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1.

Name of Scholar : Ajay Kumar Verma

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2. Title of the Research:

EFFECT OF CIRCUIT TRAINING PROGRAMME ON PHYSICAL FITNESS OF STATE LEVEL ATHLETES AND NON ATHLETES

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3. Location: a) b) 4. B.N. Physical College of Education, Udaipur Geographical area of investigation - Delhi

Importance of Proposed Investigation

Need and Importance of Physical Fitness It is self-evident that the fit citizens are a nation's best assets and weak ones its liabilities. It is therefore the responsibility of every country to promote physical fitness of its citizens because physical fitness is the basic requirement for most of the tasks to be undertaken by an individual in his daily life, if a person's body is under-developed or grows soft or inactive and if he fails to develop physical prowess, he is undermining his capacity for thought and for work, which are of vital importance to one's own life and society in a welfare state. After attaining independence, the Govt. of India did feel the need for introducing a scheme of physical fitness which was launched in the year 1959 in order to raise the physical fitness status of the Indian Youth. The Youth in the country could be made fitness conscious and involved in some kind of programmes which would not only motivate the children to participate in some kind of fitness activities but also to evaluate the fitness

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the only effective way is to strengthen the base of the pyramidical structure of performance which could be done through broad-basing physical education and fitness activities right from the elementary school upwards. it served only limited purpose. The scheme called National Physical Fitness Programme became popular through out the country over the years and it involved nearly 25 lakh youth in the programme of building and evaluating physical fitness. the cause of fatigue is the lack of regular physical exercise. Studies have documented a sedentary lifestyle as a risk factor for major degenerative diseases. In many cases. Neighbourhood Community Centres. Thereafter with the establishment of SAI at the National level the fitness schemes like Jogging Clubs.status of youth by developing fitness norms. Sponsored Races. 2 . National health statistics indicate that a high percentage of visits of physicians are for vague compliments such as chronic fatigue. A view was expressed that if the country was to make any progress in the field of sports. National Physical Fitness Festival and Mass Gymnastic Programmes (Bharatiyam) were merged with the National Fitness Programme to make it more interesting and broad based. In as much as the scheme provided only opportunities to assess physical fitness level and did not have any ongoing programme of physical fitness development in which youth could engage themselves. Many scientific studies over the past twenty years support the value of regular exercise as part of a healthy lifestyle. of India in 1985 also gave adequate importance to the programmes of physical education and physical fitness at the institutional level and stipulated that every educational institution should have adequate sports facilities and scientific programmes to enable every school going child to participate in games and sports and fitness activities of his/her own choice. the performance of the country in the field of sports has shown a gradual decline which has given us food for thought and brought home the fact that all is not well with our sports developmental activities. Over the years. The National Education Policy which was established by the Govt.

body composition and flexibility can help reduce the risk of heart disease.Regular participation in vigorous exercise increases physical fitness.cardiorespiratory endurance. Numerous scientific studies have documented the beneficial effects of exercise in groups of men and women across the entire adult age range. muscular strength and endurance. 3 . productive life. A high level of physical fitness is desirable for a full. osteoporosis. Sound exercise habits developed in these early years provide the foundation for a life time of physical fitness through exercise. Studies show that significant benefits can be realized by individuals who regularly engage in physical activity of appropriate frequency. Research has also shown that exercise patterns and fitness levels established during childhood and adolescence are likely to carry over into adult life. noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Reduction of the incidence of stroke and maintenance of functional independence of the elderly are also benefits that may be realized through participation in regular physical activity. Further more. scientific evidence of the health benefits of exercise continues to grow. Sedentary living habits and poor physical fitness have a negative impact on both health and daily living. More importantly. hypertension. Patients with anxiety and depression do better if exercise training is combined with other treatments. The benefits of regular exercise on psychological health have been clearly documented. obesity. the vast majority of individuals who take up regular exercise report an improved sense of general well-being and an enhanced self-image. and certain mental health problems such as depression. Moreover. individuals who are physically active typically outlive those who are not. Maintenance of an adequate level of the health-related components of physical fitness . The importance of physical activity as an integral part of a healthy lifestyle is becoming more widely recognized. and duration. intensity.

