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Wind Turbine

Design
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Wind Turbine Design
www.polymtl.ca/pub
ISBN : 978-2-553-00931-0
9 782553 009310
With Emphasis on Darrieus Concept
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The depletion of global fossil
fuel reserves combined with mount-
ing environmental concerns has served
to focus attention on the development of
ecologically compatible and renewable alterna-
tive sources of energy.
Wind energy, with its impressive growth rate of 50%
over the last fve years, is the fastest growing alternate source
of energy in the world since its purely economic potential is
complemented by its great positive environmental impact. The
wind turbine, whether it may be a Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine
(HAWT) or a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT), offers a practical
way to convert the wind energy into electrical or mechanical energy.
Although this book focuses on the aerodynamic design and performance
of VAWTs based on the Darrieus concept, it also discusses the compari-
son between HAWTs and VAWTs, future trends in design and the inherent
socio-economic and environmental friendly aspects of wind energy as an
alternate source of energy.
This book will be of great interest to students in Mechanical and Aero nautical
Engineering feld, professional engineers, university professors and researchers in
universities, government and industry. It will also be of interest to all researchers
involved in theoretical, computational and experimental methods used in wind tur-
bine design and wind energy development.
Dr. Ion Paraschivoiu is J.-A. Bombardier Aeronautical Chair Professor at cole
Polytechnique de Montral where he is teaching undergraduate and graduate
courses in Aerodynamics. He has made signifcant contributions to the theory of the
aerodynamic performance of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine. His software
programs for these calculations, described in the book, have been used successfully by
others for design purposes and to assist in the evaluation of VAWT feld tests. His other
research interests include application of advanced aerodynamics methods in the study
of aircraft icing, drag prediction and laminar-fow control.
Ion
Paraschivoiu
Excerpt of the full publication
Extrait distribu par Presses Internationales Polytechnique
dedicace.p65 12/11/2009, 09:15 4
Wind Turbine
Design
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ION
PARASCHIVOIU
Presses internationales
P o l y t e c h n i q u e
Page_titre.p65 12/11/2009, 09:16 1
Excerpt of the full publication
Wind Turbine Design With Emphasis on Darrieus Concept
Ion Paraschivoiu
Production team
Editorial management and production: Presses internationales Polytechnique
Editing: Stephen Schettini
Illustrations: Farooq Saeed
Cover Page: Cyclone Design
For information on distribution and points of sale, see our Website: www.polymtl.ca/pub
E-mail of Presses internationales Polytechnique: pip@polymtl.ca
E-mail of Ion Paraschivoiu: ion.paraschivoiu@polymtl.ca
We acknowledge the fnancial support of the Government of Canada through the Book Pu-
blishing Industry Development Program (BPIDP) for our publishing activities.
Government of Qubec Tax credit for book publishing Administered by SODEC
All rights reserved.
Presses internationales Polytechnique, 2002
Reprinted December 2009.
This book may not be duplicated in any way without the express written consent of the publisher.
Legal deposit: 4th quarter 2002 ISBN 978-2-553-00931-0 (printed version)
Bibliothque et Archives nationales du Qubec ISBN 978-2-553-01594-6 (pdf version)
Library and Archives Canada Printed in Canada
Excerpt of the full publication
To my daughter Gloria
and my wife Liliana
When the wind is blowing
The wind turbine is turning
The electricity is flowing
The gas emissions are ceasing
The environment is refreshing
And people are cheering
I.P.
dedicace.p65 12/11/2009, 09:15 3
dedicace.p65 12/11/2009, 09:15 4
Foreword v
Foreword
This book is intended to be a good reference for anyone interested in the design of
Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine for electricity generation and other applications such as pumping
water, irrigation, grinding and drying grain, and heating water to name a few.
The book is divided into ten chapters that are presented in a logical manner. The content is
easy to follow and each chapter has its own conclusions. The innovative nature of this book is
in its comprehensive review of state of the art in Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT),
correlation of existing knowledge base and the more recent developments in understanding the
physics of flow associated with the Darrieus type vertical-axis wind turbine. The principal
theories and aerodynamic models for performance calculations are presented with experimental
data, not only from laboratory measurements but also from real prototypes.
The first chapter presents an introductory topic on the wind characteristics, a brief descrip-
tion of the components of both major categories of wind machines: Horizontal-Axis Wind
Turbine (HAWT) and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) and an overview of the wind energy
development in the world.
The state of the art of vertical-axis wind turbine including Savonius and Giromill rotors are
described in Chapter 2.
The scope of Chapter 3 encompasses the mathematical formulation of the equations for the
various Darrieus rotor configurations as well as geometries including: catenary, parabolic,
troposkien and modified troposkien blade and also a practical Sandia type shape.
The aerodynamic performance prediction models are presented in Chapter 4 for: single
streamtube, multiple streamtube, vortex and local-circulation models. The aerodynamic loads:
normal and tangential components and performance, as well as, rotor torque and power coeffi-
cient are calculated and the comparisons of different prediction models are shown.
The unsteady aerodynamics of Darrieus type VAWTs is dealt with in detail in Chapter 5. A
CFD model based on the streamfunction-vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations is
presented to study and highlight unsteady effects that may influence design and performance.
The real essence of the book is in Chapter 6 that provides a practical design model for the
Darrieus type VAWTs based on the double-multiple streamtube model, originally developed by
the author. Several variants of the software program CARDAAV, for use in performance
calculations, are described. Other important aspects such as rotor geometries, conventional and
natural laminar flow airfoils, dynamic-stall effects, secondary effects and stochastic wind model
are also addressed here.
The subsequent chapters present aerodynamic load and performance data from water
channel and wind tunnel experiments, the state of the art of innovative aerodynamic devices as
applied to VAWTs and the future trends in the design of Darrieus type wind turbine.
Foreword.p65 19/11/2009, 09:48 5
Excerpt of the full publication
vi Foreword
A comparison between Horizontal-Axis and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines is given in Chapter 9.
The idea here is to keep in perspective the technical aspects and the global cost of the advanced
designs for both kinds of machines.
Finally, Chapter 10 deals with the environmental and social aspects of wind energy since it
is an emerging environmental technology of great impact and value.
The author is indebted to Research Institute of Hydro-Quebec (IREQ) and to his many
graduate students and researchers: Drs. T. Brahimi, A. Allet, R. Martinuzzi, K. F. Tchon,
C. Masson, S. Hall and L. Surugiu formerly of the J.-A. Bombardier Aeronautical Chair,
Department of Mechanical Engineering at cole Polytechnique of Montreal, for their help in
preparing this book. The author would like to extend his gratitude to the Department of
Mechanical Engineering at cole Polytechnique of Montreal, CANMET in Ottawa and Norbert
Voutthi Dy, Ph.D. candidate (2009 edition) for all their assistance in preparing this book.
This book has been gracefully translated in Japanese with the help of a team: Professor
Emeritus Tsutomu Hayashi (leader), and Dr. Yutaka Hara from Tottori University, and Professor
Tetuya Kawamura from Ochanomizu University, Tokyo.
Special contributions in the preparation of this reference book were made by Mr. Jack R.
Templin, formerly with the National Research Council of Canada, Dr. Claude Bguier, formerly
with Institute of Research on Phenomena out of Equilibrium (IRPHE) Marseilles, France, Prof.
Raghu S. Raghunathan of Queens University of Belfast, Dr. Takao Maeda and Prof. Yukimaru
Shimizu, Mie University, Japan, who provided useful comments and constructive suggestions as
reviewers of the manuscript.
The author gratefully acknowledges the advice and valuable remarks of his many friends
from Sandia National Laboratories during several meetings and conferences that spanned for
two decades, as well as Drs. Paul C. Klimas, Jim H. Strickland, Dale E. Berg, Paul G. Migliore,
Paul S. Veers, Herbert Sutherland, Williams N. Sullivan, Donald W. Lobitz, Tom Ashwill, etc.
The author would especially like to thank Dr. David Malcolm, Global Energy Concepts,
LLC, and Dr. Lawrence Schienbein for providing important experimental data and extensive
information on Darrieus wind turbine, Carl Brothers from Atlantic Wind Test Site at Prince
Edward Island (Canada) for helpful discussion on the comparison between horizontal-axis and
vertical-axis wind turbines, Prof. Kazuichi Seki of Tokai University, Japan, Prof. Gerald
Gregorek, Ohio State University, Columbus, USA, for his interesting discussions, Dr. Ganesh
Rajagopalan, Iowa State University, Ames, USA, and Dr. A. Jagadeesh of Nayudamma Center
for Development of Alternatives, Andhra Pradesh, India, for his discussions specifically on the
environmental aspects of wind energy. The author would like to acknowledge and thank, in
general, the wind energy fraternity and, in particular, to Prof. Holt Ashley, Dr. Al Eggers,
Prof. Robert E. Wilson, Mr. Raj Rangi and Dr. Robert Thresher.
The author would like to express his acknowledgments and special thanks to Dr. Farooq
Saeed, formerly research associate of J.-A. Bombardier Aeronautical Chair, for his valuable
assistance in the preparation of this manuscript. Last but not the least, the author would like to
thank Mrs. Diane Ratel and Mrs. Martine Aubry for their skillful editing and typing of the
book and also to Mr. Lucien Foisy and Mrs. Constance Forest (2009 edition) for their help in its
publication by Presses internationales Polytechnique.
Ion Paraschivoiu
Foreword.p65 19/11/2009, 09:48 6
Extrait distribu par Presses Internationales Polytechnique
Table of Contents vii
Table
of
Contents
Foreword ........................................................................................................................................ v
List of Figures ............................................................................................................................. xiii
List of Tables ............................................................................................................................. xxiii
Chapter 1 Wind Energy
1.1 Wind Definition and Characteristics ................................................................................... 1
1.2 Wind Turbines ...................................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Wind Energy Applications ................................................................................................... 5
1.4 Benefits and Obstacles in Wind Energy Development ....................................................... 6
1.5 Overview of Wind Energy Development ............................................................................ 8
1.6 Wind Energy Development in the World ............................................................................ 8
1.7 Cost of Wind Energy .......................................................................................................... 10
1.8 Social Cost of Wind Energy .............................................................................................. 11
Conclusions .................................................................................................................................. 13
References .................................................................................................................................... 13
Chapter 2 State of the Art of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines
2.1 The Madaras Rotor Concept .............................................................................................. 15
2.2 Savonius Rotor ................................................................................................................... 16
2.2.1 Mathematical Model ............................................................................................. 17
2.2.2 Experimental Study ............................................................................................... 20
2.3 Drag-Driven Device ........................................................................................................... 25
2.4 Lift-Driven Device ............................................................................................................. 26
2.5 Giromill .............................................................................................................................. 28
2.6 Vortex Modeling Cross-Wind Axis Machine .................................................................... 32
2.7 Aerodynamic Characteristics ............................................................................................. 34
References .................................................................................................................................... 34
Chapter 3 The Darrieus Wind-Turbine Concept
3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 37
3.2 Geometry of the Darrieus Rotor ........................................................................................ 41
References .................................................................................................................................... 61
Chapter 4 Aerodynamic Performance Prediction Models
4.1 Single Streamtube Model ................................................................................................... 66
4.1.1 Aerodynamic Performance ................................................................................... 70
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viii Table of Contents
4.1.2 Comparison of Single Streamtube Model with Experiment ................................ 71
Conclusions ........................................................................................................................ 76
4.2 Multiple Streamtubes Model ............................................................................................. 77
4.3 Vortex Models .................................................................................................................... 85
4.3.1 Free-Wake Vortex Model ...................................................................................... 86
4.3.2 Fixed-Wake Vortex Model .................................................................................... 87
4.3.3 Comparisons between Vortex Models and Experiment ....................................... 88
4.4 A High-Speed Lifting Line Model .................................................................................... 90
4.4.1 Results and Discussion ......................................................................................... 94
4.5 Local-Circulation Model .................................................................................................... 97
References .................................................................................................................................... 98
Chapter 5 Unsteady Aerodynamics CFD Models
5.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 101
5.1.1 Dynamic-Stall Phenomenon ............................................................................... 104
5.1.2 Numerical Simulation of Dynamic Stall ............................................................ 105
5.2 Numerical Procedure ........................................................................................................ 106
5.2.1 Governing Equations .......................................................................................... 106
5.2.2 Boundary Conditions .......................................................................................... 108
5.2.3 Finite Element Discretization ............................................................................. 109
5.2.4 Element Influence Matrices ................................................................................ 110
5.2.5 Newton Linearization.......................................................................................... 112
5.2.6 Algorithm ............................................................................................................ 113
5.3 Turbulence Modeling ....................................................................................................... 114
5.3.1 Cebeci-Smith Model ........................................................................................... 114
5.3.2 Johnson-King Model ........................................................................................... 118
5.4 Results and Discussion..................................................................................................... 120
5.4.1 Test Cases ............................................................................................................ 120
5.4.2 Darrieus Motion Airfoil ...................................................................................... 127
5.4.3 Flow Structure ..................................................................................................... 130
5.4.4 Aerodynamic Characteristics .............................................................................. 136
5.4.5 Discussion ........................................................................................................... 139
5.5 Conclusions and Recommendations ................................................................................ 141
References .................................................................................................................................. 141
Appendix to Chapter 5............................................................................................................... 144
A-5.1 Transformation of the Momentum Equation .............................................................. 144
A-5.2 Pressure Uniqueness Condition .................................................................................. 145
A-5.3 Computation of the Aerodynamic Coefficients .......................................................... 146
Chapter 6 Double-Multiple Streamtube A Practical Design Model
6.1 Double Actuator Disk Theory ......................................................................................... 147
6.2 Double Actuator Disk Momentum Theory ..................................................................... 148
6.3 Blade Element Theory...................................................................................................... 153
6.4 Double-Multiple Streamtube Model for Studying Darrieus Turbine ............................. 156
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Table of Contents ix
6.4.1 Aerodynamic Model ........................................................................................... 158
6.4.2 Influence of Secondary Effects on the Aerodynamics of the Darrieus Rotor .. 177
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 188
6.4.3 Streamtube Expansion Model ............................................................................. 189
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 198
6.5 Aerodynamic Analysis of the Darrieus Wind Turbines Including Dynamic-Stall
Effects ............................................................................................................................... 199
6.5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 200
6.5.2 Dynamic-Stall Models ........................................................................................ 201
6.6 Darrieus Rotor Aerodynamics in Turbulent Wind .......................................................... 226
6.6.1 Aerodynamic Analysis ........................................................................................ 228
6.6.2 Wind Model ......................................................................................................... 230
