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VIII. On Circumstances the attending outbreak the Civil JVarin Ireland on of 23rd October, to 1641, and its continuance the 12th May, 1652; thenume rical extent manneroftheTransplantation Irish into Connauglit and and of theextent, and distribution theForfeitedLands ; their in Clare; value, of to the and Soldiers; sufficiencysatisfy Debts and Arrearsdue to Adventurers thesolution thatdfflculty under theActs ofSettlement Explanation; and of and theresults theseoperations. By W. H. HABDINGE, R. LA ., Bar M. of rister-at-Law. ReadDecember 1865. 11, of as IN the rise and progress Empires,as naturally in thelives of men,there re which the biographerand historianwould willingly are eventsconcerning main silent,did not the salutary lessons to be derived fromthemdemandpub lication. The unhappyoutbreakin thiscountry the close of the year 1641 is one at and birth have been consideredtohave somewhat ofsuch events; itsconception while the justice and wisdom of blemished Celtic sincerityand discretion, England were deeply compromised the measures adopted for its repres by sion. The risingof a people in rebellion has ever an originin a grievance,real or assumed,thatexcites theirprejudices and passions. The rebellionsofDes of the mond and O'Neillmorelocal thangeneral,and therefore Plantation were lands Queen Elizabeth in Munster,or that of King James I. in Ulster,upon or forfeited these chieftains and theirfollowers,were not, separately corn by bined, the cause, as manytoo hastilyconclude, of the greater and more cala mitousrisingof 1641. There is, indeed, no necessityto look so farback as 1575, or 1609, for a 30 VOL. KXIV.
On MR. HARD1NGE Circumstances attending
provocationthatat thetime was freshin the minds of the people, and that was and alarming. universallyfelt to be insulting a who in manyrespectsproved himself zealous and able Minis STRAFFORD, ter of Charles I. in this country,had recourse to a measure, involvingan un real whichwas odious and precedentedapplicationof the law affecting property, and which eventuallyadded one to to offensive all landownersand occupiers, the catalogue of chargesthatled to his own attainderand execution. of in large tracts Upon a stale assumption a titlein the Crownto Connaught, to Munsterand also in Leinster,he caused commissions be issued out of Chan cery into the several Counties in which the coveted possessions lay; and by a process withjuries, which the Lord Lieutenant ofthatday had the compulsory power to apply, Inquisition findingswere obtained, exactly suited to STRAF inconsideratepoliticalprogramme. FORD'S in It was no secret thatthis nobleman proposed founding, the name and for the increase ofthe revenues of his royal master,a plantationas Protestant,but more extensive in numbers and area, than either of those antecedentlyesta blished in Ulster and Munster. It is remarkable and instructive observe in how many instancesProvi to dence overrulesthe devices of Statesmen, and divertsall theirspeculationsand toils into a currententirely adverse to that proposed by them. In the present scheme,what was in 1635 designedby a King of strongRoman Catholic tenden cies to be a Protestant element,was in 1654 convertedinto a thoroughly Ca tholic transplantation a super-Protestant administration. by The feelingof insecurity all real property to engenderedby the Inquisitions advertedto was natural,and the subsequent attainderand execution of STRAP FORDdid not mitigateit, as the title of the Crown to the devoted possessions was suffered remain recorded in the Court of Chancery; and thattitle, to althoughby circumstances suspended,might,at the earliest convenientoppor be called into action. Had the English Parliament,upon STRAFFORD's tunity, as conviction, pronouncedthese Inquisitions illegal and ineffective, was after wards done in the preambleto the Act of Explanation in 1665, it would in ActofExplanation, & II. e. 21I. Statutes, iii.,p. 5. vol. 17 18 Car.
theCivil War in Ireland, 1641-1652.
have produced reaction,and created a confidence the public in all probability would have disarmedthe spiritof disaffection revolt,which the mind that and of STIRAPPORD, the unconciliating and and bittertone of the Irish proceedings Parliamenttowardstheir Roman Catholic fellow-subjects, had excited to des peration. Such appear to me to have been the true reasons leading to the lamentable and fataloutbreakin this countryon the 23rd October, 1641. At this periodEngland was not without her domestictroubles; and,besides was reduced to so low a condition, that she was powerlessto this,her treasury raise and equip an armyimmediately grapple with and put down the Rebel to under more favouringcircumstances, lion, which, mighthave been done be foreNovember,1642, with comparativefacility. of and next of the lay The adhesion,first, the Roman Catholic hierarchy, of ConfederateIrish leaders, and the establishment their Directory at Kil the opening characterof the outbreakfromrebellionto civil kenny,changed and skill, and with alternatingsue war-a war pursuedwith determination cesses, fora devastating period of ten successive years. at offended the crime of massacrebeing imputedto theIrish, Some writers, have resentedit in warm,and even recriminating language. Without going the length of others on this point,I may remindmy hearersthat the Roman the Catholic bishops attributed crime to the Irish,and condemnedit under the issued in 1642. I may penaltyof severe ecclesiasticalcensure,in a manifesto also state,thatin each of the manyArticles of the Surrenderof Armies and Fortresses, enteredinto between 1647 and 1653, and which were signed by the representatives England on the one part,and the Irish Confederate of civil and military leaders on the other,provisoesare introduced, the excludingfrom benefitof the articles all personsguilty of murders or massacres; and a re markablyclear and concise exposition of what was considered murder and massacrewill be foundappended to the Articles of the Surrenderof Ross and the Islands, and the MunsterConfederate dated Army under Lord Muskerry, thechargeis repeatedin theOrdinancesoftheCrom 22nd June,1652.t Again, more particularly wellian Parliament,hereafter recited,in the years 1652 and A. Appendix B. t Appendix 302
On MR. HARDINGE Circumstances attending
1 653 ; and Commissions were issued under these very Ordinancesinto the several counties of Ireland in the latteryear, to tryall persons against whom the charge mightbe brought. Although we do not possess the judgments volumes of " De pronouncedin these cases, there are yet extant thirty-one to establishthe fact of the perpetration which positions," may be sufficient of some massacres; and Charles TI., who at and after his accession to the throneevinced his good dispositiontowards, and care of his Irish subjects of all classes and creeds,reechoed the accusation in the Acts of Settlementand Explanation.t and the important The factis unquestionable, pointis to fix the guilt upon the rightparty,and the acts to the rightperiod of time. Aftercarefullycon who headed the the evidence,it appears to me,that to the fiery O'Neill, sidering outbreakin Ulster, and to his wild and brave though merciless Nomads, or the imputed massacres are almost solely attributable and thatthe ; Creaghts, limitsof the duration ot theirperpetrationlie between that outbreak and the of timeof the issue, in 1642, of the Christianmanifesto the Roman Catholic Bishops,beforenoticed. Influencedby financial and, difficulty, I fear,also actuatedby a spiritof reta liationand revenge,theKing and his EnglishParliamentpassed the famous but fatalAct of 17 Car. I. This Act in a gamblingand reckless spirit,at thedawn of the Rebellion, and when innocence and guilt were yet undistinguishable, sold all Ireland-for therewas no limitdeclared to the amountofsubscriptions -to any speculating adventurerswho would pay into the Treasury in ready money600 fora thousand acres in Leinster, 450 for a thousand acres in Munster,300 for a thousand acres in Connaught, and 200 fora thousand acres in Ulster. A moreimpolitic, not to say unjust measure,was never resortedto by any as the purchase moneyonce paid into the Exchequer, and unhappilyit nation, was extensively so paid, deprived the English rulers of the opportunity or -so power ofproposing,shouldthe occasion for doing arise,acceptableconditions of accommodation theirconfederate to and implacable foe. Trin. Room, Manuscript Library, Col.Dub. 15 Car. t 14 & II. c. 2, and 17 & IL c. 2, I. Statutes, ii, p. 239; vol.iii., 18 Car. vol, p. 5.
theCivil War in Ireland, 1641-1652.
The result was a ten years' -first, between Ormond,the Lord struggle, Lieutenantand Commander-in-Chief the Royal Army,and the Confederate of Irish party, from 23rd October, 1641, to the surrender Dublin, and re the of and insignia of office into the hands of Commis signationof his government sionersdeputedby the English Parliamentto receive them,on the 18th June, and forces of that Parliament 1647; and next, between the representatives and the same Confederate partyto the surrenderof the provincial armies of the Irish, made to General Ludlow by Lord Muskerryand other leaders, on 12th May, 1652. The supremacy England was thenestablishedand complete,the Confe of derate armieswere beaten, and theircause lost ; and the liberties,lives, and estatesof all who supportedor connivedat thatcause were left altogetherin the power and at the mercyof the English Parliament,as no clause protective of civilianpersonor property was introducedinto any one of the se.veralsur rendersmade upon the Articles of capitulationreferred above. The mili to to theseArticles, took care ofthemselves and the taryleaders,and otherparties soldiersundertheir command,and leftthe landownersancl occupiers,whose themduringthe protracted to maintained estatesand industry struggle, endure alone the entireconsequencesof the war. Had Englandin thisher hourof triumph repentedofhaving passed theAct the of 17 Car. I., and becomereally desirousof restricting penaltyofforfeiture and to the possessionsof the fomentors powerfulleaders of the Rebellion, she could nothave done so ; her hands werebound,herwill restrained, themort by the Act quoted; and were it even possibleto have satisfied Adventurers gaging of otherwisethan by specificperformance the terms of that Act, the heavier debts due to the soldiersforpay arrearswould have interposedan insuperable obstacle to any exercise of the prerogativeof mercyin favour of the unfortu due and nate people who were the cause of the difficulties debts. The arrears far to the army exceeded the debt due to the Adventurers and,as therewas no ; but one fundout ofwhichthese thereremained moneyin the English Treasury, fundwas thefofeitedlands. and could be satisfied, that respectiveinterests The Government, thus straitened, accepted the unavoidable responsibility A. Appendix
Ofl MR. HARDINGE Circumstances attending
lands should discharge the entire cast upon it, determinedthat the forfeited debts,and measures were forthwith organized to give the resolutioneffect. to There were, however,two pointsnecessaryof attainment preliminary a the persons forfeiting, well as the as lands : first, of distribution the forfeited mustbe ascertainedand defined; theirareas and exact situations, lands forfeited, fromlands that were unforfeited, and and, further, theymustbe distinguished also fromCrown, ecclesiastical,and lay corporatepossessions,which the Com monwealthproposed to appropriateto otherand special uses. Secondly, forthe lands to be and the quiet and secure possessionofthe forfeited peace of society, the Irish owners to and Soldiers and others, Confederate distributed Adventurers and occupiersmust be ejected fromthem,and settled elsewhere. The first point, so far as Leinster,Ulster, and Munsterwere concerned,was of attained throughthe instrumentality Commissions of Survey, effectually issued to discover and findout by means of Courts of Survey and juries empa and nelled,the particularsdescribed respectingforfeiting unforfeiting persons, and and forfeited unforfeited lands: theseparticularswere describedin County, and, as completed,were in duplicate sent up Barony,and Parish arrangement, Civil to Dablin,-and this recordis called the " Survey." This survey, as to the contents of each towniand,which were returned ; upon estimate,was inexact and unsatisfactory and it became necessary to the defect, which was done by actual admeasurement and laying remedy down of the townlands upon maps, in Parochial and Baronial divisions. TJn forfeited lands were omitted from the Survey, as maps of them would be attendedwith a large additibnal cost, from which the proprietorsalone, and not the public interest, would reap the benefit. This mapped Surveyis called " the Down Survey."f In reference the forfeited to and unforfeited lands in Connaught, STRAP the FORDInquisitions and mapped admeasurementsalready advertedto combined all the information embracedin the Civil and Down Surveys, with the imma terial difference, that the one describes the state of possessions as it was in 16351 1636, and 1637, and the other as it was in 1641. "OnMapped, other and Towniand MS., Hardirge 1640and1688.11-Trans. Surveys, IL I. A.,vol.xxiv.,-Antiquities. t Ibid
theCivil War in Ireland, 1641-1652.