4 . In circuit training a certain number of exercises are done one after the other in the form of a circuit. In interval method incomplete rest is given after each station or exercise. should be recorded each time he does circuit training. The study will provide guidance to physical education teacher's. can consist of several exercise involving the same muscle groups. Circuit training can be done according to any of the three methods of conditioning but continuous and interval methods are used more commonly. A circuit training programme should be carefully worked out and should be continued for several weeks after which it should be changed if required. Performance cards for each sportsman should be prepared in which his performance i. load. however. sports coaches and athletic trainers to prepare an appropriate training schedule for specific exercise for the fitness of the players and non player's. A specific circuit. The exercises and their sequence should be determined first according to the aim. repetitions etc. The proposed investigation will help physical education teachers’. coaches and athletic trainer to analyse the effects of circuit training on individual physical fitness level. But normally a circuit consists of 6-10 exercises. A circuit can consist of 5-15 exercise.. In between the rounds 3-5 minutes recovery is normally given. The exercises in a circuit are arranged in such a manner that different muscle groups are exercised in rotation.e. Circuit training can be used for the improvement of technical and tactical elements or for the improvement of conditional abilities. This circuit is repeated three or more times. When continuous method is followed then all the exercises are done one after the other without break or the required number of circuits are completed without any pause.Need and Importance of Circuit Training It is very popular and effective organisational form of doing physical exercises.

women improved VO2 max by 4%. both groups had maintained the VO2 max improvements gained from the original running training. as well as mimetic activity. Wilmore et al (1978) showed that. This means that circuit training could be a useful way for athletes to stay in shape when they are injured. The present study may reveal physical adaptation to selected exercise training programme. The study will reveals the degree to which the training programme can influence the different variables of physical fitness of players so that adequate attention can be given to these exercises among the participants. can 5 . with short rest periods. may not occur in fitter individuals. However. proving once again that traditional aerobic training is more effective. Review of Related Studies The review of literature can give a researcher a great insight into the methods. This suggests that a higher level of initial fitness may mean a higher intensity of aerobic effort is needed for further improvement. The researcher found the following studies very illuminating. whereas men showed no improvement. whereupon their VO2 max went up by a further 8%. However.5ml/kg/min as opposed to 47 ml/kg/min. At the end. Thus the moderate gain in aerobic fitness shown in the studies. after a course of circuit training. Sports demand rotational rather then linear elements of the body. around 5% uplift in VO2 max. A circuit of weights exercises that do not stress the injury. the VO2 max of the women pre-training was much lower than the men's: 35. measures. 5. half the group than carried on with the running for a further eight weeks while half went back to circuit training. subject area and approaches used by other researchers. They then completed eight weeks of continuous running training. It open the vast storehouse of knowledge. Gettman et al (1982) showed that after eight weeks of circuit training a group of men improved their VO2 max by 3%.Exercises are specifically designed to develop the muscle groups that are most important for successful performance in a given activity should be assigned. Exercises must be selected on the basis of their development construction.

Singh.Singh and H. The result of the test were compared with the American standard. Knuttgen (1961) carried out a study to find fitness of Danish and American children. parochial or urban experience did not differ in physical fitness but boys from urban and parochial schools were superior in sports skill.5 level of confidence. Danish school children were selected for the study. It was concluded that 70% of the score of boys and 86% score of girls exceeded the various American mean score. The mean scores of rural high school students were slightly higher than those of urban high school students in NPHD Test. The subjects were tested on AAHPER Youth Fitness test. Frank (1963) examined that effect of different elementary school experiences upon achievement in certain aspects of physical fitness and sorts skill grade nine boys (N=85). It was found that there is no significant difference between senior and junior group in 30m and standing broad jump test performance. He had concluded that the mean scores on AAHPER Youth Fitness Test were slightly higher in the case of urban high school students as compared to those of rural high school students. Patiala.be used to maintain aerobic fitness. The age of the subject ranged from 14 to 17 years. S. The data was statistically analyzed. The junior group was found to be significantly 6 . Tuteja (2004) administered the AAHPER Youth Fitness Test and NPHD test to 100 rural and 100 urban school going male students in Delhi.Singh (2003) conducted a study to see the difference between fitness of senior and junior (girls) hockey players. However none of the difference in the mean scores was found statistically significant at 0. Male (N-319) and Female (N=134). which were complied in term of both age and to the Neilson cozens classification index. rural back ground (N=27). J. urban back ground (N=38) and parochial school back ground (N=20) were subjects of the study. Five tests were administered to assess the physical fitness level. The subjects for this study were hockey girls attending the camp of SAI NSNIS. The results of the study showed that boys with rural.