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 236
6.7 Comparison with Other Computer Code Predictions ..................................................... 237
6.7.1 Aerodynamic Performance ................................................................................. 237
6.7.2 Structural Dynamics in Connection with Momentum Models .......................... 238
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 240
6.8 Blade Tip and Finite Aspect Ratio Effects on the Darrieus Rotor ................................. 241
6.9 Performance Predictions of VAWTs with SNL Airfoil Blades ...................................... 247
6.9.1 Performance of Conventional and SNL Blades ................................................. 251
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 253
6.10 CARDAAV Software ....................................................................................................... 253
6.10.1 Rotor Geometry ................................................................................................ 255
6.10.2 Operational Conditions ..................................................................................... 256
6.10.3 Control Parameters ........................................................................................... 256
6.10.4 Results ............................................................................................................... 257
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 259
References .................................................................................................................................. 259
Chapter 7 Aerodynamic Loads and Performance Tests
7.1 Water Channel Experiments............................................................................................. 266
7.1.1 Texas Tech University Tests ............................................................................... 266
7.1.2 Water Channel Experiments of Dynamic Stall on Darrieus Rotor ................... 277
7.2 Wind Tunnel Experiments ............................................................................................... 288
7.2.1 National Research Council of Canada Wind Tunnel Tests................................ 288
7.2.2 Sandia Research Turbines ................................................................................... 291
7.2.3 Predicted and Experimental Aerodynamic Forces on the Darrieus Rotor ........ 296
7.3 Field Test of Darrieus Wind Turbines ............................................................................. 303
7.3.1 Sandia 5 Meter Research Turbine ...................................................................... 303
7.3.2 NRC/Hydro-Quebec Magdalen Islands 24 Meter Research Turbine ................ 304
7.3.3 NRC/DAF 6.1 Meter Research Turbine ............................................................. 305
7.3.4 Lavalin Eole (64-m) Research Turbine, (Cap-Chat, Qubec) ........................... 306
7.3.5 Pionier I (15 Meter) Cantilevered Rotor Research Turbine (Netherlands) ...... 308
7.3.6 Sandia 17 Meter Research Turbine .................................................................... 308
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7.4 Commercial Prototype Wind Turbines ............................................................................ 312
7.4.1 DOE 100 kW (17-m) Darrieus Wind Turbine ................................................... 312
7.4.2 FloWind 17-m and 19-m Commercial Turbines ................................................ 312
7.4.3 Indal Technologies 50 kW (11.2-m) and 6400/500 kW (24-m) ........................ 314
7.5 Measurements and Prediction of Aerodynamic Torques for a Darrieus
Wind Turbine .................................................................................................................... 315
7.5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 315
7.5.2 Measurements and Data Reduction .................................................................... 317
7.5.3 Prediction of Aerodynamic Torque .................................................................... 321
7.5.4 Measured and Predicted Aerodynamic Torque .................................................. 322
References .................................................................................................................................. 326
Chapter 8 Innovative Aerodynamic Devices for Darrieus Rotor
8.1 Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) Airfoils and Tapered Blades ........................................... 329
8.2 Aerobrakes ........................................................................................................................ 340
8.2.1 Spoilers ................................................................................................................ 341
8.3 Vortex Generators ............................................................................................................. 342
8.4 Pumped Spoiling .............................................................................................................. 345
8.5 Toe-In-Angle Effects ........................................................................................................ 346
8.6 Blade Camber ................................................................................................................... 349
8.7 Blade Roughness (Soiling), Blade Icing and Parasite Drag Effects .............................. 351
References .................................................................................................................................. 355
Chapter 9 Future Trends Design of Darrieus Wind Turbine
9.1 Wind Turbine Design Parameters .................................................................................... 359
9.1.1 Swept Area .......................................................................................................... 359
9.1.2 Rotor Aspect Ratio.............................................................................................. 362
9.1.3 Blade Airfoil ........................................................................................................ 364
9.1.4 Rotor Speed ......................................................................................................... 365
9.1.5 Rotor Solidity ...................................................................................................... 365
9.1.6 Blade Material and Construction........................................................................ 366
9.1.7 Central Column of Darrieus Rotor ..................................................................... 367
9.1.8 Horizontal Struts ................................................................................................. 368
9.1.9 Guy Cables .......................................................................................................... 368
9.1.10 Cantilever Darrieus Rotor ................................................................................... 370
9.1.11 Type and Location of Brakes .............................................................................. 370
9.1.12 Gearbox ............................................................................................................... 371
9.1.13 Drive Train .......................................................................................................... 372
9.1.14 Motor/Generator .................................................................................................. 373
9.1.15 Variable Speed..................................................................................................... 374
9.2 Darrieus Wind Turbine Design ........................................................................................ 374
9.2.1 Darrieus Design Issues ........................................................................................ 374
9.2.2 Future Design Alternatives ................................................................................. 375
9.3 Comparison Between Horizontal-Axis and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines .................... 377
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Table of Contents xi
9.3.1 HAWTs vs VAWTs Technical Aspects ............................................................... 377
9.3.2 Taking VAWTs to Viability................................................................................. 381
References .................................................................................................................................. 382
Chapter 10 Acceptability Environmental and Social Aspects
of Wind Energy
10.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 387
10.2 Environmental Aspects .................................................................................................... 388
10.2.1 Human Environment Aspects ............................................................................. 389
10.2.2 Natural Environment Aspects ............................................................................. 391
10.2.3 Environmental Effects of Wind Turbine Operation ........................................... 393
10.3 Gas Emissions: Wind and Other Energy Sources ........................................................... 394
10.4 Public Attitudes in Various Countries ............................................................................. 396
10.5 Social Impact .................................................................................................................... 398
10.6 Wind Power and Traditional Power Sources .................................................................. 398
Conclusions ................................................................................................................................ 401
References .................................................................................................................................. 401
Appendix A Aerodynamic Characteristics of Symmetrical Airfoils ................................... 405
Appendix B Canada and Worldwide Wind Energy Production ........................................... 417
Appendix C Wind Energy on the Worldwide Web .............................................................. 425
Index .......................................................................................................................................... 427
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List of Figures xiii
List of
Figures
Chapter 1
Figure 1.1 Components - Upwind rotor and downwind HAWT rotor [Ref. 1.1] ........................ 2
Figure 1.2 VAWT of Darrieus type [Ref. 1.1] .............................................................................. 3
Figure 1.3 Types of vertical-axis wind turbines - a) Fixed bladed Darrieus or
articulating blade Giromill; b) Savonius rotor ............................................................ 4
Chapter 2
Figure 2.1 The Madaras concept for generating electricity using the Magnus
effect [2.1] .................................................................................................................. 15
Figure 2.2 Savonius rotor - Calculation scheme ........................................................................ 17
Figure 2.3 Pressure distribution vs azimuthal angle ................................................................... 18
Figure 2.4 Starting torque for a rotation ..................................................................................... 19
Figure 2.5 Normalized power coefficient vs bucket tip-speed ratio .......................................... 20
Figure 2.6 Two-bucket Savonius rotor ........................................................................................ 21
Figure 2.7 Three-bucket Savonius rotor ...................................................................................... 21
Figure 2.8 The static torque coefficient as a function of angular position for a
two-bucket Savonius rotor, [2.17] ............................................................................. 23
Figure 2.9 The static torque coefficient as a function of angular position for a
three-bucket Savonius rotor, [2.17] ........................................................................... 23
Figure 2.10 A comparison of the power coefficients for two- and three-bucket Savonius
rotors with a gap width ratio of 0.15 at Re/m of 8.64 10
5
................................................ 24
Figure 2.11 Normalized turbine power for 1-meter, two-bucket Savonius rotors as a
function of normalized rotational speed for Re/m of 4.32 10
5
....................................... 25
Figure 2.12 Translating drag device .............................................................................................. 26
Figure 2.13 Translating airfoil ....................................................................................................... 27
Figure 2.14 Power from a translating airfoil vs lift-drag ratio ..................................................... 27
Figure 2.15 Translating airfoil with relative wind ........................................................................ 28
Figure 2.16 Coordinate system and vortex sheet location for analysis of the Giromill .............. 29
Figure 2.17 Streamlines and velocity profile at X = 3, a = 1/3. The velocity profile is
given along the lines x/R = -0.05 and +2.0 ............................................................... 31
Figure 2.18 Vortex shedding of cross-wind axis actuator ............................................................. 33
Figure 2.19 Vortex system of single bladed cross-wind axis actuator ......................................... 20
Figure 2.20 Relative velocity and aerodynamic forces for typical blade element ....................... 34
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xiv List of Figures
Chapter 3
Figure 3.1 Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine (DOE/SANDIA 34-m) ..................................... 38
Figure 3.2 Catenary shape ........................................................................................................... 43
Figure 3.3 Troposkien shape ....................................................................................................... 46
Figure 3.4 Length of Troposkien blade vs b and W.................................................................... 50
Figure 3.5 Tensions ratio vs blade length ................................................................................... 52
Figure 3.6 Sandia shape ............................................................................................................... 55
Figure 3.7 Darrieus rotor geometries .......................................................................................... 61
Chapter 4
Figure 4.1 Curved blade vertical-axis wind turbine with three blades ...................................... 67
Figure 4.2 NACA 0012 Airfoil - Normal force and chordwise thrust coefficients .................. 69
Figure 4.3 Comparison of theory and experiment - a) Power coefficient; b) Rotor
drag coefficient .......................................................................................................... 72
Figure 4.4 Effect of rotor solidity Nc/R ...................................................................................... 74
Figure 4.5 Effect of blade airfoil C
do
........................................................................................................................ 75
Figure 4.6 Upstream and plan view of typical streamtube ......................................................... 77
Figure 4.7 Blade element forces .................................................................................................. 78
Figure 4.8 Relative velocity vector ............................................................................................. 79
Figure 4.9 Comparison of DART and single streamtube models with Sandia test data
(2m diameter rotor) .................................................................................................... 81
Figure 4.10 Variation of streamtube velocities through the rotor (view looking upstream
through the rotor) ....................................................................................................... 82
Figure 4.11 The effect of solidity on C
P
(Re = 3.0 10
6
) ........................................................... 83
Figure 4.12 Contribution of equatorial band to C
P
.............................................................................................. 84
Figure 4.13 Effect of wind shear on rotor performance ............................................................... 85
Figure 4.14 Vortex system for a single blade element .................................................................. 86
Figure 4.15 Velocity induced at a point by a vortex filament ...................................................... 86
Figure 4.16 Fixed-wake geometry................................................................................................. 88
Figure 4.17 Rotor aerodynamic torque, Sandia 17-m-diameter research turbine, two
blades, NACA 0015 section, 61-cm chord, 50.6 rpm, X = 2.18 ............................... 89
Figure 4.18 Fixed-wake theory and test results, Sandia 17-m-diameter research turbine,
two blades, NACA 0015 section, 61-cm chord, 50.6 rpm........................................ 89
Figure 4.19 Schematic of a typical Darrieus turbine .................................................................... 90
Figure 4.20 Numerical representation of the Darrieus rotor ........................................................ 92
Figure 4.21 Vortex system for a single blade element [Ref. 4.14] ............................................... 93
Figure 4.22 Normal force coefficient variation. - Two-dimensional VDART-TURBO,
c/R = 0.135; VDART2, c/R = 0.15 [Ref. 4.14]; Experiment [Ref. 4.14] ......... 94
Figure 4.23 Normal force coefficient variation, c/R = 0.135. - -- -- Three-dimensional
VDART-TURBO; VDART3 [Ref. 4.14] ............................................................... 95
Figure 4.24 Tangential force coefficient variation. - Two-dimensional VDART-TURBO,
c/R = 0.135; VDART2, c/R = 0.15 [Ref. 4.14] ...................................................... 95
Figure 4.25 Tangential force coefficient variation c/R = 0.135. - Three-dimensional
VDART-TURBO; VDART3 [Ref. 4.14] ............................................................... 95
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List of Figures xv
Figure 4.26 Wake convection velocity as predicted by three-dimensional VDART-
TURBO, c/R = 0.135 ................................................................................................. 96
Figure 4.27 Wake geometry as predicted by two-dimensional VDART-TURBO,
c/R = 0.135 ................................................................................................................. 96
Figure 4.28 Wake geometry as predicted by VDART3, c/R = 0.135 ........................................... 96
Figure 4.29 Aerodynamic torque ................................................................................................... 98
Chapter 5
Figure 5.1 Airfoil in Darrieus motion ....................................................................................... 102
Figure 5.2 Dynamic-stall events on the Vertol VR-7 airfoil [5.1] ........................................... 104
Figure 5.3 Non-inertial frame of reference ............................................................................... 106
Figure 5.4 Computational domain ............................................................................................. 107
Figure 5.5 Algorithm ................................................................................................................. 113
Figure 5.6 Wake definition ........................................................................................................ 116
Figure 5.7 Computation of the eddy viscosity .......................................................................... 117
Figure 5.8 Stations on the structured zone ................................................................................ 119
Figure 5.9 Flat plate shape ........................................................................................................ 121
Figure 5.10 Computational mesh for flat plate ........................................................................... 121
Figure 5.11 Pressure distribution over flat plate ......................................................................... 122
Figure 5.12 Boundary layer velocity profile Cebeci-Simth .................................................... 122
Figure 5.13 Boundary layer velocity profile Johnson-King .................................................... 122