This triple surveyof all Ireland, exhibitingthe towniand possessions of and was not completeand in forfeiting unforfeiting persons and corporations, the hands of the Surveyor-General, Dublin, earlier than 1657; but, as the in and maps were,as respectstheircompletion, a transition in Surveys state,and the five years from1653 to 1657, the disband successivelyarriving during mentof the army was proceeded within an equal ratio,and frequent successive distributions lands commensurate of with ascertained arrear demands were made; and, the same rule of distribution being also extended to the Adven theresultwas,thatthenationaldebt as well as themilitary establishment turers, annual votes were diminishing, the reliefalike of the Commonwealthand of to the severalinterests concerned. Before,however,proceedingfurther more and withthe distribution made ofthe forfeited lands in Leinster,Ulster, minutely and Munsterto Adventurers and Soldiers,it was essential that theyshouldbe cleared of their Irish Confederate owners and occupiers; and this forfeiting the second point alluded to above, consideration, involves, as a preliminary " relatingto the famous CromwellianTransplantation." THE TRSPLANTATION. in The notionof a Protestant by plantation Connaught,entertained STRi in England, theEng FORD,in all probability suggestedto theCouncil of State for lish Parliament,and theirCommissioners the affairsof Ireland, the idea of removingout of Leinster,Ulster, and Munster (except Clare into Con lands, naught and Clare, the owners and occupyingtenants of the forfeited and then verydesolate and followers. This retired, theirrespective families, and depopulatedportionof the island was peculiarly adapted forthe purpose; the from otherprovinces the watersofthe it is belted in and nearlyseparated by Shannon, and the Atlantic Ocean washes its western shore; such a district be could easily and effectually guarded against assistance fromwithoutand escape fromwithin. The schemewas one of greatmagnitude,as, in order to secure the really it few comparatively proposedfortransplantation, should include the power of Irish. all the Confederate dealing withand removing a we Accordingly findthat the English Parliament passed exactly such
on MR. HARDINGE Circumstances attending
An Act forSet measure on the 12th August, 1652, entitled " comprehensive This tling of Ireland." ordinanceexcludes three classes of persons frompar don, nameIy: 1st. Such as at any time before10th November, 1642, being the time ofthe sittingof the firstGeneral Assembly at Kilkenny,advised, counselled, or murders,or massacresdone or committed promoted, acted rebellion, in Ireland. 2nd. The Earls of Ormond, Castlehaven, Clanrickard, Fingal, Roscommon, and Westmeath; the Baron of Inchiquin, and others. 3rd. Principalsand accessories of murde since 1st October, 1641. The ordinancenext proceeds to admit to pardon,upon conditions quali of fourotherclasses of persons,namely, fication, the unpardonablegroups,bore arms against the 1st. Such as, not fallingwithin for such time as banishment Commonwealthof England, should suffer estates. Parliamentmightprescribe,and lose two-third parts of their. 2nd. Such as notfallingwithinthe same groups,aided in the Rebellion, should two-third be pardoned as to theirlives,but should forfeit parts of their and should receive the value ofthe residue in such place in ire estates, land as Parliament mightappoint. 3rd. All Roman Catholics who resided in Ireland any time between 1st Oc constantgood tober,1641, and 1st March, 1650, and did not manifest one-third of theirIrish estates,and receive should forfeit affection, part thevalue of the residue in such place in Ireland as the Parliamentmight should forfeit constant appoint; and such as did manifest good affection one-fifth part of theirestates. 4th. All otherpersons not possessed of real or personal property the value to of 10, who shouldd, down theirarms,and subscribea declarationto lay be true and faithful the Commonwealth, to should be pardoned. With respectto the threeclasses incapable ofpardon,theywere to be sought when found,dealt with by the Courts ofHigh Commission beforere out,and, ferred to.t With respectto the four classes admissible topardon, the firstrelates to Scobell's cap.13,p. 197. Ordinances, B. t Appendix
theCivil War in Ireland, 1641-1652.
the IFiSI1 Confederate army; the second, to landowners and occupiers of whatever creed, who favoured the Confederatearmy; the third is special to Roman Catholics who, even if innocent, were doomed to the loss of one-fifth of their estates; and the fourthswept into the qualificationprooftoils part all such as had real or personalproperty above the value of 10. Thus, all civiliansand soldiers who were not protectedby the Articles of surrenderof Towns, &c., already referredto, and who favoured the cause oftheConfederates, well as all Roman Catholics,whether as theydid or did not withloss of more or less favourthatcause,were eitherto suffer transplantation, of their estates, or to part with a portion of the latter,without transplanta a tion: a more absorbingpiece of legislationnever emanatedfrom Parliament. as in I have beenthusparticular myanalysis, it is necessary understand to well the powers conferred upon the Executive Authoritiesby the Ordinances, to comprehendthe natureand extentofthe duties to be executed by the Judges and Commissioners into execution,and appointed to carrythe transplantation or how far those powers were mercifully otherwiseused. The Ordinance was allowed to lie in abeyance for nearly a year, awaiting the compilationand returnof some portionof the surveys. On the 26th Sep tember,1653, the English Parliamentpassed anothertOrdinance, explaining what the earlier one had, perhaps designedly, omitted to do; it appointed Connaught,and Clare in Munster,exceptinga belt of land four miles wide for along the sea shore,as the place of transplantation such of the Irish nation within qua1flcations the in as might comprehended be mentioned the Ordinance of1652. It empoweredCharlesFleetwood, Lieutenant-General the Armyin of Ireland ; Edmond Ludlow, Lieutenant-Generalof the Horse; Miles Corbet and John Jones, the Commissionersof the Parliament of England for the affairs Ireland, who were also its Privy Council there,to direct the trans of and their plantationof the Irish,althoughtheirClaims mightbe undetermined and it also empowered them, notwithstand qualificationsundecided upon ; of ing the non-determination the claims,to set out to the Irish lands in Con to to naught and Clare, proportionate the estates claimed,and competent such A. Appendix Scobell's cap.12,p. 204. Ordinances, t
07Z MB. HARDINGE Circumstances attending
stockas each of such persons shouldpossess ; and that afterwardsthe claims and qualificationsmightbe determined,and lands grantedaccordingly. The Ordinance thendirectsthe Privy Council to cause proclamationto be made " for the better That securityof such parts of Ireland as were intended to be planted with English and Protestants,and to the end that all persons in or the Ireland who had a rightto articles," favourheld forth the qualifica by Act (1652), it was necessary that they should, tions provided in the former themselves into the province of remove and transplant before1st May, 1654, Connaught and county Clare, or into one of them; and that there theyand of each of themshould be allotted such proportions land as should be answer able in value unto so much of his and theirestates,as by such articles or qua lifications theywere respectivelyto enjoy, in such place and manner as the the Privy Council mightappointand direct ; and thatafter date so limited,any such persons found inhabiting or remaining in any part of the province of Ulster, or Munster, except the county Clare, withouta pass autho Leirister, rizing themso to do, should he reputed as spies and enemies,and should, as death; and all persons so removing themselvesquietly into Con such, suffer naught and Clare aforesaidshould be pardoned." In consequence of the very brief limitation(a few months of time for and transplanting, the extremepenaltyattachableto disobedience,greatactivity and completenesswere necessaryto be observed in all preliminary arrange mentsmade to that end by the Privy Council, as well as by all subordinates actingunder their directions. This haste was enhanced by the clamour of the Adventurersto gain possessionoftheirstipulatedequivalentsofforfeited lands, and the Soldiers to obtainsatisfaction ofthe same fundforthe arrearsofpay out due to them; besides,the Government in itself was influenced the same direction by a naturalanxietyto reduce the army,and so lessentheamountto be provided in the annual estimates,which at that time was an alarminglyheavy item of nationalexpenditure. The preparations made were fullyequal to the occasion. A Commissiont of in oftowns, Appendix Meaning provisionsfavour thesurrenders &c., A. Receiver-General's 4,and LandedEstates Office, 69,letter Record t D.; 1653, Accounts, 5, press andAppendix C.
theCivil War in Ireland, 1641-1652.
