

C1-B1

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

B1-A1

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

A1-G1

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

Column

Lateral

provided

ties

97

9.2 COLUMN 2:

9.2.1 Considerations:

Here,

b = 300 mm

D = 450 mm

d’ = 40+20/2 = 50 mm

... d’//D= 50/450 = 0.111

Column

Design

moment(Mu)

Design

axial

force (Pu)

R2-C2

35.452

187.308

0.03

0.07

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

C2-B2

62.418

445.320

0.05

0.16

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

B2-A2

75.836

709.652

0.06

0.26

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

A2-G2

66.256

958.308

0.05

0.35

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

Mu/(fckbD2)

Pu/(fckbD)

P/fck

P

P

provided

Ast

R2-C2

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

C2-B2

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

B2-A2

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

A2-G2

4 nos 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

9.2.2 Lateral ties (As per Cl.26.5.3.2(c) of IS: 456-2000)

Column

Diameter (mm)

Pitch (mm)

should not be less than

should not be more than

Lateral ties

provided

(i)

(ii)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

R2-C2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

C2-B2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

B2-A2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

A2-G2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

98

9.3 COLUMN 3:

9.3.1 Considerations:

Here,

b = 300 mm

D = 450 mm

d’ = 40+20/2 = 50 mm

... d’//D= 50/450 = 0.111

Column

Design

moment(Mu)

Design

axial

force (Pu)

R3-C3

36.040

175.749

0.03

0.06

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

C3-B3

63.006

403.407

0.05

0.15

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

B3-A3

76.424

631.067

0.06

0.23

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

A3-G3

50.867

855.687

0.04

0.32

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

Mu/(fckbD2)

Pu/(fckbD)

P/fck

P

P

provided

Ast

R3-C3

4 nos. 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

C3-B3

4 nos. 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

B3-A3

4 nos. 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

A3-G3

4 nos. 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

9.3.2 Lateral ties (As per Cl.26.5.3.2(c) of IS: 456-2000)

Column

Diameter (mm)

Pitch (mm)

should not be less than

should not be more than

Lateral ties

provided

(i)

(ii)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

R2-C2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

C2-B2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

B2-A2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

A2-G2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

99

9.4 COLUMN 4:

9.4.1 Considerations:

Here,

b = 300 mm

D = 450 mm

d’ = 40+20/2 = 50 mm

... d’//D= 50/450 = 0.111

Column

design

moment(Mu)

design

axial

force (Pu)

Pu/(fckbD)

P/fck

P

P

provided

Ast

Mu/(fckbD2)

R4-C4

25.144

129.402

0.02

0.05

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

C4-B4

37.182

312.300

0.03

0.11

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

B4-A4

43.181

501.518

0.04

0.18

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

A4-G4

39.702

675.060

0.03

0.25

0.01

0.2

0.8

1080

R4-C4

4 nos. 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

C4-B4

4 nos. 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

B4-A4

4 nos.20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

A4-G4

4 nos. 20 ɸ bars (1256) at each corner

9.4.2 Lateral ties (As per Cl.26.5.3.2(c) of IS: 456-2000)

Column

Diameter (mm)

Pitch (mm)

should not be less than

should not be more than

Lateral ties

provided

(i)

(ii)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

R2-C2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

C2-B2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

B2-A2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

A2-G2

5

6

300

320

300

6 ɸ bar 2L 300mm

100

DETAILING OF COLUMN

101

Fig. 9.1

102

CHAPTER 10

FOOTING DESIGN

103

**10.1 FOOTING DESIGN FOR THE COLUMN R1-F1
**

Axial load on the column to the footing = 738.204 KN

Moment at the base of the column = 24.17 KNm

SBC of the soil = 150 KN/m2

10.1.1 GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATION

Now,

P = 492 KN

M = 16.11 KNm

Axial Load on the column = 492

Add 10% for self weight = 49.2

Total load on footing

Area required

=

= 541.2 KN

= 3.608 m2

**Add 10% for moment= .3608m2
**

Total area required

= 3.9 m2

L/B = 450/300 = 1.5

L = 1.5 B

1.5 B2 = 3.9 m2

B = 1.59 m

L = 2.4 m

Provide footing size 2.9 m x 1.9 m

Pmax = P/A + M/Z

= 541.2/(2.9x 1.9)+ (16.11 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92)

= 98.3 KN/m2 <150 KN/m2

(hence safe)

P min = P/A - M/Z

= 541.66/(2.9x 1.9) - (16.11 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92) = 80.21KN/m2

104

**10.1.2 STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATION
**

1. CHECK FOR BENDING

a) Longer direction

Fig. 10.1

x = 7.64 KN/m2

y = 90.66 KN/m2

BM at the face of the column, M

= 90.66x1.225 x1.9x1.225 x .5 + .5 x7.64 x1.225 x1.9 x 2/3 x 1.225

M = 133.24 KNm

Mu = 1.5×133.24=200 KNm

Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)

105

**= 450 + 1/8(2900-450)
**

= 756. 25 mm

dreqd = √(200x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 756.25)

= 309.5 mm

Using 50 mm clear cover and 16ᵠ bars

Overall depth = 309.5 + 50 +16/2

= 367.5 mm

We provide overall depth = 700 mm

davailable = 700 – 50- 16/2

= 642 mm

Now

Mu/be = 310/.756=410 and d= 64.2 cm

From chart 15 of SP 16

Pt = 0.3

As = (.3 x 756 x 642)/ 100

= 1457 mm2

From table 96 of SP 16

Provide 16ᵠ bars at 100 mm c/c (2011 mm2)

So actual steel provided = (2011 x 100)/ (756 x 642)

= 0.414

106

b) For shorter direction

Fig. 10.2

X=7.61

Y=90.61

**BM at the face of the column = 90.69x 0.8 x 0.8 x 2.9 x .5 + 0.5x 7.61 x 0.8 x 2.9 x 2/3 x 0.8
**

=88.89 KNm

Mu = 133.33 KNm

Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)

