Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

9 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- CFD Simulation of the Solid-Liquid Slurry FLow in a Pipeline (Ej) [NABIL, T; El-SAWAF, I.; El-NAHHAS, K.] [17th Int. Water Techn. Conf. IWTC17; 2013] {14s}
- Best Practice Guidelines for Turbo Machinery
- NR-220301- Mechanics of Fluids
- Paper 126a
- 1971927788 1999999460 2008 RINA MarineCFD RavenPloegStarkeEca
- Open Channel
- 51428
- CHE 413 Momentum Transfer
- Aeroacoustics of LV
- 5ChED Thurs-Group1 Packed Column
- MKEP4_WS13_Contents_Overview.pdf
- Analysis of Dynamic Stresses in Kaplan Turbine Blades
- Critical Assessment of Hybrid RANS-LES Modeling for Attached and Separated Flows.pdf
- Es 1010016
- Boundary Layer & Separation
- 1-s2.0-0167610594900213-main.pdf
- 87Favero
- fluids-04-00081_Pub
- Turbulence Modelling
- HT assigment.pdf

You are on page 1of 66

RABIBRATA MUKHERJEE Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur E-mail: rabibrata@iitkgp.ac.in

Lecture Description:

This lecture presents an introduction to the principles of heat, mass and momentum transfer and their relevance in living systems.

Lecture Objective:

Learn the fundamental conservation principles and constitutive laws that govern heat, mass and momentum transport processes in fluids; The key constitutive properties

Text: Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer by F. P. Incropera and D. P. Dewitt, Fifth Edition, Wiley India

Transport Phenomena:

The classical transport phenomena involves thermal transport and diffusion mass transfer in conjugation with momentum transfer (also identified as fluid flow).

Glossary : Fluid, Fluid Flow, Momentum Transfer

Examples:

Fluid Flow: Flow through a tube/ pipe/ open channel flow of river etc. Heat Transfer: Heating of a Block of Solid or a Can of Liquid or Feeling warm under the Sun. Mass Transfer: Salt Dissolving in water, distillation, absorption, adsorption, leaching etc.

- CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM - RESPIRATORY SYSTEM - LYMPHATIC SYSTEM - OTHER SMALLER CANALIZATIONS WITH FLUID MOTION

Flow of Blood

Blood Cooling:

When blood flows through tissues or organs, it functions not only as a carrier of nutrients and metabolic wastes but also as a coolant to remove the heat produced by metabolism. Blood gains heat which is transferred by circulation to the skin where it is dissipated to the environment

Constitution of Blood:

Its not a simple liquid like Water. It contains variety of Cells, most notably the RBC and WBC. The interaction between these particles is critical

In order to understand the Science of Bio Transport Processes, we need to understand the Basics of Fluid Flow Basic Concepts in Fluid Flows Different types of Flow:

(1) Steady and Unsteady (2) Uniform and Non Uniform (3) Internal and external Flow (4) Compressible and incomprissible (5) Inviscid and Viscous (6) Laminar and Turbulent (7) Single phase flow vs. 2 phase flow. The Basic Governing Equations : Continuity and Conservation of Momentum Boundary Layers

Fluid : A material that flows Flow: Bounded flow (Flow through a conduit): Internal Flow Unbounded flow (free surface flow): External Flow Flow Characterization: To obtain velocity profile i.e. velocity components in x, y, z and t-coordinates/ t, r, , z co-ordinates. Temperature profile as a function of time and space. Concentration profile as a function of time and space.

Governing Equations:

Overall mass balance equation known as Equation of Continuity. (1) Momentum balance equations (in three directions). (2) Overall Energy Equation. (3) Species conservation equation/mass balance equation (4) (1) + (2) Velocity profile (u, v, w) (1) + (2) + (3) Temperature profile (1) + (2) + (4) Concentration profile Coupled PDEs which may be decoupled for some simple cases. Physical properties associated Density (), Viscosity (), Specific Heat (CP), Thermal conductivity (K), diffusivity (DAB), Surface Tension () etc

Frame of references: Before solving a fluid flow problem fix up the co-ordinate system. Lagrangian Approach: Moving frame of reference, where the kinematic behavior of each particle is identified by its initial position ( ).