was immediately issued to JusticeCook, John Sankey, William Gibbons,and Edward Leich, to sit as a Court of Claims at Athlone (the key to Connaught and Clare), and adjudicateupon the qualifications the several persons pre of themselvesin conformity with the pre-recitedordinances, and issue senting of certificates such qualifications, and of the value of the lands each was en titledto in reference hisformer relinquishedestate,and also in reference to and to the amountof stockand tillage broughtwith him into Connaught. Anothercontemporaneous Commission was issued to William Edwards, Edward Doyley, James Shean, and Henry Greenaway, to whom afterwards were added CharlesHaicroftand Captain Stephen Squibb, James Cuffe, and for from Henry Waddington, the purpose of receiving transplanted personsthe tothem theRevenuePrecinct certificates remov Comm granted issioners,upon by the and as respectiveforfeited ancienthabitations, well ing from places oftheir as thoseafterwards passedto themby the AthioneCommissioners, expressive of andthevalue ofthe lands,stock, their and tillage; uponwhichcer qualifications, whoseplace ofofficial administration at Lough was tificates Commissioners, said of reagh,grantedequivalentdistributions lands in such places in Connaughtor have been determined. Clare as might The PrivyCouncil,at thesame time,and to set those Commissioners mo in of tion,issued instructionsf 14th October,163, to the Commissionersof the into whichLeinster,Ulster, and Munsterex Revenue of the severalprecincts ceptingClare, were divided,namely,Athlone,Athy, Belfast,Belturbet,Clon mel, Cork, Dublin, Kerry,Kilkenny, Trim and Drogheda, Waterford and and themof the appointments duties of the Commission Wexford; informing and directing themto grantcertificates to ers to sit in Athloneand Loughreagh, Irish who mightdemand them,descriptive of the persons all the Confederate stock and kindsand amountof their and theseveral theirnumbers, transplanting, tillage. as The Privy Council,and nearlyat thesame time, appointed committees, of indicatedbythe Ordinance 1353, in each of the countiesintowhichLeinster, Ulster, and Munsterexcept Clare, were divided,Jwithpowerto dispensewith fromtheir respectivecountiesfor limited periods; and a si transplantation F. C. Appendix andAppendix D. C. f Appendix andAppendix E. I Appendix 3p2
On MR. HAiUMNGE Circumstances attending
milar power was conferredupon Connaught and Clare authorities to grant upon urgent occasions passes of leave to persons actually transplanted,to re visit the places of theirancienthabitation. These several arrangements being made, the Privy Council issued a procla ination in the terms prescribedby the Ordinance of 28th September,1653, calling upon all personswho had rightto articlesor favourheld forthby the qualificationsto remove and transplantthemselves into Connaughtor Clare iffterwards discoveredwith beforethe 1st May, 1654, underpenaltyofdeat/i, out pass-leavewithinthe otherprovinces,exceptingthecountyClare, whichwas itselfa partof the penal territory. This proclamation being duly posted, the of the Revenue, acting upon theirordersof 14th October, 1653, Commissioners that certificates a prescribedform in issued noticesin theirrespectiveprecincts, would be supplied to such as mightapply forthem. A more complete and effective organizationcould nothave been devised for the immediateand certain exodus ofthe ConfederateIrish landownersand oc cupiers fromthe places of theirrespectiveresidencesintoConnaughtand Clare than these several ordinances and orders established. Those who obeyed them received pardon, with some land as compensationfor the loss of their and tillage; stock estates,and a liberalallowanceofland as an equivalent their for while the disobedientnot only lost everything, riskedlife itself. but It has been observed thatthere was great cruelty in selecting the winter farm forthe tranp1antation. The adoption of that season, however,prevented operationsin anticipationof the harvest of 1654 in the respectiveplaces from whence the transplanterswere to remove, and so avoided innumerableafter and pass-leaves,and the consequent applications for dispensationcertiFicates separationof families; while to the Adventurersand Soldiers who were cla morousfortheirlands, the season forthe commencement such operationswas of the mostappropriatefortaking possession: in these respects, well as in the as more desirable one of keepingopposing population elementscompletelyapart fromone another,the appointed time for the transplantation was judiciously chosen. and its attendanthardships were not confinedexclusively Transplantation D. Appendix
theCivil War in Ireland, 1841-1652.
to the Confederate Irish. The forfeited lands, which more or less occupied in Ireland,presented one moving mass of English, Scotch, and every county Irish itinerants quest of houses and lands ; the weatherequally affected in all and thereal difference betweenthemwas notso much in the degree ofcomfort or discomfort as of inclinationor disinclinationto submitto it. endured, The proclamation, Revenue Commissioners' and as notifications, beforeob served, havingbeen promulgated earlyin the winterof 1653, the demand ofthe for certificates transplantation of was immediate,continuous, and ex people tensive. The earliest certificate granted was to Thomas Purcell, of Bally sallagh,in the countyof Kilkenny,on 26th September,1653 ; and the latestt was to Captain Howard Oxburgh,of Crea, in the King's on the 21st County, July,1654. And the earliestdelivery of such certificates, togetherwith the Athlone certificates of was a certificate WilliamChee qualification atLoughreagh, vers,j ofMuncktoune, county Dublin, on 2nd February,1654 ; and the latest was thebefore-mentioned certificate CaptainOxburgh,on the 27th July, 54. of 16 There are no good groundsforthe suppositionthatthe transplantation not was concludedon the 27th July,1654. No doubt there were excep substantially tional cases of some who endeavoured to evade it altogether,and who by themselves,even with permittedto transplant special grace were afterwards under the articles and ordinances of benefitof the qualification indulgences Parliament: such personsof necessityshould submittheir cases to the Privy had expired, Council, who alone, afterthe limit of time for transplantation was incurred,could and as a consequencethe penaltyofloss oflife and estate over thePrivy Council Books relieve the applicants. Such cases are sprinkled oftheperiod; but exceptionalinstancesofthekind are not evidence of the law thatgovernedthe transplantation. the thereare existingamongst of for Fortunately the interests exact history, the collectionsof muniments, Registers kept by Landed Estates Record Office ori of Revenue Commissioners' the LoughreaghCommissioners all the effective Leinster fromthe provincesof issued to personstransplanted ginal certificates, Had the Ulster and ConnaughtRegisterssurvivedthe accidents and Munster. " Academy, 56 and96. Hardinge's MS.inRoyal pages Epitome," Irish 71 96. 56 and96. 71 and96. Ibid., Ibid., pages and pages :1: pages t ibid., shelf lib.8-9. Landed Estates Record E., Office, 13, II press
Ofl Mu. HARDINGE Circumstances attending
of time,the evidence would on thispart of the subject be completeand concIu sive ; but these Registersare, I regretto Say, not forthcoming. The survivingRegistersin some instances exhibit complete copies of the and certificates, in the others copies so far complete as the descriptionof the and theirimmediatefamilies, but only indicate principal persons transplanted, containsthe follow Each of the certificates the gross numberof theirfollowers viz. information, : ing important under which the Revenue Commissioners acted, and their The authority respectivenames The names of the precinctsof which they were Commissioners The names of many,and numbersof all of the transplanted persons The countyand townlandfromwhence the principal transplanterhad re moved; The exact particularsof the entirestock and tillage brought with them. The date of the issue of the certificate. The Commissionersat Loughreagh attachedto each such registeredcerti ficatea consecutivenumber, and the date, which is consecutive also, of its pre sentation the holder at Loughreagh. by will be best appreciatedby thefollow The exact nature of thesecertificates in copy of the materialpart of one of them, viz. " COMMrs the Revenue withinthe of precinctof Clonmell. By the 'C said doe that GarrettPrendergast, Clo of We, the CommTs, herebycertifie in thecounty hath upon the 8 January, nenasse,proprietor, Waterford, 1653(4), of the in pursuance of a Declara'n Comm,",Parliamentofthe Common ofthe wealth of England for the Affaires Ireland, bearing date the 14th October, of 1653, delivered unto us in writinga particular,containingtherein the names of himselfand such otherpersonsas are to remove withhim,withthe quantitie and qualitie of theirrespectivestockes and tillage,the contentswhereofare as viz. followeth, :-Garrett Prendergastaforesaid, aged 35 years; of tall proprietor, 15 stature;red hair; his substanceis 86 sheep,20 garrons, cows, 12 acres ofcorn, and 20 swine. 2. Juan his wife,ofthe same, aged 30 yeares; middle stature; brownishcullored.haire. 3. Ellice Prendergast,of the same, servant, aged 25 LandeJ. Estates Record E., Office, 14,shelf vol.viii. press
theCivil War in Ireland, 1641-1652.
And yeares; middlestature flaxenhair ; herstockeis 20 sheep." in thisman ; ner the certificate nine other followers and it concludes proceeds,describing ; thus:-" substancewhereofwe conceive to be true. In witnesswhereof The we have hereuntoset our hands and seals, the 15th day of January, 1653(4). " D. ABBOTT, " SOL. RICHARDS, " BLOUNTE." CHAR. I have compileda veryelaborate" ofthese Epitome" Leinsterand Munster to referin thispaper,and which fillsninety-six Registers, whichI frequently closely writtenpages of an Appendix more valuable than this paper ; and of would fall too heavily on the limited which,as the publication it in eaten.so in fundsat the disposalofthe Academy,I presentin MS. forpreservation the to where it may be referred and examined. This Library of this institution, C' and its classificationis in detail under is in countyarrangement, Epitome" the following ; heads,viz. :-lst. The date of each certificate 2nd. The name and the numbers of their followers; of the principalpersons transplanted, 3rd. The townlandsfromwhence transplanted 4th. The detailed amount ; to of stock and tillage; 5th. The registernumber and date affixed each ef The resultsof each countyare summedup at fectivecertificate Loughreagh. exhibited. resultsare afterwards its close, and the provincial at to in I am driven, the absence of the Ulster register, make an approximate out of statement theresultofthetransplantation ofthat province; and, toavoid the its representative Munster result,as being most all cavil, have selectedas numerousof people and animals,althoughnot of tillage. For Connaught and of any approx Clare, the circumstances which were peculiar,I cannotventure Ordinancesin thatpro affected the Parliamentary by imation; butthenumbers the vince and countymusthave been, from scantinessof theirthenpopulation, in makelittledifference the general and inconsiderable, would,as an ingredient, conclusionsarrivedat. 0 The entiretransplantationintoConnaughtand Clare stands thus C. Appendix
on Circumstances MR. ITARDO'GE attending I A01e8 of No. Animals of CerProvinces. No.of . No. Persons. o.of Geese. of Corn. of kinds all tificates of J 523 8,438 317639 12,O36Leinster, 560 71373 151,358 17,886 Munster, 65 550 17,886 151,358 7,373k Ulster, Totals, 11623 44,210 26,7834 334,355 130
itisdemonstrated In anotherTab1e, tobe foundinthe "Epitome," that43,308 arrivedin Loughreagh before the 1st May, 1654; of the personstransplanted and thatthe residue,numberingonly 902 persons,arrivedthese also, by Privy no Council permission doubt,between that date and the 11th of the following indeed that in the shortspace of musthave been effective July. The machinery nine monthspassed so manypeople and such quantitiesof corn and othertillage products,cattle,and poultry,acrossthe narrowbridgeat Athloneto the townof betweenthe Loughreagh. Had therenot existedthemostcordialcommunication and the civil and military in three sets of Commissioners organizedauthorities each of the provinces,numbersofpeople, stock,and tillagemusthave perished immediatelocations if, by the way ; and further, as theyarrivedat Loughreagh, were not assigned them, to which they as immediatelypushed forward,it would have been impossibleto have fed them,or avoided pestilence. History constrainedto con imputesno failurein this particular; and we are therefore clude that the unhappy exodus was prosecutedwith considerablecaution, pre vision,and undoubted success. It would be erroneous to suppose that the transplantation included the entire native Irish population; no such movementwas intended, and any attempt of the kind would have been impolitic and impossible. The Ad venturersand Soldiers who replaced the transplanted persons in the for feited lands in the three principal provinces would themselves be wholly unfit cultivate them. Habituated for the most part to trades and military to beforeeffectively occupations, they should learn the art of agriculture employ theirown labour in that direction. They must,therefore, have had farm ing H. Appendix
theCivil Mar in Ireland, 1641-1652.