Figure 5.14 Non-inertial frame - Pitching motion ..................................................................... 123
Figure 5.15 Computational mesh NACA 0015 pitching airfoil .............................................. 124
Figure 5.16 Transitional function Pitching motion .................................................................. 124
Figure 5.17 Lift coefficient Cebeci-Smith model .................................................................... 125
Figure 5.18 Drag coefficient Cebeci-Smith model .................................................................. 125
Figure 5.19 Lift coefficient Johnson-King model .................................................................... 126
Figure 5.20 Drag coefficient Johnson-King model .................................................................. 126
Figure 5.21 Computational mesh #2 Darrieus motion............................................................. 127
Figure 5.22 Evolution of the relative velocity and angle of attack for Darrieus motion........... 128
Figure 5.23 Darrieus motion simulation ..................................................................................... 128
Figure 5.24 Evolution of the effective Reynolds number ........................................................... 129
Figure 5.25 Computed streamlines Cebeci-Smith model ........................................................ 131
Figure 5.26 Evolution of the vorticity field Cebeci-Smith model ........................................... 132
Figure 5.27 Computed streamlines Johnson-King model ........................................................ 133
Figure 5.28 Evolution of the vorticity field Johnson-King model .......................................... 134
Figure 5.29 Dynamic-stall regions Cebeci-Smith model ........................................................ 135
Figure 5.30 Dynamic-stall regions Johnson-King model ........................................................ 135
Figure 5.31 Dynamic-stall regions Laminar case .................................................................... 135
Figure 5.32 Evolution of the normal force Laminar case ........................................................ 136
Figure 5.33 Evolution of the normal force Cebeci-Smith model ............................................ 136
Figure 5.34 Evolution of the normal force Johnson-King model ............................................ 137
Figure 5.35 Evolution of the tangential force Laminar case ................................................... 137
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xvi List of Figures
Figure 5.36 Evolution of the tangential force Cebeci-Smith model ....................................... 138
Figure 5.37 Evolution of the tangential force Johnson-King model ....................................... 138
Figure 5.38 Evolution of the pitching moment ........................................................................... 139
Figure 5.39 Wake convection ...................................................................................................... 139
Chapter 6
Figure 6.1 A pair of actuator disks in tandem........................................................................... 147
Figure 6.2 Double actuator disks streamlines pattern............................................................... 149
Figure 6.3 Control volumes 1 and 2 .......................................................................................... 149
Figure 6.4 Control volumes 3, 4 and 5 ...................................................................................... 150
Figure 6.5 Relative velocity and angle of attack ...................................................................... 153
Figure 6.6 Force coefficients of a blade element airfoil ........................................................... 154
Figure 6.7 Elemental forces on a blade element ....................................................................... 155
Figure 6.8 Elemental forces on a blade element airfoil (in a horizontal plane) ...................... 155
Figure 6.9 Definition of rotor geometry for a Darrieus wind turbine. Two actuator
disks in tandem......................................................................................................... 159
Figure 6.10 Angles, forces and velocity vectors at the equator ................................................. 160
Figure 6.11 Comparison between normal force coefficients calculated by the multiple
streamtube theory, and the present model. Sandia 5-m, 162.5 rpm........................ 165
Figure 6.12 Variation of the normal force coefficients with azimuthal angle q, for each
blade, in the upwind and downwind zones ............................................................. 166
Figure 6.13 Variation of the normal force coefficients with azimuthal angle q, for two
blades, at three tip-speed ratios ............................................................................... 166
Figure 6.14 Comparison between tangential force coefficients calculated by the multiple
streamtube theory and the present model ................................................................ 167
Figure 6.15 Variation of the tangential force coefficients with the azimuthal angle q, for
each blade, in the upwind and downwind zones ..................................................... 167
Figure 6.16 Variation of the tangential force coefficients with the azimuthal angle q, for
the two blades, at the three tip-speed ratios ............................................................ 168
Figure 6.17 Power coefficient as a function of the equatorial tip-speed ratio.
Comparison between analytical model results and field test data [6.17]
for the Sandia 5-m, two-blade rotor ........................................................................ 169
Figure 6.18 Power coefficient as a function of the equatorial tip-speed ratio.
Comparison between analytical model results and field test data [6.17]
for the Sandia-5-m, three-blade rotor ...................................................................... 169
Figure 6.19 Upwind and downwind velocity ratios as functions of tip-speed ratio .................. 170
Figure 6.20 Variation of the angle of attack at the equator with the blade position .................. 171
Figure 6.21 Blade element normal force coefficients at the equator as a function
of the azimuthal angle q........................................................................................... 171
Figure 6.22 Blade element tangential force coefficients at the equator as function
of the azimuthal angle, q ......................................................................................... 172
Figure 6.23 Upwind and downwind normal force coefficients distribution on the rotor
blades ........................................................................................................................ 172
Figure 6.24 Upwind and downwind tangential force coefficients distribution
on the rotor blades .................................................................................................... 173
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Excerpt of the full publication
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List of Figures xvii
Figure 6.25 Rotor torque as a function of the azimuthal angle. Comparison between
analytical results and experimental data ................................................................. 174
Figure 6.26 Upwind, downwind and total rotor power coefficients as functions of tip-speed
ratio........................................................................................................................... 175
Figure 6.27 Power coefficient vs tip-speed ratio. Comparison between present model
results and field test data ......................................................................................... 176
Figure 6.28 Darrieus rotor power as a function of the wind velocity at the equator ................. 176
Figure 6.29 A typical Darrieus rotor performance characteristic C
P
as a function of
the tip-speed ratio X
EQ
............................................................................................................................ 177
Figure 6.30 Power coefficient vs tip-speed ratio ........................................................................ 178
Figure 6.31 Performance coefficient vs advance ratio ............................................................... 179
Figure 6.32 Power coefficient vs tip-speed ratio for three types of airfoil ................................ 179
Figure 6.33 Tower wake-velocity deficit .................................................................................... 181
Figure 6.34 Measurement of the distribution of mean velocities and relative turbulence
intensities in the wake of a rotating cylinder .......................................................... 181
Figure 6.35 Power coefficient as a function of the tip-speed ratio. Comparison between
experimental data and results predicted by CARDAA, CARDAAV, and
VDART3 codes ........................................................................................................ 185
Figure 6.36 Open spoiler effects on the performance of the Magdalen Islands rotor ............... 186
Figure 6.37 Aerodynamic power as a function of wind speed at the equator. Comparison
between experimental data and results predicted by CARDAAV code,
including secondary effects ..................................................................................... 186
Figure 6.38 Induced velocity variation with blade position ....................................................... 187
Figure 6.39 Blade tangential force coefficient as a function of blade position ......................... 187
Figure 6.40 Average side-force coefficient as a function of tip-speed ratio .............................. 188
Figure 6.41 Simplified physical model of the flowfield in a horizontal slice of the rotor ........ 189
Figure 6.42 Reduction of the streamtube in the undisturbed part of the rotor vs the
tip-speed ratio........................................................................................................... 192
Figure 6.43 Curve streamlines through the rotor, calculation and experiments ........................ 194
Figure 6.44 Variation of the angle of attack at the equator with the blade position .................. 195
Figure 6.45 Performance comparison between theoretical results and experimental data
for the Sandia 17-m turbine ..................................................................................... 196
Figure 6.46 Contribution of vertical slices to the power coefficient versus tip-speed
ratio........................................................................................................................... 197
Figure 6.47 Performance comparison of theoretical results and experimental data for
the Sandia 5-m turbine ............................................................................................. 197
Figure 6.48 Normal force coefficient as a function of the azimuthal angle .............................. 198
Figure 6.49 Tangential force coefficient as a function of the azimuthal angle .......................... 198
Figure 6.50 Schematic diagram of the vortex shedding for X = 2.14 ........................................ 204
Figure 6.51 Gormonts model adaptations: Magdalen Islands rotor at 29.4 rpm ...................... 205
Figure 6.52 Gormonts model adaptations: Sandia 17-m at 42.2 rpm ....................................... 206
Figure 6.53 Gormonts model adaptations: Sandia 34-m at 28.0 rpm ....................................... 206
Figure 6.54 VAWT: Angles, forces and velocities at the equator (MIT model) ........................ 208
Figure 6.55 Maximum lift and moment coefficients vs rate of change of angle of attack ........ 211
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xviii List of Figures
Figure 6.56 Normal force coefficient vs angle of attack at the equator for Sandia 17-m,
38.7 rpm (experimental data and MIT model) ........................................................ 212
Figure 6.57 Normal force coefficient vs angle of attack at the equator for Sandia 17-m,
38.7 rpm (experimental data and Gormonts model) .............................................. 212
Figure 6.58 Rotor power vs wind speed at the equator for Sandia 17-m, 42.2 rpm.
Dynamic-stall effects ............................................................................................... 213
Figure 6.59 Rotor power vs wind speed at the equator for Sandia 17-m, 46.6 rpm.................. 214
Figure 6.60 Rotor power vs wind speed at the equator for Sandia 17-m, 50.6 rpm.................. 214
Figure 6.61 The indicial functions as they vary with time ......................................................... 216
Figure 6.62 Typical curve of the position of the flow separation point function of a .............. 218
Figure 6.63 Critical normal force coefficient C
NI
for the onset of leading-edge
separation function of the Mach number ................................................................. 219
Figure 6.64 Dynamic-stall vortex lift contribution ..................................................................... 220
Figure 6.65 Normal force coefficient vs angle of attack ............................................................ 221
Figure 6.66 Aerodynamic torque vs azimuthal angle at low tip-speed ratio ............................. 221
Figure 6.67 Power output vs wind velocity ................................................................................ 222
Figure 6.68 Blade shape geometry for 34-m wind turbine ......................................................... 223
Figure 6.69 Rotor power vs wind speed at equator .................................................................... 224
Figure 6.70 Power coefficient vs tip-speed ratio ........................................................................ 224
Figure 6.71 Performance coefficient vs advance ratio ............................................................... 225
Figure 6.72 Rotor power vs wind speed at equator .................................................................... 225
Figure 6.73 Schematic of three-dimensional wind simulation for Darrieus rotor with
5 5 grids ................................................................................................................ 231
Figure 6.74 Sectional normal force coefficient versus azimuthal angle at the rotor
equator, X
EQ
= 4.60 and turbulence intensity = (27 percent, 25 percent) .............. 233
Figure 6.75 Sectional normal force coefficient versus azimuthal angle at the rotor
equator, X
EQ
= 2.49 and turbulence intensity = (27 percent, 25 percent).
Comparison between CARDAAS-1D & 3D, CARDAAV (0 percent
turbulence), and experimental data ......................................................................... 234
Figure 6.76 Sectional tangential force coefficient versus azimuthal angle at the rotor
equator, X
EQ
= 2, and three turbulence intensity levels. Comparison
between CARDAAS-1D & 3D, CARDAAV (0 percent turbulence) and
experimental data ..................................................................................................... 235
Figure 6.77 Rotor torque distribution, standard deviation, minimum and maximum
values at X
EQ
= 2.87 and turbulence intensity = (27 percent, 25 percent).
Comparison between CARDAAS-D and experimental data .................................. 236
Figure 6.78 Performance comparison between theoretical results and experimental data
for the Sandia 17-m wind turbine ............................................................................ 237
Figure 6.79 Normal force coefficient F
+
N
as a function of the azimuthal angle q..................... 238
Figure 6.80 RMS vibratory rotor tower stresses for the stiff cable configuration,
CARDAA aerodynamic model [Ref. 6.80] ............................................................. 239
Figure 6.81 Structural capabilities using three aerodynamic models for studying
Darrieus rotor ........................................................................................................... 240
Figure 6.82 Velocity field near blade tip ..................................................................................... 242
Figure 6.83 Upwind and downwind interference factors vs rotor height for a 6-m
List_Figures.p65 19/11/2009, 13:27 18
List of Tables xxiii
List of
Tables
Chapter 1
Table 1.1 Average Power Output (kW) ............................................................................................ 5
Table 1.2 Europes Wind Power ....................................................................................................... 9
Table 1.3 Cost of Wind Electricity Evolution ................................................................................ 11
Chapter 2
Table 2.1 Velocity Along the x-Axis for a = 1/3, X = 3 ................................................................. 32
Chapter 3
Table 3.1 Power Performance Data Available from Field Tests .................................................... 40
Table 3.2 Power Output Performance Data Available From Wind Tunnel Tests .......................... 41
Table 3.3 Typical Relative Costs of VAWT Subsystems................................................................ 41
Table 3.4 Geometrical Parameters for Two-Bladed Darrieus Rotors of Different Blade Shapes ..... 57
Table 3.5 Dimensionless Coordinates and Meridian Angle d (Radians) ....................................... 58
Table 3.6 Dimensionless Coordinates of the Magdalen Islands Darrieus Rotor .......................... 59
Table 3.7 Coordinates in Meters for an Ideal Troposkien and for the Magdalen-Islands
Darrieus Rotor (M.I.D.R.) .............................................................................................. 60
Chapter 5
Table 5.1 Darrieus Motion Parameters ......................................................................................... 129
Chapter 6
Table 6.1 Predicted and measured performances ......................................................................... 175
Chapter 7
Table 7.1 Darrieus Rotor Tests in the Vought Systems Division Low Speed Wind Tunnel ....... 292
Table 7.2 Power Output Performance Data Available From Wind Tunnel Tests ........................ 295
Table 7.3 Sandia 17-m Turbine Rotor Configurations ................................................................. 309
Table 7.4 Aerodynamic Torques in Nm, 50.6 rpm ....................................................................... 324
Table 7.5 Fourier Coefficients of Torque, 50.6 rpm (Coefficients normalized
with mean torque) ......................................................................................................... 325
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xxiv List of Tables
Chapter 8
Table 8.1 Ohio State University Wind Tunnel Tests .................................................................... 330
Table 8.2 34 Meter Wind Turbine Blade Data ............................................................................. 334
Table 8.3 Performance Comparison Between Cam-bered and Symmetrical Blade Section
of the Sandia 5-Meter Research Turbine ...................................................................... 349
Chapter 9
Table 9.1 Rotor Mass and Rotor Size ........................................................................................... 361
Table 9.2 Advantages of Two or Three Blades ............................................................................ 364
Table 9.3 Darrieus Wind Turbine Design Alternatives ................................................................ 375
Table 9.4 Darrieus Wind Turbine Improvements ......................................................................... 376
Table 9.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of HAWTs and VAWTs ............................................. 378
Table 9.6 VAWT Aspect Ratios .................................................................................................... 379
Table 9.7 Area Required for Wind Plants ..................................................................................... 381
Chapter 10
Table 10.1 Survey on Energy Research Priority ............................................................................ 388
Table 10.2 Environmental Aspects versus Type of Wind Turbine ................................................. 389
Table 10.3 Carbon dioxide (CO
2
). The Leading Greenhouse Gas ................................................. 395
Table 10.4 Sulfur Dioxide (SO
2
). The Leading Precursor of Acid Rain ....................................... 395
Table 10.5 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Another Acid Rain Precursor and the Leading
Component of Smog ..................................................................................................... 395
List_Tables.p65 19/11/2009, 13:28 24
Wind Energy 1