Eulerian Approach: Fixed frame of reference, it seeks the velocity and its variation at each and every location in the flow field. We deal with mostly Eulerian approach.

Types of Flow: Steady Flow Unsteady Flow However, whether a flow is steady or Not largely depends on the Frame of reference. Uniform and Non Uniform Flow. (When velocity and other hydrodynamic parameters do not change from point to point within the flow field) Compressible and Incompressible Flow. Internal and External Flow.

Position of a Particle given in the flow field by space co-ordinates as u, v, w are the three components of velocity

After time t, let the particle move to position (x + x, y + y and z + z) Corresponding velocity components are (u + u, v + v and w + w) u + u = u (x + x, y + y, z + z, t + t) v + v = v (x + x, y + y, z + z, t + t) w + w = w (x + x, y + y, z + z, t + t) x = u t y = v t z = w t

= ax

Local or Temporal Acceleration Convective Acceleration

Fluid Acceleration has two Components: Temporal Acceleration and Convective Acceleration

Multiplicity of Tube Branching The branched networks of tubes from the cardiovascular system and lungs are extremely intricate and complex. Every time Blood/ Fluid enters a narrower tube, there is some convective acceleration

Geometric description of the flow field Flow Field: An area over a liquid/ fluid flow is occurring.

Streamlines: An imaginary line in the flow field such that tangent at every point gives the direction or velocity vector. Pathline: Trajectory of a particular fluid particle in the flow field. Identity of a particle, Tracer experiment. Streakline: A streakline at any given instant of time in the locus of the temporary location of all particles who have passed through a fixed point earlier in the flow field.

Stream function As such the flow or the particles that move along the streamlines. u = /y v = /x as follows from a consideration of = constant and take the differential d = 0. Analytically, the stream function is a mathematical device to satisfy the continuity equation identically (note that ux + vy = 0 automatically)

Translation Translation with Linear Deformation

Strain

Translation with Linear and Angular Deformation

Translation with Linear and Angular Deformation

Under the specific Condition The Line segments AB and AD are moving with the same angular velocity and therefore, this is a case of PURE ROTATION

Rotation of a Fluid Element is defined as the arithmetic mean of angular velocities of two perpendicular linear segments meeting at that point

1 vz v y = 2 y z

u and vx same

Similarly,

y = x z 2 z x

1 v y vx z = 2 x y

1 v

Rotation

1 r r Vector: = v 2 r

i r r r v = Curl of v = x vx

j y vy

k z vz

When components of rotation vector of each point of flow field is equal to zero, flow is termed as Irrotational flow. So, for irrotational flow.

r =0

r r r r = 2 = v

z dy A F B dz D C dx G y H x E

Let a fluid enters face ABCD with velocity vx and density . Fluid leaves face EFGH, with velocity

vx + vx dx and density + dx x x

vx dydz

Equation of Continuity

v = + dx vx + x dx dydz x x = vx + ( vx ) dx dydz x

z dy A F B dz D C dx G y H x E

= vx + ( vx ) dx dydz vx dydz x = ( vx ) dxdydz x

= ( vy ) dxdydz x

Equation of Continuity

= ( vz ) dxdydz x = dxdydz t

z dy B dz C dx D G A F y H x E

() = 0 t

Direct Consequence of Newtons Second Law where and from definition

Now for a system with infinitesimal mass dm, Newtons Second Law can be written as For a fluid we know that gets replaced with

The constituents of force in any particular direction are the Surface Forces and the Body Forces Body Force: Gravity Surface Force:

Normal and Shear Stress, Surface Tension etc.

Final Equation for an incompressible fluid is: gx dx dy dz

z dy B dz C dx D G A F y H x E

Plate 2 Liq

Plate 1

The layer of the Liquid right adjacent to the solid surface attains the velocity of the surface itself. And, a stagnant layer tries to oppose the flow of the next adjacent layer. This resistance to flow is an intrinsic property of the fluid, which in Simple Terms is Known as viscosity. A fluid which has No viscosity is Known as an Inviscid Fluid.

