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BS20001 Science of Living Systems

Basic Principles of Transport Phenomena: with relevance to Living Systems


RABIBRATA MUKHERJEE Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur E-mail: rabibrata@iitkgp.ac.in

Lecture Description:
This lecture presents an introduction to the principles of heat, mass and momentum transfer and their relevance in living systems.

Lecture Objective:
Learn the fundamental conservation principles and constitutive laws that govern heat, mass and momentum transport processes in fluids; The key constitutive properties

Text: Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer by F. P. Incropera and D. P. Dewitt, Fifth Edition, Wiley India

Transport Phenomena:
The classical transport phenomena involves thermal transport and diffusion mass transfer in conjugation with momentum transfer (also identified as fluid flow).
Glossary : Fluid, Fluid Flow, Momentum Transfer

Examples:
Fluid Flow: Flow through a tube/ pipe/ open channel flow of river etc. Heat Transfer: Heating of a Block of Solid or a Can of Liquid or Feeling warm under the Sun. Mass Transfer: Salt Dissolving in water, distillation, absorption, adsorption, leaching etc.

Examples of Transport Phenomena in Biological Systems:


- CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM - RESPIRATORY SYSTEM - LYMPHATIC SYSTEM - OTHER SMALLER CANALIZATIONS WITH FLUID MOTION

Flow of Blood

Blood Cooling:
When blood flows through tissues or organs, it functions not only as a carrier of nutrients and metabolic wastes but also as a coolant to remove the heat produced by metabolism. Blood gains heat which is transferred by circulation to the skin where it is dissipated to the environment

Constitution of Blood:

Supplying Dissolved Oxygen to the Cells/ or removing Carbon dioxide.

Its not a simple liquid like Water. It contains variety of Cells, most notably the RBC and WBC. The interaction between these particles is critical

In order to understand the Science of Bio Transport Processes, we need to understand the Basics of Fluid Flow Basic Concepts in Fluid Flows Different types of Flow:
(1) Steady and Unsteady (2) Uniform and Non Uniform (3) Internal and external Flow (4) Compressible and incomprissible (5) Inviscid and Viscous (6) Laminar and Turbulent (7) Single phase flow vs. 2 phase flow. The Basic Governing Equations : Continuity and Conservation of Momentum Boundary Layers

Fluid : A material that flows Flow: Bounded flow (Flow through a conduit): Internal Flow Unbounded flow (free surface flow): External Flow Flow Characterization: To obtain velocity profile i.e. velocity components in x, y, z and t-coordinates/ t, r, , z co-ordinates. Temperature profile as a function of time and space. Concentration profile as a function of time and space.

Governing Equations:
Overall mass balance equation known as Equation of Continuity. (1) Momentum balance equations (in three directions). (2) Overall Energy Equation. (3) Species conservation equation/mass balance equation (4) (1) + (2) Velocity profile (u, v, w) (1) + (2) + (3) Temperature profile (1) + (2) + (4) Concentration profile Coupled PDEs which may be decoupled for some simple cases. Physical properties associated Density (), Viscosity (), Specific Heat (CP), Thermal conductivity (K), diffusivity (DAB), Surface Tension () etc

Kinematics: Geometry of Motion


Frame of references: Before solving a fluid flow problem fix up the co-ordinate system. Lagrangian Approach: Moving frame of reference, where the kinematic behavior of each particle is identified by its initial position ( ).

Eulerian Approach: Fixed frame of reference, it seeks the velocity and its variation at each and every location in the flow field. We deal with mostly Eulerian approach.

Types of Flow: Steady Flow Unsteady Flow However, whether a flow is steady or Not largely depends on the Frame of reference. Uniform and Non Uniform Flow. (When velocity and other hydrodynamic parameters do not change from point to point within the flow field) Compressible and Incompressible Flow. Internal and External Flow.