Wind Energy
1.1 WIND DEFINITION AND CHARACTERISTICS
WIND is the movement of the air between high pressure and low pressure regions in the
atmosphere, caused by the uneven heating of the earths surface by the sun. When the air above
hot surfaces is heated, it rises, creating a low pressure zone. The air surrounding higher pres-
sure zones flows toward the low pressure area, creating wind. For this reason, sometimes wind
energy is called indirect solar energy.
Wind varies with time in intensity and direction, and the potential of a wind site is
generally evaluated as a function of the annual average wind speed. Wind speeds can be
calculated for other periods to determine hourly, daily or monthly averages. Winds vary with
altitude and wind speed is also affected by ground features such as hills. The variation of wind
speed with altitude is due to friction between air movement and the earths surface (the
atmospheric boundary-layer). All weather offices report the wind speed at a standard height of
10 meters above ground. Wind near the ground gathers speed to climb a hill, then slows (and
sometimes becomes very turbulent) on the far side of the hill. The wind speed strength and
direction are measured by anemometers.
1.2 WIND TURBINES
The depletion of global fossil fuel reserves combined with mounting environmental concern
has served to focus attention to the development of ecologically compatible and renewable
alternative energy sources. The harnessing of wind energy is a promising technology able to
provide a portion of the power requirements in many regions of the world. Wind generators are
a practical way to capture and convert the kinetic energy of the atmosphere to either mechanical
or, more significantly, electrical energy.
The term WINDMILL is applied to the wind-powered machine that grinds (or mills) grain.
Modern machines are more correctly called WIND TURBINES because they can be used for a
variety of applications, such as generating electricity and pumping water.
Windmills have a very simple design based on the drag-device that relies on different air
resistance on the front and back of the rotor section to cause rotation.
An interesting and well documented survey concerning historical development of windmills
is given in Wind Turbine Technology (ASME Press, 1994, D.A. Spera, editor), Ref. [1.1].
The most efficient way to convert wind energy into electrical or mechanical energy is
offered by wind turbines that operate as a lifting-device. Wind turbines are classified into two
categories, according to the direction of their rotational axis: Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines
Chap_01.p65 18/11/2009, 10:28 1
2 Chapter 1
(HAWT) and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT). Horizontal-axis wind turbines capture
kinetic wind energy with a propeller type rotor and their rotational axis is parallel to the direc-
tion of the wind (Fig. 1.1). Vertical-axis wind turbines use straight or curved bladed (Darrieus
type) rotors with rotating axes perpendicular to the wind stream. They can capture wind from
any direction (Fig. 1.2). The most popular wind turbine systems are of the propeller type, but
the VAWTs have not yet benefited from the years of development undergone by HAWTs. These
two kinds of wind machine are compared in Chapter 9.
Figure 1.1 Components - Upwind rotor and downwind HAWT rotor [Ref. 1.1]
Both HAWTs and VAWTs have about the same ideal efficiency but the horizontal-axis wind tur-
bine is more common. It has the entire rotor, gearbox and generator at the top of the tower, and
must be turned to face the wind direction. The VAWT accepts wind from any direction, and its
heavy machinery is at ground level. This is more convenient for maintenance, particularly on
large units or when operating in potential icing conditions.
Both types of wind turbines have the same general components:
- a rotor to convert wind energy into mechanical power,
- a tower to support the rotor,
- a gearbox to adjust the rotational speed of the rotor shaft for the electric generator or
pump,
- a control system to monitor operation of the wind turbine in automatic mode, including
starting and stopping,
- a foundation (sometimes aided by guy wires) to prevent the turbine from blowing over
in high winds.
Chap_01.p65 18/11/2009, 10:28 2
Wind Energy 3
Upper Bearing
Upper Hub
Central Column
Cables
Lower Hub
Lower Bearing
Support Stand
Power Train
Equipment Station
Rotor
Foundation
Cable
Foundation
Ground
Level
Clearance
Tensioner
Rotor
Height
Rotor
Diameter
Figure 1.2 VAWT of Darrieus type [Ref. 1.1]
The size of a wind turbine is measured in terms of swept area, or surface area swept by the
rotating blades. The swept area of the rotor is calculated from the diameter of the rotor by:
S = 0.785 D
2
for HAWTs or by S = 1.000 D
2
for typical VAWTs with an aspect ratio (height/
diameter) of 1.5.
The control system of wind turbines is connected to an anemometer that continuously
measures wind speed. When wind speed is high enough to overcome friction in the drive train,
the control system allows the turbine to rotate, producing limited power. This is the cut-in
wind speed, usually about 4 or 5 m/s. Wind turbines normally have a rated wind speed,
corresponding to maximum output power. Typically, the rated wind speed is about 10-12 m/s.
If wind speed exceeds rated wind speed, the control system prevents further power increases
until cut-out wind speed is reached, at approximatively 25 m/s.
VAWTs are generally classified according to aerodynamic and mechanical characteristics,
or the lifting surfaces, or the movement of the blades of the rotor, about a vertical-axis along a
path in a horizontal plane. Today, there are four classes of VAWTs (Fig. 1.3):
a) the articulating straight-blade Giromill;
b) the Savonius rotor, a mostly drag-driven device;
c) the variable-geometry Musgrove, which permits reefing of the blades; and,
d) the fixed-blade Darrieus rotor.
Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have been studied by various researchers using modern
analysis techniques. Common examples of these vertical-axis wind turbines are the Savonius
and Darrieus turbines. In 1968, South and Rangi, from the National Research Council of
Canada, reintroduced the Darrieus rotor concept. Since then, many analytical models predicting
the aerodynamic performance of this type of wind turbine have been formulated.
Chap_01.p65 18/11/2009, 10:28 3
Extrait distribu par Presses Internationales Polytechnique
State of the Art of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines 15

