Pacific Institute of Management

Udaipur

A REPORT ON

Recent Trends in Recruitment
For the partial fulfillment for degree of Masters in Business Administration 2010-2012

Submitted Submitted by:

to:

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Miss Ankita Gandhi SEM : II

Ekta Jain

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

With sense of pride I like to place profound thanks to all those who helped me to complete this report.

Firstly, I am deeply indebted to our distinguished Director, Prof. B.P.Sharma for his guidance to fulfill my resources in course of the study. Without him this Report work would have not been possible. I will remain ever indebted to him for his expert guidance, constant encouragement, incessant discussions and everlasting moral support.

I

place my sincere thanks to Miss Ankita Gandhi for giving me constant

guidelines regarding the topic , for encouraging me, and for his friendly support, untiring help , concern throughout my work and extreme patience to explain the details to pace up my report step by step. I am also grateful to Pacific Institute of Management.

I also want to thank my colleagues who helped me and coordinated with me throughout my project report.

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Index

Chapter No. Page No.
Chapter 1 6-7 Chapter 2 Recruitment Chapter 3 Industry 12-13 Chapter 4 15-16 Chapter 5 17-21 Chapter 6 23-24

Topics

Introduction to Recruitment Purpose & Importance of 9-10 Recruitment scenario in Indian Process of Recruitment Sources of Recruitment Factors affecting Recruitment

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Chapter 7 26-29 30

Latest Trends in Recruitments Conclusion Bibliography

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Summary

Today, in every organization personnel planning as an activity is necessary. It is an important part of an organization. Human Resource Planning is a vital ingredient for the success of the organization in the long run. There are certain ways that are to be followed by every organization, which ensures that it has right number and kind of people, at the right place and right time, so that organization can achieve its planned objective. The objectives of Human Resource Department are Human Resource Planning, Recruitment and Selection, Training and Development, Career planning, Transfer and Promotion, Risk Management, Performance Appraisal and so on. Each objective needs special attention and proper planning and implementation. For every organization it is important to have a right person on a right job. Recruitment plays a vital role in this situation. Shortage of skills and the use of new technology are putting considerable pressure on how employers go about Recruiting staff. It is recommended to carry out a strategic analysis of Recruitment procedure. With reference to this context, this project is been prepared to put a light on Recruitment process and new trends.
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This project includes study of 5 companies – Café coffee Day, Mc- Donald’s, Secure Meters, Miraj and Lipidata. And also include Meaning and Definition of Recruitment, Need and Purpose of Recruitment, Recruitment Tips and conclusion.

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Chapter – 1: An Introduction to Recruitment

Definition:
According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization”. Recruitment is the activity that links the employers and the job seekers. A few definitions of recruitment are: • A process of finding attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applications from which new employees are selected. It is the process to discover sources of manpower to meet the requirement of staffing schedule and to employ effective measure for

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attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force. Recruitment of candidates is the function preceding the selection, which helps create a pool of prospective employees for the organization so that the management can select the right candidate for the right job from this pool. The main objective of the recruitment process is to expedite the selection process. Recruitment is a continuous process whereby the firm attempts to develop a pool of qualified applicants for the future human resources needs even though specific vacancies do not exist. Usually, the recruitment process starts when a manger initiates an employee requisition for a specific vacancy or an anticipated vacancy.

RECRUITMENT NEEDS ARE OF THREE TYPES:
1. PLANNED i.e. the needs arising from changes in organization and retirement policy.

2. ANTICIPATED anticipated needs are those movements in personnel, which an organization can predict by studying trends in internal and external environment.

3. UNEXPECTED Resignation, deaths, accidents, illness give rise to unexpected needs. Recruitment individuals to fill particular posts within a business can be done either internally by recruitment within the firm, or externally by recruiting people from outside.

The advantages of internal recruitment are that:

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1. Considerable savings can be made. Individuals with inside knowledge of how a business operates will need shorter Periods of training and time for 'fitting in'. 2. The organization is unlikely to be greatly 'disrupted' by someone who is used to working with others in the Organization. 3. Internal promotion acts as an incentive to all staff to work harder within the organization. 4. From the firm's point of view, the strengths and weaknesses of an insider will have been assessed. There is always arisk attached to employing an outsider who may only be a success 'on paper'. The disadvantages of recruiting from within are that: 1. You will have to replace the person who has been promoted 2. An insider may be less likely to make the essential criticisms required to get the company working more effectively. 3. Promotion of one person in a company may upset someone else.