= 300 + 1/8(1900-300)

= 500 mm

dreqd = √(133.83 x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 500) = 310.83

107

**Overall depth = 310.83 + 50 +16+16/2
**

= 384.83 mm

Provided depth = 700 mm

davailable = 700 -50 -16 -16/2 = 626 mm

Now,

Mu/be = 133.3/.500 = 266 and d= 62.6 cm

Pt = 0.18

As = (.18 x 500 x 626)/ 100

= 563.4 mm2

From table 96 of SP 16

We provide 16ᵠ bars at 300 mm c/c (670 mm2)

So actual steel provided = (670 x 100)/ (500 x 626)

= 0.21

108

**2. CHECK FOR ONE WAY SHEAR
**

Critical section for one way shear occurs at a distance of “d” from the face of the column

d= 642 mm

Fig. 10.3

**de = (550 x 583)/ 1225
**

= 261.75 mm

109

**Overall depth = 261.75 +150
**

= 411.75 mm

Available depth = 411.75 – 50 – 16/2 = 353.75 mm

Actual amount of steel = 2011x 2.9 = 5831.9 mm2

Area of trapezoid = 923704mm2

Percentage of steel at critical section

=

=

= .63 %

For Pt= 0.63 %,

τc = .522 N/mm2

X = 2.02

Y = 88.28

V = [.5 x (88.07+90.3)] x .583 x 1.9

Fig. 10.4

= 98.90 KN

Vu = 148.36 KN

τv = (Vu/bd)

= (148.36 x 103)/ [.5 x (1584+2714) x 353.75]

0.19 < τc

Hence safe

110

**3. CHECK FOR TWO WAY SHEAR
**

Critical section for punching shear occurs at a distance of “d/2” from the face of the column

d/2 = 642/2 = 321 mm

b= 2 x 321 + 300

= 942 mm

Now

Fig. 10.5

**de = (550 x 904)/ 1225= 405.44 mm
**

111

**Overall depth = 405.44 + 150
**

= 555.8 mm

Available depth = 555.8 – 50 -16/2

= 497.87 mm

Punching shear stress = (541.2 x 103)/(4x 942 x 497.87)

= 0.28 N/mm2

Permissible punching shear stress = 0.25 √ (fck)

= 0.25 x √20

= 1.12 N/mm2

Hence safe

4. CHECK FOR BEARING

As per clause 34.4 of IS 456

Safe bearing capacity = 0.45 fck √ (A1 / A2)

A1 = (b +4D) 2

A2 = (450 x 300)

Now A1/ A2 = 8.44 and √ (A1 / A2) = 2.97>2

So take √ (A1 / A2) = 2

Actual bearing stress = (column load/column area)

= (492 x 103)/ (450 x 300)

= 3.64 N/mm2

Safe bearing stress = 0.45 fck √ (A1 / A2)

= 0.45 x 20 x √2

= 18 N/mm2

Hence safe

112

**5. CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
**

For 16 ᵠ bars and M20 concrete from table 66 of SP 16

Development length = 752 mm

a) Available length in longer direction = 1225 mm.

b) Available length in shorter direction = 800 mm.

Fig. 10.6

113

**10.2 FOOTING DESIGN FOR THE COLUMN R2-F2
**

Axial load on the column to the footing = 1001.27 KN

Moment at the base of the column = 51 KNm

SBC of the soil = 150 KN/m2

10.2.1 GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATION

Now,

Pu = 667.5 KN

Mu = 42.5 KNm

Axial Load on the column = 667.5

Add 10% for self weight = 66.75

Total load on footing

Area required

=

= 734.25 KN

= 4.89 m2

**Add 10% for moment= .489 m2
**

Total area required

= 5.4 m2

L/B = 450/300 = 1.5

L = 1.5 B

1.5 B2 = 5.4 m2

B = 1.9 m

L = 2.89 m

Provide footing size 2.9 m x 1.9 m

Pmax = P/A + M/Z

= 734.25/(2.9x 1.9)+ (42.5 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92)

= 149.2 KN/m2

P min = P/A - M/Z

= 734.25/(2.9x 1.9) - (42.5 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92) = 117.3 KN/m2

114

**10.2.2 STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATION
**

1. CHECK FOR BENDING

a) Longer direction

Fig. 10.7

x = 13.5 KN/m2

y = 135.7 KN/m2

BM at the face of the column, M

= 135.7x1.225 x1.9x1.225 x .5 + .5 x13.5 x1.225 x1.9 x 2/3 x 1.225

M = 206.34 KNm

Mu = 310 KNm

Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)

= 450 + 1/8(2900-450)

= 756. 25 mm

115

**dreqd = √(310 x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 756.25) = 385.4 mm
**

Using 50 mm clear cover and 16ᵠ bars

Overall depth = 385.4 + 50 +16/2

= 441.4 mm

We provide overall depth = 700 mm

davailable = 700 – 50- 16/2

= 642 mm

Now

Mu/be = 310/.756 and d= 64.2 cm

From table 15 of SP 16

Pt = 0.3

As = (.3 x 756.25 x 642)/ 100

= 1457 mm2

From table 96 of SP 16

Provide 16ᵠ bars at 100 mm c/c (2011 mm2)

So actual steel provided = (2011 x 100)/ (756.5 x 642)

= 0.41

116

b) For shorter direction

Fig. 10.8

X = 13.43

Y = 135.76

BM at the face of the column = .5x (149.2 + 117.3) x 0.8 x 2.9 x 2.9 x .5

= 280.05 KNm

Mu = 420 KNm

Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)

= 300 + 1/8(1900-300)

= 500 mm

dreqd = √(420 x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 500)

= 551.67

Overall depth = 551.67 + 50 +16+16/2

= 625.67 mm

117

**Provided depth = 700 mm
**

davailable = 700 -50 -16 -16/2 = 626 mm

Now

Mu/be = 420/.500 = 840 and d= 62.6 cm

Pt = 0.3

As = (.3 x 500 x 626)/ 100

= 939 mm2

From table 96 of SP 16

We provide 16ᵠ bars at 180 mm c/c (1117 mm2)