State of the Art of Vertical-Axis


Wind Turbines
The earliest practical wind machines were the Panemones (examples: Persian vertical-
axis windmill in Sist a n, A.D. 1300 and Chinese vertical-axis windmill, A.D. 1219). These ma-
chines were of vertical-axis type driven by drag forces with a multi-bladed rotor operating at
very low tip-speed ratios (much less than unity), which explains their poor efficiency. In spite
of the simple design, the panemones need large amounts of material, are not able to withstand
high wind loads and thus have not proven cost-effective.
2.1 THE MADARAS ROTOR CONCEPT
This concept was conceived as a train of vehicles, each vehicle supporting rotating
cylinders mounted vertically on its flat-bed, moving to work on a circular track; each cylinder
being driven by an electrical motor [2.1]. The Madaras rotor was designed on the principle of
the Magnus effect known since the 1850s: the circulation induced around a rotating cylinder
results in a lift force perpendicular to the flow direction as well as to the axis of the cylinder.
On the side of the cylinder, where the flow and the cylinder are moving in the same direction,
boundary layer separation is completely eliminated while on the opposite side a significant part
undergoes separation. In 1933, Madaras conceived a plan for a large-scale test (for a 40 MW
plant) that required building a full-scale rotating cylinders of 27.4 m hight and 8.5 m diameter
mounted on a stationary platform in order to measure the forces due to the Magnus effect (see
Fig. 2.1).
Figure 2.1 The Madaras concept for generating electricity using the Magnus effect [2.1]
Chap_02.p65 12/11/2009, 08:53 15
16 Chapter 2
The Magnus effect would propel the cars around the track and drive generators connected
to the car axles. The Madaras concept for generating electricity using Magnus effect did not
succeed because of mechanical complexity: the need to reverse direction of the cylinder at each
end of the oval track, poor aerodynamic design (low tip speed with low aerodynamic effi-
ciency), mechanical losses (high track loads and overturning moments), lower wind speeds near
the ground and electrical losses.
2.2 SAVONIUS ROTOR
Nomenclature
A
s
= Savonius turbine swept area, m
2
C
P
= wQ/(q

A
s
), power coefficient
C
*
P
= wQ/[q

V

(4rH)], normalized power coefficient
C
Q
= Q/(q

A
s
), torque coefficient
C
*
Q
= Q/[q

(4rH)(2r)], normalized torque coefficient
d = 2r, bucket diameter, m
H = rotor height, m
N = number of buckets
p

= freestream static pressure, Pa


Q = turbine torque, Nm
Q
f
= friction (tare) torque, Nm (Eq. 2.12)
q

=
1
2
2
V

, freestream dynamic pressure, Pa


R = rotor radius of rotation (see Figs 2.6 and 2.7)
(if s/d = 0, R = 2r, see Fig. 2.2)
Re

= rV

/m

, Reynolds number per unit length, m


-1
r = bucket radius (see Figs 2.6 and 2.7), m
s = bucket gap width (see Figs 2.6 and 2.7), m
s/d = gap width ratio
V

= V

(1 + x ), freestream velocity, m/s
a = azimuthal angle (see Fig. 2.2), deg
L = Rw/V

, turbine tip-speed ratio


l = 2rw/V

, bucket tip-speed ratio


x = wind tunnel blockage factor
q = bucket angular position (see Figs 2.6 and 2.7), deg
m

= freestream viscosity, kg/(ms)


r = freestream density, kg/m
3
w = turbine rotational speed, rad/s
Subscripts
u = uncorrected for blockage
= freestream conditions
Chap_02.p65 12/11/2009, 08:53 16
State of the Art of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines 17
Another vertical-axis machine based on the low lift-to-drag ratio is the Savonius rotor
named after its Finnish inventor [2.1-2.3]. The Savonius rotor has an S-shaped cross-section
and appears as a vertical cylinder sliced in half from top to bottom. It operates as a cup
anemometer with the addition that wind is allowed to pass between the bent sheets (or buckets).
The Savonius rotor has been studied using wind tunnel tests by several researchers since the
1920s [2.4-2.12]. Generally speaking, Savonius rotors can reach maximum power coefficient of
30%. Moreover, it is not efficient with respect to weight/unit power output since it would
require as much as 30 times the surface to output the same power as a conventional wind
turbine. For this reason, the Savonius machine is only useful and economical for small power
requirements such as water pumping, driving a small electrical generator, providing ventilation,
and providing water agitation to keep stock ponds ice-free during winter. It is also commonly
used as an ocean current meter. The technology required to design and manufacture a Savonius
rotor is very simple and is recommended for applications in developing countries or in isolated
areas without electrical power. A simple Savonius rotor can be manufactured by cutting an oil
barrel in half, inverting one of the halves, and welding the two pieces together in a S-shaped
cross-section.
Figure 2.2 Savonius rotor - Calculation scheme
2.2.1 Mathematical Model
A mathematical model based on the pressure drop on each side of the blades was proposed
by Chauvin et al. [2.13] to evaluate the power of a two-bucket Savonius rotor with a gap spac-
ing s/d = 0. From Fig. 2.2, if


w a =

k is the instantaneous rotation vector and, due to the sym-
metry of the Savonius rotor,

