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TRUNG TM IN T MY TNH

TRNG I HC KHOA HC T NHIN


I HC QUC GIA TP. H CH MINH
GIO TRNH
K THUT
CHIU SNG
(n bn ln th ba)

Bin son: V Hng Cng




TPHCM Thng 9/2011

LI NOI AU
Giao trnh nay c soan trong boi canh hoc vien cac khoa cua Lp chuyen e THIET KE IEN
HP CHUAN, tai Trung Tam ien T May tnh, Trng ai hoc Khoa hoc T nhien TPHCM, can mot
giao trnh he thong e tham khao va on tap de dang phan Thiet ke chieu sang.
Chng 1 noi ve ly thuyet c s ky thuat chieu sang nham nhac lai cac ai lng va n v quang trac,
cung vi khai niem cac yeu cau trong ky thuat chieu sang.
Cac chng 2,3 va 4 co tnh hng oi tng, nham vao ky thuat va phng phap tnh toan khac nhau
cho 3 oi tng thiet ke chieu sang: chieu sang ben trong (indoor lighting), chieu sang ben ngoai
(outdoor lighting) va chieu sang ng giao thong (road lighting).
Chng 5 nham trnh bay ve en va choa en va cac van e lien quan, la phan kien thc thc te thay oi
rat nhanh theo cac thi ky, thng thieu tai lieu tham khao bang tieng Viet.
Giao trnh co tham khao va vien dan nhieu yeu cau trong cac tieu chuan chieu sang hien hanh cua Viet
Nam va cua Uy ban Quoc te ve Chieu sang CIE (Commission Internaltionale DEclairage).
ay khong phai la mot giao trnh toan tap cho moi ngi, do o tac gia khong co tham vong trnh bay
tat ca cac van e ve ky thuat chieu sang. Mat khac, co mot so noi dung trnh bay trc quan hay v du
tnh toan dai dong, a co trong bai giang cua lp hoc, th cung khong can lap lai trong giao trnh, e
tiet kiem giay in, gop phan bao ve moi trng.
Trong giao trnh co s dung lai mot so cac hnh ve, d lieu, va hnh anh cua mot so ong nghiep, nha
san xuat, va chuyen gia khac, ma tac gia cha co ieu kien xin phep. V ly do giao duc, mong quy v
lng tnh dung th.
Tac gia ac biet gi li cam ta en PGS TS Nguyen Hu Phng, Nha giao u tu, ngi Thay knh men,
luon khuyen khch, cham soc cho Lp Chuyen e THIET KE IEN HP CHUAN. Cung gi li cam n
en tat ca hoc vien cac khoa cua lp chuyen e, a ong vien tac gia rat nhieu e hoan tat giao trnh
nay. ong thi tac gia gi li cam n en cac giang vien ong nghiep, va cac nhan vien cua Trung tam
ien t - May tnh, Trng ai hoc Khoa hoc T nhien TP.Ho Ch Minh, a giup rat nhieu e lp
chuyen e i c chang ng en thanh cong nh ngay hom nay.
Tac gia cungxin bay to cam n chan thanh en cac ong nghiep, chuyen gia, bang hu trong Hoi Chieu
sang o th Viet Nam va Cong ty Co phan Giai phap C ien MES, a giup ieu kien, tai lieu, ong
thi gop y cho giao trnh nay.
Trong an ban lan th ba, co nhng thay oi, chu yeu e cap nhat cong ngh, tieu chuan va thong nhat
thuat ng. Du sao, giao trnh van co the con nhieu thieu sot. Tac gia cam n trc tat ca cac oc gia
nao giup phat hien cac sai sot e a vao sa cha cho an ban lan sau./-
Vu Hung Cng

i

MUL LUL
LHUUNU . LT THUTET LU 5U VE KT THURT LHlEU 5RNU
I. CAC AI LNG QUANG TRAC VA N V .1
1. Quang thong ...1
2. Cng o sang ...1
a- Khai niem goc khoi. b- Cng o sang. c- ng cong phan bo cng o sang IDC (Intensity
Distribution Curve).
3. o roi (illuminance) .4
a- nh ngha. b-Cac tr so o roi trong thc te. c- Quan he gia o roi va cng o sang. d- o roi
trung bnh.
4. o choi (luminance)6
a- nh ngha . b-Cac tr so o choi thc te. c-Ban chat cua be mat nhan anh sang. d-Be mat phan xa
khuyet tan hoan toan. e-nh luat Lambert. f-He so phan xa cua mot so be mat vat lieu.
5. Nhiet o mau (colour temperature) ...9
a-Mot so v du ve nhiet o mau. b-Thang nhiet o mau theo CIE va bong en huynh quang tieu bieu.
c-Bieu o Kruithoff.
6. Ch so the hien mau Ra (Colour Rendering Index) 10
a-nh ngha. b-Nhom the hien mau. c- Nguon sang va ch so the hien mau.
II. KHAI NIEM CAC YEU CAU CUA KY THUAT CHIEU SANG ..11
1. Cac yeu cau cua moi trng chieu sang .11
2. Cac tieu chuan thiet ke chieu sang 12
3. Phan biet chieu sang lam viec va chieu sang my thuat 12
III. PHAN LOAI KY THUAT CHIEU SANG .13
1- Chieu sang ben trong (indoor lighting) ..13
2- Chieu sang ben ngoai (outdoor lighting) 13
a-Chieu sang cac cong trnh o th. b-Chieu sang cong vien, vn hoa. c-Chieu sang cac cong trnh
kien truc, my thuat. d-Chieu sang cac cong trnh The duc the thao ngoai tri.
3- Chieu sang ng giao thong (road lighting)..14
ii

LHUUNU I . LHlEU 5RNU BEN TRUNU
I. AI CNG 15
1. Cac oi tng thiet ke chieu sang ben trong .15
2. Cac ch tieu cua moi trng chieu sang .15
3. Cac tieu chuan cua thiet ke chieu sang ben trong .16
II. O ROI CHO CHIEU SANG TRONG NHA .16
1. Bac thang o roi ..16
2. o roi lam viec yeu cau theo tieu chuan ..17
3. o roi cua xung quanh lan can vung lam viec (immediate surrounding) ..17
4. He so ong eu .17
5. Cac cong thc tnh toan o roi iem 17
a- o roi tren mat phang ngang. b- o roi tren mat phang ng.c- o roi tren mat phang nghieng.
d- Cong thc cua nguon mat (luminous surface). e- o roi (ban) tru (semi cylindrical illuminance).
6. Tnh toan o roi trung bnh 19
7. Tnh toan o roi tr trung bnh 20
a- Cach tnh. b-anh gia.
III. PHAN BO O CHOI (LUMINANCE DISTRIBUTION) .22
1. o choi thch nghi trong khong gian la m viec...22
2. o choi cua boi canh 23
3. o tng phan va o nhn ro ..24
a- o tng phan . b-o nhn ro
IV. HAN CHE CHOI LOA ..25
1. Choi loa giam kha nang quan sat (Disability Glare) .25
a- o choi mang m. b-He so choi loa S va ch so choi loa P c- Choi loa phan xa d- Goc che chan
cua en,
2. Choi loa mat tien nghi (Discomfort Glare) 29
a-nh ngha . b-Cach tnh. c-V tr xac nh d- anh gia. e-Ap dung Bieu o Bodman-Sollner e
anh gia choi loa.
iii

V. CHIEU SANG S CO CHO CAC TOA NHA .34
1- Cac yeu cau theo tieu chuan TCXD 16:1986 ..34
2- Cac yeu cau theo tieu chuan CIE S 020/E:2007 .35
a-Yeu cau gii han o roi. b-Yeu cau gii han o choi giam kha nang quan sat. c-Yeu cau thi gian
ap ng va thi gian ton tai.
VI. CAC KIEU CHIEU SANG PHAN CAP CHOA EN THEO CIE ..36
1. Cac kieu chieu sang 36
2. Cap choa en theo CIE 37
3. Cach xac nh hieu suat mot choa en .38
4. Cach xac nh cap mot choa en ..39
5. Cach tnh he so s dung cua mot bo en 39
6. Thong so mot so bo en thong dung ...40
7. Chon cap bo en ..40
8. Ty so bo tr en 41
VII. CAC YEU TO KHAC TRONG THIET KE CHIEU SANG BEN TRONG CAC CONG
TRNH XAY DNG.42
1. Yeu to mau ( colour aspects)..42
a- Nhiet o mau cua en. b-Ch so th hin mau CRI (colour rendering index).
2. Han che nhap nhay (flickering).44
3. Ket hp vi anh sang ban ngay (daylight)..44
VIII. KINH NGHIEM CHUYEN GIA TRONG CAC KIEU CHIEU SANG BEN
TRONG45
1- Chieu sang trc tiep va nh hng 45
2- Chieu sang trc tiep, khuech tan (direct, diffuse lighting) 46
3- Chieu sang gian tiep (indirect) ..47
4- Chieu sang trc tiep va gian tiep (direct and indirect) .48
5- Chieu sang quet (washlighting) .50
a- Chieu sang quet oi xng (symmetrical washlighting). b-Chieu sang quet bat oi xng (asymmetrical
washlighting)
iv

6- Chieu sang iem nhan (accent lighting).54
7- Chieu sang vi en chieu hnh (projection lighting) 55
8- Chieu sang dan hng (orientation lighting) .56
IX. MOT SO KY HIEU LOAI CHOA EN TREN BAN VE MAT BANG CHIEU SANG
..57
LHUUNU J . LHlEU 5RNU BEN NUURl
I. AI CNG ..58
1. Cac oi tng thiet ke chieu sang ben ngoai .............58
2. Cac yeu cau ch tieu ky thuat58
3. Cac tieu chuan chieu sang ben ngoai .58
II. PHNG PHAP TNH TOAN ..58
1. Phng phap cng o sang .58
2. Phng phap quang thong 59
III. HAN CHE CHOI LOA 60
1. He so choi loa GR (Glare Rating) ..60
a- Cong thc nh ngha. b- Cach tnh toan. c-anh gia he so choi loa GR
2. Ch so han che choi loa G (Glare Limit Index) .61
a- Cong thc. b-Cach tnh SLI. c-anh gia ch so han che choi loa G.
IV. YEU CAU O ROI CHO KHU VC, CONG VIEC VA HOAT ONG
BEN NGOAI 62
1- Bac thang o roi tieu chuan .63
a- Bac thang o roi theo tieu chuan TCXDVN 333:2005. b-Bac thang o roi theo tieu chuan CIE S
015/E:2005.
2- Yeu cau o roi duy tr toi thieu 63
a- Theo tieu chuan TCXDVN 333:2005. b-Theo tieu chuan TCVN 7114-3:2008. c- Theo tieu chun
CIE S 015/E:2005
V. CHIEU SANG MAT TIEN KIEN TRUC VA TNG AI.63
1. Chieu sang mat tien kien truc .63
v

2. Chieu sang tng ai 65
VI. CHIEU SANG THE THAO NGOAI TRI 66
1. Dien tch cac san the thao va ho bi 66
2. Tom tat cac yeu cau chieu sang cac san the thao 66
3. Cac yeu cau ve cao o at en 67
a- Cao o at en cho san bong a va san van ong a chc nang . b-Cao o at en chieu sang cho
san quan vt. c-Cao o at en chieu sang cho san bong chuyen, bong ro, cau long. d-Cao o at en
chieu sang cho be bi ngoai tri.
4. Cac thiet ke ien hnh ve chiu sng the thao .70
a- Chieu sang san bong a. b- Chieu sang san quan vt. c-Chieu sang ho bi
VII. CAC YEU CAU KHAC CHO CHIEU SANG NGOAI TRI 72
1- o roi duy tr vung can xung quanh vung lam viec .72
2- Li o kiem .72
a- Li o kiem cho chieu sang cac khu vc lam viec ngoai nha.. b-Li o kiem cho cac san the
thao
3- Van e o nhiem anh sang hay anh sang can tr (obstrusive light) 73
VIII. CAC LOAI EN PHA ................75
1. en pha choa tron, chnh tieu c75
2. en pha choa tron cong suat cao76
3. en pha van nang choa vuong..77
LHUUNU k . LHlEU 5RNU UUNU UlRU THUNU
I. AI CNG .78
1. oi tng thiet ke chieu sang giao thong ..78
2. Cac ch tieu ky thuat .78
3. Cac tieu chuan thiet ke..78
a-Tieu chuan Viet Nam. b-Tieu chuan quoc te tham khao.
II. MC O CHOI (LUMINANCE LEVEL) 79
1. He so o choi (luminance coefficient) .79
vi

2. Phng phap o choi trung bnh .80
a-Cong thc. b-Cach tnh toan.
III. HE SO ONG EU CUA O CHOI .83
1. He so ong eu chung (overall uniformity) Uo .83
2. He so ong eu doc (longitudal uniformity) U
l
....83
IV. HAN CHE CHOI LOA 84
1. Mc tang ngng tng oi (Relative Threshold Increment) ..84
a- Cong thc. b- Cach tnh. c- anh gia Mc tang ngng tng oi TI.
2. Ch so han che choi loa G (glare control mark) 85
a-Cong thc. b-Cach tnh SLI. c-anh gia ch so han che choi loa G
V. QUANG PHO CUA EN .86
VI. BO TR EN VA TAC DUNG DAN NG .86
1. Cac cach bo tr en ..86
2. Cach bo tr en tren oan ng cong ...87
3. Bo tr en tai cac giao lo.87
VII. CHOA EN NG.88
1. Cac loai en ng trang tr o th .88
2. Cac loai en ng cot cao .89
3. en ng at chuan ..90
LHUUNU 5 . EN VR LHUR EN
I. CAC LOAI EN (LAMPS) ...92
1. en si ot (Incandescent lamps) ..92
a-en si ot thong dng (GSL). b-en si ot a nang (en A). c-en R va PAR. d-en
tungsten halogen.
2. en phong ien (Discharge lamps) .94

a-en huynh quang thong dung (General Fluorescent lamps). b-en huynh quang compact.
vii

c-en Sodium cao ap HPS (High pressure sodium lamps). d-en Metal Halide (MH). e-en
sodium thap ap (Low pressure sodium lamps). f-en cao ap hi thuy ngan HP-MV (High pressure
- Mercury Vapour Lamps). g-en thuy ngan trc tiep (hon hp) (Blended lamps).
3. en LED (LED lamps) ..99
4. D lieu chi tiet ve cac en thong dung 103
5. ng dung thch hp cho cac nguon sang thong dung .103

II. CAC MA EN QUOC TE ....104
1- Ma en ILCOS 104
2- Ma en LBS.104
3- Mot so ma en tieu bieu tng ng gia 2 he thong ma en ILCOS va LBS .105
III. AC TNH CAC EN THONG DUNG .109
IV. CAC MACH IEU KHIEN EN 122
1- Van e tiet kiem nang lng .122
2- Cac phu tung cua bo ieu khien en .122
a-Ballast. b-Bo moi. c-Tac-te (starter).
3- Cac mach en .123
a-Ma ch en metal halide va sodium cao ap. b-Mach en sodium thap ap. c- Mach en huynh
quang. d-Mach en khan cap (emergency light).
V. LOAI EN CHO CAC KHONG GIAN VA HOAT ONG ..124
VI. CHOA EN DUNG CHO CHIEU SANG BEN TRONG .127
1- Ray en (light tracks) .127
2- en chieu iem (spotlights).127
3- en pha (floodlights) 129
4- en quet tng (wallwashers) 129
5- Ket cau sang (light structures) .132
6- en chieu xuong (downlights) 135
7- en ban (task lights).139
8- Choa en lap tng (wallmounted luminaire) 140
9- en chieu bien (perimeter luminaires) ..142
10- en am nen (recessed floor luminaires) ...143
viii

11- en dan hng (oriention luminaires) .144
12- en ch dan (directive luminaires) .144
VII. BAO DNG CHIEU SANG ...145
1. Van e bao dng chieu sang.145
2. He so duy tr cua he thong chieu sang..146


PHU LUC A: CAC YEU CAU T CHUN CHO CHIEU SANG BEN TRONG THEO TIEU
CHUAN QUOC GIA TCVN 7114-1 :2008 ....149
PHU LUC B1: CAC YEU CAU T CHUN CHO CHIEU SANG BEN NGOAI THEO TCXDVN
333 :2005 :....162
PHU LUC B2: CAC YEU CAU T CHUN CHO CHIEU SANG AN TOAN VA BAO VE NGOAI
NHA THEO TCVN 7114-3 :2008..165
PHU LUC B3: CAC YEU CAU T CHUN CHO CHIEU SANG BEN NGOAI THEO ISO 8995-
2 :2005...167
PHU LUC C: CAC YEU CAU T CHUN CHO CHIEU SANG THE THAO THEO
EN 12193 :1999..175
PHU LUC D: PHAN BO QUANG THONG CA CAC LOI CHOA EN.181
PHU LUC E: HE SO LI DNG QUANG THONG CA CAC CHOA EN .182
PHU LUC F: THONG SO KY THUAT CUA MOT SO BONG EN THONG DUNG 193
PHU LUC G: CAC BANG THA SO MF E TNH HE SO DUY TR CUA HE THONG CHIEU
SANG THEO CIE 97 :2006 VA CIE 154 :2003 ..194
PHU LUC H : BANG PHAN XA CHO CAC LOI MT NG R1, R2, R3, R4 ...199
PHU LUC I : BANG CAC CHAN EN..204
PHU LUC J : CAC THUAT NG CAN BAN VE CHIEU SANG .206
CAC TAI LIEU THAM KHAO ..212

-----oOo-----
1


LHUUNU . LT THUTET LU 5U
VE KT THURT LHlEU 5RNU
I. CAC AI LNG QUANG TRAC VA N V:
1. Quang thong (luminous flux):
Quang thong la nang lng anh sang, c phat ra bi mot
nguon sang, hay c thu nhan bi mot mat c chieu
sang, trong mot n v thi gian.
Ky hieu quang thong la 4 (phi), n v la lumen (lm),
boi so ca lumen l kilolumen (klm) : 1 Klm = 1.000lm.
V du : Mot en si ot cong suat 40W cho ra quang thong
430lm; mot en huynh quang 36W cho ra quang thong 3.100lm.
- Quang hieu (luminous efficacy):
Quang hieu, hay hieu suat phat quang, la quang thong (lm) phat ra tnh theo moi n v cong
suat (watt) cua bong en, n v cua quang hieu la lumen/watt (lm/W).
V du : Theo V du tren kia, bong en si ot 40W co quang hieu bang: 430/40 = 10,75 lm/W;
bong en huynh quang 36Wco quang hieu bang: 3.100/36 = 86,1 lm/W.
Quang hieu moi loai bong en co tr so khac nhau tuy nguyen ly phat quang va cong nghe che
tao. en huynh quang co quang hieu cao hn en si ot, en sodium cao ap co quang hieu
cao hn en thuy ngan cao ap, en sodium thap ap co quang hieu cao hn n sodium cao p,
n LED cho quang hiu cao nht.
Ta co the xem quang thong cua mot bong en co cong suat P, va quang hieu cua no bang
cach xem d liu cua cac hang san xuat , nh trong Phn III, Chng 4; hoac xem tr so tieu
bieu trong Bang 33, Phu Luc 9, TCXDVN 333, c trch trong Phu luc F giao trnh nay.
2. Cng o sang (luminous intensity):
a- Khai niem goc khoi:
- Goc phang: tren mot ng tron tam O, ban knh R, xem mot
cung tron AB chan bi mot goc tam O.
Goc (alpha), neu o bang n v radiant (r), th co tr so:
2



AB
R
o = (1)
Nh vay, t tam O nhn ca ng tron, ta co goc cua ca mat phang bang 2R/R = 2 radiant.
Tng t gc ca na mt phng l .
- Goc khoi: tng t nh vay, tren mot mat cau tam O, ban knh R, xem mot dien tch chom
cau A. T tam O ke cac ng sinh ta vao mat A, ta co mot goc khoi
a (o-me-ga) nhn mat A t tam O.
Goc khoi, o bang n v steradiant (sr), co tr so :
2
A
R
e = (2)
Nh vay t tam O nhn ca mat cau, ta co goc khoi cua ca khong gian
bang 4R
2
/R
2
= 4 sr. Tng t, goc khoi cua na khong gian la 2 sr.
Goc khoi a nhn mot chom cau t tam O cua hnh cau
co th tnh theo goc d vy (gamma) : 2 (1 cos ) e t = (3)
V du: goc khoi nhn mot phan mat cau t tam cua no,
vi tr so la sr, th goc d vy bang: = Arccos [1 - a/2] = /3 r = 60
o
- Goc khoi t iem O nhn mot mat A bat ky:
Xem mot mat phang (A) bat ky, co dien tch A, co tam
M, phap tuyen vi A tai M lam mot goc vi tia OM.
Goc khoi nhn (A) t mot iem O ngoai (A) c nh
ngha theo cong thc:
2
.cos A
R
o
e = (4)
Goc khoi a nay co tr so ln nhat khi phap tuyen mat A
trung vi tia OM (o = 0).
V du: Mot mat phang (A), dien tch 4 m
2
, c quan sat t
iem O, cach xa 20m, goc nhn t O en (A) tao vi phap tuyen
cua (A) mot goc 60
o
. Goc khoi nhn (A) t O la: a = 4 x cos60
0
/
20
2
= 0,005 sr.
b- Cng o sang:
Cng o sang la quang thong phat xa trong mot n v goc
khoi, theo mot phng xac nh. Ky hieu cua cng o sang
3


la I, n v cua cng o sang la candela (cd) : 1cd = 1 lm / sr. Boi so cua candela la
kilocandela (kcd): 1 kcd = 1.000 cd.
Cong thc nh ngha cua cng o sang: I
e
u
= (5)
Nguon sang ang hng la nguon sang co cng o sang ong eu theo moi phng.
V du : Mot en si ot cong suat 60W, quang thong 4 = 710lm, khong choa, c xem nh
mot nguon sang co cng o sang ang hng: I = 710 / 4 = 56,5 cd.
Do choa en nen cng o sang thng khong ong eu theo moi phng, v du:
Nguon sang Ngon nen en si ot 40W
khong choa
en si ot 300W
vi choa phan xa
en Metal-Halide
2000W vi choa
phan xa
Cng o sang
(cd)
0,8 theo moi
phng
35 theo moi
phng
1.500 tam chum
tia
250.000 tam
chum tia

c- ng cong trac quang (ng cong phan bo cng o sang) IDC (Intensity Distribution
Curve):
e bieu dien cng o sang theo cac phng cua mot bo en (choa en), ngi ta dung ng
cong phan bo cng o sang IDC, con goi la ng cong trac quang. o chnh la ng cong
ac trng cua bo en.
Neu bo en co oi xng tron xoay (v du mot
downlight choa tron), ngi ta ch can mot ng IDC
tren mot mat phang
kinh tuyen cua toa o
cau la u.
Neu bo en co oi
xng 2 truc (v du hop en ong huynh quang), ngi ta phai
dung 2 ng IDC tren 2 mat phang kinh tuyen, 0-180
o
(mat
C0) va 90-270
o
(mat C90), cung ve tren mot bieu o IDC, e
bieu dien ac tnh cua bo en.
Khi lap ng cong IDC cua mot bo en, ngi ta chuan hoa quang thong cua bong en bang
1klm = 1.000lm. Gia tr cng o sang theo mot phng, theo bien o cua ng cong IDC, la
gia tr tng oi: '
L
I
I =
u
(6)
4