So actual steel provided = (1117 x 100)/ (500 x 626)

= 0.35

118

**2. CHECK FOR ONE WAY SHEAR
**

Critical section for one way shear occurs at a distance of “d” from the face of the column

d= 642 mm

Fig. 10.9

**de = (550 x 583)/ 1225
**

= 261.75 mm

Overall depth = 261.75 +150= 411.75 mm

119

**Available depth = 411.75 – 50 – 16/2 = 353.75 mm
**

Actual amount of steel = 2011 x 2.9 = 5831.9 mm2

Area of trapezoid = .5 x (1584+2900) x412

= 923704 mm2

Percentage of steel at critical section

=

=

= .63 %

For Pt 0.63 %,

τc = .552 N/mm2

X = 6.413

Y = 142.8

V= [.5 x(142.8+149.2)] x .583 x 1.9

= 161.72 KN

Vu = 242.58 KN

τv = (Vu/bd)

= (242.58 x 103)/ [.5x (1584+2714) x 353.75]

0.32 < τc

Hence safe

120

**3. CHECK FOR TWO WAY SHEAR
**

Critical section for punching shear occurs at a distance of “d/2” from the face of the column

d/2 = 642/2 = 321 mm

b= 2 x 321 + 300

= 942 mm

Fig. 10.10

Now

**de = (550 x 904)/ 1225
**

= 405.44 mm

121

**Overall depth = 405.44 + 150
**

= 555.8 mm

Available depth = 555.8 – 50 -16/2

= 497.87 mm

Punching shear stress = (734.25 x 103)/(4x 942 x 497)

= 0.39 N/mm2

Permissible punching shear stress = 0.25 √(fck)

= 0.25 x √20

= 1.12 N/mm2

Hence safe

4. CHECK FOR BEARING

**As per clause 34.4 of IS 456
**

Safe bearing capacity = 0.45 fck √ (A1 / A2)

A1 = (b +4D)2

A2 = (450 x 300)

Now A1/ A2 = 8.44 and √(A1 / A2 ) = 2.97>2

So take √ (A1 / A2 ) = 2

Actual bearing stress = (column load/column area)

= (667.5 x 103)/(450 x 300)

= 4.94 N/mm2

Safe bearing stress = 0.45 fck √(A1 / A2)

= 0.45 x 20 x √2

= 18 N/mm2

Hence safe

122

**5. CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
**

For 16 ᵠ bars and M20 concrete from table 66 of SP 16

Development length = 752 mm

c) Available length in longer direction = 1225 mm.

d) Available length in shorter direction = 800 mm.

DETAILING OF FOOTING:

Fig. 10.11

123

**10.3 FOOTING DESIGN FOR THE COLUMN R3-F3
**

Axial load on the column to the footing = 898.46 KN

Moment at the base of the column = 50.867 KNm

SBC of the soil = 150 KN/m2

10.3.1 GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATION

Now,

P = 599 KN

M = 34 KNm

Axial Load on the column = 599

Add 10% for self weight = 59.1

Total load on footing

Area required

=

= 658.9 KN

= 4.4 m2

**Add 10% for moment= 0.44m2
**

Total area required

= 4.84 m2

L/B = 450/300 = 1.5

L = 1.5 B

1.5 B2 = 4.84 m2

B = 1.79 m

L = 2.69 m

Provide footing size 2.9 m x 1.9 m

Pmax = P/A + M/Z

= 658.9/(2.9x 1.9)+ (34 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92)

= 132.34 KN/m2 <150 KN/m2

(hence safe)

P min = P/A - M/Z

= 658.9/(2.9x 1.9) - (34 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92) = 107 KN/m2

124

**10.3.2 STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATION
**

1. CHECK FOR BENDING

a) Longer direction

Fig. 10.12

x = 14.63 KN/m2

BM at the face of the column, M

= (107+14.63) x1.225 x1.9x1.225 x .5 + .5 x(132.34-107-14.63) x1.225 x1.9 x 2/3 x

1.225

M = 184 KNm

Mu = 1.5×184=276 KNm

125

**Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)
**

= 450 + 1/8(2900-450)

= 756 mm

dreqd = √(276x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 756)

= 363.69 mm

Using 50 mm clear cover and 16ᵠ bars

Overall depth = 363.69 + 50 +16/2

= 421.7 mm

We provide overall depth = 800 mm

davailable = 800 – 50- 16/2

= 742 mm

Now

Mu/be = 276/.756=365 and d= 74.2 cm

From chart 15 of SP 16

Pt = 0.28

As = (.28 x 756 x 742)/ 100

= 1570.68 mm2

From table 96 of SP 16

Provide 16ᵠ bars at 120 mm c/c (1675 mm2)

126

b) For shorter direction

Fig. 10.13

BM at the face of the column =0.5(107+132.34) x 0.8x2.9x2.9x0.5

= 402.6 KNm

Mu = 603.8 KNm

Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)

= 300 + 1/8(1900-300)

= 500 mm

dreqd = √(603.8 x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 500)

= 661.46 mm

Overall depth = 661.46 + 50 +16+16/2

= 735.46 mm

Provided depth = 800 mm

127

**davailable = 800 -50 -16 -16/2 = 726 mm
**

Now

Mu/be = 603.8/.500 = 1207 and d= 72.6 cm

Pt = 0.78

As = (0.78 x 500 x 726)/ 100

= 2831.4 mm2

From table 96 of SP 16

We provide 16ᵠ bars at 60 mm c/c (3351 mm2)