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Chapter – 2:

Purpose & Importance of Recruitment

For any company, regardless of size and the current economic environment, the ability to recruit and retain qualified, productive employees is critical. While the two tasks are often considered separately, they are, in truth, tied
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together. Effective recruitment can help to boost the ability to retain employees once they are hired and on the job. The general purpose of recruitment is to provide a pool of potentially qualified job candidates. Specifically the purpose is to: 1. Determine the present and future requirements of the firm in conjunction with its personal-planning and job analysis activities.

2. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.

3.

Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants.

4. Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organization only after a short period of time.

5. Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its workforce.

6. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates.

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Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants.

8. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all type of job applicants.

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Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. It is through recruitment that many individuals will come to know a company, and eventually decide whether they wish to work for it. A will-planned and well-managed recruiting effort will result in highquality applicants.

A recruiting program helps the firm in at least four ways: • Attract highly qualified and competent people.

Ensure that the selected candidates stay longer with the company.\

Make sure that there is match between cost and benefit.

Help the firm create more culturally diverse work-force.

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Chapter –3: Recruitment scenario in Indian industry

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Entire scenario in changing fast.GDP of the country is riding and contribution of service sector is now more than half to GDP whereas contribution of agriculture sector is less than 20%.This has made and created millions of job in services sector, manufacturing sector and other sectors. Today employment is not an issues (Tourism sector-20 millions job, retail sector 10-15 million, Banking sector 1.1 million, oil and gas 2.3 millions, Gems and jewelery 3.16 millions, health care 3.1 millions, Horticulture 2.6 millions, Khadi 1.9 millions, media and entertainment 1 million, Tobacco and tobacco products 6,4 millions, railways 1.9 millions, State transport 2.3 millions, food 2.1 millions) but human resource available against this not at par. Organization is trying all the way to get good human resource. So the Recruitment and selection plays vital role in the success of an organization.

Recruitment Policy of a Company
In today’s rapidly changing business environment, a well defined recruitment policy is necessary for organizations to respond to its human resource requirements in time. Therefore, it is important to have a clear and concise recruitment policy in place, which can be executed effectively to recruit the best talent pool for the selection of the right candidate at the right place quickly. Creating a suitable recruitment policy is the first step in the efficient hiring process. A clear and concise recruitment policy helps ensure a sound recruitment process. It specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for implementation of recruitment program. It may involve organizational system to be developed for implementing recruitment programs and procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people.

COMPONENTS OF THE RECRUITMENT POLICY
• • • • • • •

The general recruitment policies and terms of the organization Recruitment services of consultants Recruitment of temporary employees Unique recruitment situations The selection process The job descriptions The terms and conditions of the employment

A Recruitment policy of an organization should be such that:
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• • • • • • • • • •

It should focus on recruiting the best potential people. To ensure that every applicant and employee is treated equally with dignity and respect. Unbiased policy. To aid and encourage employees in realizing their full potential. Transparent, task oriented and merit based selection. Weight age during selection given to factors that suit organization needs. Optimization of manpower at the time of selection process. Defining the competent authority to approve each selection. Abides by relevant public policy and legislation on hiring and employment relationship. Integrates employee needs with the organizational needs.

FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT POLICY
• • • • • •

Organizational objectives Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors. Government policies on reservations. Preferred sources of recruitment. Need of the organization. Recruitment costs and financial implications.

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Chapter: 4 Process of recruitment

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As was stated earlier, recruitment refers to the process of identifying and attracting job seekers to as to build a pool of qualified job applicants. The process comprises 5 inter-related stages, viz:
1. Planning

2. Strategy Development 3. Searching 4. Screening 5. Evaluation and control The ideal program is the one that attract relatively larger number of qualified applicants who will survive the screening process and accept position with the organization, when offered. The recruitment program can miss the ideal in many ways: By finding to attract an adequate applicant pool, By under/over sailing the firm, By inadequately screening applicant before they enter to the selection process.

Thus to approach the ideal, individual responsible for the recruitment must know how many and what type of employees are needed, where and how to look for individual with the appropriate qualification & interest, what inducements to use(or avoid) for various type of applicant group how to distinquish the applicant who are unqualified from those who have a reasonable chance of success, and how to evaluate their work. The recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive strength and the strategic advantage for the organizations. Recruitment process involves a systematic procedure
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from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and requires many resources and time. A general recruitment process is as follows:

Identifying the vacancy:
The recruitment process begins with the human resource department receiving requisitions for recruitment from any department of the company. These contain: • • • • Posts to be filled Number of persons Duties to be performed Qualifications required

Preparing the job description and person specification.
• • • •

Locating and developing the sources of required number and type of employees (Advertising etc). Short-listing and identifying the prospective employee with required characteristics. Arranging the interviews with the selected candidates. Conducting the interview and decision making.