Trong o: I (cd/klm): cng o sang tng oi theo phng ca b n vi bong en 1klm;
I(cd): cng o sang thc s cua bo en theo phng ; 4
L
(klm): quang thong cua bong en.
Suy ra cng o sang thc s la :
'
.
L
I I = u (7)
V du : Mot bo en chieu sang ng pho at chuan TCVN 5828 IDC dang ban rong. goc
= 60
o
, trong mat phang kinh tuyen 0 -180
o
, co cng o sang tng oi la 300 cd/klm.
Vay neu lap bo en vi bong en metal halide 250w co quang thong 30,5 klm, th theo
phng 60
o
, en co cng o sang la: I = 300 x 30,5 = 9.150 cd.
3. o roi (illuminance):
a- nh ngha:
o roi tai mot iem tren mot mat phang la quang thong
ri tren mot n v dien tch tai iem o. Ky hieu o roi
la E, n v la lux (lx): E
A
u
= (8)
E (lx): o roi; 4 (lm): quang thong; A (m
2
): dien tch.
o roi thng noi en la o roi ngang, ngha la o roi tren mat phang ngang. Tr so yeu cau
trong tieu chuan thng la o roi trung bnh, ngha la o roi trung bnh tren mat phang khao
sat. o roi co c trong thc te con tuy thuoc he so s dung cua bo en, va he so duy tr cua
he thong lap at chieu sang, se khao sat cac chng sau.
b- Cac tr so o roi trong thc te:
E(lx) o roi E(lx) o roi
0,25
1
20
20-50
75
50-100
100-200
200
em trang ram
tm ng thoat nan ra khoi nha
Nhan ro mat ngi
Loi i va khu vc lam viec ngoai tri
Khu vc xe
nh hng ni khong lau
Phong lam viec khong lien tuc
o roi toi thieu cho cong viec lien tuc
200-500
300-750
500-1000
1000
1000-2000
2000
5.000
100.000
Cong viec bang mat n gian
Cong viec bang mat, kho trung bnh
Cong viec bang mat, mc o kho cao
Tri nhieu may
Cong viec rat phc tap, quan sat ty my
o roi toi a tai ni lam viec
o roi tieu iem tren ban mo
Nang gia tra nhiet i

5


c- Quan he gia o roi va cng o sang:
Xem mot iem M tren mat phang ngang S, cach nguon
sang O mot khoang r. Goc gia phng chieu t O en M
va phap tuyen cua mat S tai M la . o roi ngang tai
iem M c tnh theo cong thc:
2
.cos I
E
r
o
o
= (9), hoac:
3
2
.cos I
E
h
o
o
= (10)
Nhan xet: cng o sang I phu thuoc phng, khong phu thuoc khoang cach, o roi E va phu
thuoc phng, va phu thuoc khoang cach.
V du : Hai cot en ng cao 8m, cach nhau 30m, dung bo en co IDC nh trong tieu chuan
TCVN 5828, vi bong en cao ap sodium 150W / 15klm. Hoi o roi tai iem gia 2 cot en ?
Khoang cach t chan
cot en iem gia: d =
30/2 = 15m.
Suy ra : = arctan
(15/8) = 62
o
.
Tren ng cong IDC
cua bo en, ta co: I
62
0

= 290. Vay: I
62
0
=
I
62
0
.
L
u = 290 x 15 = 4.350 cd; cos 62
o
= 0,469. Suy ra o roi
bi 2 en tai iem gia 2 cot la:
E = 2 x I. cos
3
/ h
2

= 2x4.350 x 0,469
3
/8
2
= 14 lx.
Chu y, ket qua cua bai toan nay cha
ke en he so duy tr.
d- o roi trung bnh: Ngi ta thng dung cong thc
o roi trung bnh e thiet ke chieu sang n gian:

. . .
L F F
av
n U M
E
A
u
= (11)
Etb (lx): o roi trung bnh; n: so bo en; 4
L
(lm): quang thong
tong cua cac bong en trong bo en; A (m2): dien tch c
6


chieu sang;U
F
(Utilization factor): he so s dung quang thong cua bo en (theo catalog en,
thng co tr so t 0,35 en 0,7); M
F
(Maintenance factor): he so duy tr cua he thong chieu sang,
(tham khao tieu chuan thiet ke, thng co tr so t 0,67 en 0,80).
CIE khuyen ngh nen thiet ke sao cho M
F
t nhat bang 0,7 (e tiet kiem nang lng). oi khi
ngi ta nh ngha he so d tr la nghch ao cua M
F
:

1
F
k
M
= (12)
Khi he so duy tr M
F
bang 0,7 th he so d tr bang: k = 1 / 0,7 = 1,43.
V du : Mot hoi trng dien tch 100m
2
, c thiet ke chieu sang vi o roi 400lx, dung en
huynh quang choa tan xa 2x18w/2400lm. Cho biet he so s dung 0,52 va he so duy tr bang 0,8.
Hoi phai dung bao nhieu bo en cho thiet ke nay?
n = A.E
av
/ (4
L
.U
F
.M
F
) = (100 x 400) / (2400 x 0,52x0,8) = 40 bo.

4. o choi (luminance):
a- nh ngha:
o choi cua mot nguon mat, hay cua mot mat
chieu sang phan xa, la ty so cua cng o sang
theo phng quan sat chia cho dien tch hieu dung
cua mat o nhn theo phng quan sat.
o choi, ky hieu la L, co n v la candela / m2
(cd/m2):
.cos
I
L
A
o
o
o
= (13)
: goc gia tia nhn (phng quan sat) va phap tuyen mat phat sang;
L (cd/m2): o choi theo phng quan sat; I (cd): cng o sang
ca ngun mt theo phng ; A(m2): dien tch mat phat sang;
V du : mot bo en huynh quang oi 2x36w, lap lien tran, dien tch
mat phat sang khuyech tan 0,2m x 1,3m, co quang thong bo en la
4800 lm, co cng o sang tng oi tren IDC goc 65
o
trong mat phang 0-180o la 85 cd/klm. Hoi
theo goc o bo en co o choi bang bao nhieu?
Cng o sang cua bo en theo phng 65
o
: I = I.4
L
= 85 x 4,8 = 408 cd.
7


Suy ra o choi theo phng 65o cua bo en: L = I / (A.cos65
o
) = 408/(0,2x1,3x0,4226)= 3.713
cd/m2.
b- Cac tr so o choi thc te:
L (cd/m2) o choi L (cd/m2) o choi
1,5 x 10
9
1 x 10
6
20.000 - 50.000
20.000
2.500
>10
0,06
10
-5
Mat tri gia tra
Day toc bong en
en compact
Bong en m
Trang ram
Ch co te bao hnh non lam viec
Mat giay trang di trang
Mat co the cam nhan c
5 x 10
6
> 500.000
30.000
5.000
1.000
1
<0,01
Mat tri mi moc
en Metal halide
Mat giay trang di nang
o choi gay loa mat
Bong en huynh quang
o choi tren mat ng
Ch co te bao hnh que lam viec

c- Ban chat cua be mat nhan anh sang:
Mot be mat c chieu sang vi quang thong ti 4, th:
- Mot phan quang thong b hap thu: .
o
o u = u (14)
- Mot phan quang thong quang thong xuyen sang qua ben kia be mat: .
t
t u = u (15)
- Mot phan quang thong phan xa: .

u = u (16)
Ta luon luon co: 4 = 4

+ 4
r
+ 4
o ;
Suy ra: 1 o t + + = (17)
: he so hap thu (absorption factor); : he so xuyen sang (transmission factor); : he so phan xa
(reflection factor). Cac he so eu nho hn 1, va la tnh chat cua be mat nhan anh sang.
Be mat vat chat He so hap thu (%) He so phan xa (%) He so xuyen sang (%)
Thuy tinh trong suot
Thuy tinh be mat hat lang tru (choa me)
Nha trang m (choa uc)
2 - 4
5 - 10
10 - 20
6 - 8
5 - 20
30 - 40
88 - 92
70 - 90
40 - 60


8


d- Be mat phan xa khuyech tan toan phan:
Khao sat cac be mat vat chat khac nhau, ta thay chung co cac ac tnh phan xa khac nhau, khi so
sanh cng o sang mot tia ti vi cng o sang cac tia phan xa:




Phan xa nh hng Phan xa hon hp nh hng Phan xa hon hp khuyech tan

Phan xa khuyech tan toan phan
Mot mat c goi la co ac tnh phan xa khuyech ta n toan phan, khi cng o phan xa co phan
bo cosin:
0
.cos I I
o
o = (18)
Io (cd/m2): cng o sang theo phng phap tuyen vi mat phang; I (cd/m2): cng o sang
phan xa theo phng .
Ta chng minh c, khi mat phang nhan anh sang co ac tnh phan xa khuyech tan toan phan,
th o choi phan xa theo cac phng nhn eu bang nhau, khong phu thuoc o: Lo1 = Lo2 = Lo
0
L L
o
= (19)
e- nh luat Lambert:
o choi phan xa cua mot mat phang phan xa
khuyech tan toan phan th ty le vi o roi tren mat
phang o va he so phan xa cua no:
. . L E t = (20)
L (cd/m2): o choi phan xa tren mat phang; E (lx): o roi tren mat phang; o : he so phan xa cua
mat phang.
9



f- He so phan xa cua mot so be mat vat lieu:
Be mat vat lieu
o
Be mat vat lieu
o
Be mat vat lieu
o
Lp ma bac
Thach cao
Gng soi
Bot mau trang
Mau sang nhat
B.tong xam va sang nhat
Gra-nt, gach bong xam
0,93
0,90
0,85
0,80
0,70
0,60
0,45
Voi vang lat
a tang, gach bong am
Cat trang
San go ep, pa-ke
Be-tong nha mau sang
at sach
Co nhan tao
0,40
0,30
0,25
0,25
0,22
0,20
0,20
Cat vang
Gach lat ng
B.tong nha mau t.bnh
Moc ong, gang
San be tong, vai, go sn
San go van
Co xanh
0,17
0,17
0,16
0,15
0,13
0,10
0,08
Be mat sang: o > 0,4; Be mat phan xa trung bnh: 0,2 < o < 0,4; Be mat toi: o < 0,2.
V du : Mot mat tien kien truc bang gra-nt co hspx 0,45, muon co mot o choi bang 10 cd/m2, th
phai c chieu sang vi o roi bang bao nhieu? E = L. / o = 10 x 3,14 / 0,45 = 70 lx.
5. Nhiet o mau (colour temperature):
Mot vat en tuyet oi, c nung nong len t 2.000
o
K en 10.000
o
K, ngi ta co pho mau cua no
e so sanh vi mau cua cac nguon sang.
a- Mot so v du ve nhiet o mau:
Nguon sang Nhiet o mau (
o
K) Nguon sang Nhiet o mau (oK)
en nen
en si ot
en halogen
en huynh quang
1.900
2.700
3.000
2.800 7.500
Anh sang trang (moonlight)
Anh sang mat tri (sunlight)
Anh sang ban ngay (daylight)
Bau tri xanh trong
4.100
5.000 6.000
5.800 6.500
10.000 26.000
b- Thang nhiet o mau theo CIE va bong en huynh quang tieu bieu:
Ten goi thang nhiet o mau Viet tat
o
K Anh sang Ma en h/q tieu bieu (Phillips)
Am (warm )
Trung hoa (intermediate)
Lanh (cool)
ww
nw
dw
< 3.300
3.300 5.300
> 5.300
o cam
Vang
Xanh
29,33,82,83,92,9330,31,32,41
84, 9420, 21, 22, 25
25, 76, 86, 9610, 11, 12, 72
10


c- Bieu o Kruithoff:
Thc nghiem
cho thay
nguon sang co
nhiet o mau
thap (mau am)
ch phu hp
cho viec chieu
sang vi o
roi thap. Vi
nhng ni co
yeu cau chieu sang vi o roi cao, ngi ta phai dung cac nguon sang co nhiet o mau cao (mau
lanh).
V du thiet ke chieu sang vi o roi 300 lx, ngi ta nen dung en co nhiet o mau > 3.000 o K.
6. Ch so the hien mau Ra , hay CRI (Colour Rendering Index):
a- nh ngha:
Ch so the hien mau, thng ky hieu Ra (hoac CRI), la so o cua nguon sang, cho biet
mc o trung thc mau cua cac vat c chieu sang, khi so sanh vi nguon sang chuan
(anh sang mat tri).
b- Nhom the hien mau:
e gian tien, ngi ta bieu dien cap chieu sang theo nhom the hien mau, va c ap dung
tuy theo yeu cau chnh xac th giac cung nh kinh ph cho phep:
11


c- Nguon sang va ch so the hien mau:
Do ban chat nguon sang va trnh o cong nghe: en LED, en si ot va en huynh quang
compact co Ra tot nhat, en huynh quang va sodium cao ap co nhieu loai, en metal halide t
va en tot, en thuy ngan cao ap thng kem, en sodium thap ap kem nhat (Ra = 0).
Cap truyen at mau Rat tot
1A
Tot
1B
Va
2A
Khong tot lam
2B
Kem
3
Rat kem
4
Ch so Ra Ra 90 80Ra<90 70Ra<80 60Ra<70 40Ra<60 20Ra<40
en si ot, halogen
en h/q compact
en huynh quang
en thuy ngan cao ap
en Metal halide
en cao ap Sodium
en LED
x
x
x

x

x
x
x
x

x
x
x


x

x



x
x
x
x


x
x





x

x
Chu y: en si ot (gom ca en halogen), tuy co nhiet o mau thap, nhng co ch so truyen at
mau Ra rat cao.

II. KHAI NIEM CAC YEU CAU CUA KY THUAT CHIEU
SANG:
1. Cac yeu cau cua moi trng chieu sang:
Mot moi trng chieu sang c thiet ke tot cho phep con ngi:
- Nhn thay, va di chuyen an toan;
- Thc hien cac cong viec bang mat mot cach hieu qua, chnh xac, an toan;
- Khong gay met moi th giac, va mat tien nghi th giac.
Chat lng chieu sang yeu cau:
- u o roi (illuminance,) n v o bang lux (lx);
- u o choi, n v o bang candela/m2 (cd/m2);
12


- Han che choi loa giam kha nang quan sat (disability glare) va choi loa mat tien nghi
(discomfort glare), co nhng ai lng ch tieu thc nghiem khac nhau cho chieu sang
trong nha va ngoai tri;
- Ch so the hien mau va mot so cac yeu cau khac, tuy theo loai chieu sang.
2. Cac tieu chuan thiet ke chieu sang:
Cac tieu chuan thiet ke chieu sang hien hanh yeu cau cac thiet ke phai phu hp:
* Cac tieu chuan Viet Nam:
(TCXD 16:1986, Chieu sang nhan tao trong cac cong trnh xay dng);
(TCVN 7114:2002, Ecgonomi Nguyen ly Ecgonomi th giac, Chieu sang cho He thong Lam
viec trong nha);
TCVN 7114-1:2008, Ecgonomi- Chieu sang ni lam viec-Phan 1: Trong nha;
TCVN 7114-3:2008, Ecgonomi- Chieu sang ni lam viec- Phan 3: Yeu cau chieu sang an toan va
bao ve nhng ni lam viec ngoai nha;
TCXDVN 333:2005, Chieu sang nhan tao ben ngoai cac cong trnh cong cong va ky thuat ha tang
o th;
TCXDVN 259:2001, Chieu sang nhan tao ng pho quang trng o th; .
* Cac tieu chuan quoc te can tham khao:
ISO 8995:2002(E) / CIE S 008/E:2001, Lighting of indoor work places;
ISO 8995-2: 2005(E) / CIE S 015/E:2005, Lighting of work places Part 2: Outdoor;
ISO 8995-3:2002(E) / CIE S 016/E:2005, Lighting of Outdoor Work Places- Lighting
Requirements for Safety and Security.
Cac tieu chuan cua Uy ban Chieu sang Quoc te CIE (Commission International de LEclairage)
co van phong at tai Vien, Ao, la cac tieu chuan ac biet quan trong, c to chc tieu chuan the
gii ISO cong nhan. Do o cac ky s va kien truc s Viet Nam thng tham khao cac tieu chuan
nay, e bo sung cho tieu chuan Viet Nam, khi lam cong tac thiet ke.
3. Phan biet chieu sang lam viec va chieu sang my thuat:
Cac tieu chuan chieu sang ch quy nh cho chieu sang lam viec.
Chieu sang my thuat la mot pham tru khac nham tao s de chu, tao phong cach cho khong gian,
nhan manh cac tieu iem gay chu y, hoac tao cac hieu ng ac biet trong quang cao,v.v.
13


Chieu sang my thuat ph thuc nghe thuat cua cac ky s va kien truc s tao nen, tuy bien do sang
tao cua ngi thiet ke, khong co quy nh tieu chuan, nhng oi khi cung co truyen thong hoac
tap quan.

III. PHAN LOAI KY THUAT CHIEU SANG:
Ngi ta phan ra cac ky thuat chieu sang khac nhau tuy theo lnh vc va oi tng cua thiet ke
chieu sang. Co the phan loai nh sau:
1. Chieu sang ben trong (indoor lighting):
- Chieu sang nha , cac cong trnh dan dung ( gom ca sieu th, benh vien, trng hoc, khach
san, nha hang an, dch vu, van phong ,.)
- Chieu sang cac nha cong nghiep: nha san xuat, nha kho;
- Chieu sang cac cong trnh the thao trong nha;
- Chieu sang bai o xe (trong nha);
- Chieu sang nha ga san bay (phan trong nha).
2. Chieu sang ben ngoai (outdoor lighting):
a- Chieu sang cac cong trnh o th:
- Chieu sang cac iem o giao thong cong cong ngoai tri;
- Chieu sang ng, cau, ham danh cho ngi i bo;
- Chieu sang ben ngoai cac khu trng hoc, benh vien, trung tam thng mai, hoi ch trien
lam, cac tru s;
b- Chieu sang cong vien, vn hoa:
- Chieu sang chung khu vc cong ra vao;
- Chieu sang san to chc cac hoat ong ngoai tri;
- Chieu sang ng i dao;
- Chieu sang canh quan, tham co, bn hoa, mat nc;
c- Chieu sang cac cong trnh kien truc, my thuat:
- Chieu sang mat dng cac cong trnh;
14


- Chieu sang tng ai;
- Chieu sang ai phun nc;
d- Chieu sang cac cong trnh The duc the thao ngoai tri:
- Chieu sang san bong a, san van ong a nang;
- Chieu sang san quan vt (tennis);
- Chieu sang san bong chuyen, bong ro, cau long;
- Chieu sang be bi ngoai tri;
- Chieu sang phuc vu truyen hnh mau;
3. Chieu sang ng giao thong (road lighting):
Gom chieu sang ng, ng pho, quang trng o th.


----oooOOOooo----












15


LHUUNU I . LHlEU 5RNU BEN TRUNU

I. AI CNG:
1. Cac oi tng thiet ke chieu sang ben trong:
Chieu sang ben trong (indoor lighting) cac cong trnh xay dng, con goi la chieu sang trong nha
(chieu sang noi that), bao gom ky thuat thiet ke chieu sang cho cac cong trnh:
- Nha va cong trnh cong cong nh trng hoc, benh vien, c quan, van phong ,
- Nha cong nghiep: nha xng san xuat, nha kho,
- Cong trnh thng mai: ca hang thng mai, sieu th, ca hang dch vu, .......
- Trung tam the thao trong nha,..
Theo chc nang, chieu sang trong nha c phan loai: chieu sang lam viec, chieu sang s co,
chieu sang phan tan ngi, chieu sang bao ve, chieu sang my thuat.
Chieu sang lam viec con c chia ra cac loai: chieu sang chung (general lighting) va chieu sang
tai cho (local lighting). Chieu sang chung co the la chieu sang chung eu hoac chieu sang chung
khu vc (localized general lighting).
Chieu sang trong nha c thc hien vi cac bo en (luminaires) rat nhieu loai. en (lamp) lap
trong cac bo en gom cac loai thong dung theo cong nghe hien nay: en si ot va halogen, en
huynh quang thong dung va huynh quang compact, en thuy ngan cao ap, en sodium cao ap,
en sodium thap ap, en metal halide, en LED, en cam ng (khong ien cc).
2. Cac ch tieu cua moi trng chieu sang:
Thiet ke chieu sang noi that phai bao am cac yeu cau: Nang suat th giac (Visual Performance),
An toan th giac (Visual Safety), va Tien nghi th giac ( Visual Comfort).
Do o cac ch tieu ky thuat cua moi trng chieu sang phai at la:
* o roi (illuminance): o roi ngang, o roi ng, o roi tru, He so ong eu.
* Phan bo o choi (luminance distribution): o choi thch nghi, o choi cua boi canh, o tng
phan, o nhn ro.
* Han che choi loa: Choi loa mat tien nghi (discomfort glare), Choi loa giam kha nang quan sat
(disability glare).
16


* nh hng anh sang (directionality of light): ca c kieu chieu sang, cac cap bo en theo CIE.
* Yeu to mau ( colour aspects): nhiet o mau cua en, ch so the hien mau (colour rendering
index).
* Han che nhap nhay (flickering).
* Ket hp vi anh sang ban ngay (daylight).
* ieu khien va bao dng en.
3. Cac tieu chuan cua thiet ke chieu sang ben trong:
Ngoai chieu sang my thuat ra, tat ca cac loai chieu sang eu phai tuan theo cac quy nh chat che
cua cac tieu chuan quoc gia hay quoc te.
* Tieu chuan Viet Nam:
(TCXD 16:1986 Chieu sang nhan tao trong cac cong trnh dan dung );
(TCVN 7114:2002, Ecgonomi Nguyen ly Ecgonomi th giac, Chieu sang cho He thong Lam
viec trong nha);
TCXDVN 253:2001 Lap at chieu sang cho cac cong trnh cong nghiep yeu cau chung.
TCVN 7114-1:2008, Ecgonomi- Chieu sang ni lam viec-Phan 1: Trong nha;
* Tieu chuan quoc te can tham khao:
ISO 8995:2002(E) / CIE S 008/E:2001, Lighting of indoor work places;
EN 1838 ; CIE S 020/E:2007 - Emergency lighting (Chieu sang khan ca p).
II. O ROI CHO CHIEU SANG TRONG NHA :
o roi ngang tren mat phang lam viec (0,8m cach san) la ieu kien tien quyet trong moi thiet ke
chieu sang trong nha.
1. Bac thang o roi:
* Theo cac tieu chuan TCVN 7114-1:2008, ISO 8995:2002 - CIE S 008/E:2001, ta co 15 bac trong
bac thang o roi:
20 30 50 75 100 150 200 300 500 750 1.000 1.500 2.000 3.000 5.000 lx.
20 lx la o roi nhn ro mat ngi, 5.000 lx la o roi yeu cau tren ban mo trong benh vien.
Cac bac o roi cach nhau 1,5 lan ; o la mc phan biet c cua mat ngi.
17