2. CHECK FOR ONE WAY SHEAR

Critical section for one way shear occurs at a distance of “d” from the face of the column

d= 742 mm

128

Fig. 10.14

129

**de = (650 x 483)/ 1225
**

= 256.3 mm

Overall depth = 256.3 +150

= 406.3 mm

Available depth = 406.3 – 50 – 16/2 = 348.3

mm

Actual amount of steel = 1675x 2.9 = 4857.9

mm2

Percentage of steel at critical section

=

=

= .97 %

For Pt= 0.97 %,

τc = .62 N/mm2

Fig. 10.15

**V= [.5 x (107+21.2+132.34)] x .483 x 1.9
**

= 119.50 KN

Vu = 179.3 KN

τv = (Vu/bd)

= (179.3 x 103)/ [.5x (1934+2762) x 348.3]

0.21 < τc

Hence safe

130

**3. CHECK FOR TWO WAY SHEAR
**

Critical section for punching shear occurs at a distance of “d/2” from the face of the column

d/2 = 742/2 = 371 mm

b= 2 x 0.371+0.300

= 1.042 m

Now

Fig. 10.16

**de = (650 x 0.854)/ 1.225= 453.1 mm
**

131

**Overall depth = 453.1 + 150
**

= 603.1 mm

Available depth = 603.1 – 50 -16/2

= 545.1 mm

Punching shear stress = (658 x 103)/(4x 1042 x 545.1)

= 0.29 N/mm2

Permissible punching shear stress = 0.25 √(fck)

= 0.25 x √20

= 1.12 N/mm2

Hence safe

4. CHECK FOR BEARING

**As per clause 34.4 of IS 456
**

Safe bearing capacity = 0.45 fck √ (A1 / A2)

A1 = (b +4D)2

A2 = (450 x 300)

Now A1/ A2 = 8.44 and √ (A1 / A2 ) = 2.97>2

So take √ (A1 / A2 ) = 2

Actual bearing stress = (column load/column area)

= (599 x 103)/ (450 x 300)

= 4.4 N/mm2

Safe bearing stress = 0.45 fck √ (A1 / A2)

= 0.45 x 20 x √2

= 18 N/mm2

Hence safe

132

**5. CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
**

For 16 ᵠ bars and M20 concrete from table 66 of SP 16

Development length = 752 mm

e) Available length in longer direction = 1225 mm.

f) Available length in shorter direction = 800 mm.

DETAILING OF FOOTING:

Fig. 10.17

133

**10.4 FOOTING DESIGN FOR THE COLUMN R4-F4
**

Axial load on the column to the footing = 709.9 KN

Moment at the base of the column = 24.17 KNm

SBC of the soil = 150 KN/m2

10.4.1 GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATION

Now,

P = 473.328 KN

M = 16.11 KNm

Axial Load on the column = 473.328

Add 10% for self weight = 47.33

Total load on footing

Area required

=

= 520.66 KN

= 3.47 m2

**Add 10% for moment= .347m2
**

Total area required

= 3.8 m2

L/B = 450/300 = 1.5

L = 1.5 B

1.5 B2 = 3.8 m2

B = 1.59 m

L = 2.4 m

Provide footing size 2.9 m x 1.9 m

Pmax = P/A + M/Z

= 520.66/(2.9x 1.9)+ (16.11 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92)

= 100.5 KN/m2 <150 KN/m2

(hence safe)

P min = P/A - M/Z

= 520.66/ (2.9x 1.9) - (16.11 x 6)/(1.9 x 2.92) = 88.4 KN/m2

134

**10.4.2 STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATION
**

1. CHECK FOR BENDING

a) Longer direction

Fig. 10.18

x = 7 KN/m2

y = 107 KN/m2

BM at the face of the column, M

= (88.4+7) x1.225 x1.9x1.225 x .5 + .5 x(100.5-88.4-7) x1.225 x1.9 x 2/3 x 1.225

M = 140.84 KNm

Mu = 1.5×140.84=211.3 KNm

Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)

= 450 + 1/8(2900-450)

= 756. 25 mm

135

**dreqd = √(211.3 x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 756.25)
**

= 318.2 mm

Using 50 mm clear cover and 16ᵠ bars

Overall depth = 318.2 + 50 +16/2

= 376.2 mm

We provide overall depth = 700 mm

davailable = 700 – 50- 16/2

= 642 mm

Now

Mu/be = 211.3/.756=280 and d= 64.2 cm

From chart 15 of SP 16

Pt = 0.2

As = (.2 x 756 x 642)/ 100

= 970.704 mm2

From table 96 of SP 16

Provide 16ᵠ bars at 180 mm c/c (1117 mm2)

So actual steel provided = (1117 x 100)/ (756 x 642)

= 0.23

136

b) For shorter direction

Fig. 10.19

BM at the face of the column = .5x (88.4+100.5) x 0.8 x 2.9 x 2.9 x .5

= 317.7 KNm

Mu = 476.6 KNm

Now, effective width of the footing = b +1/8(B-b)

= 300 + 1/8(1900-300)

= 500 mm

dreqd = √(476.6 x 106)/(.138 x 20 x 500)

= 587.6

Overall depth = 587.6 + 50 +16+16/2

= 661.6 mm

Provided depth = 700 mm

137

**davailable = 700 -50 -16 -16/2 = 626 mm
**

Now

Mu/be = 626/.500 = 1252 and d= 62.6 cm

Pt = 0.95

As = (.95 x 500 x 626)/ 100

= 2973.5 mm2

From table 96 of SP 16

We provide 16ᵠ bars at 60 mm c/c (3351 mm2)

So actual steel provided = (3351 x 100)/ (500 x 626)

= 1.07

**2. CHECK FOR ONE WAY SHEAR
**

Critical section for one way shear occurs at a distance of “d” from the face of the column

d= 642 mm

138

Fig. 10.20

**de = (550 x 583)/ 1225
**

= 261.75 mm

Overall depth = 261.75 +150

= 411.75 mm

139

**Available depth = 411.75 – 50 – 16/2 = 353.75 mm
**

Actual amount of steel = 1117x 2.9 = 3239.3 mm2

Area of trapezoid = .5 x(1584+2900)x412

= 923704 mm2

Percentage of steel at critical section

=

=

= .35 %

For Pt= 0.35 %,

τc = .415 N/mm2

X = 2.43

Y = 98.07

V= [.5 x(98.07+100.5)] x .583 x 1.9

= 109.97 KN

Vu = 165 KN

τv = (Vu/bd)