Recruitment process

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Chapter – 5: Sources of recruitment

Sources of Recruitment:
Every organization has the option of choosing the candidates for its
recruitment processes from two kinds of sources: internal and external sources. The sources within the organization itself (like transfer of employees from one department to other, promotions) to fill a position are known as the internal sources of recruitment. Recruitment candidates from all the other sources (like outsourcing agencies etc.) are known as the external sources of recruitment.

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SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT

Internal sources:

TRANSFERS The employees are transferred from one department to another according to their efficiency and experience.

PROMOTIONS The employees are promoted from one department to another with more benefits and greater responsibility based on efficiency and experience.

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Others are Upgrading and Demotion of present employees according to their performance.

RETIRED AND RETRENCHED EMPLOYEES may also be recruited once again in case of shortage of qualified personnel or increase in load of work. Recruitment such people save time and costs of the organizations as the people are already aware of the organizational culture and the policies and procedures.

The dependents and relatives of Deceased employees and Disabled employees are also done by many companies so that the members of the family do not become dependent on the mercy of others.

External sources:

PRESS ADVERTISEMENTS Advertisements of the vacancy in newspapers and journals are a widely used source of recruitment. The main advantage of this method is that it has a wide reach.

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES Various management institutes, engineering colleges, medical Colleges etc. are a good source of recruiting well qualified executives, engineers, medical staff etc. They provide facilities for campus interviews and placements. This source is known as Campus Recruitment.

4. PLACEMENT AGENCIES

Several private consultancy firms perform recruitment functions on behalf of client companies by charging a fee. These agencies are particularly suitable for recruitment of executives and specialists.

5. EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES

Government establishes public employment exchanges
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throughout the country. These exchanges provide job information to job seekers and help employers in identifying suitable candidates.

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LABOUR CONTRACTORS Manual workers can be recruited through contractors who maintain close contacts with the sources of such workers. This source is used to recruit labor for construction job.

7. UNSOLICITED APPLICANTS

Many job seekers visit the office of well-known companies on their own. Such callers are considered nuisance to the daily work routine of the enterprise. But can help in creating the talent pool or the database of the probable candidates for the organization.

8. EMPLOYEE REFERRALS / RECOMMENDATIONS

Many organizations have structured system where the current employees of the organization can refer their friends and relatives for some position in their organization. Also, the office bearers of trade unions are often aware of the suitability of candidates. Management can inquire these leaders for suitable jobs. In some organizations these are formal agreements to give priority in recruitment to the candidates recommended by the trade union.

9. RECRUITMENT AT FACTORY GATE

Unskilled workers may be recruited at the factory gate these may be employed whenever a permanent worker is absent. More efficient among these may be recruited to fill permanent vacancies

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Chapter – 6: Factors affecting Recruitment

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The recruitment function of the organizations is affected and governed by a mix of various internal and external forces. The internal forces or factors are the factors that can be controlled by the organization. And the external factors are those factors which cannot be controlled by the organization. The internal and external forces affecting recruitment function of an organization are:

Factors Affecting Recruitment

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External factors: external forces are the forces which cannot be
controlled by the organization. The major external forces are:

SUPPLY AND DEMAND The availability of manpower both within and outside the organization is an important determinant in the recruitment process. If the company has a demand for more professionals and there is limited supply in the market for the professionals demanded by the company, then the company will have to depend upon internal sources by providing them special training and development programs.

 LABOUR MARKET

Employment conditions in the community where the organization is located will influence the recruiting efforts of the organization. If there is surplus of manpower at the time of recruitment, even informal attempts at the time of recruiting like notice boards display of the requisition or announcement in the meeting etc will attract more than enough applicants.
 IMAGE / GOODWILL

Image of the employer can work as a potential constraint for recruitment. An organization with positive image and goodwill as an employer finds it easier to attract and retain employees than an organization with negative image. Image of a company is based on what organization does and affected by industry. For example finance was taken up by fresher MBA’s when many finance companies were coming up.

 POLITICAL-SOCIAL- LEGAL ENVIRONMENT

various government regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment have direct impact on recruitment practices. For example, Government of India has introduced legislation for reservation in employment for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, physically handicapped etc. Also, trade unions play important role in recruitment. This restricts management freedom to select those individuals who it believes would be the best performers. If the candidate can’t meet criteria stipulated by the union but union regulations can restrict recruitment sources.