2. o roi lam viec yeu cau theo tieu chuan:
o roi lam viec theo yeu cau cua tieu chuan thng la o roi ngang trung bnh E
tb
(E
av
). Ngi ta
thng goi tr so quy nh nay la o roi duy tr (maintained illuminance), ngha la o roi trung bnh
nho nhat cho phep tren be mat quy nh, co ke en he so d tr. Xem Phu luc A, ta co cac yeu
cau o roi cho cac khu vc lam viec theo Tieu chuan Quoc gia TCVN 7114-1:2008.
3. o roi xung quanh lan can vung lam viec (immediate surrounding):
Theo TCVN 7114-1:2008, vung tiep giap vi vung lam viec, con goi la xung quanh lan can vung
lam viec, la vung trong khoang 0,5 m xung quanh vunglam viec. Neu o roi trong vung nay giam
nhanh, se lam se mat tien nghi, cang thang th giac.
Sau ay la o roi quy nh cho vung tiep giap:
4. o ong eu:
o ong eu la ty so gia o roi toi
thieu Emin va o roi trung bnh Eav
tren mot mat phang, trong mot thiet
ke chieu sang:
min
o
av
E
U
E
= (1)
Theo TCVN 7114-1, ta nen thiet ke sao cho:
- Trong vung lam viec: U
o
0,7. - - -
- Xung quanh lan can vung lam viec: U
o
0,5.
5. Cac cong thc tnh toan o roi iem:
a- o roi tren mat phang ngang:








2
o
hP
I
E
h
= (2)
3
2 2
.cos .cos
hP
I I
E
d h
o o
o o
= = (3)
o roi tai cong viec (lx) o roi tai vung can xung quanh (lx)
700 500
500 300
300 200
200 Bang o roi tai cho lam viec
18


E
hP
(lx): o roi ngang tai iem P; I
o
(cd): cng o sang cua nguon theo phng truc quang ; I(cd):
cng o sang cua nguon theo phng ; h (m): khoang cach vuong goc t nguon O en mat
phang ngang; d (m): khoang cach t nguon O en P; : goc tao bi tia chie u OP, va truc quang
OH.
b- o roi tren mat phang ng:
Xet mot mat phang ng thang goc vi mat phang tia
ti (mat phang tao bi truc quang OH va tia ti OP):

2

2
I .cos .sin
E =
h
vP
(4)
E
vP
(lx): o roi ng tai iem P; I (cd): cng o
sang cua nguon (iem) theo phng en P; h (m): o
cao chenh lech t nguon O en P; d (m): khoang
cach t nguon O en P; : goc tao bi tia chieu OP, va truc quang OH.
c- o roi tren mat phang nghieng:
Xet mot mat phang ng khong thang goc vi mat
phang tia ti (mat phang tao bi truc quang OH va tia
ti OP), ma co goc , vi mat phang nay:

2
2
.cos .sin .cos
vp
I
E
h
o
o o
= (5)
E
vP
(lx): o roi ng tai iem P; I (cd): cng o sang
cua nguon (iem) theo phng en P; h (m): o cao
chenh lech t nguon O en P; d (m): khoang cach t nguon O en P.
d. Cong thc cua nguon mat (luminous surface):


4
2
.
cos
h
L A
E
h
c = (6)
2
.sin
h
E L t o = (7)
19


e. o roi (ban) tru (semi cylindrical illuminance) :
Tat ca cac o roi noi tren eu la o roi phang (plan illuminance). o roi tru la mot tham so e
anh gia o bao hoa cua mot moi trng chieu sang.
Theo nh ngha, o roi tru tai iem P tren mat phang XY
(mat phang ngang), la gii han o roi trung bnh tren mot mat
ban tru at tai iem P, co ay song song vi mat XY, mat
cong hng ve v tr mat ngi quan sat cung trong mat XY,
khi ban knh va o cao mat ban tru tien ve 0 (khong).
2
(1 cos )sin
p
sc
I
E
d
o |
t
+
= (8)
hay:
3
2
(1 cos ) cos
p
sc
I
E
h
o
t
+
= (9)
Trong mot khong gian chieu sang quan trong nh rap hat, ai giang ng, trung tam hoi ngh,
rap xiec ,...., o roi tru khong c thap hn tieu chuan (tham khao cach tnh o roi tru cho cac
cong trnh cong cong trong Phu luc 4, tieu chuan TCXD 16:1986). Khi ty so o roi tru vi o roi
ngang bang 0,3 en 0,7 th ta co bao hoa anh sang.
e xac nh o roi tru cua mot phong, ngi ta xac nh tren truc doc qua tam cua phong, tai v tr
cach tng 1m, o cao 1,5 m.
6. Tnh toan o roi trung bnh:
ay la bai toan n gian va thong dung nhat e tnh o roi ngang trung bnh hoac so bo en can
thiet cho mot thiet ke chieu sang.
. . .
L F F
av
n U M
E
A
u
= (10)
.
. .
av
L F F
E A
n
U M
=
u
(11)
Eav (lx): o roi ngang trung bnh; n: so bo en can dung;
L
(lm): quang thong cua mot bo en
(tong quang thong cac bong en trong bo en o);
M
F
: he so duy tr cua he thong chieu sang. Theo tieu chuan TCXD 16, he so duy tr c xac
nh nh nghch ao cua he so d tr k:
1
F
M
k
= (12)
Theo TCXD16, khi dung en si ot (nung sang), k = 1,3, suy ra M
F
= 0,77; khi dung en phong
ien, k =1,5, suy ra M
F
= 0,67.
20


Tuy nhien theo cac tieu chuan mi cua CIE, cac nha thiet ke c khuyen ngh s dung M
F
min la
0,7. e co the chon gia tr M
F
co li, tham khao cach tnh M
F
trong Muc VII, Chng 5 giao trnh
nay, theo hng dan cua CIE 97-2006.
U
F
(
B
q ): he so s dung quang thong (utilization factor) cua bo en. Xem muc VI-6 ve cach tnh he
so s dung quang thong cua mot bo en.
7. Tnh toan o roi tr trung bnh:
a- Cach tnh:
xc nh mc bo ha nh sng cho mt cng trnh cng cng, ngi ta phi tnh c
ri tr ca mt thit k chiu sng. Thng thng ngi ta c th xc nh ri tr qua ri
ngang trung bnh ca thit k, bng pp th (theo TCXD16), c th nh sau:
- Xc nh ch s phng, loi n c s dng thit k chiu sng, ri ngang trung bnh
ca thit k.
He so khong gian (cofficient of cavity) con goi la
ch so phong (room index) c tnh theo cong
thc:

.
( )
tt
a b
i
h a b
=
+
(13)
i: ch so phong ; a,b(m): chieu dai va chieu rong
phong; htt(m): chieu cao tnh toan, lay t o cao
treo en en mplv (0,8m cach san).
- Xac nh loi en, bng cach so sanh IDC ca bo en vi cac ng cong IDC theo Hnh 4,
TCXD16:

21


- Can c vao ch so phong I a tnh, he so phan xa cua tng va san, tra cac o th trong
Hnh 6,7,8, va 9, e tm ty so m gia o roi ngang trung bnh Etb, va o roi tru Etr:
Neu en co IDC loai 1 (Io = Io.coso), ta dung o th hnh 6; en co IDC loai 2 (Io =
Io.cos
1,43
o), ta dung o th hnh 7; en co IDC loai 3 (Io = Io.cos
2
o), ta dung o th hnh 8; en
co IDC loai 4 (Io = Io.cos
3
o), ta dung o th hnh 9;
Tren o th, ta dung : ng cong 1, khi hspx tng san la: 0,3 0,1; ng cong 2, khi hspx
tng san la: 0,3 0,3; ng cong 3, khi hspx tng san la: 0,5 0,1; ng cong 4, khi hspx
tng san la: 0,5 0,3.



















22


Sau o tnh c o roi tru cua thiet ke la:
tb
tr
E
E
m
= (14)
b- anh gia:
e anh gia cong trnh cong cong co thiet ke chieu sang at bao hoa anh sanh, ta xem Bang 6,
TCXD16:

III. PHAN BO O CHOI (LUMINANCE DISTRIBUTION):
1. Phan bo o choi thch nghi trong khong gian lam viec:
Phan bo o choi trong trng nhn co anh hng en o nhn ro :
- o choi cao qua se gay choi loa ; -
- Tng phan o choi qua ln se gay moi mat ;
- o choi va tng phan o choi qua thap se gay c che khi lam viec ;
Theo Cong thc Lambert, ta co o choi trung bnh tnh theo o roi trung bnh:
.
av
av
E
L

t
= , do
o he so phan xa quyet nh s can bang o choi. Theo TCVN 7114-1, he so phan xa hu ch cua
cac be mat chu yeu trong phong co cac gia tr nh sau :
- Tran nha : 0,6 en 0,9 ;
- Tng : 0,3 en 0,8 ;
- Mat phang lam viec : 0,2 en 0,6 ;
- San nha : 0,1 en 0,5.
23


Theo kinh nghiem, trong cac moi trng chieu sang trong nha nh nha , van phong, vi he so
phan xa thong dung cho tran tng san la 0,7 0,5 0,3 ( ky hieu 7 :5 :3), th at phan bo o choi
thch nghi, va tao ra cam giac de chu.

2. o choi cua boi canh:
Khi tnh toan tng phan o choi, hay tnh toan choi loa mat tien nghi (discomfort glare) trong
thiet ke chieu sang trong nha , ngi ta thng dung mot tham so trung bnh goi la o choi cua
nen quan sat, hay o choi cua boi canh (background luminance) :
ind
b
E
L
t
= (15)
L
b
(cd/m
2
): o choi cua boi canh; E
ind
(lx): o roi gian tiep (do cac mat phang phan xa tao nen,
khong do trc tiep cac en) :
.
(1 )
T av
ind
T av
E
A

u
=

(16)

T
(lm): tong quang thong cac bong en trong phong; A
T
(m
2
): dien tch toan phan (dien tch
tong cac mat tran, tng, san) cua can phong; o
av
: he so phan xa trung bnh cua phong, lay theo
gia trong dien tch :
. . . .
c c w w f f
av
T
A A A
A

+
= (17)
o
c
, o
w
, o
f
: hspx cua tran, tng, san; A
c
, A
w
, A
f
: dien tch cua tran, tng, san. A
T
(m
2
): dien tch
toan phan: 2[ . ( ) ]
T
A LW L W H = + + (18)
V du: mot phong hoi trng 6mx15mx3,2m, vi cac he so phan xa cua tran tng san la 7:5:3,
c chieu sang vi cac bo en co tong quang thong la 80.400 lm, he so s dung quang thong la
0,72 he so duy tr la 0,76. Hoi o roi ngang trung bnh va o choi boi canh cua phong bang bao
nhieu?
o roi ngang trung bnh cua phong: E = 80.400 x 0,72 x 0,76 / (6x15) = 488 lx.
Dien tch tran va san: A
c
= A
f
= 6 x15 = 90 m2.
Dien tch tng: A
w
= 2(6+15) x 3,2 = 134,4 m2.
Tong dien tch tran tng san: A
T
= 2 x 90 + 134,4 = 314,4 m2.
He so phan xa trung bnh cua phong: o
av
= (0,7 x 90 + 0,5 x 134,4 + 0,3 x 90) / 314,4 = 0,5.
o roi gian tiep cua phong: E
ind
= (80.400 x 0,5) / [314,4 x (1-0,5)] = 256 lx.
o choi boi canh cua phong: L
b
= 256 / 3,14 = 81,5 cd/m2.

24



3. o tng phan va o nhn ro :
o tng phan (contrast), con goi la tng phan o choi (luminance contrast), la ch tieu can thiet
cho kha nang quan sat trong mot moi trng chieu sang, nhat la khi can thiet phan biet oi tng,
trong san xuat, trng bay, hoac khi can thiet lam noi ro oi tng trong chieu sang trang tr, chieu
sang kien truc.
a- o tng phan:
v n
n
L L
K
L

= (19)
L
v
(cd/m
2
): o choi cua vat; L
n
(cd/m
2
): o choi cua nen.
Co the cho L
n
la o choi cua mat phang lam viec, tng, ke trng bay, hay o choi boi canh L
b
,
tuy theo trng hp.
Theo tieu chuan DIN EN cua Chau Au, ngi ta con
nh ngha He so the hien tng phan CRF (Contrast
Rendering Factor), va anh gia theo cac hang nh
sau:
100
0, 91 91
v n
n
L L
K
CRF
L

= = (20)
Cong viec bang mat Mc o tng phan CRF hang CRF CRF min
Mat bong lang Cao 1 1 0,95
Mat m phan chieu Trung bnh 2 0,85 - 1,00 0,70
Mat m Thap 3 0,70 - 0,85 0,50

V du: o choi cua nen la 30 cd/m2, tren o at mot mau vat co he so phan xa 0,6. Muon co mot
o tng phan bang 0,7, th phai chieu sang vat vi o roi bao nhieu?
v n
n
L L
K
L

= = 0,7 ; suy ra: Lv = 1,7 Ln = 1,7 x 30 = 51 cd/m2.


Vay can phai chieu sang mau vat vi o roi: E = (51 x 3,14) / 0,6 = 267 lx.


anh gia K
Ln > 0,5
Trung bnh 0,2 en 0,5
Nho < 0,2

25


b- o nhn ro:
Khi hieu o choi cua vat va nen (L
v
- L
n
) tang len th ngi ta thay o tng phan tang, va ngc
lai, khi giam hieu so xuong mot mc nao o ngi ta khong con nhn thay ro vat c na. Suy ra
o nhn ro phu thuoc vao mot o tng phan nho nhat, goi la ngng tng phan (contrast
threshold) Kth.
Nghch ao cua ngng tng phan K
ng
c CIE nh ngha la o nhay tng phan tng oi
RCS (Relative Contrast Sensibility).
L
n
(cd/m2) 1 10 100 1.000 10.000
RCS 13,5 36,2 62,2 83,3 100
K
th
0,074 0,028 0,016 0,012 0,010
Ngng tng phan K
th
phu thuoc vao o choi cua nen. Thc nghiem cho thay khi tang o choi
nen th o nhay tng phan tng oi RCS cung tang, ngha la ngng tng phan K
th
giam
(nhng ch tang giam cham, theo log cua L
n
).Khi tang L
n
len en gii han 10.000 cd/m2 th RCS
khong tang na ma lai giam, do mat b kch qua ngng.
o nhn ro c nh ngha: .
th
K
V K RCS
K
= = (21)
V du: Mot nen c chieu sang 100 cd/m
2
, neu o tng phan cua mot vat tren nen la 0,9, th o
nhn ro la: V = 0,9 x 62,2 = 56;
Neu nen c chieu sang 1000 cd/m
2
, o tng phan cua vat tren nen van la 0,9, th o nhn ro la:
V = 0,9 x 83,3 = 75.
IV. HAN CHE CHOI LOA:
Choi loa gay ra do cac en at sai v tr, at qua thap, chat lng bo en kem hoac khong thch
hp. Ta can phan biet cac loai choi loa:
- Choi loa giam kha nang quan sat (disability glare): lam anh hng en nang suat nhn,
khong nhn ro.
- Choi loa mat tien nghi (discomfort glare): lam anh hng en tien nghi th giac, mat cam
giac de chu.
1. Choi lo a giam kha nang quan sat:
Thc nghiem cho thay, o choi nen bnh thng, ang co o tng phan tot, ma co mot vai
nguon sang nao o gay nen choi loa nam trong trng nhn cua ngi quan sat, th o nhn ro
26


cung giam. Ngi ta goi o la hien tng choi loa giam kha nang quan sat (disability glare), c
khao sat nh lng bang cach so sanh o nhn ro.
e tnh toan, trc tien ta phai nh ngha o choi mang m.
a- o choi mang m (veiling luminance):
o choi mang m (vieling luminance) la mot tham so ch nhieu loan gay loa gay ra do moi trng
chieu sang thiet ke khong tot. Theo nh ngha, khi co n bo en gay loa trong trng nhn, th o
choi mang m tong cong, gay nen bi cac en la:


2
10
eyei
vl
i
i
E
L
u
=

(22)
E
eyei
(lx): o roi tai mat ngi quan sat tren mat
phang vuong goc vi tuyen nhn (goc 2
o
di ng
nam ngang), gay nen bi en th i; ( )
i
o u : goc tao bi tuyen nhn va tia nhn en th i.
2
' 2
0, 99 .cos .sin
i i i
eyei
I
E
h

= (23)
Trong o : h = h 1,5: o cao t en en mat ngi quan sat ; cos 2
o
= 0,9994 0,99.
Ch tnh L
vl
cho cac en co goc
i
u t 15o en 60o, cac en khac khong tnh.
o choi mang m tong cong L
vl
cua cac en gay choi loa la mot tham so quan trong e tnh
nhieu ch tieu han che choi loa trong chieu sang.
V du: mot en cao ap thuy ngan 125W, quang thong 6,2 klm co cng o sang tng oi I tai
goc
i
= 50o la 250 cd/klm, treo o cao cach nen 6m. Hoi theo hng o (
i
u = 90 50+2 = 42
o
),
bo en gay nen mot o choi mang m bang bao nhieu?
Cng o sang cua en theo hng 50 o: I
50o
= I
50o
x
L
u = 250 x 6,2 = 1550 cd.
sin
i
= sin 50
o
= 0,766; cos
i
= cos 50
o
= 0,643; h = 6-1,5 = 4,5m
o roi ng tai mat ngi quan sat:
eye
E =( 0,99 x 1.550 x 0,643
2
x 0,766) / 4,5
2
= 23,99 lx.
o choi mang m gay ra bi bo en: L
vl
= (10 x 23,99) / 42
2
= 0,136 cd/m
2
b- He so choi loa S va ch so choi loa P:
* o nhn ro khi khong co nguon gay choi loa:
1
1 1
( )
v n
th n
L L K
V RCS
K L

= = (24)
27


K
1
: tng phan o choi khi khong co nguon gay choi loa; Kth: ngng tng phan; L
v
(cd/m
2
): o
choi cua vat; L
n
(cd/m
2
): o choi cua nen.
* o nhn ro khi co cac nguon gay choi loa:
2
2 2
( )
v n
th n vl
L L K
V RCS
K L L

= =
+
(25)

K
2
: tng phan o choi khi co hien dien nguon gay choi loa; Kth: ngng tng phan; L
v
(cd/m
2
):
o choi cua vat; L
n
(cd/m
2
): o choi cua nen; L
vl
(cd/m
2
): o choi mang m tao bi nguon gay choi
loa.
He so choi loa theo nh ngha:
1
2
V
S
V
= (26)
Xem RCS
1
~ RCS
2
, ngi ta chng minh c cong thc gan ung:
n vl
n
L L
S
L
+
= (27)

He so choi loa S ln hn 1 mot lng rat be, nen ngi ta nh ngha Ch so choi loa (giam kha
nang quan sat) P:
1000( 1) P S = (28)
Theo TCXD 16, e chieu sang nha thi au the thao trong nha, phai thiet ke sao cho P 60.
V du: mot san thi au the thao trong nha co o choi boi canh bang 30 cd/m2. Hoi o choi mang
m tong cong max cua cac nguon gay loa c phep bang bao nhieu e ch so choi loa P <60
P = 1.000(S-1) <60; Suy ra he so choi loa: S < 1 + 60/1.000 = 1,06;
n vl
n
L L
S
L
+
= < 1,06 ;
Suy ra o choimang m to ng cong cua cac nguon gay loa: L
vl
< 0,06 L
n
= 0,06 x 30 = 0,18 cd/m
2
c. Choi lo a phan xa:
Choi loa phan xa la mot loai choi
loa giam kha nang quan sat, khi
trong cong viec, ngi lam viec
thng xuyen b nhng tia sang
phan xa chieu vao mat: v du mat
man hnh, cong viec tinh vi co mat
phang lam viec phan chieu cac tia
vao mat.
28


Theo TCVN 7114-1:2008, khi phong lam viec co man hnh VDT (video display terminal), thng
la at thang ng hoac nghieng goc 15
o
, th cac bo en thiet ke chieu sang lam viec phai co o
choi cua choa en goc 65o nho hn tr so quy nh sau ay, e tranh choi loa phan xa :
Loai man hnh theo ISO 9241-7 I II III
Chat lng man hnh Tot Trung bnh Kem
Gii han L (65o) 1.000 cd/m2 200 cd/m2
Theo CIE, khi ngi lam viec cng o cao vi VDT, co the phai giam quy nh goc 65o con 55o.
Ngoai ra con co nhiu nhng cong viec ac trng co yeu cau tranh choi loa phan xa. Theo Phu luc
3 trong tieu chuan TCXD 16, ta co the tham khao v tr at en chieu sang tai cho cho phu hp vi
tng loai cong viec.
d- Goc che chan cua en:
e khong phai tnh toan phc tap, ngi ta co the han che cho i loa bang cach chon goc che
chan, con goi la goc bao ve cua en. Goc che chan la goc che cua choa en sao cho mat khong b
choi loa trc tiep t choa en, co the xac nh theo cac v du hnh ve:
29


Neu mot bo en nam trong trng nhn cua ngi lam viec, va co gay choi loa mat kha nang quan
sat ang ke, th no phai co choa en vi goc che chan min:
Loai en o choi cua bong en
(kcd/m2)
Goc che chan min (o)
Huynh quang tuyp 1 - 20 10
Huynh quang compact 20 - 50 15
Phong ien bong m 50 - 500 20
Phong ien bong trong 500 30

2. Choi lo a mat tien nghi (Discomfort Glare):
a- nh ngha :
Theo TCVN 7114-1:2008, e nh lng Choi loa mat tien nghi, ngi ta dung He so choi loa
ong nhat UGR (Unified Glare Rating):


2
2
0, 25
8log{ }
v
i
b
L
UGR
L p
e
=

(29)


L
v
(cd/m2): o choi phan sang cua en theo phng cua mat ngi quan sat;
e (sr): goc khoi phan sang cua en nhn t mat ngi quan sat;
L
b
(cd/m2): o choi cua boi canh ;
p : he so v tr, xac nh theo bang ch so v tr
Guth
b- Cach tnh UGR :
- Ch so v tr Guth :
Ch so v tr Guth lien quan en hng nhn cua
ngi quan sat so vi v tr cua nguon gay choi
loa. No c CIE cho trong mot Bang theo H/R
va T/R, tc la theo o cao va o lech ngang cua en.
30


BANG CH SO V TR GUTH :

- o choi phan sang cua en theo phng cua mat ngi quan sat :
.cos
v
I
L
A
o
o
= (30)
Io (cd/m2): cng o sang cua en, theo phng t en en
mat ngi quan sat; A (m2): dien tch phan sang cua en
chieu tren mat phang ngang; o (o): goc tao bi truc quang
cua en va phng en mat ngi quan sat.