= (165 x 103)/ [.5x (1584+2714) x 353.75]

0.21 < τc

Hence safe

140

**3. CHECK FOR TWO WAY SHEAR
**

Critical section for punching shear occurs at a distance of “d/2” from the face of the column

d/2 = 642/2 = 321 mm

b= 2 x 321 + 300

= 942 mm

Fig. 10.21

Now

**de = (550 x 904)/ 1225
**

= 405.44 mm

141

**Overall depth = 405.44 + 150
**

= 555.8 mm

Available depth = 555.8 – 50 -16/2

= 497.87 mm

Punching shear stress = (520.66 x 103)/(4x 942 x 497)

= 0.27 N/mm2

Permissible punching shear stress = 0.25 √ (fck)

= 0.25 x √20

= 1.12 N/mm2

Hence safe

4. CHECK FOR BEARING

**As per clause 34.4 of IS 456
**

Safe bearing capacity = 0.45 fck √(A1 / A2 )

A1 = (b +4D)2

A2 = (450 x 300)

Now A1/ A2 = 8.44 and √(A1 / A2 ) = 2.97>2

So take √(A1 / A2 ) = 2

Actual bearing stress = (column load/column area)

= (473.328 x 103)/ (450 x 300)

= 3.50 N/mm2

Safe bearing stress = 0.45 fck √ (A1 / A2)

= 0.45 x 20 x √2

= 18 N/mm2

Hence safe

142

**5. CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
**

For 16 ᵠ bars and M20 concrete from table 66 of SP 16

Development length = 752 mm

g) Available length in longer direction = 1225 mm.

h) Available length in shorter direction = 800 mm.

DETAILING OF FOOTING:

Fig. 10.22

143

CHAPTER- 11

DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

144

DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

Fig. 11.1

Fig. 11.2

145

**11.1 AVAILABLE DATA:
**

Storey height

= 3.3m

**Height of each flight = 3.3/2 = 1.65m = 1650 mm
**

Let us provide a riser, R= 160mm

And tread, T = 250mm

Therefore number of risers in each flight = 1650/160 = 10.33 ≈ 11

Number of tread in each flight = 11-1 = 10

Space provided for going = 10×250 = 2500mm = 2.5m

Space provided for landing slab = 1500mm = 1.50m

Horizontal space available = 3300mm

CHECK FOR THUMB RULE:

i)

ii)

iii)

**2R + T = 2×160 + 250 = 570mm< 600mm
**

R + T = 160 + 250 = 420 mm, which is in between 400mm and 450mm

RT = 160×250 = 40000 mm2, which is in between 40000mm and 50000mm

**Thus riser and tread satisfies all the thumb rules.
**

Corrected rise = 1650/11 = 150mm

Hence for design purpose rise and tread are taken as 150mm and 250mm respectively.

11.2 DESIGN OF WAIST SLAB:

α=

=

= 1.17

**Let us provide thickness of waist slab = 200 mm
**

Let us use M20 grade of concrete and Fe – 415 steel.

Therefore, fy = 415 N/mm2 and fck = 20 N/mm2

11.3 DESIGN OF EACH FLIGHT:

Let us design the landing slab, flight and passage as a single slab which would be supported at

each end by means of landing beam.

146

**So, effective span of slab = 5.50m
**

Using 10ϕ bars and 15mm effective cover

Effective depth = (220-15-10/2) = 200mm

LOADING ON EACH FLIGHT:

Considering 1m width of the waist slab,

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

Steps

0.5×0.15×1×25 = 1.875 KN/m2

Waist slab

0.2×1.17×25

= 5.850 KN/m2

Floor finish (assumed)

= 1.000 KN/m2

SIL (as per IS 875 1987, Part 2) = 3.000 KN/m2

Total load,

w = 11.725 KN/m2

**Considering partial fixity,
**

Maximum bending moment, Mmax = 0.1wl2 = 0.1×11.725×5.52

= 35.468 KNm

Factored bending moment, Mu = 1.5 × Mmax = 53.202 KNm

Effective depth required, deff,req =

=

= 138.838 mm

Therefore, overall depth required, D= 138.838+25+5 = 168.838 mm < 200mm

Hence,safe.

Let us provide overall depth, D= 190mm

So, effective depth provided, deff = 190 – 25- 5= 160mm

REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED:

Mu/bd2= (53.202 x 106/ 1000 x 1602) = 2.078

Pt = 100Ast / bd

Ast = (.670 x 1000 x 160) / (100) = 1072 mm2.

Spacing for 10 mm dia bars, S = 70 mm (from table 96 of SP16)

147

**Let us provide 10ϕ bars @ 70 mm c/c (1122 mm2)
**

Distribution steel = 0.0012×200×1000 = 240 mm2

Spacing required for 8ϕ bar = 50×1000/240 = 208.33 mm

Let us use 8ϕ bars @ 300 mm c/c (240 mm2 )

**11.4 DESIGN OF LANDING BEAM:
**

Load calculation:

i)

ii)

iii)

**Load from stairs: 0.5wL = 0.5×11.725×5.5
**

= 32.244 KN/m

Load from wall: 0.15×20×3.3/2

= 4.95 KN/m

Self weight(200 x 350): =25×0.20×(0.35-0.20) = 0.75 KN/m

Total load

w = 37.944 KN/m

**Maxm BM, Mmax = 37.944×2.552/10 = 24.67 KNm
**

Mu = 1.5×24.67 = 37.005 KNm

Effective depth required, deff = √ (37.005x106/(0.138×20×200))

= 258.917 mm

Davailable = 350 – 25 – 16/2 = 317 mm

Let us adopt landing beam = 200×300

Effective depth = 300 – 25 – 16/2 = 267 mm

Hence, Area of steel required, Ast = 37.005×106/0.696×415×267

= 479.835mm2

Provide 4 nos. 16 ϕ bars (800 mm2).