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 UNEMPLOYMENT RATE

One of the factors that influence the availability of applicants is the growth of the economy (whether economy is growing or not and its rate). When the company is not creating new jobs, there is often oversupply of qualified labor which in turn leads to unemployment.

 COMPETITORS

The recruitment policies of the competitors also affect the recruitment function of the organizations. To face the competition, many a times the organizations have to change their recruitment policies according to the policies being followed by the competitors.

Internal factors: The internal forces i.e. the factors which can be
controlled by the organization are:

The recruitment policy of an organization specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for implementation of recruitment program. It may involve organizational system to be developed for implementing recruitment programs and procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people. FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT POLICY: • Organizational objectives • Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors. • Government policies on reservations. • Preferred sources of recruitment. • Need of the organization. • Recruitment costs and financial implications.

RECRUITMENT POLICY

 HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING

Effective human resource planning helps in determining the gaps present in the existing manpower of the organization. It also helps in determining the number of employees to be recruited and what qualification they must possess.

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 SIZE OF THE FIRM

The size of the firm is an important factor in recruitment process. If the organization is planning to increase its operations and expand its business, it will think of hiring more personnel, which will handle its operations.

 COST

Recruitment incur cost to the employer, therefore, organizations try to employ that source of recruitment which will bear a lower cost of recruitment to the organization for each candidate.

 GROWTH AND EXPANSION

Organization will employ or think of employing more personnel if it is expanding it’s operations.

Chapter 7:

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Latest Trends in Recruitment

As the recruitment landscape is a rolling one, and as this industry continually redefines itself in anticipation of hiring needs, As Gen Yers walk across the graduation stage and into the workforce, they bring their tech savvy, their desire for varied and challenging experiences, and their hunger for community. And they think that their workplace should celebrate it all. Fact is, it’s a generation that’s changing the game and once the word is out, retention woes morph into recruitment challenges there are many new ways and ideas open for the companies now days, let us discuss some of them here to get a better understanding on there role in recruitment:  Mobile advertising The use of text messaging, video, and audio on cell phones and PDAs is quickly changing how you can reach and influence prospective candidates. It is very essential to develop compelling creative concepts and choose the appropriate media method for putting your message in front of the audience you want to engage.

 Video and audio streaming People consume information way beyond fm and TV broadcast now. The use the Internet, PCs as well as mobile-communication devices
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have increased ever since for the recruitment also. As radio, TV, computers, and phones converge into new communication tools, recruitment advertisers have a practical means for becoming associated with highly visible, mainstream programming. If utilized in an efficient manner this is an increasingly popular communication method.

 Social networking Web sites such as MySpace, Face book, and LinkedIn can be valuable venues for reaching specialized markets, especially when you need to hire college students and recent graduates. After analyzing your culture, recommend, and implement an effective combination of social-networking sites for your recruitment and employer-branding campaigns.

 Media migration Media use by prospective employees – for job information and general entertainment – is changing. It is moving to new venues with the introduction and evolution of appliances such as PDAs, cell phones, and interactive media like social networking sites and blogs.

 Employer branding As a means for differentiation and building realistic and favorable perceptions in candidates’ minds, employer branding is one of the most valuable tools in the recruitment space.

 Search engine When your target audience does an Internet search,

wouldn’t it be great to have your ad message placed in a highly visible position? You can and – better yet – only pay based on the number of click-through your message attracts. Tap our expertise to recommend keywords, monitor activity, and make the best possible use of this cost-effective medium.

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 Behavioral targeting

Reach the bulk of Internet users who do not look at job boards. By studying the behaviors of your target audience, conveying the recruitment messages to passive/impulsive candidates while they use the Internet for news, entertainment, information, or personal communication – on sites other than job boards. The only people who will see you ads will be qualified prospects those who meet your preselected criteria, such as skill sets or geography.

 Contextual advertising

Place your recruitment message or posting on Internet pages related to your desired audience, next to relevant content. Tap our expertise and resources to pursue this excellent means of enhancing your image, impacting your brand, and improving targeted applicant flow.Whether you’re trying to reach a broad audience or a focused one, you need a guide to navigate a constantly moving media landscape.