- o choi cua boi canh: L
b
(cd/m2): tnh theo phan III-2 trong chng nay.

c- V tr xac nh UGR:
Heso choi loa ong nhat UGR thng c xac nh tren truc doc qua tam cua phong, ben canh
tng (0,5m), au truc doc o, o cao 1,5m so vi san nha. Vi nhng phong co chieu dai khong
qua 2 lan o cao treo en, th khong can phai tnh UGR.
31


d- anh gia UGR:
Theo cac tieu chuan TCVN 7114-1:2008; ISO8995 (CIE 008/E:2002), ta co cac bac thang anh
gia UGR tng ng vi mc o choi loa mat tien nghi cua moi trng chieu sang nh sau:
Mc tien
nghi
Rat tot Tot Va Thap Rat thap Thap toi a
UGR <13 16 19 22 25 28
V du Xng ve Van phong Lap rap
cong nghiep:
chi tiet nho
Lap rap
cong nghiep:
chi tiet
tr.bnh
Lap rap cong
nghiep: chi
tiet ln

V du: mot xng ve co o choi cua boi ca nh bang 60 cd/m2, ca n thiet ke chieu sang sao cho pha i
at UGR khong ln hn 16. Hoi tong
2
2
v
i
L
p
e

cua ca c en c cho phep nho hn bao nhieu ?


2
2
0, 25
8log{ }
v
i
b
L
UGR
L p
e
=

< 16; Suy ra:


2
2
0, 25
log{ }
v
i
b
L
L p
e

< 16/8 = 2
Vay ta phai co:
2
2
v
i
L
p
e

< (10
2
x 60) / 0,25 = 24.000
e- Ap dung Bieu o Bodman-Sollner e anh gia choi loa:
Khi tnh toan bang tay, khong dung may tnh vi phan mem, e cho n gian, ngi ta co the
dung bieu o Bodman-Sollner e anh gia bo en co thch hp vi mot thiet ke chieu sang hay
khong, ve mat khong gay choi loa mat tien nghi.
Bieu o Bodman-Sollner co 2 bieu o khac nhau: Bieu o 1 dung cho cac bo en khong phat sang
tren mat ben nhn thay, hoac co nhn thay nhng song song vi phng quan sat. Bieu o 2 dung
cho cac bo en co phat sang tren mat ben t phng quan sat. Cac cap cht lng chieu sang
trong bieu o Bodman-Sollner co y ngha nh sau:
A : Yeu cau rat cao: lap rap ien t, kim hoan, cham cho ; B : Yeu cau ac biet: Van phong, lap
rap may moc nho ; C : Yeu cau trung bnh: lap rap cac chi tiet trung bnh ; D : Yeu cau bnh
thng: lap rap chi tiet ln: o -to ; E : Khong yeu cau han che choi loa: cong viec khong co nh,
khong lien tuc
32


Ty so o choi r trong bieu o Sollner la ty so gia o choi goc , = 70o va o choi Lb cua boi
canh

Bieu o 1 : ng han che o cho i cho tat ca cac en khong co mat ben phat sang va cac
en dai co mat ben phat sang khi nhn t cuoi en (theo chieu doc)





33




Bieu o 2 : ng han che o cho i cho tat ca cac en co mat ben phat sang ngoai tr cac
en dai co mat ben phat sang khi nhn t cuoi n (theo chieu doc)
Theo ng cong phan bo cng o sang IDC, ta tnh toan va em cac o choi cua en theo cac
phng goc chieu t 45o en 85o vao bieu o Sollner, ve mot ng cong. Neu ng cong
nay vt qua ng gii han trong bieu o Sollner ng vi cap chieu sang va o roi thiet ke, th
bo en khong thch hp, chac chan gay choi loa mat tien nghi.


34


V. CHIEU SANG S CO CHO CAC TOA NHA :
1. Cac yeu cau theo tieu chuan TCXD 16:1986 (trch ieu 2, TCXD 16)
2.1. Phi co chiu sang s c trong cac phong va nhng ni lam vic sau ay:
- Nhng ni co nguy c gay n, chay, nhim oc cho ngi;
- Nhng ni khi chiu sang lam vic ot nhien b mt s lam gian oan quy trnh lam vic hoc
trnh t tin hanh cong vic trong mt thi gian dai;
- Nhng cong trnh au mi quan trng nu ngng hot ong s gay nh hng khong tt v chnh
tr, kinh t v d nh cac trm bm cp thoat nc cho nha va cong trnh cong cng, h thng
thong hi, thong gio trong cac phong v. v...
- Nhng ni co lien quan en tnh mng con ngi nh: Phong m, phong cp cu hi sc, phong
e, phong kham bnh v.v...
2.2. ri nh nht tren mt lam vic do cac en chiu sang s c to ra khong c nh
hn 5% tr s ca o ri chiu sang lam vic quy nh trong bng 4 nhng khong c nh hn 2
lux trong nha va l lux ngoai nha.
2.3. Trong cac phong m tr s o ri do chiu sang s c to ra khong c nh hn 150 lux.
2.4. Phi co chiu sang e phan tan ngi nhng ni nh sau:
- nhng ni co th gay nguy him cho ngi i qua
- cac li i, cu thang, hanh lang phan tan;
- Tren cac cu thang ca nha tren 5 tng;
- Trong cac phong ca cong trnh cong cng co tren 100 ngi.
2.5. Tr s o ri nh nht do cac en chiu sang s c va chiu sang phan tan ngi to ra tren
mt san (hoc nn) cac li i, bc cu thang v.v... khong c nh hn 0,5 lux trong nha va 2 lux
ngoai nha.
2.6. Phi s dng en nung sang (si ot) e chiu sang s c va chiu sang phan tan ngi.
Cm s dng en hunh quang, e n thy ngan cao ap en halogen v.v... e chiu sang s c va
chiu sang phan tan ngi.
2.7. Mng ien ca h thng chiu sang s c, h thng chiu sang e phan tan ngi phi mc
vao ngun ien rieng, khong c mt ien trong bt k tnh hung nao.
2.8. en chiu sang s c trong cac phong co th dung e chiu sang phan tan ngi.
35


2.9. Trong cac cong trnh cong cng, nhng ca ra ca cac phong co tren 100 ngi phi co en
bao hiu ch dn li thoat khi xy ra s c. Nhng en ch dn nay phi mc vao mng ien chiu
sang s c.
2.10. en chiu sang s c va chiu sang phan tan ngi cn khac vi en chiu sang lam vic v
kch thc, chng loi hoc co du hiu rieng tren en.
2. Cac yeu cau theo tieu chuan CIE S 020/E:2007:
a- Yeu cau gii han o roi:
Mo ta khong gian Gii han o roi (lx) He so a dang (Emin/Emax)
ng thoat nan (escape route) Doc theo ng trung tam 1,0lx
dai trung tam 0,5 lx
1:40
Khoang rong (Open area) Xuyen qua khoang rong 0,5lx 1:40
Khu vc cong viec co rui ro cao
(high risk task area)
10% mc duy tr, nhng khong
nho hn 15,0lx
1:10
b- Yeu cau gii han o choi giam kha nang quan sat:
o cao lap at so vi san
H (m)
Cng o sang toi a cua chieu
sang tren ng thoat nan va
khoang rong (chong nao loan)
Imax (cd/m2)
Cng o sang toi a cua chieu
sang khu vc cong viec co rui
ro cao
Imax (cd/m2)
H < 2,5 500 1.000
2,5 H 3,0 900 1.800
3,0 H 3,5 1.600 3.200
3,5 H 4,0 2.500 5.000
4,0 H 4,5 3.500 7.000
4,5 H 5.000 10.000
c- Yeu cau thi gian ap ng va thi gian ton tai:
- Vi nhng ng thoat nan va nhng khoang rong, thi gian ap ng va thi gian ton tai
cua he thong chieu sang khan cap la:
- Thi gian ap ng: he thong chieu sang khan cap phai at 50% o roi yeu cau trong vong
20 giay, va 100% o roi yeu cau trong vong 60 giay (neu cong viec bang mat, hoac rui ro
36


cho con ngi oi hoi thi gian ap ng ngan hn th phai at ngay 50% o roi yeu cau
trong vong 5 giay).
- Thi gian ton tai: ngan nhat la 1 gi (neu cong viec bang mat, hoac rui ro cho con ngi
oi hoi thi gian ton tai dai hn th thi gian ton tai ngan nhat phai la 3 gi).
- Vi nhng khu vc cong viec co nhieu rui ro, thi gian ap ng va thi gian ton tai cua he
thong chieu sang khan cap la:
- Thi gian ap ng: he thong chieu sang khan cap phai at ngay tc th 100% o roi yeu
cau, hoac phai at trong vong 0,5 giay.
- Thi gian ton tai: tuy theo trng hp, nhng khong thap hn 1 gi.
VI. CAC KIEU CHIEU SANG CAP CHOA EN THEO CIE:
1. Cac kieu chieu sang:
Anh sang t cac bong trong bo en, sau khi ra khoi choa en, phan bo trong khong gian theo cac
mat o quang thong (cng o sang) khac nhau theo cac phng, do o ngi ta co the phan loai
cac kieu chieu sang:
37


- Chieu sang trc tiep (direct lighting): 90-100% quang thong i xuong, phu hp vi Nha
van phong, ca hang ln, nha xng.
- Chieu sang na trc tiep (semi-direct lighting): 60-90% quang thong i xuong, phu hp
vi nha van phong, nha , phong tra, phong an.
- Chieu sang hon hp (mixed lighting), gom chieu sang hon hp thng (mixed normal
lighting) hay chieu sang trc tiep/gian tiep (direct/indirect lighting) va chieu sang hon hp
khuyech tan (mixed diffuse lighting): 40-60% quang thong i xuong, phu hp vi cac
khong gian co hspx tran tng ln, chieu sang kinh te.
- Chieu sang na gian tiep (semi-indirect lighting): 60-90% quang thong i len, phu hp vi
tien nghi chieu sang cao: phong khan gia, nha hang an.
- Chieu sang gian tiep (indirect lighting): 90-100% quang thong i len, phu hp vi tien
nghi rat cao, moi trng chieu sang bao hoa: ai sanh, phong hoanhac, trung tam hoi ngh.
2. Cap choa en theo CIE:
Theo cac kieu chieu sang, CIE phan cap tat ca cac bo en (choa en) thanh 20 cap, e thuan tien
quy chuan, va xac nh cach tnh he so s dung cho mot bo en, theo tnh nang phan bo quang
thong trong khong gian:
- Trc tiep hep: 5 loai: A, B, C, D, E.
- Trc tiep rong: 5 loai: F, G, H, I, J.
- Na trc tiep: 4 loai: K, L, M, N.
- Hon hp gom na gian tiep: 5 loai: O, P, Q, R, S.
- Gian tiep: 1 loai: T.
Xem hnh cau bieu dien khong gian , 5 goc khoi nh ngha O t F1 en F5 va cac quang thong
tng ng phat ra cua bo en trong goc khoi o:
Goc khoi /2 (F1) (F2) 3/2 (F3) 2 (F4) 4 (F5)
Goc d vy 41
o
60
o
75
o
90
o
180
o

Goc d v (na goc tam) c tnh theo goc khoi theo cong thc:
cos(1 )
2
Arc
e

t
= (31)
Cac loai en theo phan loai cua CIE co phan bo quang thong trong cac phan goc khoi khong gian
nh trong Phu luc D giao trnh nay.
38


3. Cach xac nh hieu suat mot choa en:
Hieu suat cua mot choa en, con goi la ty suat quang thong ngo ra (light output ratio), ky hieu
LB
U , laty so quang thong ra khoi bo en so vi tong quang thong cac bong lap trong bo en, co
gia tr t 0,50 en 0,75 do hang san xuat cho, hoac co the tnh toan theo ng cong IDC, theo
cach nh sau:
Vung khong gian Goc d vy , Cng o Ii Quang thong tong
Hnh non goc khoi /2 16,6
29
37,6
I
1

I
2

I
3

'
1
6
i
F I
t
=


Gia hnh non /2 va 44,9
51,3
57,2
I
4

I
5

I
6

'
2
6
i
F I
t
=


Gia hnh non va 3/2 62,7
68
73
I
7

I
8

I
9

'
3
6
i
F I
t
=


Gia hnh non 3/2 va 2 78
82,8
87,6
I
10

I
11

I
12

'
4
6
i
F I
t
=


Ban cau tren 93,2 127,7
99,6 136,2
106,1 146,4
112,9 160,8
120
I
13

..
..
..
I
21

'
5
2
9
i
F I
t
=


(i) Tren o th toa o cc cua ng cong IDC, trong moi vung khong gian goc khoi /2 (F1=F1;
F2 = F2 F1; F3 = F3 F2; F4 = F4-F3) cua vung kho ng gian 2 ben di, chia lam 3 pha n
/6, roi ke cac ban knh tia chieu vi goc d vy ,
i
sao cho ban knh i nam gia vung khong gian i,
roi xac nh c ng o sa ng I
i
cua en theo phng o.
(ii) Xac nh quang tho ng to ng trong cac vung kho ng gian:
39


F1=F1; F2 = F2 F1; F3 = F3 F2; F4 = F4-F3.
(iii) Lam tng t cac bc (i) va (ii) cho vung khong gian 2 ben tren, e tnh F5.
(iv) Tnh hieu suat cua choa en:
LB
U = (F1+F2+F3+F4+F5) / 1000.
Vi cach tnh tren ay, ta co the tnh hieu chieu sang trc tiep, hieu suat chieu sang gian tiep, va
hieu suat tong cua bo en.

4. Cach xac nh cap cho mot choa en:
- Tnh quang tho ng tch luy trong ca c hnh no n: Fa1=F1/
LB
U ; Fa2 = (F1+F2)/

LB
U ;
Fa3=(F1+F2+F3)/

LB
U ,...
- Cuoi cung dung phep so sanh ta co the xac nh cap cua bo en.

5. Cach tnh he so s dung cua mot bo en:
He so s dung UF cua mot bo en c xac nh theo cong
thc:
.
F LB R
U U U = (32)
Trong o:
LB
U : hieu suat bo en, con gi l t sut quang
thng ng ra, co gia tr t 0,50 en 0,75 do hang san xuat
cho, hoac co the tnh toan theo ng cong IDC, theo cach
tren kia;
R
U : he so li dung quang thong (utiliance), phu
thuoc loai choa en (theo phan loai cua CIE), ty so treo en, he so phan xa cua tran tng san, va
ch so phong; tra theo cac bang trong Phu luc E giao trnh nay.
V du:
Mot bo en loai A (theo phan loai cua CIE) co ty suat quang thong ngo ra
LB
U bang 0,7 c
dung e thiet ke chieu sang cho mot phong co ch so phong bang 2,5; hspx cua tran tng san la
7:5:3, en treo sat tran. Hoi he so s dung cua en bang bao nhieu?
Theo bang tra he so li dung quang thong
R
U cua CIE, loai en A, ty so treo en J = 0 (en treo
sat tran), ch so phong i = 2,5; hspx tran tng san 7:5:3, ta co
R
U bang 111%.
Vay he so s dung cua en la:
F LB R
U = U .U = 0,7 x 1,11 = 0,777.
40



6. Thong so mot so bo en cong nghiep:

Kieu cho a en Cap Hieu suat IP
en pha sat trang men trang khong co tam ngan E 0,71 30
en pha sat trang men trang co tam ngan D 0,54 30
en pha bang ton phu e-mai P 125 D 0,70 20
en pha tang cng bang ton phu e-mai 125 P400 D 0,76 20
en pha m rong bang ton phu e-mai 125 P400 D 0,71 20
Mang en mau sa H 0,48 40
Mang en co chup nha sang E 0,53 40
Mang en co tam ngan gia D 0,53 20
Mang en co tam ngan mau sa D 0,47 20
Mang nhom ma hieu suat cao D 0,65 40
Mang nhom ma co tam ngan 20x20x20 C 0,43 20
Hop en co mat phan xa E 0,52 30
Hop en mat phan xa lang knh D 0,58 30
Hop en tam ngan ma nhom 30x30 D 0,53 20
Hop en kn C 0,32 65
Hop en tam ngan dang tron mau sa E 0,42 20
Hop en tam ngan mau sa C 0,32 20


7. Chon cap bo en:
e chon cap bo en phu hp vi yeu cau chieu sang phai xet nhieu yeu to. e khong b choi loa,
ta co the theo khuyen ngh cua Hoi Chieu sang o th Viet Nam:
41



o roi vi en huynh quang
(lx)
Phan xng
40W 65W 80W 110W
1,2m 1,5m 1,8m 2,4m
Van phong
40W 65W 110W
1,2m 1,5m 2,4m
< 200 G G
< 400 F F
< 600 E E E E
< 800 D D C C D D
< 1.000 D D C C C C C
< 1.200 C C C C C C C
8. Ty so bo tr en:
a- Ch so treo en:
Ch so treo en c xac nh theo cong thc sau ay:

L
L
H
J
H H
=
+
(33)
Trong o: H
L
la khoang cach t tran en en, H la
khoang cach t en en mat phang lam viec (thng
cach san 0,8m). Ngi ta thng treo en sao cho H 2 H
L
, suy ra: 0 J 1/3
b- Khoang cach gia ca c en:
Khoang cach gia cac en cang xa th o ong eu cang kem.
Ty so bo tr en, con goi la ty so khoang cach vi o cao SHR
(Space to Height Ratio), la ty so gia khoang cach S gia cac
en vi o cao H t en en mat phang lam viec.
Thong thng ngi ta lay tim em e nh v tr cua en va
tnh S. oi khi S theo chieu doc va chieu ngang can phong
khac nhau. Khi o: .
h v
S S S = (34)
42


Khoang cach t en giap vi tng nen cho bang 1/3 S en 1/2 S.
Nen chon SHR max nh sau e bao am he so ong eu cho o roi:
Cap bo en A B C D E-H I,J T
SHR max 0,9 1,1 1,3 1,6 1,9 2,3 6

VII. CAC YEU TO KHAC TRONG THIET KE CHIEU SANG BEN
TRONG CAC CONG TRNH XAY DNG:

1. Yeu to mau ( colour aspects):
a. Nhiet o mau cua en:
Nhiet o mau co anh hng en tien nghi th giac, o la cam quan de chu, kho nh lng, nhng
cac chuyen gia a anh gia qua thc nghiem va uc ket t cac khao sat thc te.
Rieng vi cac loai en huynh quang co nhiet o mau khac nhau, ngi ta co bang uc ket cac loai
en hp ly cho cac thiet ke chieu sang khac nhau nh sau :
* : khuyen dung ; o : co the thay the
m u sn
Activa Day-
light
CW Cool-
white
W WW Warm-
white
Home-
light
Gro-
lux
Gour-
met
Ca hang bach hoa / Ca hang
Tap hoa o o *
Quay tht o o *
Hieu banh o o *
Quan ao * *
Day dep * *
o go o *
Hieu sach o *
My pham o * *
Hoa ti * o o * *
Vat nuoi / Ca kieng * o o *
43


Khach san / Trung tam hoi ngh
Hanh lang o o *
Phong an * *
Phong ngu o *
Hoi trng o *
Trng hoc
Khu the thao o * o
Phong hoc o *
Hanh lang * o o *
Tiem an * *
Benh vien
Phong benh * *
Khu chung * o o
Van phong o * *
Cong nghiep
Nha xng o * o o
Nha kho * o o o
Det, In * o * o
Nha, Hoa o * *
O-to * o * o
Bao che * * *
Kiem pham * o o
Nha
Phong khach o *
Bep, nha ta m o *
Cay canh o o o *
Mau lanh Mau trung
gian
Mau am Mau ac biet

44


b. Ch so the hien mau CRI (colour rendering index):
en huynh quang tuyp, tuy theo loai (xem catalogue cac hang en), co nhieu cap CRI, t rat tot
(cap 1A) cho en kem (cap 3). V du, cung co anh sang trang, en huynh quang tuyp loai 3-dai
(three band) cho CRI cap 1B, trong khi en huynh quang tuyp loai De luxe cho CRI cap 1A. Trong
nha sang trong ch nen dung en huynh quang tuyp cho nhng phong can anh sang cho cong
viec, v du nh nha bep, phong an, phong oc sach, phong giat, nha xe; khong nen dung en
huynh quang tuyp cho cac phong ngu, phong khach.
en huynh quang compact i mi, co CRI cap 1A va 1B, tng ng vi cac en si ot va
halogen ve mat truyen at mau, ma lai tiet kiem ien, nen ngay cang c thong dung trong
chieu sang cong suat thap.
Chieu sang cong suat cao, the thao trong nha, chieu sang phuc vu truyen hnh, ngi ta hay dung
en metal halide, co CRI t 1A en 2B, tuy loai.
en cao ap sodium loai en chuan, co CRI rat kem (cap 4), danh cho nhng ni ch can thay
ng khong can phan biet mau sac s vat. en cao ap sodium loai sa mau (color crrected) co
CRI khong tot lam (cap 2B). en cao ap sodium loa i sa mau manh (strongly color corrected) co
CRI tot (cap 1B), nen co the pha tron vi en metal halide cho chieu sang the thao, va cac ng
dung can chieu sang cong suat cao. Noi chung s dung en cao ap sodium can co chon la gia
gia ca, ng dung va CRI can thiet.
en thuy ngan cao ap co CRI t khong tot lam (cap 2B) cho en rat kem (cap 4), nen ch dung
cho chieu sang chung trong xng cong nghiep, hoac cac khu kho.
en sodium thap ap co CRI thap nhat (kem hn cap 4), nen ch dung chieu sang bai o xe. ac
biet loai en nay cam s dung cho cac gian phong co kh quyen de chay no.
2. Han che nhap nhay (flickering):
e han che nhap nhay, va hieu ng hoat nghiem ( cam giac ong c ng yen hay quay cham,
trong khi no ang quay vi van toc rat cao), ngi ta thiet ke chieu sang vi he thong en 3 pha,
thay v ch dung 1 pha cho chieu sang. en si ot va halogen khong co hien tng nhap nhay,
nen ac biet c s dung cho nhng ng dung quan trong, tranh hien tng nhap nhay.
3. Ket hp vi anh sang ban ngay (daylight):
Ket hp vi anh sang ban ngay trong thiet ke chieu sang la nghe thuat va ky thuat cao, neu co
ieu kien kinh ph, nen ap dung e tiet kiem nang lng ien. Tuy nhien cac ky thuat nay khong
n gian, va la cong viec cua kien truc s nhieu hn, nen khong c e cap trong giao trnh nay.
Tuy nhien ta co the hieu mot vai nguyen tac n gian, v du e tat bt en vao nhng thi iem
khac nhau trong ngay, ngi ta thiet ke nhieu mach en xen ke, tat m vi nhieu cong tac, thay v
ch dung mot mach en.
45


VIII. KINH NGHIEM CHUYEN GIA TRONG CAC KIEU CHIEU
SANG BEN TRONG:
1. Chieu sang trc tiep va nh hng:
Chieu sang chung trc tiep va nh hng (direct
and aimed general lighting) cho o roi ngang eu
tren mat phang lam viec. Kien truc can phong
c nhn thay ro rang, ngi ta de dang nh
hng va lam viec trong o. Chieu sang trc tiep
cho tnh tao hnh tot va s rc r. Khi o cao cua
phong tang, th chum sang moi en toa rong va o
ong eu tren mat phang lam viec (mplv) cung gia
tang. Anh sang trc tiep cho phep nhan ro hnh
dang va cau tao be mat. Tien nghi th giac tang
khi goc bao ve tang. Mot ac iem cua chieu sang trc tiep la hieu suat cao s dung nang lng
ien. Tuy nhien tai mplv, can phai xem xet choi loa phan xa.
Mot so chuyen gia cho rang chieu sang trc tiep cho vung tran va phan tng tren toi, mang tnh
trnh dien nhng tao ra kho chu do tng phan cao. Chieu sang trc tiep thng c ap dung cho
cac sanh toa nha, van phong ieu hanh, nha hang, va nhng khong gian khac, khi ngi thiet ke
muon tao mot cam giac chu y. Theo quan iem nay, cac chuyen gia cho rang chieu sang trc tiep
tao ra met moi, khong nen dung chieu sang nhng khong gian lam viec.