Material or Substantial Derivative:


Position of a Particle given in the flow field by space co-ordinates as u, v, w are the three components of velocity

After time t, let the particle move to position (x + x, y + y and z + z) Corresponding velocity components are (u + u, v + v and w + w) u + u = u (x + x, y + y, z + z, t + t) v + v = v (x + x, y + y, z + z, t + t) w + w = w (x + x, y + y, z + z, t + t) x = u t y = v t z = w t

Material or Substantial Derivative:

= ax
Local or Temporal Acceleration Convective Acceleration

Fluid Acceleration has two Components: Temporal Acceleration and Convective Acceleration

Material or Substantial Derivative:

Multiplicity of Tube Branching The branched networks of tubes from the cardiovascular system and lungs are extremely intricate and complex. Every time Blood/ Fluid enters a narrower tube, there is some convective acceleration

Geometric description of the flow field Flow Field: An area over a liquid/ fluid flow is occurring.

Streamlines: An imaginary line in the flow field such that tangent at every point gives the direction or velocity vector. Pathline: Trajectory of a particular fluid particle in the flow field. Identity of a particle, Tracer experiment. Streakline: A streakline at any given instant of time in the locus of the temporary location of all particles who have passed through a fixed point earlier in the flow field.

Stream function As such the flow or the particles that move along the streamlines. u = /y v = /x as follows from a consideration of = constant and take the differential d = 0. Analytically, the stream function is a mathematical device to satisfy the continuity equation identically (note that ux + vy = 0 automatically)

Possible Movement/ Deformation modes of a Fluid Particle


Translation Translation with Linear Deformation

Translation and Rotation without deformation Represents Rigid Body Displacement

Strain

Possible Movement/ Deformation modes of a Fluid Particle


Translation with Linear and Angular Deformation

Sign Convention: ACW is + ve

(Rate of Angular Deformation) =

Possible Movement/ Deformation modes of a Fluid Particle


Translation with Linear and Angular Deformation
Under the specific Condition The Line segments AB and AD are moving with the same angular velocity and therefore, this is a case of PURE ROTATION

Possible Movement/ Deformation modes of a Fluid Particle


Rotation of a Fluid Element is defined as the arithmetic mean of angular velocities of two perpendicular linear segments meeting at that point

Under the specific Condition

Irotational Flow Field

Rotational Flow: In a 3-D flow field:

x = angular velocity (x-component)


1 vz v y = 2 y z

u and vx same

Similarly,

y = x z 2 z x
1 v y vx z = 2 x y

1 v

Rotation

1 r r Vector: = v 2 r

i r r r v = Curl of v = x vx

j y vy

k z vz

Vorticity: Twice of Rotation Vector

When components of rotation vector of each point of flow field is equal to zero, flow is termed as Irrotational flow. So, for irrotational flow.
r =0

r r r r = 2 = v

Equation of Continuity Consider a parallelepiped (control volume)


z dy A F B dz D C dx G y H x E

Let a fluid enters face ABCD with velocity vx and density . Fluid leaves face EFGH, with velocity
vx + vx dx and density + dx x x

So, rate of mass entering the CV through ABCD =

vx dydz

Equation of Continuity

Rate of mass leaving through EFGH:


v = + dx vx + x dx dydz x x = vx + ( vx ) dx dydz x
z dy A F B dz D C dx G y H x E

Hence net rate of mass efflux (out - in) in x direction


= vx + ( vx ) dx dydz vx dydz x = ( vx ) dxdydz x

Similarly, the net rate of mass efflux in, y-direction is


= ( vy ) dxdydz x

Equation of Continuity

net rate of mass efflux in, z-direction is

= ( vz ) dxdydz x = dxdydz t

z dy B dz C dx D G A F y H x E

Net rate of accumulation in CV is So, mass conservation equation is:

For an incompressible flow, ( x, y, z ) For a steady state flow,


() = 0 t

For an incompressible, steady state flow:

Conservation of momentum (EOM): for an Fluid


Direct Consequence of Newtons Second Law where and from definition

Now for a system with infinitesimal mass dm, Newtons Second Law can be written as For a fluid we know that gets replaced with

Which implies Fx is the Total Force Acting in X direction. Inertial Terms

Fx is the Total Force Acting in X direction.