servants do the work,and who so well as the Irish labourer would perform to it I can, however, into Connaught readilyshow thatthe numbers transplanted and Clare not onlywerenot coextensivewiththe Irish population,but thatthey could not have been very great; and in all probabilitythe transplantation is well and fairly represented the 44,210 persons exhibited in the calcula by tionsand Tables alreadyreferred to. It is not long since I read a paper beforethe Academy, upon a recently discoveredCensus ofIreland forthe year 1659, and one of the manyinteresting factsestablishedby that Census is the proportionthen existingbetween the races of theinhabitants: -In Connaughtand Munsterthe proportion Irishto of and Scotch was 10 to 1 ; in Leinster it was 5 to 1 ; and in luster, 14 English to 1. No one can believe that,if anything like the removal of all the Irish into Connaughttook place in the year 154, their numbersin the other pro vinces could have been what the Census returns demonstratethem to have been in 1659. It would be a mistaketo conclude, thatin the year 1658 numbersof per Sons were condemnedto death for not transplanting. A Council Order of 26th Octoberin thatyearis assumed as evidence of the fact: the Order, how divers to ever, onlygoes the lengthof saying, "that persons were condemned for banishment thatcrime." no misconception should be allowed to remaintouchingthe period of That could legally be timewithinwhich a sentence of death fornot transplanting pronounced,I have examined the proper authoritiesfor deciding the point, and findthatthe Ordinance of Parliamentof 26th September,1653, so often to and decreed its commencement be 1st thatpunishment, quoted, originated themselves May, 1654, uponall suchas shouldnotby thatday have transplanted into Connaughtor Glare. I also find an Ordinance of Parliament passed in " 1656,t entitled, Acts and Ordinancesmade since3rd April, 1653, and before This 3rd September,1654, and otherActs, how farthey shall be in force." the certainspecifiedOrdinancespassed within period,butnotthe Act confirms That 1653 ; and it thendeclares, " all otherActs Ordinanceof26thSeptember. L. Appendix VOL.xxw. and Acts cap. f Seobell's Ordinances, 27,p. 389. 3q
07Z MR. HARDINGE Circumstances attending
and Ordinances not confirmed it, and passed between20th April, 1653, and by 17thSeptember,1656, includingthat of 26th September,1653, should after1st Another Ordinance passed after July,1657, be absolutelynull and void." " An Act forthe Attainderof the Re entitled wards,in the same year 1656,A11 themselvesmight in Ireland," thatpersonswho had not transplanted bels states, do so withinthreemonthsafterpublicationthereof; and that all those liable who did not,withinthe timeprescribed,so transplantthem to transplantation the selves, should for ever forfeit benefitintendedforthem by theDeclaration the and Act of State dated 2nd July,1653, and should suffer penalties imposed the by the Act, but should not suffer pains of death. Thus we have two Acts of the Parliament of England, one of which abo afterthe 1st July, lishes absolutelythe penaltyof death fornot transplanting 157 ; and the other, more lenient, declares that persons not transplanting themselveswithinthree monthsafterpublication of the Act, whatever other for penaltiesthey mightsuffer their disobedience,should not be subjected to the penaltyof death; and thisAct was passed.in September,16 5 6, so that from that time it was out of the power of the Council of State in Ireland, or the Judges of the land, legally to pass the extreme sentence of death against any In subject forthe crime ofnon-transplantation. fact,two and a half years was the utmost limit within which such a punishment could be pronounced, namely,fromMay, 1354, to September,1656. It is quite clear that no person could have been condemnedto death for this offence afterthe latter date. exhibited my evidenceson the transplantation, thus cleared the and Having forfeited lands in Leinster,Ulster, and Munster,ofthe elementmostobjection able to the Adventurersand Soldiers, I will now proceed,so faras theRecords lands in the fourprovinces allow, to treat of the dispositionof the forfeited all the interestsconcernedin them. amongst ,'; Acts Ordinances, 27,p. 501. Scobell's and cap.
theCivil War in Ireland, 1641-16.59 . OF DISTRIBUTION TEE FORFEITED LANDS.
It has been asserted thatIreland,at a particular Commonwealth period,was divided betweenthe Adventurers,the English army, and the Government; but, if the territorial propertyof the countrywas then alone possessed by the interests a the indicated, subsequent title,derivedfrom Parliamentof Eng land, would be common to all present possessors and occupiers,and there would be no necessity look behind the forfeitures 1641, and the grantsof to of these lands made by or on behalfof the Crown. Against such a theorythere arise in the mind the well-knownand time-honoured titles of Kildare, Or Talbot de Malahide, and a multitudeof mond,Clanrickard,Kinsale, Howth, othersof our mostancientnobilityand gentry;and also the manyissues from time to time sent for trial out of our courts of law and equity to decide and otherhereditaments, evidenceto sustain to the fisheries, rights advowsons, which I have myselfknown to commence with Henry II. and Prince John, and be carriedsatisfactorily includingthat throughrebellionsand revolutions, of 1641, to the momentwhen the juries returnedtheir verdictin each parti cular Record. in A simple narrative, however, of the condition of the landed property this kingdom from1652 to 1660-a period of time that marks the active lands by the CromwellianGovernment-would operationswith the forfeited thattherewas no such unrestricted forfeiture. It would convince anyperson also exhibit the small advantage the Commonwealth leaders themselves estates,if these leaders were honestly could have derivedout ofthe forfeited the moneyadvances made by minded,as they appear to have been, to satisfy the the Adventurers, arrearsof pay due to the Soldiery,and thedebtsincurred and othermilitary for Commissariat purposes. As these debts must in justice be bornein mind,to testtheaccuracy of myconclusionsin passingalong,I will here set them down in the figureswhich they are admittedto have reached, although I believe their real amount to have been considerably in excess of these sums. Advances ofmoney Adventurers,. 360,000 by and ofpay to Officers Soldiers,. 1,550,000 Total, 3,660,000 Arrears . . For suppliesofCommissariat, &c.,. 1,750,000 3q2
071Circumstances MR. HARDINGE attending
To provide forthese debts, and also for the persons transplantableunder the Ordinancesof 1652 and 1663, intoConnaughtand Clare, as well as for the therewere available the forfeited lands indwellersofthesepenal localities, guilty of all Ireland. The Civil, Down, and Strafford Survey Records which remain enabled at me to compile,ifnot withperfect, least with sufficient accuracy,a statement read on a formeroccasion before the Academy, showing in geographical ar of rangement Province,County,and Barony,the numberofacres of land unfor as Ieited, and also the numberof acres of lands, profitable well as unprofitable, jofeited in consequence of the Rebellion of 1641. of I From thiscompilation have takena concise Countydicrestt results. The land in the kingdom ascertainedby the Civil Survey of extent of unforfeited 1653 was 9,170,117A. OR. 171., or nearlyhalf its surface. The area of the land. was 11,008,460A. 31t.23i. ; but, as the unprofitable forfeited portion of this area was valueless forpaymentof debt demands, it was carefully distin it guished fromthe profitablein the Surveys ; arid,further, was thrownin as a gift the Adventurersand Soldiers, and otherswhose portionof profitable to lands mightabut upon the borders. was not of liberality, but of necessity,and in order to fixa rightof This gift tractsin the possessors considered to be most trust to property the profitless who would exercise the right accorded to them in preventingdan worthy, gerous occupantsfromtaking up theirquartersin the waste lands ; in fact,the donation was one to quiet possessions,and for the securityand peace of the settlement. The unprofitable area thus disposedofas a giftamountedto 3,306,488A.2R. a surplusprofitable land fund, applicable for all the pur 2r., leaving forfeited of poses, politicaland otherwise,ofthe CromwellianGovernment, 7,701,972A. in. 21p.1Englishstatutemeasure-an available area far shortof even one-half the surfaceof all Ireland. Beforea single acre of these disposable profitable lands could with advan " MS. Mapped Townianci Transactions Hardinge's Ireland1640and 1688"-" of Surveys, theRoyal Irish vol.xxiv., Academy," Antiquities. I. 1 Appendix
theCivil War in Ireland, 1641-1352.
be tage or security settledupon Adventurersand Soldiers it was necessaryto the forfeiting ownersand occupiers out of the other and adjoining transplant provincesinto Connaughtand Clare. The mannerin whichthis transplantation was carried out, the numberof and amountof stock and tillage affected it, have been described; persons by and it onlynowremainsto show as accuratelyas the public recordswill permit the extentof lands distributed the persons transplanted, well as to othcrs to as not strictly out transplanters, of the aforesaid consolidatedland fund. This is to determine fact,and to fix withprecisionthe extent of the re the requisite sidue ofthatfundthatremainedin the hands of the CromwellianGovernment forthe satisfaction Adventurersand Soldiers, and for all other State pur.. of poses and demands. There is not knownto be in existence any record evidence fromwhich a detail of the distribution forfeited of lands amongst all or any one of the interestsprotectedby and having claims upon the Commonwealthcould be accurate statementcannot be expected from me compiled. The reforeitn fromthe adja to of the extent of lands distributed the persons transplanted cent provincesinto Connaughtand Clare. These persons obtainedfromthe Athlone Commissioners of certificates qualificationunder the Ordinances of 1652 and 1653, expressive of the value of the land equivalents each was entitled to receive in referenceto their ancient and forfeited estates, and also in reference the value of their stock and tillage, under an order of the to Privy Council, whichdeclaredthat foreveryacre of corn three acres of land shouldbe allotted; foreverycow and bullock,a like quantity foreveryhors; ; one acre ; foreverythreesheep, fouracres; for or garron, mare, everyyearling, measure of land forotherlive stock. Upon the one acre, and a proportionate to and of presentation thesequalification value certificates theLoughreagh Com or the missioners, properequivalentoflands was allocated to each transplanted otherperson,but in such places in Connaughtand Glare as the Privy Council or the Commissioners mightappoint The guiltydenizensof the transplanted although subject to the territory, underthe Ordinancesand Privy Council order above like rules and conditions referredto as those removed from the other provinces,were not, except in a constructivesense, transplanters,they were proprietorswho forfeited ;
071 MR. HABDINGE Circumstances attending
their ancient estates within the transplanted territoryof Connaught and Clare. whetherof their own mere motion or by The LoughreaghCommissioners, from the Privy Council does not appear,extended no small favourto directions thesedenizens. In allocatingland equivalents to themupon their qualification the and stockand tillage value certificates, selection was usually out of their own ancientestates. The well-known records,explain Survey and distribution lands in Connaught ing the possessoryconditionand extentof all the forfeited and appropriationunder the and Clare in 1635, and their final adjudication to and 1660 to 1678, abundantlytestify the Acts ofSettlement Explanation from werefixedin theirrespective fact; and as these,as well as thereallytransplanted, titles and possessions before the residue of Connaught and Clare forfeited lands became even disposable to Adventurers and Soldiers, it follows that of the commencement their titles,although the differential space of timemay seem minute,antedates the titlesof the latter classes to their respective allot ments. It may be said thatthe adjudicationsmade undertheActs of Settlementand bear date,in everyinstance, the manyyearsafter Explanationto the transplanters and Soldiers under the same Acts. This certificates grantedto the Adventurers is no doubttrue,yet it does not affect of were priority title,as the transplanters never disturbed theirpossession,except from retrenchment in the from portion, the moment firstwas grantedto them in 1654. The last adjudications of it titlewere in theircase, as well as in that of the Adventurersand Soldiers,but of title and possession minus the retrenchment confirmatory former quotas. As I cannotexhibit a certainaccount of the extentof the forfeited lands in and and underthe Connaught Glaredisposedofto transplanters non-transplanters Ordinances 1652 and 1653, I will endeavourin a less certain,yet not unsatis of with ancient estate equivalents,it seems factory way, to do so. Dealing first reasonable to assume that each qualificationcertificate, which, as before ex plained,representedmanypersons,also included amongstthem one such pro ; prietor and,as there were 1623 certificates, so therewere 1623 ancientpro prietors. was entitledto one hundredacres of Again,assumingthat each proprietor G. Appendix
theCivil War in Treland,1641-1652.