Cong trnh tieu bieu ap dung chieu sang chung trc tiep, nh hng : SAN BAY QUOC TE
DUBAI (anh cua ERCO).
46


2. Chieu sang trc tiep, khuech tan (direct, diffuse lighting):
Chieu sang chung trc tiep, khuech tan (direct, diffuse general lighting) cho o roi ngang eu tren
mplv, ngoai ra con cho anh sang du vi t bong o va t phan xa. Chieu sang trc tiep, khuyech
tan cho kha nang tao hnh yeu, cac hnh dang va cau tao be mat khong c nhan manh. Ngi ta
ng dung en huynh quang e chieu sang trc tiep, khuyech tan, do o hieu qua nang lng rat
cao.
Chieu sang chung trc tiep, khuech tan c ap dung cho : khu vc lam viec, phong a chc nang,
nha bao tang, trien lam, khu vc i bo.
* Nhom choa en dung cho chieu sang trc tiep, khuyech tan:

Ket cau sang (light structures) en chieu xuong, khuyech tan (downlights, diffuse)

Downlight gan tng, kh.tan (wall-mounted downlights, diffuse) Tran sang (luminous ceiling).

47



Cong trnh tieu bieu ap dung chieu sang chung trc tiep, khuyech tan : TRUNG TAM HOI
NGH, VALENCIA PRADA, MILAN (anh cua ERCO).
3. Chieu sang gian tiep (indirect):
Chieu sang gian tiep s dung mot hoac nhieu tam tran, tng, hoac mat phang khac nh la mot
vat phan xa th cap. S chieu sang cua cac be mat nh vay lam rang r can phong hoac khu vc
len, cho ta mot an tng khong gian rong m. Anh sang khuyech tan cho t bong o, va yeu ve
mat tao hnh. Ch dung chieu sang gian tiep se gay nen giam sut s phan biet khong gian. So sanh
vi chieu sang trc tiep, ngi ta can phai dung mot lng quang thong cao hn ang ke, e co
c cung mc o roi tren mat phang lam viec, khi dung chieu sang gian tiep. Vat phan xa th
cap phai co he so phan xa cao. Chieu sang gian tiep tranh c hoan toan choi loa trc tiep va
choi loa phan xa. ieu kien tien quyet e co anh sang eu la phong phai u cao. Cac nguon sang
gian tiep phai at cao hn tam mat. Khoang cach en tran cua cac nguon sang tuy theo mc eu
can thiet cua anh sang, nhng t nhat phai la 0,8m. Chieu sang gian tiep thch hp vi: khu vc
lam viec, phong a chc nang, khu vc i bo. Cac nhom choa en a dung cho chieu sang gian
tiep:
Ket cau sang (light structures) en chieu len (uplights)




48



Cong trnh tieu bieu ap dung chieu sang chung gian tiep: VIEN BAO TANG ANH, LONDON-
SAN BAY EZEIZA, BUENOS AIRES - EREMITAGE, ST. PETERSBURG VILLA,
SALZBURG (anh cua ERCO).
Mot so chuyen gia cho rang chieu sang gian tiep tao ra tien nghi th giac do anh sang du, t tng
phan lam cho tam ly ngi ta thay khong gian rong hn. Hau het cac kieu chieu sang gian tiep
dung tran lam vat phan xa, tuy nhien neu khong cho them chut t anh sang trc tiep, th anh sang
gian tiep se cam thay khong gian qua on hoa nh mot ngay nhieu may. Chieu sang gian tiep c
xem nh thch hp cho nhng khong gian trong o ngi ta phai lam viec lau, dau vay nen them
vao mot t chieu sang tai cho hay chieu sang nh hng e cho khong gian bt te nhat th chat
lng chieu sang se tot hn.
4. Chieu sang trc tiep va gian tiep (direct and indirect):
Chieu sang chung trc tiep va gian tiep (direct/indirect general lighting) c xem nh mot ket
hp gia chieu sang trc tiep va chieu sang gian tiep nham vao mat phang ngang lam viec. Tran
49


va tng c s dung nh nhng mat phang phan xa. S chieu sang cua cac be mat nh vay lam
rang r can phong hoac khu vc len, cho ta mot an tng khong gian rong m. o ong eu cua
mplv cung gia tang va cam giac chieu cao phong cung gia tang, cho cam giac tien nghi, thoai mai.
Anh sang trc tiep giup nhan ro cac hnh dang va cau truc be mat, va tang tnh hap dan cua khong
gian. Vat phan xa th cap can co he so phan xa cao. o ong eu cua tran tang len khi en c
at cang xa tran. Nen ng dung en huynh quang e co hie u suat nang lng. Chieu sang chung
trc tiep/ gian tiep thch hp cho nhng khu vc lam viec, phong a chc nang, khu vc i bo.
Nhng nhom choa en a dung cho chieu sang trc tiep/ gian tiep:
Ket cau sang (light structures) Downlight treo (pendant downlights)


Cong trnh tieu bieu ap dung chieu sang chung trc tiep/ gian tiep : TRUNG TAM GIAO DUC
NGI LN, BERLIN - REICHSTAG, BERLIN - PALACIO DE LA ALJAFERIA, ZARAGOZA
- FIBANC, BARCELONA (anh cua ERCO).

50






5. Chieu sang quet (washlighting):
Chieu sang quet (washlighting) la mot kieu chieu sang hng-oi tng, va lien quan en kien
truc, muc ch chnh la e noi ro ty le va cac bien cua phong. Ngi ta dung cac en pha oi xng
e chieu sang quet cac mat phang ngang, hay chieu sang chung trong khu vc trnh dien. Mot ac
tnh cua cac en pha khong oi xng la phan bo cng o sang ong eu tren cac be mat.


a- Chieu sang quet oi xng (symmetrical washlighting):
Chieu sang quet oi xng cho o roi eu tren oi tng hoac be mat. ac trng cua chieu sang
quet la ong eu o roi cao, va t thay oi phan bo cng o sang. Nhng vung can c chieu
sang cua phong c nhan manh vi chieu sang quet.
Anh sang trc tiep cho kha nang tao hnh tot,
nhan biet hnh dang va cau truc be mat tot.
Trong kien truc, chieu sang quet c lam nen
cho chieu sang iem nhan (accent lighting).
Ngi ta hay ng dung nhng en pha lap tren
ray, cho phep nh v linh ong cac choa en.
Chieu sang quet phuc vu cho: trien lam, bao
tang, cac khu vc thng mai va trnh dien,
phong a chc nang,
en pha (floodlights)
51



Cong trnh tieu bieu ap dung chieu sang quet oi xng: Nha th Santa Ana, Las Palmas
- Passeig de Gracia, Barcelona Bao tang Royal Armouries, Leeds - Museo Fournier del Naipe,
Vitoria (anh cua ERCO).



b- Chieu sang quet bat oi xng (asymmetrical washlighting):
Chieu sang quet bat oi xng (asymmetrical washlighting) c dung chu yeu e chieu sang cac
be mat. Chieu sang quet cac bc tng la cong cu chnh cua chieu sang kien truc. o roi ng
nhan manh cac bc tng, hoac cac bien khac cua can phong, lam tang ve trang tr. Nhng bc
tng sang choi lam cho kien truc to ln hn.

52



en chieu iem quet tng (wallwasher spotlights) en quet (washlights)

en chieu bien (perimeter luminaires) en quet tng (wallwashers)

en chieu len (uplights) en chieu nen (floor washers)
Nhng choa en dang iem lam cho tng sang hn, trong khi nhng choa en dang dai se cho o
ong eu cao hn. Vi chieu sang quet bat oi xng, cac khu vc cua phong c xac nh, lam
53


tang s chu y cua ngi quan sat. Chieu sang quet bat oi xng cung c dung lam nen cho
chieu sang iem nhan, hay c dung e tao o sang moi trng cho ni lam viec. e at c
phan bo cng o sang ong eu, viec nh v cac bo en la toi quan trong.
Chieu sang quet bat oi xng c ap dung cho: trien lam, bao tang, khu vc thng mai va trnh
dien, phong a chc nang. Nhng nhom choa en thng dung la: en chieu iem quet tng,
en quet, en quet tng, en chieu len, en chieu bien.


Cong trnh tieu bieu ap dung chieu sang quet bat oi xng: Bao tang Anh, London - Reichstag,
Berlin - Palacio de la Aljaferia, Saragoza Bao tang nghe thuat hien ai,Frankfurt (anh cua
ERCO)




54



6. Chieu sang iem nhan (accent lighting):
Chieu sang iem nhan lam noi ro nhan manh vao
cac vat the hay yeu to kien truc n le. Bang cach
chieu sang nay, co the tao ra mot thang bac thu hut
s chu y cho moi tiet muc trong mot tong the nhieu
tiet muc c nhan manh.
Chieu sang iem nhan cho phep nhan ro cac hnh
dang va cau truc be mat. Anh sang tieu tu tao ra
bong o ro ret va tang kha nang tao hnh cung vi
o sang. Mot tia hep o sang cao lam noi bat mot oi tng vi vung can xung quanh, lam cho no
c nhan manh rieng. Chieu sang iem nhan tao nhng iem chu y va lam cai thien nang suat
th giac, tai ni chng bay cung nh tai ni lam viec. Nhng cau truc va be mat vat the c nhan
manh ro rang bi anh sang trc tiep. Chieu sang iem nhan c ap dung cho trien lam, bao tang,
khu vc thng mai va trnh dien, nha hang an, quan ca phe, quay bar, khu vc lam viec ac biet.
Nhng nhom choa en a dung: : en chieu iem (spotlights), spotlight ng vien (contour
spotlights), downlight nh hng (directional downlights), choa en am nen nh hng
(directional recessed floor luminaires), en lam viec (task lights)
Cong trnh tieu bieu ap dung
chieu sang iem nhan:
Neue Wache, Berlin - Iglesia
del Sagrado Corazn, - Bilbao
Issey Miyake, Paris -
Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome
(anh cua ERCO)




55


7. Chieu sang vi en chieu hnh (projection lighting):
en chieu c dung e chieu cac bang hieu,
mo hnh va hnh anh, e tang mc thong bao
cho cac thong tin canh bao va quang cao.
Nhng hieu ng ly thu co the tao ra vi cac
gobos va knh loc. Ap dung chieu sang vi en
chieu cho trien lam, bao tang, khu vc thng
mai va trnh dien, nha hang an, caf, quay bar,
khach san. Chieu sang loai nay can en chieu
spotlight (spotlight projectors).



Cong trnh tieu bieu ap dung chieu sang vi en chieu: Aragon Pavillon, Sevilla - Hannover
Messe - Teattri Ravintola, Finland (anh ERCO)


56


8. Chieu sang dan hng (orientation lighting):
Chieu sang dan hng (orientation lighting) la
chieu sang ch e cung cap s nh hng.
Nhng bo en xep theo day, lam nhiem vu tn
hieu dan hng. Nhiem vu chieu sang cua chung
ch la phu, do o ch can o roi thap. Ngi ta s
dung nhng en nho vi o choi cao, e chung
noi bat len trong boi canh. Chieu sang dan
hng can thiet trong cac toa nha phc tap, e
dan ng thoat nan trong trng hp khan cap.
Ngoai ra no con c ap dung e lam noi ro
ng net kien truc, cac bac thang bo, khu cam, loi vao, loi i, loi thoat nan.
Cac bo choa en a dung: : en quet nen (floor washlights), downlight lap tng (wall-mounted
downlights), choa en am nen (recessed floor luminaires), choa en dan hng (orientation
luminaires).

Cong trnh tieu bieu ap
dung chieu sang dan
hng:
Toa nha Anh sang,
Frankfurt- Palazzo della
Ragione, Bergamo- Khach
san Hilton, Dubai Khach
san Hilton, Dubai (anh
ERCO)



57


IX. MOT SO KY HIEU LOAI CHOA EN TREN BAN VE MAT
BANG CHIEU SANG:
Tren ban ve thiet ke chieu sang, can the hien ro loai en va tnh nang cua no. Sau ay la mot so
ky hieu thng dung:

en chieu xuong
(downlight)

Choa en co chp, bat
oi xng (louvred
luminaire, asymmetrical)

en chieu iem, en chieu
iem nh hng (spot light,
directional spotlight)

Ket cau sang (light
structure)

en chieu iem gan ray
(track-mounted spotlight)

Ket cau sang vi ray
(light structure with
track)

en chieu xuong, en quet
tng bat oi xng, en quet
(downlight, asymmetrical
wallwasher, washlight)

Ket cau sang vi choa
en co chp (light
struture with louvred
luminaire)

em quet kep (double
washlight)

Ket cau sang vi nguon
sang iem (light struture
with point light sourses)

en quet goc (corner
washlight)

en chieu xuong vi
en khan cap (downlight
with emergency light)

Choa en vuong (square
luminaire)
Choa en vuong vi en
khan cap (square
luminaire, with
emergency light)

Choa en vuong, bat oi
xng (Square luminaire,
asymmetrical)

Choa en co chp chong
choi va en khan cap
(louvred luminaire with
emergency light)

Choa en co chp chong
choi (louvred luminaire)

en iem (singlet)

----oooOOOooo----
58


LHUUNU J . LHlEU 5RNU BEN NUURl
I. AI CNG:
1. Cac oi tng thiet ke chieu sang ben ngoai:
Chieu sang ben ngoai (outdoor lighting) hay chieu sang khu vc (area lighting) nghien cu thiet
ke chieu sang cho cac oi tng:
Cac iem o giao thong cong cong ngoai tri; ng, cau, ham dung cho ngi i bo;
Ben ngoai cac khu trng hoc, benh vien, trung tam thng mai, hoi ch trien lam, va cac tru s;
Cac cong vien vn hoa; Chieu sang mat tien kien truc, tng ai, ai phun nc;
Cac cong trnh the duc the thao ngoai tri.
2. Cac yeu cau ch tieu ky thuat:
o roi ngang va o roi ng; He so ong eu; Han che choi loa; Kieu chieu sang va bong o;
Nhiet o mau va ch so the hien mau.
3. Cac tieu chuan chieu sang ben ngoai:
TCXDVN 333: 2005 Chieu sang nhan tao ben ngoai cac CT cong cong va ky thuat ha tang o th
TCVN 7114-3:2008, Ecgo nomi Chieu sang ni lam viec Phan 3: Yeu cau chieu sang an toan va
bao ve tai nh ng ni lam vie c ngoa i nha.

ISO 8995-2(E), CIE S 015/E:2005, Lighting of Workplaces, Part 2: Outdoor.
ISO 8995-3, CIE S 016/E:2006, Lighting of workplaces Part 3: Lighting requirements for safety
and security of outdoor work places.

II. PHNG PHAP TNH TOAN:
1. Phng phap cng o sang:
o roi ngang tai iem khao sat P, do en tao nen,
c tnh theo cong thc:

3 3 3
2 2
.cos .cos .cos
p
I I
E
h h

o |
= = (1)
: goc ma truc en c nham vao; | : goc BLP; o : goc ALB; I

(cd/m2): cng o sang cua


en theo phng chieu ; Ep (lx): o roi ngang tai iem P; h(m): o cao cua en.
59


2. Phng phap quang thong:
Tong quang thong can thiet va so bo en can dung e chieu sang dien tch A:
.
.
av
T
F F
AE
U M
u = (2)
T
L
n
u
=
u
(3)
F
T
(lm): quang thong tong, la quang thong mot bo en, nhan cho so bo en;
4
L
(lm): quang thong cua mot bo en;
A(m
2
): dien tch can chieu sang, trong chieu sang the thao, ch can theo dien tch san chnh, phan
bien ngoai c xac nh la dien tch lien ke;
E
av
(lx): o roi bnh quan cua thiet ke, thng la o roi ngang;
n: so bo en.
U
F
: he so s dung quang thong cua bo en, vi chieu sang ngoai tri, U
F
co tr so t 0,35 en 0,5,
do nha san suat cung cap d lieu, va con phu thuoc phng an bo tr en (o cao at en, hng
roi va o nghieng (turn and tilt).
M
F
: he so duy tr, xac nh theo cap bao ve IP cua bo en, o o nhiem cua moi trng, va chu ky
bao dng lau en, co the tnh theo Bang 2 trong TCXDVN 333:
Chu ky
bao
dng
en
(thang)
Cap bao ve cua bo en
IP2X IP5X IP6X
Phan loa i moi trng Phan loa i moi trng Phan loa i moi trng
o th
ln, khu
cong
nghiep
nang
o th
va va
nho, khu
cong
nghiep
nhe
Nong
thon
o th
ln, khu
cong
nghiep
nang
o th
va va
nho, khu
cong
nghiep
nhe
Nong
thon
o th
ln, khu
cong
nghiep
nang
o th
va va
nho, khu
cong
nghiep
nhe
Nong
thon
12
18
24
36
0,53
0,48
0,45
0,42
0,62
0,58
0,56
0,53
0,82
0,80
0,79
0,78
0,89
0,87
0,84
0,76
0,90
0,88
0,86
0,82
0,92
0,91
0,90
0,88
0,91
0,90
0,89
0,87
0,92
0,91
0,89
0,87
0,93
0,92
0,91
0,90

Cap bao ve IP toi thieu cua bo en c quy nh theo Bang 3 trong TCXDVN 333:
60


TT
c Im - phn loi mi trng lm vic Cp bo v ti thiu
1 n lp t trong khu vc nng thn IP 23
2 n lp t trong th va v nh, khu cng nghip nh, khu nh IP 44
3 n lp t trong th ln, khu cng nghip nng Phn quang hc : IP 54
Cc phn khc : IP 44
4 n t d-i cao 3m IP 44
5 n lp t trong hm, trn thnh cu IP 55
6 V tr lp t n c kh nng xy ra ng ngp IP 67
7 n phi th-ng xuyn lm vic trong iu kin ngm n-c IP 68

III. HAN CHE CHOI LOA:
1. He so choi loa GR (Glare Rating):
a- Cong thc nh ngha:
He so choi loa GR la ch so choi loa giam kha nang quan sat (disability glare), c nh ngha
theo cong thc:
0,9
27 24log
vl
ve
L
GR
L
= + (4)
Lvl (cd/m2): o choi mang m tong cong gay ra bi cac en; Lve(cd/m2): o choi mang m tng
ng cua moi trng.
b- Cach tnh toan:
* o choi mang m:
o choi mang m tong cong, gay nen bi cac en la:

2
10
eyei
vl
i
i
E
L
u
=

(5)
E
eyei
(lx): o roi tai mat ngi quan sat tren mat phang vuong goc vi tuyen nhn (goc 2
o
di
ng nam ngang), gay nen bi en th i; ( )
i
o u : goc tao bi tuyen nhn va tia nhn en th i.
2
' 2
0, 99 .cos .sin
i i i
eyei
I
E
h

= (6)
61


h = h 1,5: o cao t en en mat ngi quan sat.
Ch tnh L
vl
cho cac en co goc
i
u t 15o en 60o, cac en khac khong tnh.
* o choi mang m tng ng cua moi trng:
o choi gay loa cua moi trng la mot ch tieu tnh toan da tren o choi trung bnh cua thiet ke:
0, 035
ve av
L L = (7)
L
av
(cd/m2) la o choi trung bnh cua khu vc c chieu sang:
.
av
av
E
L

t
= (8)
Trong o: E
av
(lx): o roi ngang trung bnh; : he so phan xa cua san. San co nhan tao co: =
0,15 en 0,25.
c. anh gia he so choi loa GR:
anh gia choi loa GR anh gia choi loa GR
Khong the chu c

Gay nhieu loan

90
80
70
60
Co the chap nhan

Gay chu y

Khong ang ke
50
40
30
20
10
2. Ch so han che choi loa G (Glare Control Mark):
Ch so han che choi loa G la mot ch tieu choi loa mat tien nghi (discomfort glare).
a- Cong thc:
'
0, 97log 4, 41log 1, 46log
av
G SLI L h p = + + (9)
SLI (Specific Lamp Index): ch so ac trng cua bo en; Lav (cd/m2): o choi trung bnh mat
ng cua thiet ke; h (m): o cao en tnh t o cao mat ngi quan sat ( h-1,5); p: so en lap at
thang hang tren 1 km.
b- Cach tnh SLI:
SLI c cho bi catalog en hoac tnh c theo cong thc:
0,5 80 80
80
88 88
13,84 3, 31log 1, 3[log( )] 0, 08log( ) 1, 29log
I I
SLI I F c
I I
= + + + (10)
62


I
80
, I
88
(cd): c ng o sa ng cua e n mi theo cac go c bang 80 va 88 o, theo ng cong phan bo
cng o sang (IDC), trong mat pha ng C0, cua bo en; F (m2): die n tch phat sa ng cua choa en; c:
he so sa mau: v i en sodium tha p ap: c = 0,4; vi ca c en pho ng ie n khac: c = 0.
CHU Y: ch tnh G khi: 0,3 < Lav < 7; 5 < h < 20; 20 < p < 100; SLI > 0.
Cac gii ha n khi tnh SLI: 50 < I80 < 7000; 1 < I
80
/I
88
< 50; 0,007 < F < 0,4
c- anh gia ch so han che choi loa G:
Ch so han che choi loa G anh gia
<3
5
7
Kem
Va phai
Tot
Thc nghiem cho thay khi mot thiet ke at khong gay choi loa mat tien nghi, th cung at khong
gay choi loa mat kha nang quan sat. Do o, neu mot thiet ke chieu sang co Ch so han che choi
loa G at, th co the khong can tnh nh mc choi loa GR na.
IV. YEU CAU O ROI CHO KHU VC, CONG VIEC VA HOAT
ONG NGOAI TRI:
1. Bac thang o roi tieu chuan:
a- Bac thang o roi theo tieu chuan TCXDVN 333:2005:
Gom 25 bac thang t Bac I: 0,5 lx, cho en Bac XXV: 3000lx.
Bc thang
I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII
ri (lx)
0,5