11.5 CHECK FOR SHEAR

**Maximum SF, Vmax = 0.5×37.944×2.55= 48.378
**

Vu = 1.5×48.378 = 72.56 KN

Nominal shear stress, τv = 72.56×1000/200×267 = 1.35 N/mm2

148

**Pt = 603.2×100/200×267 = 1.12
**

τc = 0.644 N/mm2

τc max = 2.8 N/mm2

τc < τc max, the section need not redesign

τv > τc, hence additional shear reinforcement is required.

Vus = (1.35 – 0.644)×200×267 = 37700.4 N

Assuming 2 legged 6ϕ stirrup, spacing reqd.

S = 0.87×250×2× (π/4×62) ×267/37700.4 = 87.06 mm < 0.75 d (= 200.25)

Hence, spacing 80 mm c/c

Fig. 11.3

149

CHAPTER – 12

DESIGN OF CHAJJA

150

12.1 ASSUMPTIONS

Let us provide a Chajja projection beyond external wall = 600 m and

use 6 mm dia. bars as reinforcement.

**12.2 Effective depth calculations
**

As per Cl 23.2.1 of IS 456:2000, for cantilever slab

1

=7

deff

=> deff =

1

7

⇒ d eff =

600

7

=> deff = 85.714 mm

Let us provide overall thickness of chajja = 100

... Effective depth provided, deff = 100 -15 -6/2 = 82 mm

**12.3 Load calculations for chajja at roof
**

Self Weight of Chajja = 0.1 x 25

= 2.5 KN/m2

Finish =0.2 x 2.5

= 0.5 KN/m2

Live load

= 1.5 KN /m2

Total Load, W = 4.5 KN/m2

**12.4 Bending moment and shear force calculations:
**

Considering 1 m width of strip of cantilever slab, we have

Maximum

BM

=

Wl 2

2

=

4.5 × 0.60 2

2

= 0.81 KNm

... Factored moment, Mu = 1.5 x 0.81 = 1.215 KNm

151

Also, Max. S.F.

= wl

= 4.5 x 0.60

= 2.7 KN

... Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x 2.7 = 4.05 KN

**12.5 Check for effective depth:
**

We know,

Effective depth required, d =

=

Mu

0.138 f ck b

1.215x10 6

0.138 x 20 x1000

**= 20.98 mm < 82 mm (d provided), hence safe
**

Now, Mu = 0.87 f y Ast d (1 −

Ast f y

bdf ck

)

=> 1.215 x10 6 = 0.87 x 415 xAst x82 (1 −

Ast 415

)

1000 x82 x 20

**=> Ast = 41.50 mm2 or 3911.09 mm2
**

Neglecting the very high value obtained from the above equation, let us accept

Ast = 41.50 mm2

As per Cl. 26.5.2.1 of IS 456: 2000,

Minimum reinforcement required =

0.12

x100 x1000 = 120mm 2

100

**From Table 96 of Design Aid SP-16,
**

Let us provide 6 mm dia. bars @ 200 mm C/C. (A st, provided = 141mm2)

152

**12.6 Check for shear:
**

Induced shear stress, τv

Now

Pt, provided =

=

Vu

bd

=

4.05 x1000

= 0.049N/mm2

1000 x82

100 xAst

bd

= 0.17%

From Table 61 of Design Aid SP-16, the value of τc corresponding to Pt = 0.20 (minimum) is,

τc = 0.33 N/mm2

Since τv < τc hence the design is safe in shear.

**12.7 Distribution reinforcement:
**

Minimum distribution steel =

=

0.12 xDxb

100

0.12 x100 x1000

100

= 120 mm2

From Table 96 of Design Aid SP-16;

Let us provide 6 mm dia. Bars @ 200 mm C/C. (Ast, provided = 141mm2)

**12.8 Load calculations for chajja at floor
**

Self Weight of Chajja = 0.1 x 25

Finish =0.2 x 2.5

Live load

Total Load, W

= 2.5 KN/m2

= 0.5 KN/m2

= 2.0KN /m2

= 5.0 KN/m2

153

**12.9 Bending moment and shear force calculations:
**

Considering 1 m width of strip of cantilever slab, we have

Maximum

=

Wl 2

2

=

5 × 0.602

2

BM

= 0.9 KNm

... Factored moment, Mu = 1.5 x 0.9 = 1.35 KNm

Also, Max. S.F.

= wl

= 5 x 0.60

= 3KN

... Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x 3= 4.5 KN

**12.10 Check for effective depth:
**

We know,

Effective depth required, d =

=

Mu

0.138 f ck b

1.35 x106

0.138 x20 x1000

**= 22.12 mm < 82 mm (d provided), hence safe
**

Now, Mu = 0.87 f y Ast d (1 −

Ast f y

bdf ck

)

=> 1.35 x106 = 0.87 x 415 xAst x82(1 −

Ast 415

)

1000 x82 x 20

**=> Ast = 46.14mm2 or 3906.61 mm2
**

Neglecting the very high value obtained from the above equation, let us accept

Ast = 46.14mm2

154

**As per Cl. 26.5.2.1 of IS 456: 2000,
**

Minimum reinforcement required =

0.12

x100 x1000 = 120 mm 2

100

**From Table 96 of Design Aid SP-16,
**

Let us provide 6 mm dia. bars @ 200 mm C/C. (A st, provided = 141mm2)

**12.11 Check for shear:
**

Induced shear stress, τv

Now

Pt, provided =

=

Vu

bd

=

4.5 x1000

= 0.055N/mm2

1000 x82

100 xAst

bd

= 0.17%

From Table 61 of Design Aid SP-16, the value of τc corresponding to Pt = 0.20 (minimum) is,

τc = 0.33 N/mm2

Since τv < τc hence the design is safe in shear.