The girls levelled off in their performances earlier. The boys showed linear improvement on the motor tasks.S. It was concluded that the Cooper's 12-minute Run/walk test and Harvard step test could yield comparable cardio-respiratory endurance in non-athletic females. Nigeria. overlapping of To performance by age and sex and levelling off the performances. The girls improved interruptedly in sprinting and linearly in agility. measured by the Harvard step test and Cooper's 12-minute run/walk test. Result gives a significant positive correlation (r = . reported that physical fitness improve in those who take regular physical exercise and activity. The boys also outperformed the girls in sprinting except during age 8 years. A. Toriola and Mathur (1993) determined the relationship between the cardio-respiratory fitness scores of 25 untrained female students of the university of life. The overlapping of performances on these motor tasks was observed by age and sex of the performers. two motor tasks. The age of the subjects ranged from 18-20 years. The analysis of data indicated at these findings. observe these conditions. Regular participation in game significantly contributes to higher level of performance and greater degree of physical fitness amongst the players. Bernard (1966). p< . 7 . Pondered index was more important than chronological age in influencing the relationship between the cardio-respiratory fitness measures.better in shoulder strength. Standardized procedures were used to measure subject's anthropocentric characteristics and cardio-respiratory fitness. one each for speed and agility were selected. A cross sectional population of 499 boys and 470 girls was subjected to test on the motor tasks.01) between the subject's performance scores on the Harvard step test and Cooper's test. Pearson product moment correlation and partial correlation analysis were uses to determine the relationship between the endurance tests. inter-sex differences in performances.83. The improvement in performance was observed with respect to year-by-year increase. Sohi (2004) investigated the patterns of improvement in performances in speed and agility among 6-14 years boys and girls.

• To study the physical fitness of state level athletes and non athletes before and after the circuit training. • To suggest training framework of circuit training programme for the improvement of physical fitness of participants. • To study the physical fitness of boy and girl state level athletes and non athletes before and after circuit training. And so through my research I want to establish a concrete comparative relationship of circuit training effects on physical fitness of athletes and non athletes. 8 .Johnson (1972) found the participation in games like football caused adoption in circulatory and respiratory systems. which ultimately results in increased efficiency or in proved cardio-respiratory endurance for the competition. • To analyze the suitability of circuit training programme for the development and maintenance of physical fitness level of the participants. • To compare the physical fitness of boy and girl state level athletes and non athletes before and after circuit training. Research Gaps By reviewing the above mentioned literature it has been found that much research has not been done on the comparative aspects of effects of circuit training programmes on selected physical fitness components of athletes and senior secondary school students. • Objectives To identify the effects of circuit training programme on physical fitness of state level athletes and non-athletes. • To compare the physical fitness of athletes and non athletes before and after circuit training. 6. 7.

8 Hypotheses The hypotheses of the present research work are as follows: • There will be no significant effect of circuit training on physical fitness of state level athletes and non-athletes. • There will be no significant difference between physical fitness of athletes and non-athletes before circuit training. • There will be no significant difference between physical fitness of girl non-athletes before and after circuit training. • There will be no significant difference between physical fitness of athletes before and after circuit training. 9 . • There will be no significant difference between physical fitness of boy athletes before and after circuit training. • There will be no significant difference between physical fitness of boys and girl athletes. • There will be no significant difference between physical fitness of boys and girl non-athletes. • There will be no significant difference between physical fitness of non athletes before and after circuit training. • There will be no significant difference between physical fitness of girl athletes before and after circuit training. • There will be no significant difference between physical fitness of boy non-athletes before and after circuit training. • There will be no significant difference between physical fitness of athletes and non-athletes after circuit training.

Abdominal Strength and Endurance N=50 N=50 100 Non-athletes N=50 N=50 100 100 100 200 Total Shuttle Run . They will be drawn through random sampling technique. Out of them 100 students (50 boys & 50 girls) will be athletes (state level players) and rest of 100 students will be non-athletes (non-players).Speed 600 Yard Run-Walk – Endurance The proposed test is standardized as it consists of high reliability and validity.9. Methodology Sampling The sample consists of 200 senior secondary level students. The details of the Aahper Youth Fitness Test is as follows: Pull-up . The sample is further distributed two groups Control & Experimental. The age of sample ranges between 16 to 19 years.Speed and Agility Standing Long Jump .Power 50 Yard Dash .Arm and Shoulder Strength Sit-up . Research Design The experimental design used for the present research work 10 . The distribution of sample is given in the below table: Type of students Athletes Gender Boys Girls Total Tools of the study The Aahper Youth Fitness Test will be used to determine physical fitness of state level athletes and non-athletes.

