Howard Adams (September 8, 1921 – September 8, 2001

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Howard Adams was born and raised in the Metis community o St! "ouis, Sas#atchewan! He was the son o $%i&e Mc'ou(a%%,1 a )rench*+ree mother and ,i%%iam Adams an -n(%ish*+ree ather!2 Howard was the (reat*(randson o Ma.ime "/pine, a 0ie% %ieutenant and compatriot o 1abrie% 'umont! Adams was the irst Metis academic to discuss the e ects o co%oni2ation upon Abori(ina% peop%e! He married Mar(aret 3e%%e 3a.ter on )ebruary 9, 1945! At the time (1945*1962) he was teachin( hi(h schoo% at +o7uit%am, 3ritish +o%umbia!

Adams became the irst M/tis in +anada to (ain his 8h!'! a ter studies at the 9ni&ersity o +a%i ornia 3er#%ey in 1966! His academic paradi(m ad&ocates the deco%oni2ation o :ati&e peop%e throu(h the rec%amation o their history and the deconstruction o -urocentric history as written by non*Abori(ina% historians and other commentators! His
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$%i&e Mc'ou(a%%; born 2< $ct 189= St! "ouis; died 16 :o& 19<8 St! Louis at age 55. She was the dau(hter o A%e.andre 8eter Mc'ou(a%% and >ir(inie "/pine! A%e.andre (b! March 5, 1869) was the son o A%e. Mcdou(a%% (b! 18<2) and Maria ?rwin (b! 18<0)! >ir(inie "epine (b! 1850) was the dau(hter o Ma.ime "epine (b! 18=5) and @osephte "e&ei%%e (b! 18=8)! Her brother AMedricB Mc'ou(a%% was a ounder o the Metis Society o Sas#atchewan and recei&ed the $rder o +anada in 1986! 2 ,i%%iam 0obert Adams b: February 01, 1886 in Lindsay District, North est !erritories. "e died #u$y %5, 1&6' in Lindsay District, Sas(atchewan) being buried in the South "i$$ *emetery, in +rince ,$bert. "e was the son o- #ose.h ,dams b: /arch 10, 18'% in St. #ohn1s +arish District, in the 2ed 2i3er Sett$ement 4d: December 1%, 1&00 in Lindsay5, and ,nn 6$i7abeth 8ird b: 18'' in 2ed 2i3er Sett$ement 4died 1890 in "igh 8$u--, /anitoba, short$y a-ter chi$dbirth. !hey married December 1', 1865 in "igh 8$u--, 2ed 2i3er Sett$ement. She was the daughter o:eorge 8ird and /ary ,nn !homas. @oseph Adams was the son o 1eor(e Adams bC 1596 in 3ermonsday, -n(%and dC 3et . 1865 ; 1866 in "igh 8$u--, 2ed 2i3er District, and ,nn "aywood dit "eywood 4/etis5 b: 1815 in Norway "ouse 4the <$d Fort5, =eewatin district, 2u.ert1s Land. She died #anuary 1', 18&8 in the 2ed Deer "i$$ District, North est !erritories. !hey married on <ctober %5, 180% in St ,ndrew1s ,ng$ican *hurch, St. #ohn1s +arish. "er .arents were #ose.h "aywood 4"eywood5 and #ane ,sham.

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centra% thesis is that racists and %and (rabbers ha&e, or i&e centuries, e.p%oited +anadaDs :ati&e peop%e! Ehe cu%tura%, historica% and psycho%o(ica% aspects o co%onia%ism are e.p%ored in depth! Ehis co%oni2ation e.perience %ed to what Adams ca%%s the Aossi icationB o :ati&e society a ter 1884! Adams comp%eted his 8h!'! in the History o -ducation at 9+"A, 3er#%ey, +a%i ornia and then tau(ht in +a%i ornia! He returned to Sas#atchewan in 1966 to wor# with &arious )irst :ations and Metis or(ani2ations and tau(ht at the 9ni&ersity o Sas#atchewan! A power u% pub%ic spea#er, he was #nown as the AMetis (uru!B He was the president o the Metis Society o Sas#atchewan rom 1969* 1951! Adams was 8ro essor -meritus at the 9ni&ersity o +a%i ornia at 'a&is! He was honoured with a :ationa% Abori(ina% Achie&ement Award in 1999! Ehe bio(raphy that accompanied his induction readsC A'r! Adams is a Metis rom Sas#atchewan and is respected academic and author! +urrent%y, heFs 8ro essor -meritus at the 9ni&ersity o +a%i ornia at 'a&is! He is a%so a member o the adGunct acu%ty, the 9ni&ersity o A%bertaFs (raduate pro(ram in )irst :ations education! )ierce%y proud o his Metis herita(e, Adams sin(%e*handed%y p%aced Metis concerns and conditions at the ore ront o the Sas#atchewan po%itica% a(enda in the 1960Fs!B ?n his youth he brie %y Goined the 0+M8! A ter comp%etin( his education in +a%i ornia he returned to +anada and became a prominent M/tis acti&ist in Sas#atchewan, o ten cr* eatin( contro&ersy espousin( Mar.ist and M/tis :ationa%ist &iews in re erence to contemporary and historica% e&ents!= Adams was o ten critica% not on%y o +anadian society but o Abori(ina% %eadership or what he saw as its co*option, and cu%ti&ation o dependency throu(h acceptance o (o&ernment undin(! Howard Adams died in >ancou&er on September 8, 2001, on his 80th birthday! His maGor wor#s inc%ude Prison of Grass: Canada from a Native Point of View (EorontoC 1enera% 8ub%ishin(, 1954), The Education of Canadians 1800-1867: The oots of !e"aratism (Montrea%C Har&est House, 1968), and # Tortured Peo"$e: The Po$itics of Co$oni%ation (8entictonC Eheytus 3oo#s, 1994)! 0e erenceC Hartmut "ut2, Murray Hami%ton and 'onna Heimbec#er, &oward #dams: 'ta"aw(! Sas#atoon, 1abrie% 'umont ?nstitute, 2004! )ami%y ScripC See be%ow!

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"i#e other Metis acti&ists such as Manitoba Metis )ederationHs Audreen Hourie ( ormer >8 o the :ati&e +ounci% o +anada) and Metis academic 0on 3our(eau%t (9ni&ersity o 0e(ina), Howard Adams had tra&e%%ed to +uba to e.press so%idarity with the Mesti2os and obser&e how +uba treated its underc%ass!

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+ompi%ed by "awrence 3ar#we%% +oordinator o Metis Herita(e and History 0esearch

"ouis 0ie% ?nstitute

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