**12.12 Distribution reinforcement:
**

Minimum distribution steel =

=

0.12 xDxb

100

0.12 x100 x1000

100

= 120 mm2

From Table 96 of Design Aid SP-16;

Let us provide 6 mm dia. Bars @ 200 mm C/C. (Ast, provided= 141mm2)

155

CHAPTER-11

DESIGN OF LINTEL

156

13.1 Introduction:

It becomes necessary to provide openings in walls for doors, windows, cupboards, etc. Such

opening must be bridged over so as to support the load of the wall above them. This is accompanied by

providing a lintel.

13.2 Design of Lintel:

Assumptions:

Let lintel beam size = 125 mm x 250 mm

Main beam size = 300mm x 450 mm

Wall thickness = 150 mm

Projection of Chajja = 600 mm

A. Load calculations for external lintel (for roof)

1. Wall load = (3.2 – 2.1 – 0.45 – 0.25) x 0.15 x 20

= 1.2KN/m

2. Load from Chajja =

4.5 x 0.6

= 2.70 KN/m

3. Self weight of lintel

0.125 x 0.25x 25

= 0.781KN/m

Total, w = 4.681KN/ m

Bending moment and shear force calculations:

Max.B.M =

=

wl 2

8

4.681x3.6 2

8

= 7.58KNm

... Factored moment, Mu = 1.5 x 7.58= 11.37KNm

Also, Max. S.F. =

wl

2

=

4.681* 3.6

2

= 8.43KN

... Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x 8.43= 12.64KN

157

**Check for effective depth:
**

Here effective depth provided, d available = 250 − 25 −

12

mm

2

= 219 mm

(Providing 25 mm clear cover and using 12 mm dia. bars)

We know,

Effective depth required, d required =

Mu

0.138 f ck b

11.37 x106

=

0.138x20 x125

= 181.54 mm

..

. d available > dreqd

... Safe

**Calculation of required reinforcement:
**

M u 11.37 x106

=

= 1.90 N / mm 2

2

2

bd

125 x 219

**Therefore, from Table 2 of Design Aid SP-16, we provide
**

pt= 0.602%

...

100xAst

= 0.602

bd

=>

100xAst

= 0.602

125x 219

**=> Ast = 164.79 mm2
**

... No. of bars required = 2 (as per table 95 of SP 16)

Let us provide 2-12 mm dia. (226 mm2) bars as tensile reinforcement and 2-12 mm dia. Bars as

nominal reinforcement at top layers.

Check for shear:

Induced shear stress, τ v =

Vu

bd

158

=

12.64 x1000

125x 219

= 0.46N/mm2

Now,

Pt, provided =

100x 226

= 0.82

125x 219

From Table 61 of Design Aid SP-16, the value of τ c corresponding to Pt = 0.82 is

τ c = 0.57 N/mm2

**Since τ c > τ v , hence shear reinforcement is not reqd. but nominal shear reinforcement has to be provided
**

in accordance with Cl. 26.5.1.6 of IS: 456-2000

Using 6 mm dia. bars we have

Asv =

2 xπx 6 2

= 56.55mm 2

4

We have,

Asv

0 .4

=

bS v 0.87 f y

Sv = 408.35 mm

As per Cl. 26.5.1.5 of 456-2000 spacing should in no case exceed 300 mm

Let us provide 6 mm 2 – legged vertical stirrups @ 300 mm c/c.

**B. Load calculations for external lintel (for floor)
**

1. Wall load = (3.2 – 2.1 – 0.45 – 0.25) x 0.15 x 20

= 1.2KN/m

2. Load from chajja =

5.0 x 0.6

= 3 KN/m

3. Self weight of lintel

0.125 x 0.25x 25

= 0.781KN/m

Total, w = 4.981KN/ m

**Bending moment and shear force calculations:
**

Max.B.M =

wl 2

8

159

=

4.981x3.6 2

8

=8.07KNm

... Factored moment, Mu = 1.5 x8.07= 12.1KNm

wl

2

Also, Max. S.F. =

=

4.981* 3.6

2

=8.97KN

... Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x8.97= 13.45KN

Check for effective depth:

Here effective depth provided, d available = 250 − 25 −

12

mm

2

= 219 mm

(Providing 25 mm clear cover and using 12 mm dia. bars)

We know,

Effective depth required, d required =

=

Mu

0.138 f ck b

12.1x106

0.138x 20 x125

= 187.27mm

..

. d available > dreqd

... Safe

**Calculation of required reinforcement:
**

Mu

12.1x106

=

= 2.02 N / mm 2

2

2

bd

125 x 219

**Therefore, from Table 2 of Design Aid SP-16, we provide
**

pt= 0.647%

...

100xAst

= 0.647

bd

160

=>

100xAst

= 0.647

125x 219

**=> Ast = 177.12 mm2
**

... No. of bars required = 2 (as per table 95 of SP 16)

Let us provide 2-12 mm dia. (226 mm2) bars as tensile reinforcement and 2-12 mm dia. Bars as

nominal reinforcement at top layers.

Check for shear:

Induced shear stress, τ v =

Vu

bd

=

13.45x1000

125x 219

= 0.49 N/mm2

Now,

Pt, provided =

100x 226

= 0.82

125x 219

From Table 61 of Design Aid SP-16, the value of τ c corresponding to Pt = 0.82 is

τ c = 0.57 N/mm2

**Since τ c > τ v , hence shear reinforcement is not reqd. but nominal shear reinforcement has to be provided
**

in accordance with Cl. 26.5.1.6 of IS: 456-2000

Using 6 mm dia. bars we have

Asv =

2 xπx 6 2

= 56.55mm 2

4

We have,

Asv

0.4

=

bS v 0.87 f y

Sv = 408.35 mm

As per Cl. 26.5.1.5 of 456-2000 spacing should in no case exceed 300 mm

Let us provide 6 mm 2 – legged vertical stirrups @ 300 mm c/c.