1

2

3

5

7

10

20

30

50

75

100


XIII

XIV

XV

XVI

XVII

XVIII

XIX

XX

XXI

XXII

XXIII

XXIV

XXV

150

200

300

400

500

600

750

1000

1250

1500

2000

2500

3000

63


b- Bac thang o roi theo tieu chuan CIE S 015/E:2005:
Chieu sang khu vc, cong viec, va hoat ong ngoai tri c thiet ke theo bac thang o roi (lx):
5 - 10 - 15 - 20 - 30 - 50 - 75 - 100 - 150 - 200 - 300 - 500 - 750 - 1.000 - 1.500 - 2000
Ty so 1,5 lan tren 16 bac o roi ke tiep la khac biet nho nhat ma th giac con ngi co the phan
biet c.
2. Yeu cau o roi duy tr toi thieu :
a- Theo tieu chuan TCXDVN 333:2005:
Xem cac Bang 4,5,6,8,9, c trch trong Phu luc B1 giao trnh nay:
Bang 4: Tieu chuan chieu sang cac iem o giao thong cong cong ngoai tri;
Bang 5: Tieu chuan chieu sang cac khu vc danh cho ngi i bo;
Bang 6: Tieu chuan chieu sang cau va ng ham danh cho ngi i bo;
Bang 8: Tieu chuan chieu sang ben ngoai cac khu trng hoc, benh vien, trung tam thng mai,
hoi ch trien lam va cac tru s;
Bang 9: Tieu chuan chieu sang cong vien, vn hoa.
b- Theo tieu chuan TCVN 7114-3:2008:
Yeu cau chieu sang an toan va bao ve nhng ni lam viec ngoai nha, xem Bang 1, c trch
trong Phu luc B2 gao trnh nay.
c- Theo tieu chuan ISO 8995-2:2005(E), CIE S 015/E:2005:
Xem cac Bang 5.1, 5,2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15 trong ieu
5, co trch trong Phu luc B giao trnh nay.
V- YEU CAU O ROI VA O CHOI CHO CHIEU SANG MAT TIEN
KIEN TRUC VA TNG AI KY
NIEM:
1- Chieu sang mat tien kien truc:
e tao mat tien rc r cho kien truc, ngi ta
dung en pha bo tr chieu vao mat tien. Yeu cau
o roi va o choi theo Bang 12 trong TCXDVN
333. Cong thc tnh toan:
64


o roi cua en pha tai iem khao sat:
2
2
.sin .cos
i
I
E
h
o o
= (11)
Chia mat phang ra m hnh vuong nho, xem nh cac iem trong moi hnh vuong co o roi bang
nhau. Bo en pha nham vao m cac tam iem cua cac thanh phan hnh vuong khac nhau o cua
mat phang, vi cac goc khac nhau, va cng o sang I khac nhau, tao ra cac o roi Ei khac
nhau. Do o roi trung bnh do mot en tao ra tren mat phang la:
1
1
m
tb i
E E
m
=

(12)
Va so lng en pha can e quet sang mat tien toa nha la:
.
tb F
E
n
E M
= (13)
Trong o: E(lx) la o roi thiet ke, xac nh theo Bang 12, TCXDVN 333:

65


Chu y: Chon o choi cua nen Ln trong Bang 12 nh sau:
Khi boi canh la ngoai vi o th, nen la cay xanh, chon Ln = 1cd/m2. Khi boi canh trung tam o
th, hoac gan toa nha ln co mat phang sang ln, th chon Ln = 5 cd/m2.
o choi cua mat tien c tnh theo cong thc: L E

t
=

(14)
o: he so phan xa cua mat tien; E(lx): o roi can thiet e chieu sang mat tien.
2- Chieu sang tng ai
Tng t nh chieu sang mat tien kien truc, khi chieu sang tng ai, ngi ta can mot o
tng phan gia o
choi tren tng ai
va mat nen boi
canh. Do o thiet
ke se phu thuoc he
so phan xa o cua
tng ai, theo vat
lieu va mau sac be
mat cua no.

nh chuan cho chieu sang tng ai theo Bang 13, TCXDVN 333:

66


CHU Y: khi tng ai c quan sat t xa tren 300m, th gia tr yeu cau trong Bang 13 co the phai
nhan vi he so ieu chnh 1,5. Ngc lai, neu tng ai trong cong vien hoac ngoai vi thanh
pho, co nen la cay xanh, th cac gia tr yeu cau trong Bang 13 co the nhan vi he so hieu chnh
0,5.
VI. CHIEU SANG THE THAO NGOAI TRI:
Trong cung mot loai hnh the thao co 3 cap chieu sang tuy theo mc o tranh tai:
Cap I: Thi au chnh thc; Cap II: Thi au thong thng; Cap III: Thi au giai tr va luyen tap.
1. Dien tch cac san the thao va ho bi:
San au Bien ngoai
San quan vt (tenis): 11m x 24m (16m x 36m)
San bong chuyen: 9m x 18m (15m x 30m)
San bong ro: 15m x 28m (21m x 34m)
San cau long: 6,1m x 13,4m (10m x 20m)
San bong a: 70m x 110m
San van ong a chc nang: 110m x 190m
Ho bi ngi ln/ tre em: 22m x 50m / 12m x 20m.

2. Tom tat cac yeu cau chieu sang cac san the thao:
Loai hnh the thao Ehav / Evav o ong eu Uo Ch so the hien
mau Ra (CRI)
He so choi loa GR
Cap I Cap II Cap
III
Cap
I
Cap
II
Cap
III
Cap
I
Cap
II
Cap
III
Cap
I
Cap
II
Cap
III
B. a, sv a chc nang
Bong chuyen
Bong ro
Cau long
Tennis
Bi loi
500
300
300
400
750
750/200
200
200
200
300
500
500/200
100
100
100
200
300
200
0,6
0,6
0,6
0,6
0,6
0,6
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,4
0,4
0,4
0,4
0,4
0,4
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
20
20
20
20
20
20
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
55
55
55
55
55
55
67


3. Cac yeu cau ve cao o at en:


Yeu cau cao o at
en la mot tuy chon
mau thuan gia hieu
suat nang lng chieu
sang cho san vi yeu
cau chong choi. Cao
o at en toi thieu co
the can c theo ieu
4.417 TCXDVN 333:



a- Cao o at en cho san bong a va san va n ong a chc nang
(Bang 16,TCXDVN333)
TT Phng an bo tr chieu
sang
So cot
en
Cao o cua en thap nhat
Cong thc tnh toan Ghi chu
1 Bo tr chieu sang hai ben
san
08 0,35L1H0,6L1 va L2H4L2 theo Hnh ve 3
2 Bo tr chieu sang bon goc
san
04 0,35L1H0,6L1 va H3L2 theo Hnh ve 4

Cao o at
en chieu
sang san
van ong
trng hp
bo tr chieu
sang hai
ben san

68







Cao o at en
chieu sang san
van ong
trng hp bo
tr chieu sang
bon goc san


b- Cao o at en chieu sang cho san quan vt:
(Bang 19, TCXDVN)
TT Muc ch s dung Cao o cua en thap nhat (m)
Cong thc tnh toan Gia tr min. (m)
1 Luyen tap giai tr H2 3 + 0,4L 8,0
2 Thi au thong thng va chnh thc H1 5 + 0,4L 10,0


69


c- Cao o at en chieu sang cho san bong chuyen, bong ro, cau long:
(Bang 21, TCXDVN 333)
TT Muc ch s dung o cao cua en thap nhat H (m)
Cong thc tnh toan Gia tr min. (m)
1
Luyen tap giai tr H2 3 + 0,4L 6,0
2 Thi au thong thng va chnh thc H1 5 + 0,4L 8,0



d- Cao o at en chieu sang cho be bi ngoai tri:
(Bang 25, TCXDVN 333)
TT Loai be bi Cao o at en thap nhat (m)
Cong thc tnh toan Gia tr toi thieu
1 Be bi co khan ai H1 0,8W-h 0,25d
2 Be bi khong co khan ai H2 0,6W-h 0,25d

70



4. Cac thiet ke ien hnh ve chieu sang the thao:
a- Chieu sang san bong a :
- Phng an 6 cot:
Thiet ke chieu sang san bo ng a theo mc o tranh ta i Cap III (luyen ta p, giai tr), dung phng an
6 cot, hai ben sa n, kho ng co kha n ai:
.
.
T
F
AE
M q
u = = (110x70x100) / (0,45x0,9) = 1.901.234 lm = 1.900 klm. S dung en Metal Halide
1000W co quang tho ng 81klm, ta can du ng:
T
L
n
u
= =
u
1.900 / 81 = 24 e n. Nh vay moi cot bo tr
mot gian (headframe) treo 4 e n. o cao cot t nhat la 15m; cac chan cot cach xa bien sa n t 5 en
10m. Chu y khu vc tra nh cho i 10
0
hai ben bien ngang ta i cau mon, khong c at co t e n.
- Phng an 8 cot:
Thiet ke chieu sang Cap II cho mot san bo ng a phuc vu thi au thong th ng, co kha n ai, dung
phng an 8 cot at hai ben san, sau cac kha n ai:
.
.
T
F
AE
M q
u = = (110x70x200) / (0,45x0,9) = 3.802.468 lm = 3.802 klm. S dung en Metal Halide
1000W / 81klm, ta ca n dung:
T
L
n
u
= =
u
3.802 / 81 = 48 en. Nh vay moi co t bo tr mot gian
(headframe) treo 6 en. o cao cot t nhat la 18m; cac chan cot ca ch xa sau bien doc sa n t 10 en
15m. Chu y khu vc tra nh cho i 10
0
hai ben bien ngang ta i cau mon, khong c at co t e n.
71


- Phng an 4 cot:
Thiet ke chieu sang Cap I cho mot sa n bo ng a phuc vu thi au chnh th c, co kha n ai, dung
phng an 4 cot at bon go c san, sau ca c khan ai:
.
.
T
F
AE
M q
u = = (110x70x500) / (0,45x0,92) = 9.299.951 lm = 9.300 klm. S dung e n Metal Halide
2.000W / 310klm, ta can du ng:
T
L
n
u
= =
u
9.300 / 310 = 38,75~40 en. Nh vay moi co t bo tr mot
gian (headframe) treo 10 en. o cao cot t 30 en 42m; ca c cha n co t cach xa goc san, xac nh v
tr theo Phu luc 7 TCXDVN 333.
b- Chieu sang san quan vt:
Thiet ke chieu sang Cap II (thi au tho ng thng) cho mot sa n quan vt vi phng an 4 cot, s
dung en Meta Halide 400W co quang thong 30,5klm:
.
.
T
F
AE
M q
u = = (11x24x500)/ (0,4x0,9)= 366.666lm = 366 klm
S dung e n Metal Halide 400W/ 30,5klm, ta can dung:

T
L
n
u
= =
u
366 / 30,5 = 12 en. Nh vay moi cot bo tr mot gian
(headframe) treo 3 en. o cao cot min 11m; cac cha n cot co the
xac nh v tr theo hnh tren.
c- Chieu sang ho bi:
Thiet ke chieu sang ho bi ng i ln 50x22m, chn nc h = 0,1m, v i phng an 6 co t e n, moi
cot 6 s dung 6 en Metal halide 400w/42klm, he so s dung 0,4; he so duy tr 0,9.
o roi trung bnh: E
av
= (42.000 x 36 x 0,4 x 0,9) / (50 x 22) = 495 lx ~ 500lx.
o cao at en:
d (m) 26 30 38
w (m) 24 26 30
H
1
= 0,8w-h 19,1m 20,7m 23,9m



72


VII. CAC YEU CAU KHAC CHO CHIEU SANG NGOAI TRI:
1. o roi duy tr xung quanh lan can vung lam viec:
e phan bo o choi can bang, phai bao am xung quanh lan can vung lam viec mot o roi ty le
vi o roi tai chnh vung lam viec, theo tieu chuan cua CIE:
Bang 1, CIE S 015/E:2005
o roi vung lam viec (lx) o roi xung quanh lan can vung lan viec (lx)
500
300
200
150
50 Em 100
< 50
100
75
50
30
20
Khong xac nh

2. Li o kiem:
Ngi ta ve ra mot he thong li o ch nhat cho vung lam viec va cac vung can, e xac nh cac
iem can tnh toan va kiem tra.
a- Li o kiem cho chieu sang cac khu vc lam viec ngoai nha :
Theo CIE S 015/E, ty le gia 2 chieu cua moi mat li la t 0,5 en 2. Kch thc li toi a cua
73


mat li khong vt qua:
log
0, 2(5 )
d
p = (15)
Trong o: p 10; d (m): chieu dai cua khu vc neu ty le gia chieu dai va chieu rong nho hn 2,
trng hp khac th d la chieu rong (chieu ngan hn) cua khu vc tnh toan; p(m): kch thc ln
nhat cua li o kiem.
b- Li o kiem cho cac san the thao:
Vi cac san the thao, kch thc li o kiem cho cac bo mon phu thuoc cac quy nh rieng cua
cac lien oan the thao quoc te.
V du theo hnh ve tren ay la li o kiem cho san bong a.

3- Van e o nhiem anh sang hay anh sang can tr (obstrusive light):
Trong mot o th loai ln, anh sang ve em thng b lam dung thai qua, co nhieu anh sang tha
chieu len ben tren bau tri, va chieu ra khoi pham vi can chieu sang, gay can tr hang khong, lu
thong ng bo, met moi th dan, hao ph nang lng ien, qua tai mang li ien cua thanh pho,
ton hao nhan lc kinh ph bao dng khong can thiet,v.v, tom lai co the goi la o nhiem anh
sang (light polution) hay anh sang can tr (obtrusive light).

CIE co quy nh han che anh sang can tr cho phep vi chieu sang ben ngoai, theo cac Bang 2 va
3, tieu chuan CIE S 015/E:2005.
- e tranh cac van e cho con ngi, thao moc va cac sinh vat khac, anh sang can tr c
gii han theo Bang 2, CIE S 015/E:2005:
74


Vung moi
trng
Anh sang tren cac toa
nha
Cng o sang cua
choa en
Anh sang
chieu len
o choi
Ev (lx) I (kcd) ULR Lb
(cd/m2)
Ls (cd/m2)
Trc gii
nghiem
a)
Sau gii
nghiem
Trc gii
nghiem
Sau gii
nghiem
Mat tien
toa nha
Bang hieu
E1 2 0
(b)
2,5 0 0 0 50
E2 5 1 7,5 0,5 0,05 5 400
E3 10 2 10 1,0 0,15 10 800
E4 25 5 25 2,5 0,25 25 1.000

a) Trng hp khong co quy nh gii nghiem, th so ln hn khong c vt qua, va so nho hn
nen c xem la gii han mong muon.
b) Neu choa en phuc vu chieu sang cong cong (ng pho), th tr so nay co the cong them 1 lx.

E1: la nhng khu vc von kha toi nh cong vien quoc gia, cac cong trng co bao ve;
E2: la nhng khu vc co o sang kha thap, nh la khu cong nghiep hay khu nha nong thon;
E3: la nhng khu vc co o sang trung bnh, nh khu cong nghiep hay khu nha ngoai o;
E4: la nhng khu vc co o sang cao, nh khu trung tam th xa hay trung tam thng mai.
Ev (lx): o roi ng max cho phep tren cac toa nha;
I (kcd): cng o sang cua moi nguon sang theo hng anh sang can tr;
ULR : ty so quang thong cua choa en phat ra len pha tren mat phang ngang, khi choa en c
lap v tr va o cao lap at cua no;
Lb (cd/m2): o choi trung bnh max cho phep tren mat tien cua toa nha;
Ls (cd/m2): o choi trung bnh max tren cac bang hieu.

- e tranh cac van e cho ngi lai xe, anh sang can tr c gii han theo Bang 3, CIE S
015/E:2005:
75


Tham so ky thuat
cua anh sang
Phan loai ng
a)
Khong co chieu
sang ng
M5 M4/M3 M2/M1
o tang ngng
(TI)
b)c)d)
15% can c tren o
choi thch nghi 0,1
cd/m2
15% can c tren o
choi thch nghi 1
cd/m2
15% can c tren o
choi thch nghi 2
cd/m2
15% can c tren o
choi thch nghi 5
cd/m2
a) Phan loai ng theo CIE 115-1995;
b) Phan loai TI nh trong CIE 140 -2000;
c) Gii han ap dung khi ngi lai xe hay he thong giao thong b giam kha nang quan sat.
Cac gia tr cho v tr lien quan, va hng nhn theo ng xe chay;
d) Bang 5.2 trong CIE 150:2003 cho nhng gia tr tng ng cua o choi gay loa Lv.
Van e o nhiem anh sang gii thieu ay ch nham muc ch tham khao, Viet Nam cha co tieu
chuan quy nh ve van e nay. Tuy nhien giam cong suat chieu sang vao gia em ve sang la
bien phap hu hieu giup tiet kiem nang lng cho cac o th, va ang c khuyen khch.

VIII. CAC LOAI EN PHA:
1. en pha choa tron chnh tieu c :
e chieu sa ng cac mat
dng cong trnh, hoac
cac t ng ai, ngi ta
thng du ng loa i en pha
chnh c tieu c, e
tap trung vung tia sang
theo y muon.

en pha ien hnh loai nay la e n FOCAL cua hang Schredere. en nh, gn, s dng nhiu loi
cha, bng v ph tng khc nhau. kn ca n: IP 66; trng lng 4 kg.
76


Tuy theo muc ch s du ng, co the ie u chnh anh sa ng ta p trung: 32.000 cd/klm; ban tap trung:
3.500 en 10.500 cd/klm; hoa c chieu sang ro ng: 420 en 3.300 cd/klm. Co the du ng bong Metal
Halide hoac Sodium cao ap t 70 en 150w.

2. n p trn, n sut cao:
e thiet ke chieu
sang cho nhng
san thi au ngoai
tri, va nhng khu
vc ro ng, ngi ta ca n du ng loai e n pha cong suat cao.
en can co ket cau vng chac, die n tch can gio nho, chieu
sang ta p trung. o kn bo pha n quang ho c phai la IP65.
Xem choa en tieu bieu: e n OLYMPIA 3 cua hang
Schredere.
77



en co trong lng 17kg; o kn bo pha n quang ho c la IP65; die n tch ca n gio 0,21m2; co the lap
bong metal halide tru trong t 400w en 2000w.
3. e n pha van nang choa vuong:
en pha van na ng thng c che tao theo hnh
thc choa vuo ng. e n co nhieu cong dung, va co
nhieu c e lap ca c bo ng co cong suat khac nhau.
en th ng co o kn IP65. Knh thuy tinh phang,
an toan c ng l c. Vo en co the co nhieu mau.
en tieu bieu: serries en RADIAL cua hang
Schredere, vi ca c c
RD2, RD3, RD4; trong lng: 5,6kg/11,2kg/13kg; dien tch ca n
gio: 0,11m2/0,22m2/0,25m2; o kn IP66; co the ga n cac bong
en kha c nhau. (anh Schredere-Viet Nam, Ky ai Hue).

----oooOOOooo----







78


LHUUNU k . LHlEU 5RNU UUNU UlRU THUNU
I. AI CNG:
1. oi tng thiet ke chieu sang giao thong:
Thiet ke chieu sang ng giao thong, gom:
a- ng, ng pho:
- Cap o th: ng cao toc, ng pho chnh cap I, ng pho chnh cap II;
- Cap khu vc: ng khu vc, ng van tai;
- ng noi bo: ng khu nha , ng khu cong nghiep va kho tang.
b- Quang trng:
- Quang trng chnh thanh pho;
- Quang trng giao thong, quang trng trc cau, quang trng trc ga;
- Quang trng trc cac cong trnh cong cong va cac a iem tap trung cong cong.
2. Cac ch tieu ky thuat:
Khi thiet ke chieu sang giao thong, ngi ta phai xet at chuan cho cac ch tieu c s sau ay:
- Mc o choi (luminance level) : mc o choi trung bnh tren mat ng Lav.
- He so ong eu cua o choi (luminance uniformity) : he so ong eu chung Uo, he so
ong eu doc tuyen Ul ;
- Mc o han che choi loa (degree of glare limitation): mc tang ngng tng oi TI, ch
so han che choi loa G
- Quang pho cua en (lamp spectra) : chon loai en cao ap.
- Tnh hieu qua dan ng (effective guidance): tranh nham lan cho lai xe.
3. Cac tieu chuan thiet ke:
a- Tieu chuan Viet Nam:
TCXDVN 259:2001- Tieu chuan thiet ke Chieu sang nhan tao ng, ng pho, Quang
trng o th.
TCVN 5828- en ien chieu sang thanh pho, yeu cau ky thuat chung.
79


b- Tieu chuan quoc te tham khao: CIE 115:1995 Recommendations for the lighting of Roads
for Motor and Pedestrian Traffic ; CIE 140:2000 Roads Lighting Calculations; EN 13201-
1/4: 2004- Road lighting practice.