The constituents of force in any particular direction are the Surface Forces and the Body Forces Body Force: Gravity Surface Force:
Normal and Shear Stress, Surface Tension etc.
Final Equation for an incompressible fluid is: gx dx dy dz
z dy B dz C dx D G A F y H x E

Electro Magnetic Forces

Pressure Gradient can be handled as a part of Normal Stress

Shear Stress and Viscosity


Plate 2 Liq

Plate 1

There is Angular Deformation of the Liquid

No Slip Boundary Condition

The layer of the Liquid right adjacent to the solid surface attains the velocity of the surface itself. And, a stagnant layer tries to oppose the flow of the next adjacent layer. This resistance to flow is an intrinsic property of the fluid, which in Simple Terms is Known as viscosity. A fluid which has No viscosity is Known as an Inviscid Fluid.

A velocity gradient results in Shear Stress, which is imparted by the layer of liquid on the next adjacent layer.

yx = Fx/Ay
Rate of Angular Deformation = d/dt The Angular Deformation is caused due because of the applied force, which results in the shear stress

Now tan d = dl/dy For small d , tan d = d Further: dl = du. dt d = du. dt / dy or (d /dt) = (du/dy)

yx

yx (du/dy) yx = (du/dy)
Newtonian Fluid

yx (d/dt)

Conservation of momentum (EOM): for a Newtonian Fluid

Different Rheological Behaviors

Rheology of Blood

For a biological System like blood the assumption of a Newtonian Fluid is HARDLY valid.

E. W. Merril. Philosophical Rev. 49, 863, 1969

Typical boundary conditions for fluid flow: 5 types of boundary conditions for may appear in fluid flow (based on the Physical condition) They are: 1. A solid surface (may be porous) 2. A free liquid surface 3. A vapor-liquid interface 4. A liquid-liquid interface 5. An inlet/outlet section

Condition at solid surface: If it is a stationary/impervious wall then, vx = v y = vz = 0 If it is a moving surface with velocity u0 in x-direction which
is known as NO-slip boundary condition,

vx = u0, v y = vz = 0

Constant wall temperature (CWT): T=Tw as the surface

Constant wall flux (CHF): Insulated Surface: k

T k = q0 = constant y

T T = 0 or = 0 at the wall y y

Cooling/heating at the wall: T k = h (T Tc ) at the wall y Permeable wall:


vx = vtangential = 0
Due to No slip

at the wall,

v y = vnormal 0

2.

Condition at liq-liq/liq-vapor interface: At interface of two immiscible liquids:

At Liquid-vapor interface:

v1 v2 = 2 1 y y << 1 2 if 1 represents vapor

v1 = v2 ; T1 = T2 ; 1 = 2

dv2 =0 dy

3. 4.

Inlet/outlet condition: May be specified Physical B.C.:

v = 0 at r = 0 for flow through a tube r

v = 0 at y = for stokes first problem

Mathematical Types of the Boundary Conditions: 1. Dirichlet B.C.: Constant valued B.C. 2. Neumann B.C.: Derivative of dependent variable is specified.
k T = q0 = constant y

3. Robin-mixed B.C.: Dependent variable & its derivative are specified through an algebraic equation.
k

T = h (T Tc ) at the wall y

Non-dimensional Numbers
Re=Reynolds number= Inertial forces/viscous forces=

ud

Pr=Prandtl number=momentum diffusivity/thermal diffusivity= Sc=Schmidt number=momentum diffusivity/mass diffusivity= Heat transfer coefficient: h Q=Heat flow rate=h*A*

cp / k
/ D

Mass transfer coefficient: k M= mass flow rate=kA c Nusselt number = convective to conductive heat transfer = hL/k Sherwood number = convective to diffusive mass transfer = kmL/D

Conservation of momentum (EOM): for an Fluid


Direct Consequence of Newtons Second Law

where

and from definition

Now for a system with infinitesimal mass dm, Newtons Second Law can be written as For a fluid we know that gets replaced with