= = constant, then the torque is given by:



Q OM F k
i
i
=


e j
(2.1)
This sum has two components:
a) the first is associated with the retreating blade, a driven component, Q
M
b) the second is associated with the advancing blade, a resistant component, Q
D
Q Q Q
M D
= + (2.2)
Chap_02.p65 12/11/2009, 08:53 17
!
The Darrieus Wind-Turbine
Concept
3.1 INTRODUCTION
The great majority of wind turbines in the world are aerodynamically improved versions of
the traditional horizontal-axis propeller-type device. Over the past two decades, the Darrieus
type vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) has undergone considerable research and significant
engineering development. However, it did not benefit from R&D as much as propeller-type
machines.
The Darrieus wind turbine was patented by the U.S. Patent Office in the name of G.J.M.
Darrieus in 1931 [3.1]. The Darrieus patent states that each blade should have a streamline
outline curved in the form of skipping rope. In other words, the Darrieus rotor has curved
blades that approximate the shape of a perfectly flexible cable, of uniform density and cross-
section, hanging freely from two fixed points; under the action of centripetal forces such a shape
minimizes inherent bending stresses. This blade shape is called Troposkien (from the Greek
roots: trots, turning and sXOLuLOu, rope; or turning rope) pure Troposkien shape (gravity
neglected) does not depend on angular velocity. The first known wind tunnel measurements
of Darrieus wind-turbine performance were carried out by R.S. Rangi and P. South of the
National Research Council of Canada, [3.2, 3.3]. Later measurements included fundamental
investigations of the number of blades, the rotors solidity, and the effects of spoilers and
aerobrakes. In the early 1970s, engineers at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC)
independently developed a similar concept of VAWT by assuming an approximate shape of a
catenary for the curved blades.
In Great Britain, the H-type or Musgrove rotor VAWT was introduced by Vertical-Axis
Wind Turbines Limited [3.4]. The Musgrove rotor is straight bladed and can be reefed to provide
speed control. Two prototypes of H-type machine were built in 1986: a 25-m rotor sponsored
by the U.K. Department of Energy, and a 14-m machine funded by Tema SpA of Italy. The HM-
Rotor-300, another straight-bladed Darrieus rotor, was manufactured by the Heidelberg Motor
Company. An interesting H-Type prototype was tested in 1994 at Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog Wind
Test site; this rotor has no gearbox and its low rotor speed reduces noise [IEA 1992].
The Darrieus curved blade rotor has been developed and commercialized mainly in North
America at institutions such as the National Research Council of Canada and by companies such
as FloWind Corp. and Vawtpower in the U.S. and Indal Technologies Inc., Lavalin Inc. and
Adecon Inc. in Canada. A detailed survey and bibliography on the vertical-axis wind turbines
is presented in Ref. [3.5]. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed considerable effort for
the research and development of the curve-bladed Darrieus rotor. Thus, in 1974 SNL built a
5-m diameter research VAWT, followed by a 17-m diameter rated at 60 kW in 1977 [3.6-3.18].
Chap_03.p65 19/11/2009, 15:41 37
38 Chapter 3
A significant step in the development of larger and more efficient commercial Darrieus VAWTs
was the installation and operation of 34-m Sandia-DOE VAWT in 1987, rated at 625 kW. The
Sandia 34-m turbine (Fig. 3.1) was the first curved-blade Darrieus turbine rotor originally
designed to incorporate step tapered blades using varying blade-section airfoils and a blade
airfoil section specifically designed for VAWTs. The equator and transition sections of that ro-
tor use the SAND 0018/50 airfoil section while the root sections are NACA 0021, [3.19-3.20].
The test beds are designed so that configurations can be quickly and easily changed to
investigate the basic physics of wind turbines. For example, the Sandia 34-m test bed is
equipped with a variable speed drive system to permit, among other things, performance tests
of new blade airfoils and blade shapes over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Test beds are
normally operated on a limited basis and only for specific tests.
Figure 3.1 Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine (DOE/SANDIA 34-m)
(Courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories)
Chap_03.p65 19/11/2009, 15:42 38
The Darrieus Wind-Turbine Concept 39
The Canadians manufactured the first large-scale Darrieus turbine rated at 230 kW with an
estimated average output of 100 kW on Magdalen-Islands in May 1977. An unexpected self-
start with no brakes destroyed this prototype, and a similar VAWT was installed in 1978, [3.21].
Performance test data for this turbine operating at 29.4 rpm [3.22], are believed to be the first
field data gathered on large scale Darrieus turbines that clearly show the performance in the post
stall regime (at low tip-speed ratios). A complete data set for operation at 36.6 rpm could not
be obtained because high wind operation was limited to about 15 m/s. The performance data
obtained from this turbine were an important element in the design of the Indal 6400-500 kW
turbine since the effects of dynamic stall were not included in performance prediction models,
and peak power output was seriously underestimated by the models.
Under Sandia technical guidance and DOE support funding, Alcoa constructed four 17-m,
100-kW units, two of which were grid-connected. One of these was tested successfully for over
10,000 h in storm winds exceeding 120 mph, [3.23-3.25]. The performance testing of the Sandia
National Laboratories 2, 5, 17 and 34-m research turbines resulted in the most rigorous and
exhaustive set of performance data and comparisons to theoretical predictions. SNL routinely
presented test and predicted data in non-dimensional form, to facilitate comparison with other
data, including those for HAWTs.
The greatest power output measured for any Darrieus wind turbine constructed to date has
been from the Lavalin Eole (64 m) Research Turbine [3.26]. Built in 1986 in Cap Chat, Quebec,
Canada, Eole is a two-bladed NACA 0018 rotor at fixed rotational speeds of 10 and 11.35 rpm
respectively. The maximum power output is in excess of 1.3 MW at 14.7 m/s and corresponds
to 11.35 rpm. The Eole wind turbine was designed to operate in a variable speed mode up to a
rotor speed of 16.3 rpm with the maximum power reaching about 3.6 MW at 17 m/s and then
being held constant by decreasing rotor speed at higher wind speeds [3.27]. However, fatigue
life predictions showed that the turbine should be limited to 13.25 rpm with a nominal cut-out
of 15 m/s (about 2 MW maximum power output) in order to operate successfully for the five
year duration of the energy purchase agreement.
FloWind was a leader in delivering wind generated electricity to U.S. utilities, and
designed, manufactured and operated wind turbines from 1982 to 1997. They developed a
VAWT FloWind 19-m using a two-bladed NACA 0015 operating at 51.8 rpm and producing
250 kW at a wind speed of about 20 m/s, [3.28-3.29]. Drawing upon this experience, FloWind
developed a new generation advanced vertical-axis wind turbine, with an extended height-
to-diameter (EHD) ratio. This class of advanced VAWT maximizes production from any given
wind area. In this case, an optimal balance between aerodynamic efficiency, wake loss and
swept area is achieved by varying rotor height and diameter. For example, the three bladed
FloWind EHD 17-m wind turbine, using a laminar airfoil SNLA 0021/50, can produce 175 kW
at 51.8 rpm operating in a wind of 16 m/s, [3.30].
The power performance data available for Darrieus wind turbines from field tests in several
countries is summarised in Table 3.1. Table 3.2 shows a few Darrieus wind turbines for which
power output data are available from wind tunnel tests. In both cases, both the predicted power
and the aerodynamic model used for calculation are indicated.
Chap_03.p65 19/11/2009, 15:42 39
Excerpt of the full publication
Aerodynamic Performance Prediction Models 65
"
Aerodynamic Performance
Prediction Models
Nomenclature
a = velocity interference factor (Eq. 4.37)
c = chord length of blade, m
C
DD
= disk drag coefficient
C
N
= normal force coefficient
C
P
= average coefficient of power
C
Pe
= elemental coefficient of power (Eq. 4.72)
C
T
= tangential force coefficient
c/R = chord-to-radius ratio
D = wind turbine drag, N
F
N
= normal force on turbine blade, N
F
N
*
= dimensionless normal force on turbine blade
F
T
= tangential force on turbine blade, N
F
T
*
= dimensionless tangential force on turbine blade
h = height of streamtube, m
2H = rotor height, m
L = lift force, N
N = number of blades
Nc/R = rotor solidity (Eq. 4.15)
NLEV = number of vertically spaced blade divisions (see Fig. 4.20)
NSTA = number of angular blade positions (Eq. 4.58 and Fig. 4.20)
q = local relative dynamic pressure, N/m
2
r = local turbine radius, m
R = radius of turbine at equator, m
S = frontal area of turbine (or disk area), m
2
t = time, s
T
B
= total torque, N m (Eq. 4.20)
T
e
= elemental blade torque, N m (Eq. 4.70)
T
e
*
= dimensionless blade torque (Eq. 4.71)
T
S
= single blade torque, N m (Eq. 4.19)

V
= fluid velocity, m/s

d
v = velocity through wind turbine disk, m/s

d
V = disturbance velocity, m/s

r
V = relative fluid velocity, m/s

t
V = tip-speed, m/s

T
V = tangential blade velocity at equator, m/s

w
V = wake convection velocity, m/s
Chap_04.p65 12/11/2009, 08:59 65
66 Chapter 4

= freestream velocity, m/s

W
= relative velocity, m/s
( )

w y
= downwash velocity, m/s
X = tip-speed ratio
z = height with respect to equator, m
a = angle of attack, deg
d = blade slope angle (or meridian angle), deg
g = vorticity, m
2
/s
g
S
= shed vorticity, m
2
/s
g
t
= trailing vorticity, m
2
/s
g
w
= wake vorticity, m
2
/s
G = circulation, m
2
/s
h = r/R
q = azimuthal angle of turbine blade, deg
r = fluid density, kg/m
3
w = angular velocity, rad
-1
z = z/H
Subscripts
EQ = equator
= freestream value
Superscripts
(
-
) = mean value
(*) = dimensionless value
4.1 SINGLE STREAMTUBE MODEL
The single streamtube model was first developed by Templin [4.1] to calculate the
aerodynamic performance of a curved-blade vertical-axis wind turbine. This model is based on
the approach of the propeller or windmill actuator disk theories that assume induced velocity
to be constant through the disk and related directly to wind turbine drag. The induced velocity
is thus assumed to be the same through upwind and downwind faces of the rotor.
According to Glauerts theory [4.2], the velocity through a windmill disk V
D
is the
arithmetic mean of the undisturbed velocity V

and the velocity in the wake. The wind turbine


drag is given by
D SV V V
D D
= ( )

2 (4.1)
where r represents the fluid density and S the disk area.
A disk drag coefficient C
DD
based on the dynamic pressure and the disk area is defined as:

C
D
V S
DD
D
=
1
2
2

(4.2)
and from equation (4.1),

C
V
V
DD
D
=

4 1
(4.3)
Chap_04.p65 12/11/2009, 08:59 66
Extrait distribu par Presses Internationales Polytechnique
Aerodynamic Performance Prediction Models 67
Hence

V
V
C
D
DD

= + 1
1
4
(4.4)
For structural design purposes, a more convenient drag coefficient C
D
is based on the ambient
dynamic pressure, where
C
D
V S
C
V
V
C
C
D DD
D DD
DD
= =

=
+


1
2
1
1
4
2
2
2

(4.5)
For a given wind turbine geometry and rotational speed w, the aerodynamic performance,
turbine power and rotor drag are calculated using the blade element theory. In general,
the curved shape of the vertical-axis wind rotor is that of a skipping rope, spinning about a
vertical-axis and assuming the gravity forces to be negligible. For a ratio of rotor height to
rotor diameter of unity, the shape can be approximated by a parabola and the blade shape is
given by the expression:

r
R
z
H
=

1
2
(4.6)
which in nondimensional form is h = 1 - z
2
, with h = r/R and z = z/H, where r is the local
rotor radius and z is the height above the equatorial plane. By differentiating the relation (4.6)
we can obtain the local blade slope given by angle d (Fig. 4.1).