A velocity gradient results in Shear Stress, which is imparted by the layer of liquid on the next adjacent layer.

yx = Fx/Ay

Rate of Angular Deformation = d/dt The Angular Deformation is caused due because of the applied force, which results in the shear stress

Now tan d = dl/dy For small d , tan d = d Further: dl = du. dt d = du. dt / dy or (d /dt) = (du/dy)

yx

yx (du/dy) yx = (du/dy)

Newtonian Fluid

yx (d/dt)

Rheology of Blood

For a biological System like blood the assumption of a Newtonian Fluid is HARDLY valid.

Typical boundary conditions for fluid flow: 5 types of boundary conditions for may appear in fluid flow (based on the Physical condition) They are: 1. A solid surface (may be porous) 2. A free liquid surface 3. A vapor-liquid interface 4. A liquid-liquid interface 5. An inlet/outlet section

Condition at solid surface: If it is a stationary/impervious wall then, vx = v y = vz = 0 If it is a moving surface with velocity u0 in x-direction which

is known as NO-slip boundary condition,

vx = u0, v y = vz = 0

T k = q0 = constant y

T T = 0 or = 0 at the wall y y

vx = vtangential = 0

Due to No slip

at the wall,

v y = vnormal 0

2.

At Liquid-vapor interface:

v1 = v2 ; T1 = T2 ; 1 = 2

dv2 =0 dy

3. 4.

Mathematical Types of the Boundary Conditions: 1. Dirichlet B.C.: Constant valued B.C. 2. Neumann B.C.: Derivative of dependent variable is specified.

k T = q0 = constant y

3. Robin-mixed B.C.: Dependent variable & its derivative are specified through an algebraic equation.

k

T = h (T Tc ) at the wall y

Non-dimensional Numbers

Re=Reynolds number= Inertial forces/viscous forces=

ud

Pr=Prandtl number=momentum diffusivity/thermal diffusivity= Sc=Schmidt number=momentum diffusivity/mass diffusivity= Heat transfer coefficient: h Q=Heat flow rate=h*A*

cp / k

/ D

Mass transfer coefficient: k M= mass flow rate=kA c Nusselt number = convective to conductive heat transfer = hL/k Sherwood number = convective to diffusive mass transfer = kmL/D

Direct Consequence of Newtons Second Law

where

Now for a system with infinitesimal mass dm, Newtons Second Law can be written as For a fluid we know that gets replaced with

For non-viscous (inviscid flow) flow: Inertial term = pressure force term + body force term For viscous flow: Inertial term = pressure force term + body force term + viscous or shear force terms In terms of Velocity gradient: X-Comp.: vx vx vx vx

2 vx 2 vx 2 vx p + vx + vy + vz = x + x 2 + y 2 + z 2 x y z t

Y-Component:

v y v y v y 2v y 2v y 2v y v y p + vx + vy + vz = y + x 2 + y 2 + z 2 x y z t

Z-Component:

vz 2 vz 2 vz 2 vz vz vz vz p + vy + vz = + 2 + 2 + 2 + vx t x y z z y z x

Consider flow through a pipe. At entrance the uniform velocity u0. As the fluid enters the pipe, the velocity of fluid at the wall is zero because no-slip boundary. The solid surface exerts retarding shear force on the flow. Thus, the speed of fluid close to wall is reduced.

At successive sections, effects of solid wall is felt further into the flow. A boundary layer develops from both sides of the wall After a certain length, boundary layers from both surfaces meet at the center and the flow becomes fully viscous. This length is Entrance length. For laminar flow:

L = 0.06 Re D

here, Re=

vD

Beyond entrance length, velocity profile does not change in shape and flow is termed as Fully developed flow. If flow is fully developed in x-direction, mathematically it is described as,

vx =0 x

For laminar flow, typically entrance length (L) is about a few cm.