Which implies Fx is the Total Force Acting in X direction. Inertial Terms

VISCOUS FLOW Equation of motion for viscous, incompressible flow:


For non-viscous (inviscid flow) flow: Inertial term = pressure force term + body force term For viscous flow: Inertial term = pressure force term + body force term + viscous or shear force terms In terms of Velocity gradient: X-Comp.: vx vx vx vx

2 vx 2 vx 2 vx p + vx + vy + vz = x + x 2 + y 2 + z 2 x y z t

Y-Component:
v y v y v y 2v y 2v y 2v y v y p + vx + vy + vz = y + x 2 + y 2 + z 2 x y z t

Z-Component:
vz 2 vz 2 vz 2 vz vz vz vz p + vy + vz = + 2 + 2 + 2 + vx t x y z z y z x

Developing and fully developed flow:


Consider flow through a pipe. At entrance the uniform velocity u0. As the fluid enters the pipe, the velocity of fluid at the wall is zero because no-slip boundary. The solid surface exerts retarding shear force on the flow. Thus, the speed of fluid close to wall is reduced.

At successive sections, effects of solid wall is felt further into the flow. A boundary layer develops from both sides of the wall After a certain length, boundary layers from both surfaces meet at the center and the flow becomes fully viscous. This length is Entrance length. For laminar flow:
L = 0.06 Re D
here, Re=

vD

Beyond entrance length, velocity profile does not change in shape and flow is termed as Fully developed flow. If flow is fully developed in x-direction, mathematically it is described as,
vx =0 x

For laminar flow, typically entrance length (L) is about a few cm.

By Considering the Energy Balance about the Control Volume, it becomes Possible to obtain the Energy Conservation Equation

Heat Transfer by Convection/ Due to Bulk Flow of the Liquid

Heat Transfer by Conduction/ Molecular Level Motion

A similar species about the Control Volume, one obtains the Species Transport Equation

Laminar Boundary Layers


Definition:
for flow over a flat surface, the boundary layer is defined as locus of all points in the flow field such that velocity at each point is 99% of the free stream velocity.
u u y (x) x u(x,y)

Laminar Boundary Layers

u u y x (x) u(x,y)

For an open Channel Flow itself, you can cancel several terms and you are eventually left with:

Continuity equation:

If we regard order of u Then comparing the two terms in the continuity equation

Laminar Boundary Layers


y x (x)

u(x,y)

Look at the order of the Terms in the Eqn. of motion LHS 1: O(u). O(u)/O(L) ---- > O(u2/L) LHS 2: O(v). O(u)/O() ---- > O(u/L). O(u)/O() ------ > O(u2/L)

RHS 1: O(u) / O(L). O(L) ---- > O(u/L2) RHS 2: O(u) / O(). O() ---- > O(u/ 2)

<< L RHS 2 >> RHS 1

Turbulent flow
Characterization of turbulent flow:
Irregular motion Random fluctuation Fluctuations due to disturbances, e.g., roughness of solid surface Fluctuations may be damped by viscous forces / may grow by drawing energy from free stream

Re = DV/

Critical Reynolds number:


Re < Recr: Kinetic energy is not enough to sustain random fluctuations against the viscous dampening. So, laminar flow continues Re > Recr: Kinetic energy of flow supports the growth of fluctuations and transition to turbulence occurs. Origin of Turbulence:
Frictional forces at the confining solid walls Wall turbulence Different velocities of adjacent fluid layers Free turbulence

Turbulence results in better mixing of fluid and produces additional diffusive effects Eddy diffusivity. Velocity Profile:

Fully developed Laminar

Fully developed Turbulent

Plug flow

The mean motion and fluctuations: Axial velocity is written as,


u ( y, t ) = u ( y ) + u ( y, t )
'

Here in RHS the first term is time averaged component second term is time dependent fluctuations.
Reynolds Decomposition of Turbulence

Intensity of Turbulence

Isotropic Turbulence

Equation of Continuity for Turbulence Flow:

v v v + + =0 x y z
x y z

Laminar Flow

X-component EOM:

' 2 vx' 2 2 vx' v y 2 vx' vz' vx vx vx vx p + vx + vy + vz = + 2 vx 2 + + 2 t x y z x x y z 2

The last three terms are the additional terms known as Reynolds stress terms. Enhanced Momentum diffusivity: molecular leve transport is favored Where Semi empirical expressions for Reynolds stresses: Boussinesqs eddy viscosity: ( t ) ( t ) d vx

yx =

dy

Is NOT a fluid property but is a property of the fluctuation

2.