tan
1
1
2
(4.7)
Figure 4.1 Curved blade vertical-axis wind turbine with three blades
Chap_04.p65 12/11/2009, 08:59 67
Extrait distribu par Presses Internationales Polytechnique
Unsteady Aerodynamics CFD Models 101
#
Unsteady Aerodynamics
CFD Models
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The environment-friendly nature of wind energy and recent advances in wind turbine
technology have made this renewable energy source a promising alternative for the future.
Although the horizontal-axis wind turbine is the most common device of its type, the Darrieus
vertical-axis model has proven one of the most efficient systems of wind energy conversion. Its
many advantages include its independence of wind direction and its simplicity. Some of the
most complex and least understood phenomena in the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics
(CFD) are associated with the description of the flow past rotating blades (Fig. 5.1). A major
aspect of the unsteady aerodynamics of the Darrieus rotor is dynamic stall, which occurs at low
tip-speed ratios. Its effects have a significant influence on the overall system design. According
to many experimental tests, the feature of dynamic stall that distinguishes it from static stall is
the shedding of significant concentrated vorticity from the leading-edge region. This vortex
disturbance subsequently sweeps over the airfoil surface causing pressure changes and resulting
in significant increases in airfoil lift and large nose-down pitching that exceeds static values.
This chapter describes a two-dimensional unsteady flow analysis around an airfoil in
Darrieus motion under dynamic-stall conditions (Fig. 5.2). A numerical solver based on the
solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations expressed in a streamfunction-
vorticity formulation in a non-inertial frame of reference is developed. The governing equations
are solved by the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin finite element method (FEM). Temporal
discretization is achieved by second-order-accurate finite differences. The resulting global
matrix system is linearized by the Newton method and solved by the generalized minimum
residual method (GMRES) with an incomplete triangular factorization preconditioning (ILU).
Turbulence effects are introduced in the solver by eddy viscosity models, namely the algebraic
Cebeci-Smith model and the nonequilibrium Johnson-King model. To validate the turbulent
solver, a flat plate in pure translation and a pitching NACA 0015 airfoil are used as test cases.
The Johnson-King model shows better performance than the Cebeci-Smith or the k-e turbulence
models for the pitching NACA 0015 airfoil test case. The solver is then used to simulate the
flow around a NACA 0015 airfoil in a Darrieus motion (Fig. 5.1). The computed results show
clearly some distinctive features of the dynamic stall on an airfoil in Darrieus motion despite
the fact that the generation of the leading-edge vortex typical for dynamic stall is not observed.
chap_05.p65 19/11/2009, 13:41 101
102 Chapter 5
Figure 5.1 Airfoil in Darrieus motion
Nomenclature
A = cross-section of the body surrounded by B
s
, nondimensionalized by c
2
, (Fig. 5.4)
A
+
= constant in the law of the wall coordinate (A
+
= 26 (CSM), A
+
= 17 (JKM), (Eq. 5.48)
B

= external boundary of B, (Fig. 5.4)


B
s
= internal boundary of B, (Fig. 5.4)
B = computational domain
C
M
= pitching moment coefficient
C
N
= normal force coefficient
C
p
= pressure coefficient
C
T
= tangential force coefficient
c = airfoil chord, m
e = finite element domain
(e
1
, e
2
, e
3
) = ( )
1 2 3
, , e e e

, unit vectors along x, y and z directions
F
Kleb
= Klebanoff intermittence function
g = function defined as
m
1 2
, (Eq. 5.59)
k = turbulent kinetic energy
k
*
= wc/(2u

), reduced frequency
n n n
P
e e e
, ,

= number of nodes associated to finite element
P = perturbation pressure, nondimensionalized by u

2
, (Eq. 5.59)
p = pressure, nondimensionalized by
R = equatorial radius, nondimensionalized by c
Re = Reynolds number, Re = u

c/n
s, n = unit vectors tangent and normal to boundaries
t = time, nondimensionalized by c/u

Dt = time step, nondimensionalized by c/u

u = velocity vector, nondimensionalized by u

2
u

chap_05.p65 19/11/2009, 13:41 102
Unsteady Aerodynamics CFD Models 103
u
b
= velocity vector of the non-inertial frame of reference, nondimensionalized by u

V
rel
= relative velocity, nondimensionalized by u

x, y = cartesian coordinates
x = position vector
a = incidence angle, deg.
d = boundary layer thickness, nondimensionalized by c
d
*
= displacement thickness, nondimensionalized by c
h = normal distance from the wall, nondimensionalized by c
h
+
= law of the wall coordinate
k = von Karman constant (k = 0.41)
l = tip-speed ratio (l = W
b
R/u

)
n = kinematic viscosity, nondimensionalized by u

c
n
t
= turbulent eddy viscosity, nondimensionalized by u

c
n
ti
= inner eddy viscosity, nondimensionalized by u

c
n
to
= outer eddy viscosity, nondimensionalized by u

c
r = density, nondimensionalized by r

s = link parameter, (Eq. 5.57)


t = Reynolds shear stress
y = perturbation streamfunction, nondimensionalized by u

c
Y = streamfunction, nondimensionalized by u

c
y
b
= value of the perturbation function on solid wall B
s
, nondimensionalized by u

c
W = vorticity function, nondimensionalized by u

/c
W WW WW
b
= angular velocity vector of the non-inertial frame of reference,
nondimensionalized by u

/c
W
b
= component in e
3
-direction of W WW WW
b
, nondimensionalized by u

/c
w = perturbation vorticity, nondimensionalized by u

/c
q = azimuthal angle, deg
Subscripts
e = edge of boundary layer
eq = equilibrium value
i = inner layer
m = value at t = t
max
o = outer layer
t = turbulent
w = wall
= freestream value
Superscripts
k = iteration level
() = mean value
() = first total time derivative
( ) = fluctuating value
chap_05.p65 19/11/2009, 13:41 103
Extrait distribu par Presses Internationales Polytechnique
Double-Multiple Streamtube - A Practical Design Model 151
Control Volume 3 (Fig. 6.4)
Continuity equation:
a V aV AV a V
w 0
(6.6)
Momentum equation:
T T AV V V
a
+ ( )
2
(6.7)
Bernoullis equations:
from 0 to 1,

p V p V

+ +
1
2
1
2
2
1
2

(6.8)
from 2 to 3,

p V p V
2
2
3
2
1
2
1
2
+ +
(6.9)
from 4 to 5,

p V p V
4
2 2
1
2
1
2
+ +


(6.10)
Control Volumes 4 and 5 (Fig. 6.4)
Momentum equation:
p p a T
a 1 2
( ) (6.11)
p p A T
3 4 2

( )
(6.12)
Drag Coefficient of the Upstream Actuator Disk
If one combines equations (6.4) and (6.5) one gets
p p V V V
1 2

( )


(6.13)
and from equations (6.2) and (6.3)

p p V V
1 2
2 2
1
2

( )

(6.14)
The combination of equations (6.13) and (6.14) gives

V
V V

+

2
(6.15)
One obtaines from equations (6.14) and (6.11)
T V V a
a

( )

1
2
2 2


(6.16)
Substituting the value of V
W
from equation (6.15) and the value of a from equation (6.6) one
obtaines
T V V V A
a
( )

2 (6.17)
Substituting the results obtained in equation (6.6) and knowing that T
1
= D
1
results in
D A V V V
1
2 ( )

(6.18)
Taking into account (6.6) and (6.11), and substituting (6.17) in (6.5).
chap_06.p65 12/11/2009, 09:06 151
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152 Chapter 6
Defining the drag coefficient
C
D
1
as

C
D
V A
D
1
1
2
1
2

(6.19)
one obtains

C
V
V
V
V
D
1
4 1
j
(
,
\
,
(

(6.20)
as the drag coefficient of the upstream actuator disk.
Drag Coefficient of the Down-stream Actuator Disk
If one substitutes equations (6.17), (6.12) and (6.6) into the momentum equation (6.7) of
control volume, (Fig. 6.4), one gets
+ ( ) + + ( )
[ ]
V V V V V V V V V V
2
1 2
4 2 (6.21)
Knowing that T
2
= D
2
and combining equations (6.17) and (6.7) one obtains
D AV V V V
2
2 ( )

(6.22)
defining the drag coefficient C
D
2
as

C
D
V A
D
2
2
2
1
2

(6.23)
and combining it with equation (6.21) results in
C
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
D
2
2 2 2 4 1 1 1
2
1 2


+
j
(
,
\
,
(
+

+

j
(
,
\
,
(
+
,

,
,
]
]
]
]


(6.24)
as the drag coefficient of the down-stream actuator disk.
We thus obtain the drag coefficient for each actuator disk. Note that the drag coefficient of
the upstream actuator disk, C
D
1
, is a function of only V/V

and that of the down-stream, C


D
2
,
is a function of V/V

and V/V

.
The overall drag of the wind turbine is the summation of the drag of the upwind and
downwind actuator disks. Thus, in coefficient form:
C C C
D D D
+
1 2
(6.25)
There are some theoretical limitations to the values of C
D
1
and V/V

. One can invert


equation (6.20) and obtain the velocity ratio V/V

as a function of the drag coefficient C


D
1

V
V
C
D

+
1
2
1
2
1
1
(6.26)
The maximum theoretical value of C
D
1
is 1.0 at V/V

= 0.5.
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Double-Multiple Streamtube - A Practical Design Model 153
6.3 BLADE ELEMENT THEORY
For simplicitys sake, we consider the wind turbine geometry approximated by a parabola
at a diameter/height ratio of unity. Thus the rotor blade shape is given by the expression

1
2
(6.27)
with h = r/R, z = z/H, where r is the local radius and z is the height above the rotor equatorial
plane.
The local blade slope d representing the angle between the normal to the blade chord plane
and the horizontal plane is found by differentiation of equation (6.27) and is given as

j
(
,
\
,
(

tan
1
1
2
(6.28)
The local angle of attack is determined from geometric considerations on a blade element
and from a velocity diagram of the local relative velocity (Fig. 6.5). The general expression for
angle of attack given in reference [6.5] is

( )
( ) +
,

,
,
]
]
]
]

sin
cos cos cos sin sin
sin cos cos
1 0 0
2 2 2
X
X
(6.29)
This equation suggests the possibility of on asymmetrical section or a symmetrical section
where the chord line is not tangential to the circle of rotation (or blade flight path), a
0
0, [6.6].
Wind Turbine Axis
V sin q
r
q
d
W
a
wr
90 - q
o
V
V cos cos q d
V cos q
Horizontal Plane
d
Figure 6.5 Relative velocity and angle of attack
Airfoil Characteristics
We assume that two dimensional airfoil characteristics can be used for the local blade
element lift and drag coefficients. Care must be taken to use airfoil characteristics appropriate
to the wind turbine blade Reynolds number. It is convenient for further calculations to resolve
the respective drag and lift coefficients into a normal force coefficient C
N
and a thrust force
coefficient C
T
as shown in Figure 6.6.
chap_06.p65 12/11/2009, 09:06 153
154 Chapter 6
C
L
C
L
cos a
C
D
sin a
C
D
C
D
cos a
C
L
sin a
a
W
Figure 6.6 Force coefficients of a blade element airfoil
C C C
N L D
+ cos sin (6.30)
C C C
T L D
sin cos (6.31)
The thrust coefficient C
T
is considered positive when directed forward along the airfoil chord.
Drag and Side-Force Coefficients
A blade element of chord c and height dz has a plan area cdz/cosd (Fig. 6.7). This area is
subjected to an elemental normal force dN and elemental thrust force dT.

dN
C qc
dz
N

cos
(6.32)

dT
C qc
dz
T

cos
(6.33)
where q is the local relative dynamic pressure given by:

q W
1
2
2

(6.34)
The instantaneous elemental drag and side-force, when the forces are resolved into direc-
tions parallel and perpendicular to the ambient wind direction, (Fig. 6.8) are:
dD V dN dT parallel to cos cos sin

( ) ( ) + (6.35)
dL V dN dT perpendicular to cos sin cos

( ) ( ) + (6.36)
Substituting equations (6.32) and (6.33) into equations (6.35) and (6.36) we obtain the
elemental drag and side-force:

dD qc C C dz
N T
+
j
(
\
,
cos
sin
cos

(6.37)

dL qc C C dz
N T
+
j
(
\
,
sin
cos
cos

(6.38)
chap_06.p65 12/11/2009, 09:06 154
Aerodynamic Loads and Performance Tests 269
Figure 7.3 Blade force measurement
Normal and Tangential Blade Forces
The experimental data for normal force and tangential force coefficients F
+
N
and F
+
T
respectively were compared with VDART2 predictions (Eqs. 4.32) and it became apparent that
the dynamic effects presented in Ref. [7.2] were significant. At the tip-speed ratio of 2.5,
dynamic stall was found to be important. At the highest tip-speed ratio of 7.5, added mass
effects and pitching circulation were found to be important, while at the moderate tip-speed
ratio of 5.0, both effects played a role.
Chap_07.p65 12/11/2009, 09:10 269
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270 Chapter 7
Normal blade force coefficient data should be corrected by subtracting the centrifugal for-
ces induced in the experiment. This correction is given by Strickland et al [7.2]:

F
t
c
N
B
f
bt
bf
+
= 134
2
.