under the estate qualification and equivalent value land, the gross distribution would amountto 162,300 acresIrish plantation measure of profitable land. " In reference stockand tillage,a calculation based uponthe Epitome" to beforereferred of theirquantity, to and kinds,measured by theland numbers, allowed underthe Council Order,produces the followingresults, equivalents viz. AcresLand. of Equivalent of 26,783-f acres of corn x 3 80,8511 x ,, It 221262 horses,&c., 4 891048 Total ,336,572acres, &C. 711043 x 3 23,681 oxen,cows, Irish Plantation x 1 1,998 yearlings 1,998 measure. 3 90,114 270,342 sheep 4 16,072 otheranimals 41018 J It will be interesting here to observe upon the firstremarkable feature of the transplantation. The value of the ancient estate equivalents and extent of land grantsmade thereuponwas but one-thirdthe amount of the value and extentof land grantsmade to the owners of stock and tillage. .A portionofthis stockand tillage no doubt belongedto the ancientestate pro musthave been small, fromthe little intermeddling but that portion prietors, in agriculturaloperationson their own account by land owners of that day. and farmers theseproprietors; of belongedto thetenant By farthe largerportion to in this, additionto thevalue equivalentsoflands contributed themunder the to at status an equalitywith,ifit did not Council Order, onceraisedtheir property former place many of themabove, their patronsand masters. The greatchange in the condition of the farming class thus brought about may not have been intended,although,fromthe course pursued, such a result was inevitable: nor did the beneficialeffectsend here-they extended themselves to the humblerclasses, by the increasemade to the numberand.wealth of theirem ployers,and the consequentextra demand forand price of labour. Combiningthe acreage equivalentsforancientestates with the equivalents of stock and tillage,it is foundthat 808,172 English statute acres must have been distributedin Connaught and thUounty Clare in Munster to trans planted, &c., persons. G Appendix
on MR. HARDINGE Circumstances attending
the " according to the circumstances produced by Epitome" Modifying accountand its value will consolidated the forfeited thisdistribution, land/und stand as follows,viz. under Land. Profitable Value Act. A. B. 1 21 3,390,130
of Total allIreland, ...............7,701,972 Profitable Land. Value Act. under Deduction. Transplanters' 2rt. 0 AllClare, . . 265830A. 17g. -C119,610 0 0 . 5421341 1 23 162,699 0 Connaught,. to Adventurers Sol and and of Residue Land Value satisfy ......... diers............
0 808,172 0
1 6,8931800 21 3,107,830
in that the 'ands It is manifest remaining the hands of the Commonwealth, nothe rated at a highervalue than 3,107,830, were less by and which could the sum of 552,170 than the amountof debts admittedto have been due to and to and on account of the army. the Adventurers, that such discontent It is not surprising, therefore, prevailed amongstthese in or that complaintsand recri interests the Commonwealth period, respective before the Council Board and into the were so frequently minations brought the interminable land distribution Parliament question. The settlement upon of the debts and the distributionof the lands were not adjusted, but incom rule. Upon the Restorationof plete,at the expiration of the Commonwealth and Expla King Charles II., and the passing of the famousActs of Settlement the so nation, entire review, and the distribution, far as proceedingsunderwent it had been made, underwentconsiderablemodifications changes. and These Acts reversed the proscriptiondecreed by the Ordinance of 1652 againstthe Earls of Ormond and Clanrickard, and othersof our ancient nobi lands to their lity. They restoredecclesiastical,collegiate,and othercorporate possessorsin 1641 ; they admittedto their ancientestatesa multitudeof trans who showedreasonable proofsof innocence,and plantedand otherproprietors, K. I. AppendixandAppendix
theCivil War in Ireland, 1641-1652.
interests. To accomplishthisresult a sacrifice was theyreconciledconflicting demanded from,and cheerfully acceded to by all the creditors of the State who had received or were then to receive paymentin lands. They consented to a reductionof 7s. Gd.in the pound on theirseveral claims ; those who had been paid off lands retrenched surrendered difference value-.-those in or of the who were to be paid received that value by so much less. The effect the on original land fund value of X3,390,130 was to reduce the debts against it from3660,000 to under2,400,000. Thus the Government of the King was enabled to meet all demands, and pacifyand " the Kingdom of settle" Ireland. and arrangementof our public ar Unless, in the proposed concentration some new and unexpected evidences of the Cromwellianperiod turn chives, account cannot up, i: am convinced that a fall and completely satisfactory be authentically as given of those stirringtimes. The case is different re the after settlementof the kingdom by Charles H. A perfect and spects narrative thatsettlement of even to the distribution unnerring may be written, of everyperch of the forfeited land; where situated; to whom and by what instruments ; granted the rents payable to the Crown ; and, if released, re at or purchased, whattimes, what authorities, in whose favourthe and duced, by or release,reduction, purchasewas made. But,as thereexistsno digestof these resultsfromthe records,and as such a digest should, in the interestof truth, be collected fromeach separate survey,decree, certificate, grant, and many other kindred and contemporaneous documents,the task could scarcely be in executed with any degree of reliability the lifetimeof an individual, even to. Such an extensive assuminghe had freeaccess to the evidences referred shouldhave, as it would deserve,the sanctionand materialsupportof Her work Government. Majesty's here noticedupon the the We may now consider effects the circumstances of populationand peace ofthekingdom. be It mightnaturally supposedthattheremovalof so manyoftheIrish land owners,occupiers,and others,fromLeinster,Ulster, and Munster,and their in concentration a singleprovince,would produce turbulenceand disaffection; of and thatthe plantation so many English, Scotch, and other settlersin their 3r VOL.XXIV.
On MR. HARDINGE Circumstances attending
room would have an exactly opposite tendency. Yet, strange as it may ap pear, such has not been the experience of the past two centuries. Within has that period such unbrokentranquillity not prevailed in the otherparts of this Kingdom as in Connaught and Clare. No doubt the restorationof Charles II., and the ample measure ofjustice which he extended to the trans planted landownerswho could show reasonable grounds of innocence of the effects and the lessons learned frompersonal ex ; rebellion,produced salutary posure to the horrorsof a civil war had theirinfluencealso ; but, in my mind, to these reasons alone would not suffice account forthe long-continued peace ful stateof the populationof thatProvince and County. It would be well that otherswho have considered the question would turn their attentionto the tenures grantedto all transplanted natureof the land perpetuity persons great in the tenuresofthenumerically and small,and say whetherthischange prepon sectionof the tillers of the ground had not muchto do with their own derating the real 1oya11d that of their descendants. My convictionis, thatit formed of substratum the tranquillity thathas since so happily prevailed. thusattributable the trans to Much, however,as we mustadmire the effect there is another less apparent though not less importantresult, plantation, of a more general character,that has been silentlydoing a work which,if not is of altogether, almost accomplished,and that should have the effect uniting all the inhabitantsof this kingdom in friendly with each other. relationship The copious immigration English, Scotch, and others into Ireland during of the Commonwealth the period,and through long-continued reign of CharlesII., introducedand cementedmatrimonial alliances amongstevery class and creed, which tend to mergerival races into one commonand kindred stock. In this natural process of absorption,man but imitates nature's happiest illustration, immortalized Ireland's poet. Is therean Academicianwho does not sweetest by remember Avoca's charmingvale, where,fromopposing sources, manywaters flow on in one commingling and harmo meet,and, lulled by softerinfluences, nious streamto a boundless ocean-their commonoriginand commonend If thisnotionofthe obliteration race distinction just, surelythe interests of be of all are the interestsof each. Instead of endeavouringto discover how far we may withimpunity press upon our neighbours' possessionsor consciences,
theCivil War in Ireland, 1641-1652.
we should zealouslytryto findwhere any inconveniencerests, and attempt its removal. Should the futurerealize these thoughtsand aspirations, briefsketch the or whichI have drawnof the Commonwealth period will not prove profitless, have been written vain. in
On MIL HARDINGE Circumstances attending
&c. Orders, Surrenders, Agreements, and of Page VoLPersons Places. 1 Dublin Castle, Particulars. Dates.
in of And other all within places streogthIreland and of Lord thepower governmentJames, of and Lord Lieutenant Marquis Ormond, Commander-in-Chief, appointed King by with Charles surrendered I., together byhim, of theSword State, the............... of Oommiss Commissioners to ParliamentEngland, of the 18 June, 1647. 10 to Town surrender Oliver Lord of, Cromwell, and . . Lieutenant Commander-in-Chief, 19 Oct.1649. 12 Cork, . . to Crom of, Corporationtheir proposals Oliver and t well,LordLieutenant Commander-in ............................... Nov.1649. Chief, 135 Bandon, . . to it Town, proposition deliver up to Lord ............................. 15Nov. 1649. Broghifl to Cram 23 surrender Oliver Tipperary, Rosse...... Lord L ar a C well,Lnd Lieutenant Commander-in 24 Feb.,1649. Chief, 24 Kilkenny, to Oro surrenderedOliver CityandCastle, . and well,Lord Lieutenant Commanderin 1650. Chief, Mar., Cahir....... 26 Protestant Delin Under of ProCastle, ofOrmo ; Articles Marquis Ormond from Lord tection OliverCromwell, Lieu quents, . . tenant Commander-in-Chief, . and 26 Api.,1650. 34 Clonmel,. . Articles of Townand Garrison, Tipperary; Lord with Cromwell, Lieu Agreement Oliver and I 8 May, tenant Commander.in 1650. Chief, 35 Fethard, . . of Townand Garrison, ; TipperaryArticles Lord with Cromwell, Lieu Agreement Oliver and 16tenantComm ander-in No date. Chief, 44 Athlone, , . Castle surrendered.................... Lord toSirCharles Coote, . of, of President Connaught 18 June, 1651. ........................27 ....... ........................ ....... Lib. Press ShelfL.E. R.Office. 4, 14, E,
theCivil Tar in Ireland, 1641-1652. ofVoIi and Persons Places. Page Particulars.