II. MC O CHOI (LUMINANCE LEVEL):
P :iem khao sat; S: v tr en ;
O : v tr mat ngi quan sat ;
E (lx): o roi ngang tai P;
L (cd/m2): o choi mat ng tai P.
o : goc tao bi tia nhn OP va mat phang
ng;
| : goc tao bi mat phang tia nhn vi mat
phang tia chieu;
: goc tao bi tia chieu SP va mat ng.
1. He so o choi luminance coefficient):
He so o choi q la ty so gia o choi phan xa cua mat ng va o roi thc hien tren mat ng:
L
q
E
= (1) . L q E = (2)
3
2
. .cos
.
q I
L q E
h


= = (3)

q = q (,,) : he so o choi q la mot ham theo cac goc ,, .
Khoang ng quan trong cua ngi lai xe la t 60m en 160m pha trc. Xem nh mat ngi lai
o cao 1,5m, do o goc t 0,5
o
en 1,5
o
, vay co the xem nh goc la hang so 1
o
. Nh vay
he so o choi q co the xem la mot ham theo cac goc va ,.
e thuan tien tnh toan CIE nh ngha mot he so o choi rut gon (reduced luminance
coefficient):
3
.cos r q = (4)
Co the viet lai:
2
. r I
L
h

= (5)

L (cd/m2): o choi mat ng tai iem P; r: hsc rut gon, la mot ham theo , , ; I

(cd/m2):
cng o sang cua bo en theo phng SP; h (m): o cao cua en.
80


Nh he so r, ngi ta co the tnh c o choi mat ng tai bat ky iem P nao tren mat dng.
Bang he so o choi rut gon r :

He so o choi rut gon r, la mot ham theo va ,, c cho theo bang (co the theo va tan ,) cho
cac loai ng. Trong cac bang, v r <<1, nen thng c nhan cho 10.000.
Xem cac Bang phan xa ng (Road reflection tables) e tm he so o choi rut gon r cho cac mat
ng R1, R2, R3, R4 theo phan loai R cua CIE trong Phu luc E cuoi giao trnh nay.
Phan loai mat ng kho rao, da theo cac tham so Qo va S1, c xac nh nh sau:
0
0 0
1
.
o
Q q d
O
= O
O
}
(6)
1
(0, 2)
(0, 0)
r
S
r
= (7)
Trong o: Qo : he so o cho i trung bnh (average luminance coefficient); q : he so o choi (ham cua
va , );
0
O : goc kho i cha tat ca cac phng chieu tnh t e n, en tat ca ca c iem khao sat tren
mat ng, trong qua trnh tnh trung bnh o choi; S1 : he so phan chieu (specularity factor); r(0,0):
he so o choi rut gon (reduced luminance coefficient) tai iem =0, tan ,=0; r(0,2): he so o choi
rut gon (reduced luminance coefficient) tai iem =0, tan ,=2.
Phan loai mat ng kho Gii han S1 He thong R Loai phan xa
S1 chuan Qo chuan hoa
R1
R2
R3
R4
S1 < 0,42
0,42S1<0,85
0,85S1<1,35
1,35S1
0,25
0,58
1,11
1,55
0,10
0,07
0,07
0,08
Khuyech tan.
Gan khuyech tan.
Hi bong lang.
Bong lang.

2. Phng phap o choi trung bnh:
Phng phap o choi iem, s dung he so o choi rut
gon r cua loai ng, va ng cong IDC cua bo en,
co the tnh toan dung may tnh e cho phan bo o
choi tai moi iem cua mat ng. Phng phap nay
neu tnh bang tay th rat dai dong va phc tap. Do o
ngi ta hay dung pp o choi trung bnh hn.
a. Cong thc:
81


o choi trung bnh c tnh theo cong thc:
0
. .
. .
L
av
Q
L
k l e
q u
= (8)
l (m): o rong cua ng; e (m): khoang cach cac cot en; L
av
(cd/m2): o choi trung bnh; q : he
so s dung cua en, xac nh theo loai bong en va ty so l/h ; Q
o
: he so o choi trung bnh;
L
u
(lm): quang thong cua bong en; k: he so d tr, phu thuoc vao moi trng, loai ng, so lan lau
en.
Trong cong thc tren, he so o choi trung bnh Qo c xac nh theo:

av
o
av
L
Q
E
= (9)
Ltb (cd/m2): o choi trung bnh cua mat ng; E (lx): o roi trung bnh cua mat ng.
Trong tieu chuan TCXFVN 259:2001, ngi ta nh ngha he so R cua mat ng nh sau:

av
av
E
R
L
= (10)
De dang thay rang R chnh la lng nghch ao cua he so o choi trung bnh Qo:

0
1
R
Q
= (11)
Cong thc (6) co the viet lai:
.
. . .
av L
av
E
L
R R k l e
q u
= = (12)
R c xac nh theo Bang 8 trong TCXDVN 259:2001.
b. Cach tnh toan:
- He so d tr k: he so d tr k chnh la nghch ao cua he so duy tr M
F
:
1
F
k
M
= (13)
Theo TCXDVN 259, k ch co 2 gia tr 1,3 va 1,5 tuy theo en la e n nung sang (s i ot) hoac en
pho ng ie n, tng ng vi so lan lau e n la 4 lan trong nam.
- He so s dung cua bo en q :
Theo d lieu trac quang cua bo en do nha san xuat cung cap, ta co o th q theo khoang cach l
t v tr ngi quan sat (truc quan sat) en day en.
82



Tuy theo phng phap at en, ta co the tnhq theo o th:

Trng hp th nhat: mat en v tr chieu thang xuong long ng:
1 2
q q q = + (14)
l
1
=0,2h:
1
q = 0,05; l
2
=0,8h:
2
q = 0,45; Suy ra:
1 2
q q q = + = 0,05 + 0,45 = 0,50
Trng hp th hai: mat en v tr chieu thang xuong le ng:
2 1
q q q = (15)
l
1
=0,15h:
1
q = 0,03; l
2
=0,95h:
2
q = 0,47; Suy ra:
2 1
q q q = = 0,47 - 0,03 = 0,44
He so s dung cua bo en q cua bo en con co the tnh tng oi chnh xac theo Bang 7
TCXDVN 259:
Nguon sang Ty le o rong ng chia cho o cao cot (l/h)
0,5 1,0 1,5
en sodium thap ap 0,15 0,25 0,30
en phong ien khac (loai bong bau uc) 0,20 0,25 0,40
en phong ien khac (loai bong tru trong) 0,25 0,40 0,45

83


V du: en tru trong, khi l/h = 1,5 th q = 0,45.
- Be rong ng l: co lien quan en he so s dung va lien quan en chieu cao at en.
- Khoang cach en e: co anh hng en o ong eu chung Uo (overall uniformity), kinh
ph, ch tieu choi loa, cong suat moi bo en, thng c chon t 10m en 50m.
- o cao at en h: co anh hng giam choi loa, thng chon h t 5m en 20m.
- Quang thong cua bong en
L
u : tuy theo loai bong en va cong suat en, co the tham
khao Phu luc 9 cua tieu chuan TCXDVN 333:2005, hoac theo catalog cac hang en.
V du: Mot ng pho co o rong ng la 20m, mat ng la be tong nha mau trung bnh
co R =20, c thiet ke chieu sang vi cac bo en ng sodium cao ap, choa en co IDC nh
tieu chuan TCVN 5828, cong suat 250W, quang thong 28.000lm. Chon o cao cot la 10m,
khoang cach cot la 30m. Hoi o choi trung bnh tren mat ng bang bao nhieu? Cho biet he
so d tr la 1,5 va he so s dung cua en la 0,45.
Giai: ap dung cong thc:
.
. . .
av L
av
E
L
R R k l e
q u
= = = (0,45x28.000) / (20x1,5x20x30) = 0,7 cd/m
2
.

III. HE SO ONG EU CUA O CHOI:
1. He so ong eu chung (overall uniformity) Uo:
min
o
av
L
U
L
= (16)
Lmin (cd/m2): o choi nho nhat cua mat ng; Ltb (cd/m2): o choi trung bnh cua mat ng.
Uo anh hng en nang suat nhn. Trong moi trng hp:
mat ng: Uo 0,4; quang trng, nut giao thong: Uo 0,5.
2. He so ong eu doc (longitudal uniformity) U
l
:
min
max
l
L
U
L
= (17)
Lmin (cd/m2): o choi nho nhat cua mat ng; Lmax (cd/m2): o choi ln nhat cua mat ng.
Ca Lmin va Lmax o tren cung mot tuyen doc vi truc cua ng.
Ul la ham cua o choi trung bnh Ltb va khoang cach cot en e. Ul anh hng en tien nghi nhn.
84


Trong moi trng hp nen thiet ke sao cho Ul 0,7. Muon at, can phai bao am ty so e/h max
nh trong Bang 6 TCXDVN 259:
Hng Imax (loai en co IDC) Phng phap bo tr en e/h max
0 - 75o (IDC rong)

0 - 65o (IDC ban rong)

Mot ben hoac hai ben oi xng
Hai ben so le
Mot ben hoac hai ben oi xng
Hai ben so le
3,5
3,2
3,0
2,7

IV. HAN CHE CHOI LOA:
1. Mc tang ngng tng oi (Relative Threshold Increment):
Mc tang ngng tng oi la mot ch tieu choi loa
giam kha nang quan sat (disability glare).
a. Cong thc:
0,8
0,8
65 .
F vl
av
M L
TI
L
= (18)

M
F
: he so duy tr (co tr so t 0,6 en 0,9); L
vl
(cd/m2):
o choi gay loa tng ng, trc tiep gay nen bi cac
bo en; L
av
(cd/m2): o choi duy tr trung bnh cua ng.
b. Cach tnh:
o choi gay loa tng ng L
vl
(vieling luminance):

2
eyei
vl
i
i
E
L k
u
=

(19)

k: he so tuoi, thng chon bang 10;
E
eyei
(lx): o roi ng tai mat cua ngi quan sat, do en th i gay nen;
i
u (o): goc tao bi hng
nhn (ngang) va hng t en en mat.

2
2
.sin .cos
'
i i i
eyei
I
E
h
u u
= (20)

h = h 1,5 (1,5m: o cao cua mat ngi); I
i
(cd): cng o sang cua en th I theo phng den
mat ngi quan sat;
i
u (
o
): goc tao bi hng nhn va phng t en en mat ngi quan sat.
85


Chu y: ch tnh L
vl
cho cac en co goc
i
u t 15o en 60o.
- Goc ma ngi quan sat (la ngi lai xe o -to), nhan thay TI ln nhat, la khi en va vao
goc bao ve cua mai che xe o-to (20
o
);
- Cac en trong goc 15
o
20
o
trong tam khong
qua 500m trc mat ngi lai xe;
- Neu en nao gop them t hn 2% tong cac TI
trc o, th khong ang ke, va khong can tnh
tiep cho cac en xa hn.
c. anh gia Mc tang ngng tng oi TI:

2. Ch so han che choi loa G (glare control mark):
Ch so han che choi loa G la mot ch tieu choi loa mat tien
nghi (discomfort glare).
a. Cong thc:
G = SLI + 0,97 log Lav + 4,41 log h 1,46 log p (21)
SLI (Specific Lamp Index): ch so ac trng cua bo en;
Lav (cd/m2): o choi trung bnh mat ng cua thiet ke; h
(m): o cao en tnh t o cao mat ngi quan sat ( h-1,5);
p: so en lap at thang hang tren 1 km.
b- Cach tnh SLI:
SLI c cho bi catalog en hoac tnh c theo cong thc:
SLI = 13,84 3,31logI
80
+ 1,3[log(I
80
/I
88
)]
0,5
0,08log(I
80
/I
88
) + 1,29logF + c (22)
Trong o: I
80
, I
88
(cd): c ng o sa ng cua e n mi
theo cac goc bang 80 va 88 o, theo ng cong
phan bo c ng o sa ng (IDC), trong mat pha ng
C0, cua bo en; F (m2): die n tch phat sa ng cua
choa en; c: he so sa mau: vi e n sodium thap
ap, c = 0,4; v i cac e n pho ng ien khac, c = 0.
CHU Y: ch tnh G khi: 0,3 < Lav < 7; 5 < h <
20; 20 < p < 100; SLI > 0.
Cac gii ha n khi tnh SLI: 50 < I80 < 7000; 1 < I
80
/I
88
< 50; 0,007 < F < 0,4
TI (%) anh gia han che choi loa
> 20
10
< 10
Kem (Xau).
Va phai.
Tot.
Ch so han che
choi loa G
anh gia
<3
5
7
Kem
Va phai
Tot
86


c. anh gia ch so han che choi loa G:
Thc nghiem cho thay khi mot thiet ke at khong gay choi loa mat tien nghi, th cung at khong
gay choi loa mat kha nang quan sat. Do o, neu mot thiet ke chieu sang co Ch so han che choi
loa G at, th co the khong can tnh o tang ngng tng oi TI cho thiet ke nay.

V. QUANG PHO CUA EN:
Cac nghien cu thc nghiem xem xet quang pho cac loai en cho thay mot nhan xet quan
trong rang: en sodium thap ap (LPS) dung cho chieu sang giao thong tot hn en thuy ngan
cao ap (HPMV):
- o net th giac cao hn: vi en HPMV, mat ng phai c chieu sang vi o choi hn
1,5 lan so vi khi dung en LPS e co cung mot o net th giac cho ngi lai xe;
- Cam nhan toc o tot hn;
- t choi loa mat tien nghi hn;
- Hoi phuc th giac sau choi mau hn.
en cao ap sodium (HPS) cung tot hn en HPMV nhng khong ro net bang en LPS.
VI. BO TR EN VA TAC DUNG DAN NG:
Cac cach bo tr en thng phu thuoc vao o rong ng, va hieu qua dan ng (tranh nham
lan hng ng).
1. Cac cach bo tr en:
Mot ben Hai ben so le Hai ben oi xng Tren giai phan cach
khi l<h khi h<l<1,5h khi l>1,5h khi giai ph.cach 1,5- 6m







87


Bo tr tren day treo
Khi giai phan cach < 1m, ngi ta cung bo tr en theo hai ben.
Ngoai ra ngi ta co the bo tr en tren da y treo, nhat la ng oi noi th
thanh pho ln, khi hai ben la cao oc. Vi bo tr day treo ngi ta trong cac cot
cao giai phan cach, cach nhau t 60 en 90m, giang cap thep chu lc gia
cac cot, roi treo en tren o, cach nhau t 10 en 20m.
He thong day treo en cho: he so ong eu cao, t choi loa, o nhn ro cao hn
(nhat la trong nhng ieu lien thi tiet xau).
Trong cac cach bo tr en, hieu qua dan ng tot nhat vi bo tr day treo, khi
cho cac en sat nhau, va kem nhat vi bo tr hai ben so le.
2. Cach bo tr en tren oan ng cong:
Khi ban knh cong > 1000m, bo tr nh ng thang. Khi ban knh cong < 1000m, cot en at
pha ngoai oan cong, vi khoang cot thu nho 0,7e.
Neu l < 1,5h, bo tr them en phu ph trong ng cong.
3. Bo tr en tai cac giao lo:





ng chnh vi ng phu Vi ng co giai phan cach





Hai ng chnh giao nhau Vong xoay

88






ng re cho xe gan may Bo tr cot cao tai giao lo
VII. CHOA EN NG:
1. Cac loai en ng trang tr o th:
a- en au tru:
* Kieu dang my thuat, co ien, va chieu
sang va trang tr. en nay hay c thiet
ke chieu sang nhng pho trung tam, ong
uc nhng toc o van chuyen khong cao
lam.
*en lap tren tru 4-5m, cong suat bong en
(cao ap) khong qua 150W. en co ket cau
kn nc tot, phan knh chong va ap. Choa en tieu bieu: en
BELGICA cua hang Shredere. (anh Schredere).
b- en tru sang:
* Va chiu sng
va trang tr cnh
quan. To n
tng c bit cho khu vc c lp t.
* Kt cu vng chc, chu
lc cao.
* Bo quang hoc gom choa
phan quang va ong nha uc
dai 2 -3m, chiu cao c th
thay i.
* en dung bong Metal
Halide 70-150W.
Thch hp cho pho i bo, cong vien, canh quan trc dinh th.
Choa en tieu bieu: en NEMO cua hang Schedere. Leuven, B (anh Schredere )
89


c- en treo:
* Treo tren cot cao
4-5m, dung vi
en phong ien 50
150W.
* en co ket cau
vng chac. Bo
phan quang hoc
kn nc, bong chu c va ap.
* Kieu dang my thuat, co ien, thch hp
vi nhieu loai can en tao dang, va
chieu sang va trang tr cho canh quan o
th. Choa en tieu bieu: en ALBANY cua hang Schredere. (anh Schedere).
2. Cac en ng cot cao:
a- Choa en kieu corbra-head c nho:
* kn b quang hc IP
66, kiu dng nh gn. S dng
vi nhiu loi bng t 50 n
150w.
* Kt cu vng chc, d dng
bo dng. Thch hp cho chiu sng ng nh, khu th,
ng xm.
* Cha n tiu biu: n NANO ca hng Schrdere.
(nh Schrdere -Vit Nam)


b- Choa en kieu corbra-head thong dung:
* Gon, hu du ng, be n v ng.
Cung mot kieu, co vai c
choa.
* Dung c cac loai e n
pho ng ie n, cong suat t 50w en 400w.
(Hng lo 25, TP.Ho Ch Minh (anh Sche dere-VietNam)
90


* Than en thng lam bang h p kim nhom, chu p chu va ap, ba ng nha hoac thuy tinh, o kn
IP54 en IP65. en co the la p vi can en hoac lap au tru, thch h p cho nhieu loai ng.
* S dung nhieu bo phan xa kha c nhau, co the ieu chnh bo ng, thay bong de da ng. Choa en tieu
bieu: Z1 / Z2 / Z2-SUPER cua hang Schedere.
c- Choa en kieu hop giay, la p mo -un:
* n a dng, c th s dung vi nhiu b
quang hc khc nhau ty c im ca ng.

* B quang hc kp gip duy tr s chiu sng
nu c mt bng b hng .
* Kt cu m-un, gip c th lp nhiu n ln
cng mt u.
* Kt cu
vng chc, tit
kim chi ph
u t, lp t,
bo dng.

(ng cao tc Php, nh
Schrdere)
* Phn quang c cp bo v IP66.
B linh kin lp ri, d bo
dng. Bng n c th chnh
c. C th lp cc bng phng
in t 150w 600w.
* Cha n tiu biu: n TXN
ca hng Schrdere.

3- en ng at chuan:
Viet Nam, mot bo en
ng at chuan phai at tieu
chuan TCVN 5828:1994, vi
cac yeu cau ky thuat tom tat
nh sau:
91


- Dung en phong ien trong chat kh (HID), ien ap 220V, tan so 50Hz;
- ng cong phan bo cng o sang (IDC) co dang ban rong nh sau:
- Cap bao ve toi thieu IP23;
- ien tr cach ien gia cac phan mang
ien va vo kim loai 2Mohm (sau khi th nong am
48 gi);
- Bao ve chong ien giat Cap 01;
- Tam phan quang co he so phan xa 0,8;
tam kieng bao ve co he so xuyen sang 0,85.
- Co ghi nhan ay u: ten c s san xuat, kieu en, cong suat va ien ap danh nh.


---oooOOOooo---















Goc (o) Cng o sang I (cd)
75
80
85
90
200
80
25
20
92


LHUUNU 5 . EN VR LHUR EN

I. CAC LOAI EN (LAMPS):
Cac loai nguon sang dung ien (en ien) theo cong nghe thong dung hien nay chia ra lam cac
loai:
- en si ot : gom en si ot thong dung, en halogen, en halogen thap ap.
- en phong ien: gom en phong ien thap ap: en huynh quang thong dung, en huynh
quang compact, en sodium thap ap; va en phong ien cao ap: en thuy ngan cao ap,
en metal halide, en sodium cao ap.
- en LED: diod phat quang ng dung trong chieu sang la nguon sang cong nghe mi, ang
phat trien manh va co nhieu u iem.
1. en si ot (Incandescent lamps):
a- en si ot thong dng (GSL):

Quang ph tng i va nhiet o mau ca en
* Quang hieu: 12 lm/W * Ch so truyen at mau: 1A
* Nhiet o mau: am (2,500K 2,700K) * Tuoi tho: 1.000 2.000 gi
en si ot thong dng General Service Lamp (GSL) la nguon iem nen co o choi cao (o
choi tim en: 1x10
6
cd)/m2). Day tim cua en si ot la mot phan t bc xa nhiet, no toa sang khi
c dong ien nung nong len u nhiet o. Tuy theo loai en va cong suat, nhiet o cua tim en
co the len en 3.000 oK, hoac hn. Tim en c at trong bong en chan khong hoac ay kh
tr, giup chong oxt hoa. Dau vay, tim en con b boc hi, do o en si ot mau t tim.
Pho anh sang phat xacua GSL ch co 20% trong vung thay c, rat t tia t ngoai, con hau het la
tia nhiet (hong ngoai), do o quang hieu cua en si ot rat thap. Tuy nhien quang pho cua en
si ot lien tuc, nen cho ch so truyen at mau cao.
93


b- en si ot a nang (en A):
Ngay nay, en a nang All-purpose lamp (en A) la loai en si ot co nhieu hnh dang va
nhieu kch thc theo cong suat, co ca loai chong no va chong rung. Tim en si ot lam bang
tungsten (co nhiet nong chay en 3.653oK), at trong mot bong chan khong hoac c bm ay
kh tr (nitrogen hoac hon hp). Bong en co the la thuy tinh trong suot hoac m, khong mau
hoac co mau. Vi bong thuy tinh m, o choi bong en de chu hn (20.000 cd/m2). Mot phan
bong en co the c ma bac e phan quang. Nhng en si ot the he sau co hieu suat cao hn
do ben trong bong co phu lp ac biet, phan xa tia hong ngoai tr lai tim en, giup tang nhiet o
tim en, va han che phat tia nhiet ra ngoai..
Mac du quang hieu thap, en si ot van con c dung do nhng li iem cua no: khi ong tc
th, khong nhap nhay, de dung vi bo dimmer, khong tat khi ien ap b giam, va do ly do an toan,
no ac biet dc khuyen dung cho cac he thong chieu sang khan cap va phan tan ngi.
c- en R va PAR:
en phan xa R ( Refletor lamps) va en phan
xa alumin parabolic, PAR (Parabolic
Aluminised Reflector), co bong hnh elliptic
hoac parabolic. Mot phan trong cua bong co
trang lp phan xa, cho cac tia hong ngoai
xuyen qua, nhng phan chieu cac tia bc
song cao, nen con goi la en tia lanh (cool beam). Loai en si ot nay cho anh sang nh hng
va co nhiet o mau mat hn.

d- en tungsten halogen:

* Quang hiu: 18 lm/W
* Ch s truyn t mu: 1A
* Nhit mu: m (3,000K - 3,200K)
* Tui th: 2.000 4.000 gi

en tungsten halogen la en si ot vi tim tungsten, nam trong
bong cha kh halogen. Kch thc gon nho cua en giup tang
nhiet o cua tim, ong thi tang ca ap suat cua kh. Khi nhiet o tim tang cao, quang pho cua en
chuyen sang phan trang am (warm white), nhng tim khong b bay hi nhanh hn, do cac phan t
tungsten bay hi se ket hp vi halogen lam thanh mot halide kim loai (metal halide), quay ngc
lai tim en. Nh vay halogen giup lam giam toc o mon tim en do bay hi, va con lam tang nang
suat cua en.

Va co nhiet o mau sang trang, va co ch so truyen at mau cao, do ban chat en si ot, kch
thc nho gon, lai de dung dimmer, en halogen chiem u iem trong trang tr san khau, trien
lam.

94


Mot cai tien cua en halogen la loai en halogen ien ap thap, co quang thong cao so vi kch
thc, c che tao di nhieu dang va kch thc, la nguon sang iem ly tng cho thiet ke
chieu sang.