By Considering the Energy Balance about the Control Volume, it becomes Possible to obtain the Energy Conservation Equation

A similar species about the Control Volume, one obtains the Species Transport Equation

Definition:

for flow over a flat surface, the boundary layer is defined as locus of all points in the flow field such that velocity at each point is 99% of the free stream velocity.

u u y (x) x u(x,y)

u u y x (x) u(x,y)

For an open Channel Flow itself, you can cancel several terms and you are eventually left with:

Continuity equation:

If we regard order of u Then comparing the two terms in the continuity equation

y x (x)

u(x,y)

Look at the order of the Terms in the Eqn. of motion LHS 1: O(u). O(u)/O(L) ---- > O(u2/L) LHS 2: O(v). O(u)/O() ---- > O(u/L). O(u)/O() ------ > O(u2/L)

RHS 1: O(u) / O(L). O(L) ---- > O(u/L2) RHS 2: O(u) / O(). O() ---- > O(u/ 2)

Turbulent flow

Characterization of turbulent flow:

Irregular motion Random fluctuation Fluctuations due to disturbances, e.g., roughness of solid surface Fluctuations may be damped by viscous forces / may grow by drawing energy from free stream

Re = DV/

Re < Recr: Kinetic energy is not enough to sustain random fluctuations against the viscous dampening. So, laminar flow continues Re > Recr: Kinetic energy of flow supports the growth of fluctuations and transition to turbulence occurs. Origin of Turbulence:

Frictional forces at the confining solid walls Wall turbulence Different velocities of adjacent fluid layers Free turbulence

Turbulence results in better mixing of fluid and produces additional diffusive effects Eddy diffusivity. Velocity Profile:

Plug flow

u ( y, t ) = u ( y ) + u ( y, t )

'

Here in RHS the first term is time averaged component second term is time dependent fluctuations.

Reynolds Decomposition of Turbulence

Intensity of Turbulence

Isotropic Turbulence

v v v + + =0 x y z

x y z

Laminar Flow

X-component EOM:

The last three terms are the additional terms known as Reynolds stress terms. Enhanced Momentum diffusivity: molecular leve transport is favored Where Semi empirical expressions for Reynolds stresses: Boussinesqs eddy viscosity: ( t ) ( t ) d vx

yx =

dy

2.

Prandtls mixing length: Assuming eddies move around like gas molecules, analogous to mean free path of gas in kinetic theory:

(t yx) = l 2

d vx d vx dy dy

K is von Karman Constant

where,

l = ky;

2

(t )

d vx = eddy viscosity = l dy

Thermal Convection

Thermal Convection can be of two types: 1. Forced Convection: The flow is triggered by an external pressure or other driving force, in course of the flow it takes away heat. 2. Natural convection, where a change in temperature leads to variation in density and that in turn triggers a flow.

Thermal Boundary Layer: If entry temperature, the convection of heat occurs. Wall condition: CWT = constant wall temperature TS = constant CHT = constant Heat flux qS = constant

xt = 0.05Re D Pr D Lam xh = 0.05Re D D Lam

xt = Pr xh

If Pr > 1: xt > xh hydrodynamic BL grows earlier than thermal BL If Pr < 1: xt < xh thermal BL grows faster.

Pr =

cp / k

Forced convection:

flow is induced by external source, pump/ compressor.

Free Convection:

No forced fluid velocity. Ex: Heat transfer from pipes/ steam radiators/ coil of refrigerator to surrounding air Consider, two plates at different temperatures, T1 & T2 and T2 > T1 2 < 1 means Density decreases in the direction of gravity (Buyoant force)

If Buyoant force overcomes the viscous forces, instability occurs and fluid particles start moving from bottom to top. Gravitational force on upper layer exceeds that at the lower one and fluid starts circulating. Heavier fluid comes down from top, warms up and becomes lighter and moves up. In the case, T1 > T2;

dT <0 dx

&

d >0 dx

Density no longer decreases in the direction of gravity and there is no bulk motion of fluid.