to of 163-4 Lambert, Major Ordered the ParliamentEngland be by of under.............. made theLordLieutenant General, Deputy 651. Ireland (Cromwefl in our from favour 37 Fitzpatrick, , Articles his ............... Commissa Col., 1651. 7 Mar., neral Reynolds. 2 ApI.,1652. . Reynolds, to i Surrender .... 53 O'Connorlloe,Teige Commissary-Gen. ............5 surrender ApI.,1652. 119 Galway, . . . Town, 1652. of . 55 Janiestowne,. Articles Surrender, Api., 8 Api., 1652. of m ......... 56 Druruske, . . Articles Surrender, 21 Api., surrender of 56 Glare Brigade, 1652.1 . 22 API.,16520 . .......... 59 Reily, Hugh,Hissubmission . . . Capt. . 23 May, 1652. . of. 72 Dromagh, . . Surrender .......... . 26 May, 1652. . . Surrender 73 Ballyshannon 1652. of 3 Tune, surrender . of, 82 Newtowne,. . Fort inLeitrim, and Captain-General Commander-in Oliver,Created 169 Cromwell, in relandwith of Chief theArmies Ireland, .power ........ 0 15 June, 1652. togrant S Sir General E to . and of, 76 Ross Islands, Surrender Lieutenant-Genedmund 1652. Commander-in June, Chief, Ludlow, 1652. of of June, . 86 Ballymote,. . Conditionssurrender . 1652. 28June, ........ the 88 Mullagh . . . And Islands,. for of . . LordDeputy Ireland his King,with 90 Clanrickard, the Commissioners representing LordPresi said of dent Connaught ; agreement granting 1652. on conditionsleaving Ireland,, 28 June, Earlcertain of Forces withLordPresident Con .. . of,of..........7 96 Connaught, . Irish of...... Commissions............. on of ..........24 Articles Agreement laying naught; 14 July, 1652. their down arms, . . 1652. 14 Aug., Hierome . Sankey, of, 47 Inchiogher, . Surrender toColonel I 79 from of During year Warexcepted surrender, and 1652 1653. ........ Murders,. anddefinition thereof, . , . . . . I 109 J i :: " i Armies Leinster, of of iTister, 12 May, 1652. I SurrenderIrish 6,15,16 to and Connaught, Lieutenant 21 Munster, , Sept., 1652. 18, 17, 19 Kilkenny, . Commander-in ........ ci Edmun Ludlow, General 1653. 29 Api., 21,22 20, of Parliament Forces, Chief the &c.,-J j J 104,110 1652. of, Isles; surrender of, 83 Arkyn, . . . Fort inArran 2. onconditions,......14 Feb.,165 surrendered . . Island 100 Innisbuffyn, 24 Gen. toCommissary Reynolds, Feb.,1652. surrendered . 51 Ballyleague, . Fort,
on MR. HABDINGE Circumstances attending
and the of for of Explanations theArticles Rendition Ross andtheIslands, for Submission of of the Command Lord Muskerry, Commander-inOhief of all the Forcesunder into by thatNobleman entered with His Majesty's II Forcesin Munster, (Charles ofthe of Edmund Commander-in-Chief Forces theEnglish Lieutenant-General Ludlow, of on 1562.-Articles Capitulation, Vol.iv., in Parliament Ireland, the22ndJune, &o., E. 14, 79,press shelf page " wih Articles made yeLd ofMuskery. Erp1ana6nonye, the of who "We suchpersonsonlyguilty murther during firstyear of the esteeme murther massacre or abetted or warrhave contryved, acted, any ayded,assisted, upon own occupations their in or of not but anyperson persons theEnglish in arms, following we such and abetting, understand as have, farms freeholds of their assisting, :-By aiding, such or advised commanded murthers massacres, or will,either byactsoftheir precedently and such in or subsequently thereof, sheltering inurthers, keepingthemfrom approved justice. of who thoseonlyguilty murther, have "'Since of war,we esteem t/iefirst year the or who killed ofourparty after any quarter given: Provided always person persons did had or and persons quarter so kill did know, before at thesaidkilling, said person the the or so the likewise, person persons killeddid not, act ofhostility Provided, against by Irishor otherwise, forfeit saidquarter the his before saidkilling. legally " of of of We further suchto be guilty murther are guilty breach quarter, as esteem or violation safeconduct, thefirst ofthewarr yekilling anyperson. of in to of year " We further ofmurther killed, commanded be killed, esteem suchtobeguilty who or to and wereso killed,anyofourprotected who were protected the Commanders-in by Chief theIrishparty, by anyauthorised giveprotection thebehalf theIrish of or on to of if of knewofthe said protection: so at party, theparty killing, thetime thesaidkilling, Provided party killeddid not legally the so forfeit said protection yetime was his at he killed. " We further our esteeme thatifany person under protection, whichshall, formerly that havekilledorcaused havekilledanyperson to under protection, our and time, during afterward runtotheenemy, shall this,withanyease ofthe like kind,shallbeejudged murther.
theCivil War in Ireland, 1641-.1652.
" Thatanycountryman in arms, under protection, haveby anyslight, not nor who our orpromise safety, of or drawne caused be drawne anyperson to under protection in to our thetaking ofhislife, with caseofthelikekind, be deemed shall niurther. this, away any 'C As toReligion. C' declare is notourintention, as we conceive, intention those Wee doe the of it nor, whom serve, force totheir we to to and consciences. contrary their any Worship Service "Personal As to Estates. C' Wedeclare noOfficer Soldier, shallbe mm that or in comprehendedyesaidArticles, or sueat lawforany or freequarter or other cattle, horses, pleaded money, provision, taken them order thesuperior of of from nation, officers, anythe inhabitants this by by and nor anymatter thing for in theorderly usual or as or committeddoneby them soldiers of for course war; Provided extend tofree ofthem this not any beingimpleaded duedebts toduecourse law. of according "HAR. WALLER. " ALLEN. WILLIAM " SADLEIE. THoMAS "NELSON. JOHN " sealed, delivered the in of and Signed, presence us, " ROGERS. HUGH " GooLnE. FRAN. " ELLIOTT. ANDREW " MULLINS. FREED. C' AULY LEYNE. " USTEED. JOHN 'C made and these and ratify confirm explanations declarations bymyCommis hereby sioners. LUDLOWE. "EDMUND
" a true L' betwixt Gen' concluded of Thisis explanans, thereupon copy yeArticles, 1654. Witness band,this3dAugt., Ludlowe myself. and my " MUSKRY."
by in Irish on Commisthe Commis-
IR. HARDINGE Circumstances on attending
toat Lands Commisthe the appointed of Names
Clare. and for Edwards, Squibb, Holcroft, Waddington, Greenway, Cuffe, Shaen, William Henry Stephen Henry Charles James Cousnaught James 8,438
passed Distribute whence Transplanted sioners Loughreagh of Persons Qualification from persons No. planted. of Persons Athlone. the said at of ofand the Efto of fective LEINSTER. No. tificates. Kingdom Names names Qualifications the the of aforesaid ofthe Names. Certificates, also and County Divisions removed; and
Cook, Gibbons, for Sanky, Precincts. A Appointed All Justice William John
were Commissioners' Precinct Loughreagh, Province Clare at ran. the they Revenue and Revenue in the
Lands Effective Commissioners Names Connaught of Counties the and into to distribute arrangement, Ireland, number to of and was viz.:-and Divisions
Leigh, W. Henry Crane, Hooker, Adams, Bolton, Vaughan, Commissioners. Fouke. Dobson. Waddington, Paisley, Simon Andrews, Bennett, Richards, Fran. Thomas Thomas Thomas Sadleir. William and Isaac S. Revenue Abbott. Henry John James Thomas Wynne, Watts, Ambrose Halsey. which Blount, Doyley, Wyckham. Evans, Faucet, Richards, Thomas Precinct Daniel Braefield, Davis, Carey, Markham, Southcote. Shane, Prettie, of into Hussey, Charles Robert ThomasThomas Douse, William Paris, George John Edward Edward PatrickHenry Thomas James Henry SolomonCadwalader SRobert B. . . . ( . . .. . . . .. . of . of, .. of, of, . . of, of, of,. ,..... . part part .. part of, of, . part . part part part , .... . part part .. . COUNTY, COUNTY, EAST, EAST, WEsT, WEST, Co . COUNTY,
LEINSTER. duty Commissioners TransplantationPrecinctProvinces geographical KgLDARE,... LouTH, MEATrH, QUEEMS LONGFORD, DUBLNI, KILKENNY, MEATn, MEATH, KING'S CARLOW, KINGo's MEATH, QUEEN's SWICKLow, KILKENNY, / WEXFORD 1653-4, toAthlone, , in at whose . . . . . Revenue and Athlone . . . Years said the sioners sioners subjected Exhibiting,
TRnr, CLONMEL, DRooGREDA DUBLIN,
theCivilWar in Ireland, 1641-1652.
to Commistilhe appointed of Loughircngh. difloners Names of No. Persns Athlone. planted. at EfUNSTER. oftiv MI ferNo. tificates. Qualifications of Names. Their Commissioners ..... . . before. as Same 17,886 17,886 before. as Same
Commissioners the of 44,210 salaries The 1,623 1656. in time
some year. October, until that 14 of
Cox. supplied, and towards R. Ramsay. be Revenue .... Iall,vWhital they Essay WV. Leinster. Leinster......J Rd. Transplante revenue in cannot in Wylmer, Transplanters whicll Precinct ofMonster. Woodroofe. Ingoldaby Transplantation Phaire, Clarke, of into public equal names Ousloy, names 44,210 to number Total enry enanes e the Names The Robert Thomas Simon Se Rd. Nathaniel Counties these . . . . . and APPENDIX . . . against . . ...... . now . these ....... which ... Trans-U amongst of, of, of, of, Ireland, not charge . of, of, of is thle into a Counties. partpart part part Ulster, lands .. part of ba part and ... thoe to Divisions oun, ......... of divided ULSTER. Districts, MUNSTER, nTERFORDa1, Record ceased Provinces three plantationof was forthcoming. Precinct LcstRcicK, TPurPiYRAyr,The WATERFOR, CORK WAT CW TIP'PERARY, KEnRRY,,WATERFORD, Thomas.
fLO ( . I Revenue . .