Agility. Speed. Power & Endurance) Data Collection 11 .is as follows: Groups Group Control 1 (N=50) Non Athletes No Group1 Circuit (N=50) Training (N=50) Group3 Athletes No Circuit Training Group3 Circuit Group Experimental 2 (N=50) Training (16weeks ) Group2 (N=50) Group4 Circuit Training Group4 (N=50) (N=50) (16weeks ) (Each Group consist of 25 boys and 25 girls) Group 1 consists of non athletes of control group (25 boys and 25 girls) Group 2 consists of non athletes of experimental group (25 boys and 25 girls) Group 3 consists of athletes of control group (25 boys and 25 girls) Group 4 consists of athletes of experimental group (25 boys and 25 girls) Variables Independent Variables ♦ Type of students (Athletes & Non Athletes) ♦ Type of Gender (Boys & Girls) ♦ Type of Group (Control & Experimental) ♦ Pre .Post Dependent Variables: ♦ Physical Fitness (Strength.

Both the state level athletes and non athletes will be divided in two categories (boys and girls). For both group. The dosage of exercise will be progressively increased. 50 boys and 50 girls will be selected for both groups. For state level athletes (boys and girls) circuit training will be administered at Chatrasal Stadium Model Town. Delhi.The entire study is designed in three phases :Phase I: Pre. D. Phase II: Administration of circuit training programme Circuit training programme will be administered on the state level athletes and non-athletes. The initial data collected will be used for the comparison of the subjects with the data collected after administration of circuit training programme of 16 weeks. Progressive Loadings to the exercises will be given during the circuit training. Utmost care will be taken that the groups will regularly participate in the training programme. Public School East Punjabi Bagh. • • • The regularity of training will be ascertained. No leave will be provided during the training. 2 circuit training programme will be administered on each alternate day. All the boys and girls groups will be given separate time for circuit training. Principle of over-load will be followed. 16 weeks circuit training programme will be administered on both boys and girls 6 days a week. For non-athletes (boys and girls) circuit training will be administered at S.Test It would be conducted with a view to know the existing status of physical fitness level of state level athletes and non-athletes under 19 age category. New Delhi. 12 . Principle of over-load will be followed. Training protocol will be maintained during the training sessions: • Progressive loadings to the exercises will be given during the circuit training.

life style. daily routine. For the reliability of the tests. Rawal has kindly consented to supervise the procedure used to take the data. No special motivation was given to the subjects to give best performance. • The dates of training schedule will be decided according the time suggested by the students and their authorities. socio-economic status may effect training programme will not be considered as this is considered as the limitation of the study. 13 . Dr. To take the final data for the different test of physical fitness all the standard equipments will be used to take the data. Data Analysis Appropriate data analysis would be used for assessing qualitative and quantitative data as per the requirement of the study. • The type of training of the subject. H.C.• The systematic training plan will be formed with the help of experts of the fields and executed effectively. • • The subjects were not practice any activity during rest day.) Phase III: Post-Test The final test for the collection of data will be administered on the groups. competitive experience. Limitations The limitations of the present research work is as follows: • All athletes are from Delhi which were selected to participate in school national athletic meets (previous 2 years). • Administration of circuit training programme for 16 weeks (6 days/week 2 circuits of 8 stations will be administered on each alternate day.

It is specific to a given joint and is actually more dependent upon the musculature surrounding a joint then on the actual body structure of the joint itself. 14 . reasonably well. Flexibility: It is the functional capacity of a joint to move through a normal range of motion. Strength: Strength is the amount of muscular force one is capable of exerting in a single muscular contraction. 50 boys) from 5 schools of Delhi. The study is delimited to given circuit training programme of morning and evening session extended over 16 week duration. The objective is to complete the circuit as quickly as possible or to perform as many repetition of the exercise as possible in a set time period.• All senior secondary students will be selected randomly but athletes will not be selected. • • The study is delimited to under 19 age group students. Clarification of the terms Circuit Training : A training technique that involves performing a series of exercises or activities arranged in a logical sequence at different stations. Delimitation The delimitations of the study are as follows: • The study is delimited to 100 Delhi state level athletes (50 girls and 50 boys) and 100 senior secondary students (50 girls. Muscular Endurance: This is the quality that enables a person to sustain localized muscle group activities for extended periods of time. Physical Fitness: Physical fitness is the capacity to carry-out. various forms of physical activities without being unduly tired and includes qualities important to the individual's health and well being.