Boundary layer development on a heated vertical plate: Fluid close to the plate is heated and becomes less dense. Buoyant force induces a free convection BL in which heated fluid rises at vertically entraining the fluids from surroundings Velocity is zero at the wall and y = .

Grashof Number:

g (Ts T ) L u0 L Grashof number = u02 = g (Ts T ) L3

2

Expected:

GrL 1 2 Re L

GrL < 1 free convection is small, Nu L = Nu L ( Re, Pr ) 2 Re L GrL > 1 forced convection is small, Nu L = Nu L ( GrL , Pr ) 2 Re L

Non-dimensional Numbers

Re=Reynolds number= Inertial forces/viscous forces=

ud

Pr=Prandtl number=momentum diffusivity/thermal diffusivity= Sc=Schmidt number=momentum diffusivity/mass diffusivity= Heat transfer coefficient: h Q=Heat flow rate=h*A*

cp / k

/ D

Mass transfer coefficient: k M= mass flow rate=kA c Nusselt number = convective to conductive heat transfer = hL/k Sherwood number = convective to diffusive mass transfer = kmL/D

Mass Transfer

Nusselt number = convective to conductive heat transfer = hL/k Sherwood number = convective to diffusive mass transfer = kmL/D Pr is replaced by Sc Pr: Ratio of momentum and thermal diffusivity Sc: Ratio of momentum and mass diffusivity Lewis Number: Le = Ratio of thermal and mass diffusivity = (k/CP)/DAB

- CFD Simulation of the Solid-Liquid Slurry FLow in a Pipeline (Ej) [NABIL, T; El-SAWAF, I.; El-NAHHAS, K.] [17th Int. Water Techn. Conf. IWTC17; 2013] {14s}Uploaded byR_M_M_
- Best Practice Guidelines for Turbo MachineryUploaded byaerokiruba
- NR-220301- Mechanics of FluidsUploaded bySrinivasa Rao G
- Paper 126aUploaded byAntonio Salinas
- 1971927788 1999999460 2008 RINA MarineCFD RavenPloegStarkeEcaUploaded by18847
- Open ChannelUploaded byMohammad Mohammadi
- 51428Uploaded byCepa Ugol
- CHE 413 Momentum TransferUploaded byMaria Cecille Sarmiento Garcia
- Aeroacoustics of LVUploaded byNauman Qureshi
- 5ChED Thurs-Group1 Packed ColumnUploaded byRaniella Bianca Yim Coronado
- MKEP4_WS13_Contents_Overview.pdfUploaded bygus edi
- Analysis of Dynamic Stresses in Kaplan Turbine BladesUploaded byfabianc
- Critical Assessment of Hybrid RANS-LES Modeling for Attached and Separated Flows.pdfUploaded byfznuaa
- Es 1010016Uploaded bylubangjarum
- Boundary Layer & SeparationUploaded byRajrdb
- 1-s2.0-0167610594900213-main.pdfUploaded bySiti Rohani Isdris
- 87FaveroUploaded byderkermit
- fluids-04-00081_PubUploaded byGuillermo Araya
- Turbulence ModellingUploaded byJeremy Dudley
- HT assigment.pdfUploaded byMicro Yuchen
- Fluid dynamicsUploaded bysyahmimisahfani
- ishak2009.pdfUploaded byNataraj
- 1810.08796Uploaded byisele1977
- FlowSciV9.3Features WEBUploaded byeasy_astronaut
- 2445803 Fluent Tutorial 01Uploaded byrajamannar322
- 03Lect8BluffBodyAeroUploaded byNick Garside
- Progress ReportUploaded bytiantaufik
- 6443385Uploaded bymecieb
- Fluid MechanicsUploaded byJosé Carlos Valbuena
- 1-s2.0-S0167610509001408-mainUploaded byterre