(7.3)
where r
B
/r
f
is the blade density to fluid density ratio, t/c is the thickness to chord ratio, and
l
bt
/l
bf
is the total blade length to the blade length immersed in the fluid ratio. The numerical
coefficient is equal to twice the airfoil cross sectional area divided by the thickness chord
product. This correction is insignificant at the lower tip-speed ratios producing a downward
shift in the F
N
+
curve of only 0.48 at a tip-speed of 2.5. At a tip-speed ratio of 7.5, the shift is
equal to about 4.29.
Figure 7.4 Blade force data for a two-dimensional rotor (Re = 40,000, N = 2, l = 7.5, tow
tank data, --- quasi-steady model, - dynamic model)
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Aerodynamic Loads and Performance Tests 271
The blade force measurements on two dimensional rotor, having two blades (N = 2), are
compared with analytical prediction and results at a tip-speed ratio of 7.5 are shown in Fig. 7.4.
At this tip-speed ratio, only the dynamic effects are present; dynamic stall does not occur. As
can be noted from this figure, these dynamic effects produce a significant downward shift in the
F
N
+
curve and an amplification in the F
T
+
curve. It is apparent that these effects should be
included in the analytical model.
The agreement between the VDART2 model and this experiment is reasonably good in
light of the uncertainties. The hump seen in the experimental curve near 1080 deg + 270 deg
may be partially due to misalignment errors in the blade mounting. Errors on the order of 1 deg
Figure 7.5 Blade force data for a two-dimensional rotor (Re = 40,000, N = 2, l = 2.5, tow
tank data, --- quasi-steady model, - dynamic model)
Chap_07.p65 12/11/2009, 09:10 271
Excerpt of the full publication
272 Chapter 7
in the blade angle of attack could cause this level of deviation from the analysis. A slight phase
shift is also apparent between analysis and experiment. The exact cause of this shift is unknown,
but may be partially due to the time step size used in the analytical model. Since calculations
are spread over a particular time step which represents about 15 deg of rotor rotation, the shift
due to this cause could potentially reach 15 deg.
Results at a tip-speed ratio of 2.5 illustrated in Fig. 7.5 show the dominant effects due to
dynamic stall. It is apparent from Fig. 7.5 that some sort of correction to the quasi-steady
analysis is required to adequately predict the experimental results. Strict application of the
method yielded values of F
T
+
which were on the order of 3.5. The modified Boeing-Vertol
dynamic-stall model [7.9] (by adopting the time delay coefficients) does appear to yield
improvement in prediction of normal and tangential forces, but the results are not totally
satisfying.
At a moderate tip-speed ratio of 5.0 each of the dynamic effects (added mass, pitching
circulation and dynamic stall) are important. The effects of dynamic stall are strongly related
to the chord to radius ratio, c/R, as are other dynamic effects which are strongest for large c/R
values. The two-dimensional experiment conducted by Strickland represents a rather large c/R
value equal to 0.15, as opposed to about 0.05 for most full-scale rotors. Thus this experimental
configuration represents a rather severe test with regard to dynamic effects.
Wake Structure
Results from the two-dimensional tow tank experiment, as well as results from the wake
measurements behind a three-dimensional Darrieus turbine made by Vermeulen [7.10], will be
compared with analytical results. The test conditions at Texas Tech University [7.2] are very
different for the two sets of experiments representing a two-dimensional low turbulence level
flow, while the measurements made by Vermeulen represent a three-dimensional high turbu-
lence level atmospheric flow.
For two-dimensional rotors, velocity profiles were taken at one and two rotor diameters
down-stream of the rotors used in the tow tank test series. These experimental data were
compared with the VDART computer code, and also with the simple momentum model [7.11].
The simple momentum model can be used to estimate the fully developed wake by multiplying
the velocity defect computed for the "actuator" disk by a factor of two. The wake behind a
Darrieus turbine reaches a fully developed condition within about one rotor diameter down-
stream of its vertical-axis.
The level of agreement between both numerical and the experimental data is reasonably
good so long as the perturbation velocities are small [7.2]. However, the momentum model is
unable to predict a reasonable wake velocity profile for cases where the perturbation velocity
approaches 1.0. It is well known that the momentum model breaks down for these cases.
The vortex model predicts reasonable results for the average streamwise velocity perturba-
tions at the higher tip-speed ratios and for larger rotor solidities. This numerical model is also
capable of predicting both instantaneous streamwise and lateral perturbation velocities as
illustrated in Figs 7.6 and 7.7.
Chap_07.p65 12/11/2009, 09:10 272
Innovative Aerodynamic Devices for Darrieus Rotor 333
In 1984, Klimas [8.6] from Sandia National Laboratories has performed the first tests of
NLF blades on the Sandia 5-m research wind turbine. The test results on SAND 0015/47 and
the SAND 0018/50 airfoils were compared to results for the NACA 0015 bladed version of
5-m turbine. The following conclusions were reached:
a) NLF blade sections reduce the peak power output while maintaining the performance at
lower wind speeds (Figs 8.5 and 8.6).
b) The power coefficient was nearly constant over a wide range of tip-speed ratios and the cut-
in tip-speed ratio was the same. The unfavourable result (cut-in tip-speed ratio) for SAND
0018/50 can be explained by low Reynolds number effect and an excessive flow separation.
Figure 8.5 Performance of the Sandia 5-m turbine with NACA 0015 and SAND 0015/47
airfoil sections
Chap_08.p65 12/11/2009, 09:11 333
334 Chapter 8
Figure 8.6 Power coefficient versus tip-speed ratio for the Sandia 5 meter diameter test tur-
bine with SAND 0015/47 and NACA 0015 blade sections
Further testing was carried out by Sandia using the 17-m research turbine with two blades
having chords of 0.61 m, [8.7,8.8]. The blade sections near the root used the NACA 0015 airfoil
and the SAND 0018/50 airfoil was used in the centre portion. Figure 8.7 shows the test results
for this configuration and for the same turbine equipped with blades having the NACA 0015
airfoil only. The stall regulation effect at 50.6 rpm is clearly shown.
The Sandia 34-m turbine [8.9] was the first curved blade Darrieus turbine rotor originally
designed to incorporate step tapered blades using varying blade section airfoil and a blade
airfoil section specifically designed for VAWTs. The equator and transition sections of that
rotor use the SAND 0018/50 airfoil section while the root sections are NACA 0021. The blade
sections were fabricated of multiple aluminium alloy extrusions joined along the span and the
blade design details are presented in Table 8.2.
The five blade sections per blade were joined together using external joints. The chord
changes abruptly at the joints (hence the term step tapered blade) along with a slope
discontinuity. Aerodynamic smoothing coumpound was used to cover recessed bolt heads, to
fair portions of the external blade-to-blade joints into the blades and to protect surface mounted
transducers and their associated wiring and completion units. The blades were painted.
Table 8.2 34 Meter Wind Turbine Blade Data
Blade Section Length of Section Airfoil Section Airfoil Chord No. of Extrusions
Equatorial, curved 19.1 m, 1 per blade SAND 0018/50 0.91 m 2
Transition, curved 7.5 m, 2 per blade SAND 0018/50 1.07 m 2
Root, Straight 9.2 m, 2 per blade NACA 0021 1.22 m 3
Chap_08.p65 12/11/2009, 09:11 334
Excerpt of the full publication
Innovative Aerodynamic Devices for Darrieus Rotor 335
DOE/SANDI A
17-m VAWT
50.6 rpm
Rotor
NACA 0015
Hybri d
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
P
o
w
e
r
,
(
k
W
)
P
Wi nd speed, (mph) V
EQ
Figure 8.7 Sandia 17 meter research turbine measured performance operating with the SAND
0018/50 airfoil section
The first rotor power test results [8.10, 8.11] compared with the predicted performance
using the double-multiple streamtube approach and a modified Gormont dynamic-stall model
except for the NLF sections of the blade. The discrepancy between test data and predictions
may be explained by several factors, as well as: the use in calculation of 2-D experimental C
L
and C
D
obtained in quiet (low turbulence) and in linear flow wind tunnel are questionable. The
Sandia SNLA 0021/50 airfoil produces an earlier transition and no laminar separation with a
larger drag than expected by 2-D experiment [8.12].
The paint of the blades had flaked at the leading edge of the NLF blade sections, which
created forward facing steps near the leading edge with a height of approximately 0.25 mm.
These were believed to be very significant boundary layer trips which could be expected to
destroy the laminar flow over the blade and result in higher drag and lower lift than predicted.
To correct the problem, the paint was removed from the leading edges for a distance of at least
one cm or until an area was reached where the paint adhered well. The bare metal was then faired
smoothly into the remaining painted surface with emery paper. Power output performance
subsequently improved greatly in high wind and modestly in low wind, as shown in Fig. 8.8
(Berg, Klimas and Stephenson [8.11]). The improvement in low wind was due to a decrease in
C
D0
while the improvement at high winds was due to a decrease in C
D0
and an increase in C
Lmax
.
Chap_08.p65 12/11/2009, 09:11 335
Excerpt of the full publication
336 Chapter 8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Equatori al wi nd speed, (mph) V
EQ
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
CARDAA: 28.0 rpm
Measured: 28.3 rpm
L. E. peel i ng
Measured: 28.3 rpm
L. E. sanded
DOE/SANDI A 34-m
Test bed perf ormance
P
o
w
e
r
,
(
k
W
)
P
Figure 8.8 Sandia 34 meter turbine performance before and after clean up of paint flaking
Figure 8.9 34 meter test turbine performance without fairing
Chap_08.p65 12/11/2009, 09:11 336
Future Trends Design of Darrieus Wind Turbine 363
Figure 9.3 FloWind Darrieus turbines
Chap_09.p65 12/11/2009, 09:12 363
364 Chapter 9
The number of blades and the choice of blade chord can also be influenced by the choice
of blade construction. The largest available single aluminium alloy extrusion is approximately
0.76 m, so for machines exceeding 25 m in diameter combined multiple extrusions or an
increased number of blades may be possible. The Adecon SL55 has four blades, partly because
of the availability of extrusions from earlier machines.
Table 9.2 shows the advantages and disadvantages of two vs three blades. This is an
example of the laws of structural- and aerodynamics combined with overall economics. The
rotor with the lowest solidity will usually capture the most energy for the least installed mass
adds cost. However, structural considerations favour blades with larger chord since the elastic
module (controlling stress for a given bending moment) increases with the square of the chord.
The logical outcome of this would lead to a one-bladed machine which confronts the designer
with rotor balance problems.
The additional complexity of erecting a three-bladed rotor has also favoured the two-bladed
rotor. The only circumstances which might lead to a cost-effective three-bladed rotor is the
demonstration that the former has considerably more favorable structural dynamics than the
latter.
In 1978, Ljungstrom [9.26] proposed a series of rotors incorporating double blades con-
nected by a number of spacers. The advantage of this concept is that its combined in-plane
stiffness and strength is many times greater than a single blade and survival wind stability can
be achieved with relatively small blades. Disadvantages are that the second blade does not
contribute to the performance as if it were a single blade; the parasitic loss at the intersections
of the blades and the spacers can be considerable; and the blades could be costly to manufacture.
Table 9.2 Advantages of Two or Three Blades
Item Three Blades Two Blades
Construction cost Higher Lower
Assembly costs Higher Lower
Choice of fabrication techniques Better Poorer
Strength/weight ratio Poorer Better
Torque ripple Better Poorer
Structural dynamics Better Poorer
9.1.3 Blade Airfoil
The most Darrieus rotor blades used a NACA 00XX symmetrical airfoil due to its high lift,
good stall characteristics combined with low drag and the ready availability of performance
data. Earlier rotors used mainly the thinner NACA 0012 and NACA 0015 airfoils. However, the
requirements of increased flatwise strength has led some manufacturers to choose NACA 0018
airfoils.
Chap_09.p65 12/11/2009, 09:12 364
Future Trends Design of Darrieus Wind Turbine 365
The cost effectiveness of wind turbines is depending on maximizing energy capture while
minimizing the cost of all components, including the drive train, Kadlec [9.27, 9.28]. This
meant minimizing the peak low-speed torque by avoiding airfoils with high lift coefficients and
led to the development of a family of airfoils at Ohio State University based on laminar flow
over the leading section of the blade and earlier stalling [9.29]. These airfoils were tested on the
DOE 100 kW rotor and were included in the Sandia/DOE 34-m Test Bed [9.30]. While several
studies have confirmed the potential improvements to be obtained by using the laminar flow, or
tailored airfoils [9.31], test results have been mixed. The maximum power appears to have
been successfully attenuated except in the presence of insect accumulation, when attenuation
was diminished.
The performance of HAWTs has increased considerably over the past decade and, they can
reach a power coefficient of 0.49 and, in a 8.04 m/s mean (Rayleigh) wind speed, for an annual
electrical production of 1500 kWh/m
2
. This resulted from improved airfoils, variable speed or
multi-speed operation and more efficient drive trains.
These levels of performance cannot currently be matched by the Darrieus rotor although the
gap is not great. The aerodynamic efficiency of the Darrieus wind turbine may be improved by
using blade airfoils that reduce drag. These might be improvements on the attempt at laminar
flow blades designed at Ohio State University [9.29] and used on the Sandia 34-m Test Bed (see
Chapter 8).
9.1.4 Rotor Speed
The rotor speed is mainly controlled by the wind regime, the solidity, and the machine
power rating. It is possible to extract more energy with the least blade area by increasing the
rotor speed. However, this can lead to blades that will not withstand the aerodynamic and
inertial loads; this is the case of the NRC/Hydro-Quebec (Magdalen Islands) 24-m machine
which was run at speeds of between 28 and 36 rpm. The same configuration ran at 45 rpm and
was rated at 500 kW (to become the Indal 6400). This was satisfactory for developers wishing
to increase machine ratings, but was effective in increasing total energy capture only in
sufficiently high wind regimes.
Increasing rotor speed decreases low-speed torque and hence reduces the cost of the
drive train like in the Adecon SL38 and SL55 designs. Other wind turbines for example, the
CENEMESA 23 was designed to use an existing (FloWind 19-m) power module and the rotor
speed was therefore predetermined.
9.1.5 Rotor Solidity
Rotor solidity is defined as the developed surface area of all blades divided by the swept
area and represents one of the key design parameters which, as has already been mentioned, has
to be combined and balanced with the other major variables. For minimum cost, solidity should
be kept low. However, the lowest values compatible with structural integrity (using existing
fabrication techniques such as aluminium alloy extrusion) appear to be about 0.10.
For maximum energy capture the blade chord should ideally vary from a minimum at
mid-rotor to a maximum at the roots [9.28]. Such a shape is also good for structural purposes,
Chap_09.p65 12/11/2009, 09:12 365
Excerpt of the full publication
366 Chapter 9
and has been incorporated into the Sandia/DOE 34-m Test Bed. However, production of a
continuous taper or even a series of steps greatly increases the rotor cost.
An innovation for the Darrieus rotor was obtained by changing the chord and/or airfoil
section along the blade span. This was done only in a stepwise manner on the 34-m Test Bed.
This change depends largely on manufacturing technology (see Section 8.1).
Another new idea was to offset the blade (discussed in Section 8.5). This is equivalent to
changing the pitch of the blade, and was investigated on one of the earlier Sandia test machines
[9.31]. The concept showed some promise and deserves more thoroughly exploration.
The disadvantage of nearly all Darrieus configurations is their inability to twist the rotor
blades, so as to tune the lift and drag to the angle of attack. In addition, it is difficult to
incorporate pitchable tips or ailerons to control peak power output. These are aspects which the
Darrieus design must overcome by alternative concepts or by lower capital cost.
9.1.6 Blade Material and Construction
The early blades of Darrieus rotor were made from stretched and formed steel sheets or
from helicopter-like combinations of aluminium alloy extrusions and fibreglass. The former
were difficult to shape into a smooth airfoil, while the latter were expensive. Laminated wood
was also tried on early machines in 1977 [9.32]. The use of multi-cell aluminium alloy one-
piece extrusions offered a good combination which have been adopted for most machines from
the DAF 9 kW onwards.
To choose the material of the blade, the designer studied the possibility of manufacturing
an inexpensive and fatigue-resistant connection at the roots and spices. Extruded aluminium
alloys, such as 6063-T6, do not have a high fatigue strength compared with aircraft standard
alloys or with high strength bolted steel connections. This led to a number of fatigue failures,
although most could have been avoided with improved connection details. Thus, the single
cover plates and tight fitting bolts, combined with an epoxy adhesive used on the Indal 6400,
has proven successful.
An alternative to mechanically-connected aluminium alloy extrusions with their low fati-
gue strength may be adhesive connections. VAWTPOWER [9.33] retrofitted blade splices with
bonded aluminium alloy cover plates, and FloWind implemented blade patching and retrofits
with adhesives. Adecon developers used the thinner skin extrusions, bonded together lengthwise
which results in lower overall weight.
In the case of Sandia/DOE 34-m rotor, the blades are larger than any that could be extruded
from a single aluminium alloy die and, two or three extrusions were connected lengthwise by a
series of recessed bolts. The blade splices coincided with a change in chord size that was
achieved by bolting both blades to a common, slightly tapered, aluminium alloy block. For their
L24 design, LavalinTech [9.34] adopted a commercial blind fastener, tight-fitting holes, and
material cold working to improve the strength of the connections to aluminium alloy.
The choice of a steel-core blade for the 96-m 64-m Eole machine [9.35] is due to the
proven fatigue strength of high strength bolts in steel construction. This type of blade construc-
tion is heavy and accounts for the high mass-to-swept area ratio of the Darrieus rotor.
Chap_09.p65 12/11/2009, 09:12 366
Acceptability, Environmental and Social Aspects of Wind Energy 391
The rapid growth of cable TV installations and satellite dishes, at least in Canada and the
USA, may obviate further research in this area.
Visual Impact
Visual impact refers to the effect on landscape of turbine disposition, size, number and
design type. FloWind Corporation painted the blades of its 17-m and 19-m turbines in
California in response to requests or orders from the authorities that granted the installation
permits. The blades were painted dull grey or light brown so as to eliminate blade flashing
resulting from light reflection and to better blend the turbines into the background colors of the
surrounding terrain.
Land Use Impact
Observations have been made by L. Schienbein [10.13] on the California wind farms and
other installations concerning land disturbance affecting foundations, roadways, power trans-
mission lines and transformers and domestic animal behavior. On one wind farm in the
Altamont Pass, HAWT and VAWT clusters are intermingled. The following observations have
been made:
a) Guy cable support reduces the size of the foundation required for the VAWT stub tower or
base structure. Therefore, less excavation is required for a cable supported VAWT than for
a cantilever tower supported HAWT of equivalent size. However, about the same amount of
land is cleared in both cases for maintenance access.
b) Cantilever supported VAWTs should exhibit about the same foundation requirements as
cantilever supported HAWTs. In both cases, the dimensions of the foundation are
determined by the chosen tower design.
c) Only a very small area is disturbed for each guy anchor installation, and anchors are
inspected by personnel on foot, not in vehicles. Therefore, the land area near the anchors can
be restored and remain relatively undisturbed.
d) Road access requirements are virtually identical for both VAWTs and HAWTs. The width
and path of the roads is generally determined by construction requirements.
e) Water drainage patterns are affected by the network or roads in all wind farms. There is no
reason to suppose that the effects will be better or worse for VAWTs versus HAWTs. The
effects depend upon the location and size of the roads and pads, and the measures taken to
mitigate drainage problems in the design of the wind farm.
f) Farm animals such as cattle readily accept VAWTs and HAWTs within their grazing
territories. Cows are often observed resting and grazing under operating wind turbines of
both types.
10.2.2 Natural Environment Aspects
Animal Habitat
Animal habitat in a wind farm is disturbed mainly by the installation requirements of the
wind turbines (including the foundations and leveled pad areas), other wind farm structures,
transmission lines, transformers and substations, roads, emissions (such as oil leakage), cons-
truction debris and cleared areas, fences and human activity, mainly measured by vehicle
Chap_10.p65 12/11/2009, 09:13 391
Extrait distribu par Presses Internationales Polytechnique
392 Chapter 10
movements. The impact of HAWTs and VAWTs in these areas is very similar. Disturbance of
habitat due to the turbine pads, turbine foundations, transmission lines, transformers and
substations, wind farm structures (other than the turbines), fences and access roads should be
about the same for a wind farm constructed using HAWTs or Darrieus VAWTs. Turbine struc-
tures and power transmission lines do not affect birds of prey and migratory patterns. Land
disturbance and human activity reduce the habitat and availability of prey.
Soil and Vegetation
Soil contamination due to leakage of fluids such as bearing and gearbox lubricants, or
careless transport and transfer of liquids, is equally possible for both HAWTs and Darrieus
VAWTs. HAWTs may pose more of a threat since the power transmission and brake systems are
mounted at the top of the tower, and a rupture its brake fluid line could result in wider dispersal
of the fluid than would occur for a Darrieus turbine, on which the brake system is located at
ground level. The impact of wind farm development and operation on soil and vegetation will
be virtually identical for wind farms of the same number of machines and machine size, be they
vertical-axis or horizontal-axis turbines. Soil and vegetation impacts depend mainly on the way
the turbines are distributed, the access requirements for their construction and maintenance, the
power collection system and the construction practices.
There is no evidence to suggest that Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbines affect the natural
environment more adversely than HAWTs. The impact on the environment of guy cables
supporting Darrieus rotors is generally insignificant. However, the cables probably do add to the
dangers facing birds within a wind farm.
Public Reaction Survey
In 1987, Southern California Edison Company conducted a survey [10.14] to assess public
reaction to the vertical-axis wind turbine DAF-500 WT installed nearby at Palm Springs,
California. This 32-week survey appears to be the only one of its type ever undertaken for ver-
tical-axis wind turbines. Respondents were asked if they preferred the DAF-500 WT more or
less to the DAF-50, Howden or WENCO designs. The latter two were horizontal-axis wind tur-
bines. All four turbines were installed at the same site and two thirds of the 117 respondents
observed the turbine in operation.
Between 62% and 75% of the respondents found the DAF-500 WT turbine more accepta-
ble than the other three turbine designs and close to three-quarters felt that fewer large VAWTs
are preferable to many smaller machines. The majority of respondents felt that the DAF-
500 WT turbine was acceptable for its appearance, noise and impact on animals and plants, but
did know how it would affect television reception. The vast majority of miscellaneous
comments were positive. The Southern California Edison public reaction survey appears to be
the only documented study pertaining to the observation of actual horizontal-axis and vertical-
axis turbines. Although the results of the survey favor the Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine
design over HAWT designs in terms of visual impact, the results may be of limited value since
public reaction is now probably most influenced by the impact of wind farms than individual
turbines. The study concluded that some bird collisions with the wind turbines may have
occurred but that overall they were minimal.
Chap_10.p65 12/11/2009, 09:13 392
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Acceptability, Environmental and Social Aspects of Wind Energy 393
10.2.3 Environmental Effects of Wind Turbine Operation
The third major environmental aspect of wind turbine operations concerns the effect of tur-
bine wake and cold-climate icing effects. The characteristics of the wake downwind of a wind
turbine are significant since they determine the optimal layout for a turbine array. Energy pro-
duction and accumulated rotor fatigue damage can result from interaction with the wake of
upwind turbines. The characteristics of the wake may demand increased structural design
requirements for downwind turbines.
The wake of upwind turbines decreases the energy production of downwind turbines
because of the momentum deficit. Furthermore, the performance of downwind turbines may be
reduced by gradients in the mean flow, altered turbulence structure and discrete vorticity
introduced by the upwind turbines.
The energy deficit experienced by a downwind wind turbine in an array depends not only
on its distance downstream of the upwind turbine but also on the incident turbulence, the tip-
speed ratio (mid-rotor blade speed divided by ambient wind speed) of the upwind turbine, the
effects of the wakes of other upwind turbines, the effects of adjacent turbines and the annual
wind speed distribution. (Energy deficit is defined as the annual energy lost by a turbine
operating within an array, compared to the energy captured by an identical turbine operating
outside of the array). In order to design turbines to be part of arrays, the wake of individual tur-
bines must first be understood, and this has been the thrust of a number of wind tunnel and full-
scale field test programs.
In many northern countries, the most promising regions for wind energy development tend
to be concentrated in isolated Arctic, sub-Arctic, and very cold coastal communities. Wind tur-
bines under such severe atmospheric conditions usually experience heavy icing, particularly in
Canada, the Scandinavian countries, polar regions, Germany, Northern parts of UK, large areas
of Russia, the high lands of Portugal and Spain, the central European mountains and most of the
Eastern European countries. In these regions, wind turbines operate frequently under severe
icing conditions, in combination with high wind speeds.
In recent years, different programs have been initiated in Europe to investigate wind tur-
bine blade problems in natural icing conditions, including the international cooperative research
program WECO (Wind Energy in Cold Climates), funded in part by the European Commission
under JOULE3 Program [10.15,10.16]. This program was launched at the beginning of 1996.
In Finland, VVT Energy is investigating arctic wind technology development with a focus on
de-icing solutions. The Deutsches Windenergie Institute investigated icing on the 100 kW wind
turbine and found that the turbine was influenced by rotor imbalance, resulting in energy losses
of 5% per year. In the United States, the Department of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engi-
neering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has recently begun to analyze wind
turbine performance under icing conditions. In Canada, many northern wind turbine applica-
tions have been investigated, principally at arctic latitudes: a 4 to 25 kW Carter Wind Turbine
in the Cambridge Bay area in the North-West Territories, two 10 kW Arowat wind machines
at Hall Beach in the North-West Territories, a 60 kW Howden wind turbine at Fort Severn in
Northern Ontario, a 65 kW Bonus wind turbine at Kuujjuaq in Northern Quebec, a 150 kW Bo-
nus wind turbine at Haeckel Hill in the Yukon and in North Cape, P.E.I., where the Atlantic
Wind Test Site (AWTS) is testing wind turbines under harsh conditions that promote icing,
freezing and corrosion.
Chap_10.p65 12/11/2009, 09:13 393
dedicace.p65 12/11/2009, 09:15 4
Wind Turbine
Design
W
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Wind Turbine Design
www.polymtl.ca/pub
ISBN : 978-2-553-00931-0
9 782553 009310
With Emphasis on Darrieus Concept
W
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The depletion of global fossil
fuel reserves combined with mount-
ing environmental concerns has served
to focus attention on the development of
ecologically compatible and renewable alterna-
tive sources of energy.
Wind energy, with its impressive growth rate of 50%
over the last fve years, is the fastest growing alternate source
of energy in the world since its purely economic potential is
complemented by its great positive environmental impact. The
wind turbine, whether it may be a Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine
(HAWT) or a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT), offers a practical
way to convert the wind energy into electrical or mechanical energy.
Although this book focuses on the aerodynamic design and performance
of VAWTs based on the Darrieus concept, it also discusses the compari-
son between HAWTs and VAWTs, future trends in design and the inherent
socio-economic and environmental friendly aspects of wind energy as an
alternate source of energy.
This book will be of great interest to students in Mechanical and Aero nautical
Engineering feld, professional engineers, university professors and researchers in
universities, government and industry. It will also be of interest to all researchers
involved in theoretical, computational and experimental methods used in wind tur-
bine design and wind energy development.
Dr. Ion Paraschivoiu is J.-A. Bombardier Aeronautical Chair Professor at cole
Polytechnique de Montral where he is teaching undergraduate and graduate
courses in Aerodynamics. He has made signifcant contributions to the theory of the
aerodynamic performance of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine. His software
programs for these calculations, described in the book, have been used successfully by
others for design purposes and to assist in the evaluation of VAWT feld tests. His other
research interests include application of advanced aerodynamics methods in the study
of aircraft icing, drag prediction and laminar-fow control.
Ion
Paraschivoiu
Excerpt of the full publication
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