161

**C. Load calculations for internal lintel:
**

1. Wall load = (3.2 – 2.1 – 0.45 – 0.25) x 0.15 x 20

= 1.2 KN/m

2. Self weight of lintel

0.125 x 0.25x 25

= 0.781KN/m

Total, w = 1.981KN/ m

Bending moment and shear force calculations:

wl 2

Max.B.M =

8

=

1.981x3.6 2

8

= 3.21KNm

... Factored moment, Mu = 1.5 x 3.21= 4.81 KNm

Also, Max. S.F. =

wl

2

=

1.981x3.6

2

= 3.56KN

... Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x 3.56= 5.35 KN

Check for effective depth:

Here effective depth provided, d available = 250 − 25 −

12

mm

2

= 219 mm

(Providing 25 mm clear cover and using 12 mm dia. bars)

We know,

Effective depth required, d required =

=

..

. d available > dreqd

Mu

0.138 fck b

4.81x106

= 118.07 mm

0.138x20 x125

... Safe

162

**Calculation of required reinforcement:
**

Mu

4.81x10 6

=

= 0.80 N / mm 2

2

2

bd

125 x 219

**Therefore, from Table 2 of Design Aid SP-16, we provide
**

pt= 0.233%

...

100 xAst

= 0.233

bd

=>

100 xAst

= 0.242

125 x 219

=> Ast = 63.78 mm2

... No. of bars required = 2 (as per table 95 of SP 16)

Let us provide 2-12 mm dia. (226 mm2) bars as tensile reinforcement and 2-12 mm dia. Bars as

nominal reinforcement at top layers.

Check for shear:

Induced shear stress, τ v =

Vu

bd

=

5.35 x1000

125 x 219

= 0.19N/mm2

Now,

Pt, provided =

100x 226

= 0.82

125x 219

From Table 61 of Design Aid SP-16, the value of τ c corresponding to Pt = 0.82 is

τ c = 0.57 N/mm2

**Since τ c > τ v , hence shear reinforcement is not reqd. but nominal shear reinforcement has to be provided
**

in accordance with Cl. 26.5.1.6 of IS: 456-2000

Using 6 mm dia. bars we have

Asv =

2 xπx 6 2

= 56.55mm 2

4

163

Again we have,

Asv

0.4

=

bS v 0.87 f y

Sv = 408.35 mm

As per Cl. 26.5.1.5 of 456-2000 spacing should in no case exceed 300 mm

Let us provide 6 mm 2 – legged vertical stirrups @ 300 mm c/c.

164

CHAPTER-14

CONCLUSION

165

**This project aims at the structural design of a multi-storied residential building in
**

Guwahati City. The first phase of the project was to plan a building according to the existing

Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority (GMDA) bye laws. The planning of the building

has been done to arrange the location of various rooms and their sizes so that it fulfills the

functional requirements of the intended purpose.

After the planning stage, estimation of the various loads, viz. gravity and seismic loads

are carried out. During this stage, analysis has been done by approximate methods such has

moment distribution and portal methods to yields the various bending moments, shear forces and

axial loads acting at the various section at different levels. The results of the computations are

then subjected to load combination that can be accepted as the design values, i.e. that values for

which the various components of the structure has to be designed.

The design phase consisted of designing of the various components that constitutes the

structure such as beams, columns, slabs, staircase, Chajja/sunshade, lintels and footing. The final

output is in the form of reinforcement detailing of the various constituents parts as they are

essential for the execution of the actual construction work. Ductile detailing has been

incorporated as per IS 13920: 1993.

166

ANNEX A

LIST OF REFERRED INDIAN STANDARDS AND CLAUSES

IS: 875 (Part II)– 1987:Code of practice for Design loads (other than earthquake) for Building

and Structures

• Clause.3.1.2

IS: 1983 (Part II) – 2002: Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures Part I General

provision and buildings

•

Clause.6.4.2

•

Clause.7.3.1

•

Clause.7.3.2

•

Clause.7.4.2

•

Clause.7.5.3

•

Clause.7.6.1

•

Table 2

•

Table 6

•

Table 7

•

Fig. 2

**IS 456- 2000 – Plain and Reinforced Concrete Code of Practice
**

•

Clause 23.2.1

•

Clause 26.2.1

•

Clause 26.3.2

•

Clause 26.4.1

•

Clause 26.5.1.1

•

Clause 26.5.1.5

•

Clause 26.5.1.6

•

Clause 26.5.2.1

•

Clause 26.5.2.1

•

Clause 26.5.3.1(a)

167

•

Clause 26.5.3.2 (C)

•

Clause D.1.1

•

Clause D.1.8

•

Clause D.1.9

•

Clause D.2.1

•

Table 26

**DESIGN AID TO IS: 456-1978 (SP-16)
**

•

Chart 11

•

Chart 12

•

Chart 13

•

Chart 14

•

Chart 15

•

Chart 44

•

Table 2

•

Table 37

•

Table 61

•

Table 62

•

Table 96

**IS: 13920-1993- Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic
**

Forces.

• Clause 3.4

• Clause 5.1

• Clause 5.2

• Clause 5.3

• Clause 6.2.1

• Clause 6.2.2

• Clause 6

• Clause 6.2.12.3

• Clause 6.2.4

168

ANNEX B

**LIST OF REFERRED BOOKS AND REPORTS
**

1. Jain , Ashok K. (2006) Reinforced Concrete- Limit State Design, 6th Edition ,

NemChand & Bros, Roorkee.

2. Ramamrutham, S (2006), Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Sixteenth Edition,

Dhanpat Rai Publishing Company (P) Ltd, New Delhi.

3. Saran, Swami (2006), Analysis and Design of Substructures – Limit state Design, Second

Edition Oxford & IBH published Co.Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

4. Shah, Dr. H.J. and Jain DrSudhir K, Design example of a Six Storey Building, Document

No. IITK –GSDMA –EQ26 –V3.0 IITK-GSDMA Project on Building Codes.

5. Ramamrutham, S and Narayana, R (2003), Theory of Structures, Seventh Edition,

DhanphatRai Publishing Company (p) Ltd, New Delhi.

6. Guide Lines for Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority (GMDA),

Guwahati.(Building Permission.)

169

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