- Max 232Uploaded byRohan Kelkar
- RF Module Quick Mannua v3Uploaded byhimanshu_agra
- Novice’s Guide to AVR DevelopmentUploaded bydeivs001
- Micro ControllersUploaded byhimanshu_agra
- Cell StructureUploaded bySoumyadeep Majumdar
- L293DUploaded byapi-3700809
- Installing USBTINY Programmer in WindowsUploaded byhimanshu_agra
- How to Start With AVR Series MicrocontrollersUploaded byhimanshu_agra
- Avr Aswarm SchematicUploaded byTanzin Thakur
- atmega 16Uploaded byEdy 'nye' Irawan
- Science of LIVING SYSTEM AB (Part of Unit 2)Uploaded byhimanshu_agra
- BS-4Uploaded byhimanshu_agra
- R-sen Lecture 01bUploaded byhimanshu_agra
- R-sen Lecture 01aUploaded byhimanshu_agra
- BS-3Uploaded byhimanshu_agra
- BS-2Uploaded byhimanshu_agra
- Bio PresentationUploaded byhimanshu_agra
- SC Kundu_Cell Division, Cell Cycle & Apoptosis (Two Lectures for Sci of Liv Sys-Autumn 2011)Uploaded byhimanshu_agra
- RespirationUploaded byhimanshu_agra
- Waste Minimization and Cleaner ProductionUploaded byhimanshu_agra
- Soild Waste AmangementUploaded byhimanshu_agra
- BS-1Uploaded byhimanshu_agra
- Photosyn UGUploaded byhimanshu_agra
- Eukariotic+Cell+StructureUploaded byhimanshu_agra
- Noise PolutionUploaded byhimanshu_agra
- Water Treatment 25-01-2012Uploaded byhimanshu_agra
- Evs- Soil PollutionUploaded byhimanshu_agra
- Water Pollution18!01!2012Uploaded byhimanshu_agra
- Wastewater Treatment 01-02-12Uploaded byhimanshu_agra

- lecture-1 Fluid Flow and Mass Transfer.pdfUploaded byKazi Nafis Ullah
- ValvesUploaded byJuber Khatib
- Turbuence Induced Pipe VibratiUploaded bySudherson Jagannathan
- Einstein and Newton View on GravitationUploaded byZahid Iftikhar Ahmad
- 1)Friction Part1Uploaded byTiong Chiong Hui
- AP Physics C 2009Uploaded byPengintai
- 2910Uploaded bydeyprasen
- Up Down Pumping vs AgitationUploaded bySubrata Banerjee
- An experimental study on the free surface vertical vortexUploaded bynascosannascosan
- Motion Problem SetUploaded byRD Bonifacio
- General physics quiz problem.docxUploaded bynomio12
- Hydrodynamic ForcesUploaded byGraham Seggewiss
- 02ChapterIBHText2016HamperUploaded byUğur Yardım
- Cfd in PracticeUploaded byDavid Vidales
- HydrostaticsUploaded byJanilyn Mosquito
- Airfoils and Camber[1]Uploaded bydebashisneogi
- Chapter_8_05.pdfUploaded byShoshAlmazroeui
- Design, Analytical Analysis, Instrumentation and Flow Simulation of Sub-Sonic Open Circuit Wind Tunnel ModelUploaded byIJMER
- Numerical Study on Aerodynamics of Tandem WingUploaded byHari
- 21Uploaded byAmi
- 2016 Effect of Solidity on Aerodynamic Forces Around Straight-bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine by Wind Tunnel ExperimentsUploaded byDiego Carhuaz Vasquez
- LECTUR~1_12.2.pdfUploaded byMarliza Roslee
- Fm Hm Syllabus JnukUploaded byVenkata Narayana
- Cutting Transport 1999Uploaded byDicky Pratama
- Assignments 2.1- Motion in 1DUploaded byBilly Jenkins
- linear motion 11-1Uploaded byapi-225960274
- Fans Guide 79037EUploaded byPaul Healy
- Quiz1 HydroUploaded bycielo_cetd3670
- Electric FieldsUploaded byMikee Factores
- Natl Valve Integrity Test Daily LogUploaded byisukuru