Prandtls mixing length: Assuming eddies move around like gas molecules, analogous to mean free path of gas in kinetic theory:
(t yx) = l 2

d vx d vx dy dy
K is von Karman Constant

where,

l = ky;

y is distance from solid and k = 0.4


2

(t )

d vx = eddy viscosity = l dy

Thermal Convection

Thermal Convection can be of two types: 1. Forced Convection: The flow is triggered by an external pressure or other driving force, in course of the flow it takes away heat. 2. Natural convection, where a change in temperature leads to variation in density and that in turn triggers a flow.

Thermal Boundary Layer

Thermal Boundary Layer: If entry temperature, the convection of heat occurs. Wall condition: CWT = constant wall temperature TS = constant CHT = constant Heat flux qS = constant

In both cases, fluid temperature changes compared to inlet temperature.


xt = 0.05Re D Pr D Lam xh = 0.05Re D D Lam
xt = Pr xh

xt = Thermal entry length xh = Hydrodynamic entry length

If Pr > 1: xt > xh hydrodynamic BL grows earlier than thermal BL If Pr < 1: xt < xh thermal BL grows faster.

Pr =

cp / k

Free Convection or Natural Convection


Forced convection:
flow is induced by external source, pump/ compressor.

Free Convection:
No forced fluid velocity. Ex: Heat transfer from pipes/ steam radiators/ coil of refrigerator to surrounding air Consider, two plates at different temperatures, T1 & T2 and T2 > T1 2 < 1 means Density decreases in the direction of gravity (Buyoant force)

If Buyoant force overcomes the viscous forces, instability occurs and fluid particles start moving from bottom to top. Gravitational force on upper layer exceeds that at the lower one and fluid starts circulating. Heavier fluid comes down from top, warms up and becomes lighter and moves up. In the case, T1 > T2;
dT <0 dx

&

d >0 dx

Density no longer decreases in the direction of gravity and there is no bulk motion of fluid.

Boundary layer development on a heated vertical plate: Fluid close to the plate is heated and becomes less dense. Buoyant force induces a free convection BL in which heated fluid rises at vertically entraining the fluids from surroundings Velocity is zero at the wall and y = .

Grashof Number:
g (Ts T ) L u0 L Grashof number = u02 = g (Ts T ) L3
2

Buoyancy force Viscous force

Expected:

NuL = NuL ( Re L , GrL , Pr )

Both free and forced convection are important if if if

GrL 1 2 Re L

GrL < 1 free convection is small, Nu L = Nu L ( Re, Pr ) 2 Re L GrL > 1 forced convection is small, Nu L = Nu L ( GrL , Pr ) 2 Re L

Non-dimensional Numbers
Re=Reynolds number= Inertial forces/viscous forces=

ud

Pr=Prandtl number=momentum diffusivity/thermal diffusivity= Sc=Schmidt number=momentum diffusivity/mass diffusivity= Heat transfer coefficient: h Q=Heat flow rate=h*A*

cp / k
/ D

Mass transfer coefficient: k M= mass flow rate=kA c Nusselt number = convective to conductive heat transfer = hL/k Sherwood number = convective to diffusive mass transfer = kmL/D

Mass Transfer

Mass Transfer operations


Nusselt number = convective to conductive heat transfer = hL/k Sherwood number = convective to diffusive mass transfer = kmL/D Pr is replaced by Sc Pr: Ratio of momentum and thermal diffusivity Sc: Ratio of momentum and mass diffusivity Lewis Number: Le = Ratio of thermal and mass diffusivity = (k/CP)/DAB