Measurement in Physical Education W.V. Tentative Chapter Plan 1. San Francisco. Evanston.I. Don (1979). 11. Statistics in Psychology and Education. Physical Fitness for men" An Arco Way Flower Hendy Book. Application of Measurement to Health and Physical Education. W.Cardio Respiratory Endurance: This is the quality that enables one to continue engaging in reasonably vigorous physical activities for extended periods of time and where the required cardiorespiratory adjustment to the activity is built up. Foundation of Physical Education. Overload Principle: A major principle of training whereby a stress or intensity greater than normal is placed on a body system in order to create a training effect. (1995). Hague building. 2. Englewood cliffs. 3. New York. Introduction Review of related literature Research Methodology Analysis and Interpretation of the data Conclusion and suggestion References Boucher Charles A. Harrison (1967). 9 Sprott Road. Charles & Kirkendall R. 10. 5. London.B. Health and Recreation. Feffer and Simone Ltd. 4. Vakils.. Dotson O. Saunders Company. 15 . Ballard Estate. Philadelphia London. Edmundson Joseph (1962). Statistics for Physical Education. Garrett E. Saint Louis. London. Donald K. Toronto. The C. Bombay. 3 Upper James Street. One example is to increase the amount of weight during weight training to increase muscle strength. Mathews (1978). Henry (1984). Prentice Hall Inc. Clarke H. Mosby company.

V. Moshy Co. P.B. (1993). intensities and densities on speed and muscular power of school students. Athletic Injuries Philadelphis. Leo & Fabiger.K. Allied Book Agency Calcutta. Delhi. Relationship of circuit training and cardiorespiratory fitness of untrained females. Carlton (1962).H. A way of life.S. Novich M. Govindarajulu L. Gettman (1982). Effects of Circuit training on the rehabilitation of injured athletes. Max & Taylor B. The Ronald Press Company. Magee R & M Barrow Harold (1971). Throndike A (1962). Gwalier. Publication. Harper & Row. Training and Condition of Athletes. Bombay. (1974). Philadelphia. New York. New York. Pathways to Fitness. Research Quarterly 39 pp (110-118) Tuteja (2004). August & Miller (1959). Lea & Fibiger. Toronto. D. The C. London. Scientific Basis of Athletic Conditioning. Thaxton Nolan A (1988). New Delhi. New York. 16 . Lea & Febiger. John Wiley & Sons.. Science of Sports Training. Howell Reet. Handbook of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 272. Saint Louis. Ghosh Aloke (1980). (1994). Singh Hardayal (1991). Uppal A. I.V. Keyers R. Philadelphia.N. The effects of warm up of different types duration. Foundations of Physical Education Friends Publications (India). thesis Jiwaji University.Getchell Bud (1976). Publishers. Lea & Fabiger. Dissertation Abstract International 29 pp 3449-3454.L. Howell Maxwell.S. Physiology of Exercise. Perfect Physical Fitness. Delhi. Publishing Company. 328. Physical Fitness. Buddy (1970). Unpublished Ph. Mathur D. Application Approach to measurements in Physical Education. Philedelphis. Clayne & Fisher Garth A (1979). Inc. Toriola A. Measurement in Physical Education.K. Jensen R.D. Morehouse Lawrence E.

Research Quarterly. vol 12 pp 74-178. Critical evaluation of effects of circuit training on the aerobic capacity of men and women at the state University Iowa.12) Selected physical fitness component is changed into physical fitness. Signature of the Candidate Signature of the Supervisor 17 . Progressive load is given. (page. Signature of the Candidate Outline Approved Signature of the Supervisor The suggestions proposed by Departmental Research Committee (Date 06/03/09) have been incorporated. (page 11) Training Protocol is added.(page13) The suggestions and corrections proposed by University Research Board (Date 26/08/09) are incorporated. Signature of the Candidate Signature of the Supervisor Corrections Title is modified (page cover and 1).Wilmore (1978). (page 8) Control Group is added.

Thighs (R) ____________in.Appendix . TScore Nos Nos Secs Feet & inches Secs Minute s & secs Strength and Endurance Shuttle Run .Arm and Shoulder Strength Sit-up Abdominal ____________in. (L) Raw Score Pull-up . Waist ____________in.Speed and Agility Standing Long Jump – Power 50 Yard Dash – Speed 600 Yard Run-Walk – Endurance 18 . Hips ____________in. (L) Upper Arm (R) ____________in. ____________in.1 PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST BATTERY RECORD FORM Pre / Post Test Group: Control / Experimental Category: Athlete / Non-Athlete Name__________________Age_____Sex_____Date____________ Body Weight_______Height_______Percent Body Fat___________ Anthropometric Measurements Bust / Chest ____________in.