Internships The statistic is widely quoted: Less than half of companies offering internships to today’s college students actually convert the interns to full-time hires. And much of the lag is not for lack of talent. There’s a loss of connection at some point in the process; or perhaps there was never much deliberateness to connect at the outset. We envision a process that’s a bit more intentional. After all, an investment in people is one of potential. Campus recruitment, bulk recruitments, summer trainings are the right way of recruitment through this.  Mentoring programs Done well, mentoring programs can create powerful connections between members of differing generations, enhance engagement, and bolster retention. If employees are being challenged, feel they’re truly valued, and are connecting with the community, then top dollar becomes less of a motivating factor. In fact, in a recent Fortune ranking of “20 Great Employers for New Grads,” highly structured mentoring programs or entry-level training programs were common among the majority of those selected.

 Outsourcing:

The recruitment is one of the leading functions that organization outsourced. External service providers are conducting all or parts of

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clients' recruitment services. This practice is very common today and widely accepted in the Industry. This practice will help the organization in reducing time and costs in recruitment.

 Head Hunting and Poaching: Head Hunting means you attract the

employ of your choice from competitors by the way offering lucrative packages for beginning the work for your organization. Poaching means intended to offer job who are already working with another organization and which is known. Indian retail and software sector are facing this serious brunt of poaching today. This is very common in BFI sector for gaining immediate advantages. Various implication presents in this process cracking of relationship and offering unrealistic salary for immediate gain.

 E recruitment:

Internet has created revolution in recruitment and selection process. Career with us or Job @organization is common button on Companies website .Today aspirants having global mindset and information on opening are available online with placement consultant website, companies website, city line websites and other portal. Organization are collecting database whole of the year through this and excursing this to its level best. This will help in time and money cost for the companies and for aspirants it is easier to access it on 24/7. The buzzword and the latest trends in recruitment is the “ERecruitment”. Also known as “Online recruitment”, it is the use of technology or the web based tools to assist the recruitment process. The tool can be either a job website like naukri.com, the organization’s corporate web site or its own intranet. Many big and small organizations are using Internet as a source of recruitment. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide web.

The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae (CV) through an e-mail using the Internet. Alternatively job seekers place their CV’s in worldwide web, which can be drawn by prospective employees depending upon their requirements. The internet penetration in India is increasing and has tremendous potential. According to a study by NASSCOM – “Jobs is among the top reasons why new users will come on to the internet, besides e-mail.” There are more than 18 million resume’s floating online across the world.

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The two kinds of e- recruitment that an organization can use is –

Job portals – i.e. posting the position with the job description and the job specification on the job portal and also searching for the suitable resumes posted on the site corresponding to the opening in the organization.

Creating a complete online recruitment/application section in the companies own website. - Companies have added an application system to its website, where the ‘passive’ job seekers can submit their resumes into the database of the organization for consideration in future, as and when the roles become available.

 Resume Scanners: Resume scanner is one major benefit provided

by the job portals to the organizations. It enables the employees to screen and filter the resumes through pre-defined criteria’s and requirements (skills, qualifications, experience, payroll etc.) of the job.

Job sites provide a 24*7 access to the database of the resumes to the employees facilitating the just-in-time hiring by the organizations. Also, the jobs can be posted on the site almost immediately and is also cheaper than advertising in the employment newspapers. Sometimes companies can get valuable references through the “passers-by” applicants. Online recruitment helps the organizations to automate the recruitment process, save their time and costs on recruitments. Online recruitment techniques

Giving a detailed job description and job specifications in the job postings to attract candidates with the right skill sets and qualifications at the first stage. E-recruitment should be incorporated into the overall recruitment strategy of the organization.

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• •

A well defined and structured applicant tracking system should be integrated and the system should have a back-end support. Along with the back-office support a comprehensive website to receive and process job applications (through direct or online advertising) should be developed.

Therefore, to conclude, it can be said that e-recruitment is the “Evolving face of recruitment.”

Recommendations & Conclusion
Recruitment is essential to effective Human Resources Management. It is the heart of the whole HR systems in the organization. The effectiveness of many other HR activities, such as selection and training depends largely on the quality of new employees attracted through the recruitment the recruitment. In today’s highly competitive labor market, traditional recruiting and retention strategies just don’t seem to be as effective as they once were. These recent trends create a talent pool of candidate to enable the selection of best candidate in a very lesser time along with the lesser cost which increases wealth of the organization. Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants.

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Bibliography:

K.Aswathappa, Human Resource Management, New Delhi, Tata McGraw Hill Education private Limited, 2009 Chris Hendry, Human Resource Management- A Strategic Approach to the Employment, B.H contemporary Business Series 1995.

Web sites: www.hrmguide.com – HRM related articles, features on links www.ecu.edu.au/library/faculty/fac - HR information www.hrmguide.net – Human resource management www.hr-topics.com – human resource news and releases

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