1654, completed closeo between and not the assumed July, are 27 result was the
distribution assistants of
staff NOTr.--The Lr;mIaxc WATRFmRORD BELTURBET, BELFAST,LONDONDERRY, their COK, CLON-MEL, KEnRRY of
On MR. HABDINGE Circumstances attending
of of the Copy (Circular Letter from CommissionerstheParliament Englandforthe ofthe to Precincts from Affairs Ireland, theCommissioners Revenueoftheseveral of 1653-4. wereto be transplanted, at Dublin,9thJanuary, dated Irish whence " GENTLEMEN, " EdwardDoyly, Charles nominated Edwards, Wm We have lately Wel for in and HenryGrenway, Commissioners thereceiving of James Shane, croft, Esquires, that out and and Certificates setting Landsin Connaught Clare to thepersons areto re to datethefourteenth ofOctober thither move last, day according thedeclaration bearing fitt for ofsitting we andappointed ough-Rea their which thought to makeknowne place the whoslialirepaire you Certi to for toyou,that maycommunicate sametoyour you people s understand in to to where PRESENT whereby may better they the flcatts order their removall, In which desire to distinguish we between and their Certificatts, said you Proprietors Te to yC that said COMMrs thebetter the ofthem directions and nants, according may dispose in instructions them that given behalf.We remaine yr very friends, loveing " FLEETWOOD, CHAR. "EDM. LUDLOWE,. "MILES COIIBETT, " Jo,JONES."
Order BookofCouncil, 7, press shelf lib. E.-L. E. I. 0. 14,
theCivil War in Ireland, 1641-I(35.
The following Extracts taken are from at madebytheStanding CommitteeCork Reports Housefor References theCommissionerstheParliament Englandfor from of of the Affairs Ireland, of viz.: " fi1i Vol.11.folio d.1 12 To the about personscomingout of (articlereferred 21 June, 1654 Conaught are transplanted that to thither look after goodsin other provinces " We being for whichyourHonorsdeclaration with unacquainted thedebates upon areissued on offer opinion the same, do humbly our but cannot Transplantation possibly that have conceive they liberty to them behind &rt'ants afforded the cieclaratwnsleave by said them. tolook their their Corn securing goods behind and inning left after " sixth occasion To the offer uponanyextraordinary we referred humbly that (article shall have to wherein Governor the as appears your Honors otherspecialoccasions or to satisfaction theInhabitants that leaveto comeoutofConaught Mun grounded desiring have orUlster suchendsonly,that suchcasesthe Governor liberty in for ster, Leinster, the togivepasses exceeding month not one free,n hispasses expressing describing persons, a likewise the thesaidlimitation theoccasion thetravell, Governor of and receivingcau at be tion from that Honors nottoomany licensed onetime." your
the MR. HARDINGE Circumstances On attending Civil War, c.
out lands to the Transplanters the for Commissioners setting to Copy Letter from in dated at Loughreagh, ofthe Precinct whichClare was situated, Commissioners 1653-4. 1stFebruary, 11 GENTLEMEN, " of We being entrusted theCornmrs theCommonwealth outlands tolay by to forthetransplanted and alsobeingempowered orInstructionssendforsuch Irish, by and and as for on necessary thebetter moreeffectual carrying of persons papers wee finde of into entered serious consideraon thebusiness, lindethat can wee that wee worke, having a Booksof assessmts ye applotting thelast therein for notproceed wthout viewofyolo of and the contribuon yeCounty Glare; likewise Duplicats in moneths ofthose of of Surveyes ye sent said CountyWchwere by youtoyC desire Commonwealth; Wee, therefore, earnestly all BooksofAssessmtsDuplicatts Surveys & of be speedthose youtosendus w111 possible be rnenoncd And in casethose to fore of hands, sendus thenames ; Duplicatts notin yor in eachBarony from whom mayrequire same;Weearelikewise wee those y persons parti are to instructed adviseWlh what fitt said to you persons most in yC County be em cularly of Irish for out to ployed yelaying proporons land to yetransplanted according suchor from inthat In pursuance shall receive us whereof desire (as we dersas they behalf; you as of us of and in speedily youmay to inform the names suchpersons honestie abilitie ye as in said County youjudge fittto be by us imployed ye affaire.So expecting your herein remaine we careandcompliance "affectionate Your friends Servants, & " HOLCROFT, CHAR. " WM.EDWARDS, "HEN. GRENWAY, "JAMES SHAEN." 0 Order BookofCouncil, 7, press shelf lib. E.-L. E. R. 00 14,
out of and into Combined and Analysis Transplantation of Leinster Munster Connaught Clare,in theYears1653and 1654. , Number of of Acres Corn. C of Time which Period within de Certificates ac), Period within said livered Lands' Time which said to of the were Dis were issued. tribution Certificates Commissioners, Spring Total Summerl Peas. Oxen. Cows. in Town of sittingthe Corn. Corn.Winter Corn. Corn. Loughreagh. I 258 :347 92 6670 860 265 483 1521 599 694 1903 of Animals. Number
Swine. Goats. Sheep. An
LEINSTEB 30 Feb. 9March, 42 17 & 1654. 28 1654. 72 94 191 27 20 811 8 and Jan. & 1654. 15 04 100 77 133 4 1)ec.1 & July, 10 138 19 1653,31 1654 2Feb. 11 Jan., & 1654. 11 13 20Feb. 16 28Jan 79 103 77 58 54 June, 12 133 7&, 1654. 604 498 3185k 4288k2228 2511 1398 47 June, 190 389026 1653,29 1654. Feb. 15 Sep., & Jan., 17 & 1654. 44 15 3651 424 399 1654. Feb. 27 1653,&21 18 & 1654. 508 13 July, 37 531 8 Dec., July, 16 & 1654. 86 12 27 100 226 138 1654. Feb. June, 360 24 529 19Dec.,1653,&31Jan., 16 28Feb., 52 119, 128 299 138 & 1654. 27& 1654. 162 3 19 21 7Jan. 21Feb., 31Jan., 35 2141 383 633 295 13& 1654. & 1654. 411 6 19 291 13 31Jan., & 1654. 67 256 573 896 752 557 65 1653,31 April, Jan., 82 122817Dec. & 1654.24Feb. 13 230 36 193k 2& 479 6 Jan., 26 &1654. 32 388 1.1.6 1653,28 1654. Feb. 5July, Dec., & & 1654. 182 3274 1069 4525 878 160 &20 087 339 June, 78 127831 Dec.,1653, Feb., 27Feb. 19 of . . Total Leinster, 4498 621312,036 5332 6357 995 47 1238k 523 8438 MUNSTER. 40 171 98 309 152 311 17 July, Dec., l7Feb.,&l4 1 16 223 19 16537&31Jan,,1654 1654. 28Feb. 20Dec., &16March,1654.25 943 50 1018 689 1517 20 66 498113& 1653. 15 358 501 874 1537 31 10 &1654. 7Dec., & 1654. Feb. 5July, 1364 30 8 1653, Jan., 168 2209 1654. Feb. 16June, 139 3376 297 3812 4231 3797 203 221 863514 1653, Jan., 10 & 1654. Oct., &31 1654. 1&28Feb., 67316 13 214 444 1360 1856 15 1658 170 30 79 174817Dec.11653,&31Jan.,1654. - --...67316 TotalsMunser, of 55017,886 5062139073734 8465 15 8647 440 38 759 10 1470 9561 7603110,410/i 15 15,004 of and 1435 85 TotalsLeinsterMunster 1073 .. 13,797 26,324
10 63 50 104 160 84 753 1448 14 162 259 112 72 34 134 14 855 18 143 35 145 311 750 13,6921659 3557 31
596 100 64 1780 3 7 1852 272 828 1835 163712 118,008 6083 146 536 10 2356 307215 128,325 4015 662918 142,017
of and There none from County in from Province the the of inLeinster. was tut the was Transplantation -TherenoTransplantation was out Wkklow, Clare,Munster;itthere any Ulster,rec )t forthcoming.
on MR, FIARDINGE Circumstances attending APPENDIX (H).
out Counties Leirister in of the Transplanted ofthe several Exhibiting numbers persons out in 1st and andMunster before after May,1654,andapproximately ofUlster same viz. details theTransplantation, of from antecedent the taken period, NuNBORfIANS1LAN WHO the Revenue Number let withinwere Commis of Before After Periods which ofPROVnCES to Luids M)ty, sioners'(teliVeled Certiticates May, 1st AND R. Pageferencees COrnTIE. Certificates Louglireegh. N 1654. Collunlsbioners delivered. Distribution at I And t 1)C1IOU wifliiii of he Colunir (J)LteS. 68 52 73 O 71 54 94 85 82 76 22 From Feb. 9Mar., . 17 to 1654, 29Mar., . to 2 Feb. 1654, to July, . 5 May 11 1554, Feb. 16March, 20 to ............... 1654, 16 On June, 1654. From Feb. 20April, 17 to 1654, to 1554, ,, 8 May 15June, . to 18Feb. 31March , 1654, ,, On July, 27 16154................ 1'iou 26April, to 15Feb. 1G54, LONOFOLtD, to 1054, ,, 2 May SJune, . to 27Feb. 28Feb., . 1654, . LOUT!!, . . . Nil, to 25Feb. 28Feb., . 1654, EAST, MEATrI, 1 Nil 24FebtoI3 April, Feb. 1654, MEATH, WEST,. to QUEEN'S On 20Feb. 16March, COUNTY, 16June, ...... 1654, 1654'. 23 27 to March, . . \TE.FORD, V From Feb. 10June,1054, . to 1654, ,, 3 Slay Leinster . . Totals, 4:; 50 43 31 14 MUNSTER. CORK..... Kicnn ..... LIMERICK. . TIPPERARY, WATERFORD, From Feb. 27Feb., . 17 to 1354, l...................... Ni 1054 28Feb. 1G to March, , jo Feb. 15April, to 1654, 26May 5 'I to July, . 1654, 10Feb. 16Murcb, to 1654, 6June16June, . to 1654, . 1 Feb. 28Feb., to 1654, LEINSTEII. (iArtLOW, . . DUBLIN, . . . . 1(ILDARE7 . . . KILKENNY,. KnG's. COUNTY, 20 5 5 11 1 183 7 1 18 6 19 19 82 31 1 71 7 523 16 66 166 2 219 2 79 550 311 lii 3242 517 454 221 201 1228 374 923 7776 223 4981 2283 8531 1748 17,766 42 14 148 14 'U
14 355 6132
Munster . . Totals, ULSTER. Calculated approxi from matey num bers transplanted from be Munster, FromFeb. 15 1 to . 1654, . cause Ulster ,, 26May S April, . . the to July, 1654, of Record particu lara not is forth coming. Ulster Totals..... Gross Totals.....
546 4 550 11323
17,766 17,766 43,308
120 120 902
VIZ.: P1u13c15, Numbers beforeMay, 1st 1654, . . 43,808 . Transplanted to ditto, subsequently . . , 902 Gross Totals, ......44,210
of of and and the Exhibiting contents, Unprofitable Profitable, thelandsforfeited, also the contents the landsunfor and in in arrange showtheexact area ofeach County Ireland, Provincial alphabetical which, feited, combined, viz. ment, : LEINSTERPROVINCE. COUNTIES. CARLOW. DUBLIN.......... ........ KILDARE. E KINO'B COUNTY, LONGFORD. LOUTU........... MEATH. ......... QimEN's COUNTY, WNSTMEATH. WEXFORD. WICKLOW KILKNFY......... ........ .......... ........... ....... Lein3ter . Totals, ENGLISH MEASURE. THE COUNT LANDS IN YiR1641, STATUTE FORFEITED COMBINED CON TKNS,ENGLIS11STATUTE . . . ... . LANDS . -:---: UNrOEFEITED EXCLUSIVE MEASURE, OF WATKR. Profitable. Total. Unprofitable. Combined A. R. P. 3 110,267 18 1 102,489 8 2 197,144 12 3 269,563 9 3 158,296 0 1 111,524 86 3 119,032 6 8 405,490 17 15,5220 3 3 2112,75224 3 331,524 0 0 146,508 17 0 21360711830 A. R. F. A. R. P. 2 1 48,371 12 1587639 30 1 2,6890. 19 105,178 27 1 3 10,104 20 2071248 32 2 1 24,549 17 294,113 26 .1 2 66,944 6 225,241 6 0 2 155,640 15 447116 19 3 2 13,220 31 1327253 37 2 33589 2 25 439,080 2 0 0 184,655 11 29,133 8 0 0 3249868 10 72,115 26 1 0 11,207 8 342,732 8 1 1 28,282 11 174,790 28 3 2 1 2,744,441 32 3 384,323 ULSTERPROVINCE. A 2 222,792 A ARMAO. H ... 3 ANmIM............90,037144,941 3 CAVAN..... 2 104,342 A DOWN 0 115,208 It ........... 2 86,930 DONNGAL........ R 3 62,937 0 ........ MONAGHAN, AN. FEMANAGIT........ 3 LONDONDERY....... 29,465 TYRONN, Ulster . 2 Totals, . 9061074 21 24 33 36 0 34 21 9 10 28 2 65,727 1 14,774 2 437790 0 19,810 0 44,718 1 27,327 2 71886 2 19,327 2 47256 4 38 14 6 17 39 16 5 4 0 2887520 25 1 104,812 22 2 1887732 7 3 1247152 2 0 159,926 17 0 647258 33 1 701824 37 2 1187744 14 1 33,722 14 2 17153,69311 3 3 419,869 6 1 708,389 31 1 3 205,322 37 3107134 19 1 '21 3 2GtJ,486 4557218 28 3 29 2 170467182 11170,33531 1 2 448,489 38 1 608,415 15 1 0 3467525 19 410,783 12 0 2 437,443 29 5081267 26 0 1 313,682 9 194,937 35 0 2 774,500 2 740,777 28 22 4,106034 0 57259172813 ---------. . A. R. F. 0 627198 39 3 120,953 20 3 2101169 26 1 2127562 33 2677010 5 2 106,093 85 3 707082 39 2 1367332 10 2 2391802 30 3 1001172 34 3 230,187 31 0 324,298 39 0 21079,866 A. R. F. 2 220,837 29 1 226,132 7 3 417,418 18 3 506,675 1 8 4927251 11 1 255,734 10 2 2021336 36 0 575,413 12 8 424,457 1 0 431,041 4 3 572,919 39 2 499,088 27 0 41824,30813
A A A A
3 247,618 23
. 0on altending Mi HArDINGE, Cihcunm,tances
3 9 9 32 19 27 0 3 0 0 1 1
31 25 1721 21 2 3 3 3 2
13 13 1935 0 0 3 3
EXCLUSIVE COUNTY ENGLISH A.
rMEASURE, WATER TEiTS,
662,368 4.55,638 760,074 1,048,130 1,835,316 1,154,036 5,915,563 4 1229 24 26 14 2 0 1 2 2 2
368,614449,012 574,584 1,310,641 4,178,977 1,476,123 5 2
4,824,308 5,259,728 5,915,563 4,178,977 20,178,578 21 2 29 5 17 0
3612 16 2239 3 1 3 3 1
0 2 3 2
[JNFORFEITED. A. LANDS
642,218 217,770 154,751 238,918 280,342 409,506 2,003,507 6 0 3 3
184,804 124,629 189,682 256,168 980,708 225,422
980,708 2,079,866 9,170,117 4,106,034 2,003,507
PI. 31 20 25
32 11 3030 3 2 3 1
R. 1 2 2 2 3 3
2 2 0 3 0
)-continued. 605,122382,025 IIMEASURE. *09,211 684,529237,867 Combined I 1,193,098 3,912,055 ( I
389,779 143,192 259,330 1,351,493 1,054,473 3,198,269
1,153,693 3,912,055 3,198,269 2,744,441 11,008,460 2 23 3225 3 2 2
X I ND E P P A
1422 2028 15 13 3 0 0 0 3 3
PROVINCE. 8 1
3 1 2 0 3
3 3 IRELAND. 3
63,069 Unprofitable.69,724 44,836 113,509 YEAR 339,491 200,676831,307
45,914 97,812 740,659 186,329 772,521 1,843,237 5 2
384,323 831,307 247,618 1,813,237 3,306,488 5
0 5 0 0 0 3 1 2 3 1
30 28 38
2 1 2 1 0 0 R.
0 2 32
LAnNDs A. Profitable.
614,805 318,956 193,031 265,830 608,535 1,079,580 3,080,747 . . . . ......... ....... , ...... .. . . .
97,278 313,813 578,971 161,517 5....... 203,450 1,355,031 . . . . . ..... . ...... Totals, ......... . . . . Connaught LEITRII, GALWAY, MAYo, SLIGrO,... RosCOoIstoN,
9068,074 2,360,118 7,701,972 1,355,031 .3,080,747 . . . .. .. ..... Totals, ... Ireland All
CONNAUGT, ULSTER LELNSTER, MUNSTER,
...... ........ .........
CLARE,........V Co KERRY, LIMERCK,....... TIIPERARY, WA'ERFORD, AAA
141-16"52. theCivil War iii I1'el(tIld,
the underRatesfixed theAct of 17 Charles for 1., any Exhibiting valuein Money by to extended the and thereof, whichRateswereafterwards Adventuring purchasers in Soldiers-whose in Arrears Pay weresatisfied Lands-of all theLandsprofitable of eachCounty Province Ireland, and viz.: of of Act Number of proportions per Provincial Tetal of frfeitcl Totals. 'rtdue each acres piofita- Rate COCcTLES 1000he ijf rtttalle lard. acres. loud land. CARLOW,..... . DUBLIN, . . . K1LDAnE..... KILKiY, . . . KING'S Cour, .... .... ORD......... LONGFORD, LOUTH MEATR........ . QUEEN'S COUNTY, WSTM....... .....EAT.. H.. WEXFORD.. WICKLOW,... LEINSTER. 110i5 102.1:u 197110 269-h 158 1ii.1q. 119 405,06 155-j 2.5 2360 OF EXCLUSIVE GLARE. MUNSTER, CORK, A LIs.EROcK,. . A TIPPERARY,. . A WATERFORD ........ 10791 6146 318-h 608 193 2814-h J 119,610 406,500 1,266,660 3,390,130
A A A A
INCLUSIVE GLARE. OF CONNAUGHT, T rr T T T CLARK,...... GALWAY,. ...... LEtTnI MAYO ......... . ........ RoscosisooN..... . SL000 265-k450 313. 300 203. 161p, 1620"RIF ULSTER. A ANTRIM, ARMAGHARMAGH CAVAN,. . . A DOWN, . . . FERMAe&GH,. DONEGAL.......... . LONDONDERRY, ............ . . . . . MONAGHAN, . . . TTnoNit, . . . ........ VOL.XXIV. 223 90 145 104-, 115 -lb 37 99A TZF 29
the 012 MR. J-LUDrTGE Creaw2stanees attending Civil War,4-c. 3'c. APPENDIX (L).
in ofireland the Counties of Transplantation View ofthe Population the Comparative 1653 and 1659. Years AND COUNTIES. PROVINCES LEINSTE. CATtLO v, DUBLIN , ..... KILDARE ........ KILKENNY KING'S COrNTY, LOGFOD LOUTI ............ ........... MEATI-I . COUNTY, QUEEN'S. ,......... . . . WESTMEATJI, WEXFORD ........ 0 U. U CS U 0 0 41969 18,847 11983 19,185 7,654 5,151 8,527 25,2B0 91915 121090 18,004 5,431 21,827 13,825 182427 8,310 5,392 9,690 29,096 11,115 12,672 11,680 J IN POPULATION IN 1C3. PoPULaTION Totals. Totals.Details. Details.
MUNSTER. KEw . . Coai......... . . . . Rr, LThtEtUCK. .. TrE . \VATELWOIW, .. rRARY...... . ULSTER. .... ANTRIM, ATh1AGN...... ..... CAVAN......... DONEGAL, Do ww........ PEttMANAcu..... . . LoNDo!srgRy, . MoNouAN....... ..... TYRONE ....J 16,089 6,748 14,703 12,001 15,183 71102 9,734 4,088 18,830 J 54,250 1 12,172 23,708 31,507 137135 184,773 63,031 8,390 24,977 26,684 18,286 136,868
I 106,063 L
AND CLMIE CONNAUGIIT. . ..... . r CLARE'. Y. GALWA.....I I : : : : 1 Rosoo.IMoN, SLEGO............j 16,014 33,300 1 29:967 122843 1 G.77 I
NOTE.-Tbe numbers 1659 taken a paper the population of are from upon Census that read Mr. Hardinge before the Irish " of of Irish on the March, Royal Academy, 16th 1865.VideTransactions year, by vol. the xxiv., Royal Academy," Antiquities. The numbers 1653 the population of of counties from are from corresponding of by therefrom asthe transplanted computedthe years, numbers 16b9, deducting one-seventh increase intermediateand probable population inthe adding the numbers for withdrawn in years and ; Transplantation the 1653 1654and referencecounties purposes in to the trans the principle of planted same to, calculatiou was that the in taken the counties excepting numbers from other and here 1.663 1654-are withdrtwu. observed,
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