Nhc iem cua en halogen la ton ien, tieu tu nhiet cao, can phai quan tam van e phong chay
khi dung loai en nay. ui en thch hp la mot giai phap quan trong ve van e phong chay.

en halogen vi cong nghe ap suat thap co quang thong khong giam trong suot thi gian tuoi tho
cua no. No con co the dung vi moi loai choa en. en halogen khong co cong nghe ap suat thap
phai dung loai choa en co chup bao ve.


2. en phong ien (Discharge lamps):

a. en huynh quang thong dung (General Fluorescent lamps):

Quang ph tng i va nhiet o mau ca en






Loi Halo pht phat:
* Quang hieu: 80 lm/W (ballast ien t cho them 10%)
* Ch so truyen at mau: 2 - 3
* Nhiet o mau: nhieu loai
* Tuoi tho: 7.000 15.000 gi.
95



Loai Tri-phot-pho:
* Quang hieu: 90 lm/W * Ch so truyen at mau: 1A-1B
* Nhiet o mau: nhieu loai * Tuoi tho: 7.000 -15.000 gi

en huynh quang, anh sang c phat ra t be mat kha rong, va hau het la anh sang tan xa vi
o choi thap. Nhiet o mau cua en huynh quang gom ca cac loai anh sang trang am (warm
white), trang trung hoa (neatral white), va anh sang ban ngay (daylight). u diem cua en huynh
quang la quang hieu cao, va tuoi tho dai.

Ngoai bong en, bo en huynh quang con phai co con moi (starter) va ba-lat (ballast), e tao
xung ap moi en. en huynh quang khi ong nhanh va co ngay quang thong max. Neu mat
nguon, en cung khi ong lai nhanh khi nguon co lai. en huynh quang khong de dang ieu
khien vi dimmer, ma phai co phu tung ac biet.
Nguyen ly en huynh quang : ien cc (1) phat xa cac electron (2), tan xa vao cac nguyen t
thuy ngan (3). Cac electron cua nguyen t thuy ngan (4) b kch thch, phat xa tia cc tm (5). Tren
lp phu huynh quang (6) ben trong bong en, tia UV b bien oi thanh anh sang nhn thay (7).
en huynh quang la mot en phong ien thap ap (ap suat thap). Kh tr ien ay trong bong lam
viec moi en de dang va kiem soat qua trnh phong ien. Pho khong lien tuc cua e n huynh
quang cho ch so truyen at mau thap hn so vi en si ot. en huynh quang c san xuat
nhieu loai khac nhau, tuy thuoc vao lp huynh quang cho quang pho khac nhau. Tuy nhien loai
en huynh quang nao co ch so truyen at mau tot hn th quang hieu thap hn, va ngc lai.
en huynh quang thng c che tao cac c ong T12 (ng knh ong 12/8 = 38mm) va T10
(32mm). Cac en T8 (26mm) va T5 (16m) co hieu suat cao hn 5% so vi T12 va T10.


b. en huynh quang compact:

- Quang hieu: 60 lm/W .
- Ch so truyen at mau: 1B.
- Nhiet o mau: am, trung
gian.
- Tuoi tho: 7.000 -10.000
gi.




en huynh quang compact thc ra ch co hnh dang khac, con
nguyen ly th y nh en huynh quang thong dung. en huynh
quang compact co hai loai: loai gom san ba-lat, va loai co ba-
lat gan ri. Loai gom san ba-lat co ui van y nh en si ot,
nen c goi la en tiet kiem ien.
en huynh quang compact co hai loai nhiet o mau: trang am (warm white), va anh sang ngay
(daylight). en c che tao nhieu c cong suat t 5W cho en 55W, c khuyen khch dung
thay cac bong en si ot, e tiet kiem ien sinh hoat cac o th.
96


c. en Sodium cao ap HPS (High pressure sodium lamps):





Ong phong ien






* Quang hieu: 50 - 90 lm/W (CRI cao, quang hieu thap) * Ch so truyen at mau : 1 2 .
* Nhiet o mau: trang am . * Tuoi tho: 24.000 gi, quang thong duy tr cc tot.
* Thi gian khi ong: 10 phut, loai tai khi nong (hot re-strike): 60 giay.



Quang ph tng i va nhiet o mau ca en
Ong phong ien la trung tam cua en sodium cao ap, ben trong
co cha 1 6mg sodium va 20 mg thuy ngan. No c at trong mot bong bao ve ngoai, dang tru
trong hoac dang bau uc (hnh elliptic). Dang bong bau uc co trang ben trong mot lp phu, ch co
tac dung giam choi, khong co chat huynh quang. Kh ien ay ben trong ong phong ien la xenon.
Tang lng kh cho phep giam lng thuy ngan, nhng lam en kho khi ong.

en HPS co ap suat cang cao th quang pho cua en cang rong, ch so truyen at mau CRI cang
cao, nhng quang hieu giam. Quang hieu cua en HPS ch thua en sodium thap ap. Loai en
sa mau (color corrected) va sa mau manh (strongly colour corrected) cho ch so truyen at
mau CRI rat tot (2B va 1B). en HPS co tuoi tho dai.

en HPS lam viec vi mot ba-lat va mot bo moi. en oi hoi mot thi gian khi ong vai phut,
va mot pha nguoi xuong trc khi tai khi ong. Mot vai dang en HPS ac biet cho phep tai
khi ong nhanh, dung bo moi ac biet va ba-lat ien t.

HPS con co loai en thang co ui hai au, cho phep khi ong tc thi, ac iem la rat nho gon.


97



d. en Metal Halide (MH):

Ong phong ien

Quang ph tng i nhit


ca n







- Quang hieu: 80lm/W
- Ch so truyen at mau: 1A 2 tuy theo hon hp halide.
- Nhiet o mau: 3.000K 6.000K
- Tuoi tho: 6.000 20.000 gi, quang thong duy tr thap.
- Thi gian khi ong: 2-3 phut, loai tai khi nong (hot re-strike): 10-20 giay

Metal Halide (MH) la cai tien t hai loai en phong ien: thuy ngan cao ap, va sodium cao ap, va
cho quang hieu cao hn. Vi MH, cho phep chon la a dang mau, kch thc va cong suat hn
tat ca cac loai en phong ien khac. MH co CRI tot, tuoi tho cao, en nho gon ma cong suat cao,
de nh hng anh sang trong nhng ng dung en pha, nh trong the thao.

MH co cung nguyen ly vi thuy ngan cao ap, vi hon hp halide kim loai c them vao, lam
tang quang hieu va cai thien CRI, quang pho cua no a vach, va gan nh lien tuc. en MH co ong
98


phong ien lam bang ceramic, co the so sanh vi cong nghe thach anh, cho phep nhiet o van
hanh cao hn, giup tang them quang hieu va cai thien CRI.
Bang cach them kim loai khac vao vi thuy ngan, quang pho se oi khac. Nhiet o mau cua MH
co ca trang am (warm white), trang trung hoa (neutral white), va anh sang ban ngay (daylight).
en MH khong dung dimmer c. MH can bo
moi va ba-lat dang cuon chan (choke) e van
hanh. Thi gian khi ong vai phut, va thi gian
nguoi xuong lau hn. Mot vai dang en vi bo
moi ac biet va ba-lat ien tcho phep tai moi
tc thi.

Mot so en MH co ien cc th 3 e khi ong. Mot so en MH khac, ac biet la loai en nho,
can xung ap khi ong ln hn. MH co ca loai en dang ong co uoi en mot hoac hai au, en
dang bong bau ellip, va bong co phan quang. en MH co phan quang ket hp cong nghe en MH
vi en PAR.

e. en sodium thap ap (Low pressure sodium lamps):

- Quang hieu: 100 200 lm/W.
- Ch so truyen at mau: 4
- Nhiet o mau: Vang (2,200K) .
- Tuoi tho: 16.000 gi.
- Thi gian khi ong: 10 phut, loai tai khi
nong (hot re-strike): en 3 phut.

Mat dau en Sodium thap ap (LPS) tng t vi cac en huynh quang (co ap suat thap), chung
thng c xep vao ho cac en phong ien cng do cao HID (high intensity discharge lamps).
Mac dau en LPS co quang hieu cao nhat, ch so truyen at mau CRI cua no lai kem nhat. V la
nguon sang n sac, nen tat ca cac mau cua cac vat the c chieu sang tr nen en, trang hoac
xam, di anh sang cua LPS.
LPS co cac cong suat t 18 den 180W. LPS co rat t cong dung nh: chieu sang bao ve, chieu
sang ng giao thong, va chieu sang trong nha cong suat thap, nhng ni ma thiet ke chieu
sang khong can chat lng mau (nh loi cau thang). Tuy nhien v ch so truyen at mau thap,
nhieu a phng khong cho phep dung en LPS e chieu sang ng pho.
f. en cao ap hi thuy ngan HP-MV (High pressure - Mercury Vapour Lamps):

- Quang hieu: 50 - 60 lm/W.
- Ch so truyen at mau: 3
- Nhiet o mau: Trung gian
- Tuoi tho: 16.000 24.000 gi, quang
thong duy tr kem.

Ong phong ien en thuy ngan cao ap (HP-MV) lam bang
thuy tinh thach anh, cha 100 mg thuy ngan va kh argon,
co ien cc th 3 e de moi phong ien. Bong en ngoai
cha nitrogen, va co phu phot-pho, bien tia cc tm thanh
anh sang o, sa sac xanh luc cua phong ien thuy ngan.
99


Thuy tinh cua bong ngoai con tac dung chan tia cc tm.
HP-MV la en loai en phong ien xa nhat, mac du co tuoi tho cao va gia re, nhng quang hieu
thap , lai con mau xuong cap quang thong. Them vao o, HP-MV cho anh sang xanh lt lat va ch
so truyen at mau kem. Do o ngay nay ngi ta co khuynh hng dung cac loai en phong ien
khac thay the cho en thuy ngan cao ap.
Tuy vay en thuy ngan cao ap van la nguon sang pho thong e chieu sang quang canh, do tuoi
tho 24.000 gi cua no, va tnh nang lam noi bat nhng canh quan nhieu sac xanh la, nh canh
cong vien, vn thu v.v
g. en thuy ngan trc tiep (hon hp) (Blended lamps):

* Cong suat tieu bieu: 160 W * Quang hieu: 20 - 30 Lm/W
* He so cong suat: 0.95 * Tuoi tho: 8.000 gi.

en hon hp, con goi la en thuy ngan loai trc tiep, la loai en
2 trong 1. No ket hp hai nguon sang trong cung mot bong. Mot
nguon la ong phong ien thuy ngan thach anh, nguon con lai la
tim en tungsten noi tiep vi no, vua la si ot, va la ba-lat cho
ong phong ien.
en hon hp ch can bong en va ui en, ngoai ra khong can
phu tung g, do o ngi ta goi no la en thuy ngan trc tiep.
Luc mi khi ong, ch co tim en sang, sau 3 phut bong phong
ien mi cho ay u quang thong.
Loai en nay thch hp cho nhng ni co yeu cau phong chong chay no.

3. en LED:

- Quang hieu: 75-150 lm/W.
- Ch so truyen at mau: 1A
- Nhiet o mau: u mau
- Tuoi tho: >50.000 gi

en LED c xem la cong nghe chieu sang mi cua thi ai ien t va phu hp vi thi ky bien
oi kh hau.

a- Tnh nang:

Diod phat quang, LED, co tuoi tho cc ky dai, chong va ap, va tieu thu cong suat t. Khi ieu
chnh giam o sang (dimming), mau anh sang (nhiet o mau) cua LED van gi nguyen.

LED s dung ien nguon DC (t 1,6 en 3,2V). Muon dung LED vi ien li AC, can phai co bo
ieu khien e bao am dong ien van hanh.

LED la nguon sang kch thc nho, co ac tnh nguon sang iem giup ieu khien chieu sang chnh
xac. Nang bao nha cua LED va lam bao ve va lam thau knh.

Khi nhiet o tang th quang thong ngo ra cua LED b suy giam, do o can phai co bo phan tan
nhiet. Nen tranh lap at LED ni co bc xa mat tri trc tiep hoac gan nguon nhiet.
100



Tuoi tho trung bnh cua LED la 50.000 gi, nen no thch hp vi thi gian van hanh dai.
Khi ong tc thi va tac ong trc tiep vi ieu khien, LED thch hp vi viec chieu sang trang
tr canh quan.

LED hien nay ang phat trien theo hng nho gon hn, quang thong va hieu suat phat quang cao
hn, va quy trnh san xuat kinh te hn (re hn). Muc ch xa hn na la giam c o lech mau
trong san xuat. Cac nha san xuat phan loai LED theo quang thong va bc song troi.

b- Nguye n ly va n ha nh:

LED la nhng diod ban dan thuoc nhom nguon quang ien. Anh sang c phat sinh do s ket
hp cua cac cap thanh phan mang ien (ien t va lo trong) tai mo i noi PN ban dan phan cc
thuan.
LED tao ra bc xa bang hep. Nhiet o mau gi nguyen hang so khi cng o sang giam. Nhng
LED dung e chieu sang khong phat sinh tia cc tm va tia hong ngoai.

o dai song cua anh sang (mau sang cua LED) phat ra tuy thuoc vao loai chat ban dan che tao
LED.
Trong ng dung chieu sang, ngi ta cap ien cho mot to hp nhieu LED chip noi hon hp (va
noi tiep, va song song) qua mot Khoi nguon.
Khoi nguon chuyen ien li AC 220V thanh ien DC 24V, la mot mach nguon dong co ieu
khien vi IC.

LED mau:

LED cho mot dai pho hep. o dai song troi xac nh quy tch mau cua LED. So sanh vi cac en
huynh quang mau, LED co mat o mau cao hn. S ket hp cu a chat ban dan tao nen pho mau
cua LED.
Nhng LED co mau khac nhau ket noi trong cung mot mach tai ien se cho quang thong khac
nhau.

LED trang:

Anh sang trang khong the tao ra t cac vat lieu ban dan. Do o anh sang LED trang hien nay
c tao ra bang 2 cach:

- Ket hp RGR (Red-Green-Blue): ket h p at gan
nhau 3 LED 3 mau o (R), Xanh la (G)va Xanh l (B),
cac mau anh sang ket hp lai thanh mot dai ma u rong,
gom ca mau trang.
That ra cac LED mau R,G,B co the c ieu khien
rieng e ieu khien cng o sang cua chung. Ket qua
la ngi ta co the tao mau trang, hoac bat c mau g
cung c.


101


- Chuyen oi phat quang: pho sang cua LED mau co
the b chuyen oi bang cach dung phosphore nh mot
lp phat quang. Ngi ta nghien cu san xuat c
cac LED xanh l (Blue LED) phu cac lp phospore
vang e tao anh sang trang. Mot cong nghe khac kho
hn, ngi ta dung LED cc tm vi cac lp phosphore
RGB.



c- Kieu ong goi:

- LED loai T:
LED loai T, con goi la LED xuyen lo THT-LED (Thru Hole Type
LED) la LED chuan c ong goi bang nha, kch thc 3
5mm. Hnh dang cua vo nha, nh la mot thau knh, se xac nh
goc chieu. LED loai nay co cong suat nho (<200mW) quang thong thap (1-3lm), quang hieu thap
(<50lm/W), thng c ng dung e chieu sang tn hieu va chieu sang nh hng.

- SMD LED:
LED dan be mat
(Surface
Mounted Device)
co linh kien ban
dan c dan
trc tiep vao
mach in, va cac
moi noi c han.

- COB LED:
Cong nghe COB
(Chip on
Board)at chip trc tiep len mot mach in, khong can vo boc. Nhng
moi noi anod va cathode dung nhng day manh. Chip c dan e
bao ve.


- LED cong suat cao:
LED cong suat cao, gom ca SMD LED va COB LED, la nhng LED co cong suat tieu thu 1-5W,
quang thong cao (100-500lm), quang hieu cao (100lm/W).
Yeu to quan trong cua loai LED nay la cau truc cua no co nhiet tr rat thap gia chip va mach in.
Loai LED nay thng c dung tren mach in co loi kim loai nham muc ch toa nhiet that tot cho
choa en.

d- Cac bong en LED thay the cho cac bong en co ien khac:

102


Vi cac li iem cua LED, cac nha san xuat ang phat trien nhanh cong nghe ong goi LED
thanh cac bong en co kch thc va chan en tng t e thay the lap thang vao ui en cua cac
bong en co ien,ma van dung lai choa en ca bo en cu. Sau ay la mot vai v du:

- Thay the cac bong huynh quang T8 bang LED tube:

(dung bong MASTER LED tube GA cua Philips)
LED tube Thay the
bong
h/quang
Quang
thong
(lm)
Ma mau CRI Giai phap thay the Tuoi tho
(h)
11W/600mm 0,6m 825 840(nw),865(cw) 85 Thay thang cho
bong h/q tuyp, e
nguyen ballast
>40.000
22W/1.200mm 1,2m 1650 840(nw),865(cw) 85
25W/1.500mm 1,5m 1900 840(nw),865(cw) 85

- Thay the cac bong halogen bang LEDSpot :
(dung bong MASTER LEDspot LV cua Philips)
V du: bong LEDspot D 7-50W GU10 4000K 25D, thay the
c bong spot light halogen 50W, socket GU 10, cng o tia
chieu 1.400cd, tuoi tho 40.000 gi, co the dimming, CRI>80,
nhiet o mau 4.000oK, goc chieu t 25-40o, nhiet o van hanh
-20 en 45oC, thch nghi vi thang giang ien ap 10%, t
nhiet, khong co bc xa IR va UV. Giai phap tiet kiem ien
nang cho khach san, ca hang, van phong (tiet kiem 80-90%
ien nang so vi bong halogen).


V du: LEDspot
AR111, 10W, thay
the cho cac Spot
light gan ray 50W,
socket G53, goc chieu 24 hoac 40o, cng o tia chieu t 1.150 en 3.370cd, tuoi tho 45.000 gi,
khong dimming, CRI>80, nhiet o mau 2.700 va 3.000oK, khong bc xa IR va UV, anh sang trang am,
thch hp ca hang, sieu th, thay the n gian (khong can thao bien ap ien t hoac ien t cua en
halo cu).
- Thay the cac bong tron si ot vi LEDbulb:
(dung MASTER LEDbulb cua Philips)
V du: LEDbulb D 12-60W E27(B22) 2700K AS60, 12W, thay the
cac bong tron si ot 60W, socket E27 (B22), dang bong A60,
quang thong 806lm, cng o tia chieu > 300 cd, tuoi tho 25.000
gi, co the dimming, CRI >80, anh sang trang am,nhiet o mau
2.700oK, nhiet o van hanh -20 en 45oC, khong bc xa IR va UV,
103


thch hp vi khach san, tiem an, cua hang van phong, tiet kiem ien nang 80% (so vi bong A si
ot)









4. D lieu chi tiet ve cac loai en thong dung:
Loai en Cong suat (W)
Phan trong ngoac gom cong
suat ba-lat
Quang
hieu
(lm/W)
Ch so
truyen
at mau
Tuoi tho
Si ot thong dung 15,25,40,60,75,100,150,200,
300,500
8 - 17 100 1.000
Tungsten - halogen 75,100,150,500,1.000,2.000 13 - 25 100 2.000
Tungsten halogen (hai au) 200,300,500,750,1.000,1.500,2.0
00
16 - 23 100 2.000
Huynh quang ong (kh argon) 20,40,65 (32,51,79) 31 - 58 67 - 77 5.000
Huynh quang ong ( kh kripton) 18,36,58 (29,46,70) 38 - 64 67 - 77 5.000
H/quang compact (khong co
lang knh)
5,7,9,11,18,24,36
(8,12,13,15,28,32,45)
26 - 64 85 8.000
H/quang compact (co lang knh) 9,13,18,25 (9,13,18,25) cong
suat a gom ba-lat
48 - 50 85 8.000
Thuy ngan hon hp 160 18 50 5.000
Thuy ngan cao ap 80,125,250,400,1.000,2.000
(93,137,271,1.424,1.040, 2.105)
38 - 53 45 5.000
Metal halide (mot au) 250,400,1.000,2.000
(268,427,1.040,2.105)
51 - 79 70 8.000
Metal halide (hai au) 70,150,250 (81,170,276) 62 - 72 70 8.000
Sodium cao ap 70,150,250,400,1.000
(81,170,276,431,1060)
69 - 108 25 - 60 >12.000
Sodium thap ap 35,55,135 (48,68,159) 90 -133 0 >12.000
LED lamp 1-120 75-150 90 >50.000

5. ng dung thch hp cho cac nguon sang thong dung:

Loai en Quang
hieu
trung
bnh
(lm/W)
Ch so
truyen at
mau
ng dung Tuoi tho (gi )
en si ot 14 Xuat sac Nha , nha hang, chieu sang chung,
chieu sang khan cap
1.000
en huynh quang 50 Tot Van phong, ca hang, benh vien, nha 5.000
en h/quang compact 60 Rat tot Khach san, ca hang, nha , van phong 8.000 10.000
104


en Thuy ngan cao ap 50 Va Xng san xuat , ga-ra, bai o, en pha 5.000
en halogen 20 Xuat sac Chng bay, en chieu, san khau, trien
lam, khu vc xay dng
2.000 4.000
Sodium cao ap 90 Va Chieu sang chung xng, kho, cs ng
pho
6.000 12.000
Sodium thap ap 120 Kem ng giao thong, ham, kenh ao,
ng pho
10.000 12.000
LED lamp 150 Xuat sac Trang tr, trien lam, ca hang, van
phong, ng pho
50.000-100.000

II. CAC MA EN QUOC TE:

1. Ma en ILCOS:
e ho tr viec nhan biet cac loai en tng thch, IEC a cho ra tieu chuan IEC TS 61231:1993,
ve he thong ma en pho bien, goi la ILCOS (International Lamp Coding System). He thong ma
ten goi nay c lien he trc tiep en cac tieu chuan khac cua IEC cho cac loai en. Tieu chuan
cua en co nhng bang d lieu c ch nh bang ma ILCOS.
ILCOS cung cap mot ma ngan ILCOS L, co the m rong e bao trum cac tnh nang cua en.
Ma chuan ILCOS D cho mot ch nh ay u vi moi en. Tat ca cac nha san xuat en lien he
ma nhan hieu rieng cua ho vi ma ILCOS. Trach nhiem bao dng he thong ma ILCOS la cua
Hoi ong Ky thuat en cua IEC.
2. Ma en LBS:
Lien oan cong nghiep c ZVEI (Zentralverband Elektrotechnik und Elecktronik Industrie), vao
nam 1994, cho ra mot he thong ma en goi la LBS (Lampen Bezeichnungs System). Ma en nay
c s dung rong rai bi cac nha san xuat choa en Chau Au. He thong ma LBS ngan gon,
nhng khong c ho tr bi tat ca cac nha san xuat va bi cac tieu chuan quoc te.
- Phan chnh cua ma LBS gom 3 en 5 ch, ch au 1 ky t, ch th hai 1 ky t, ch th 3
t 1 en 3 ky t.
- Ch th nhat trong ma LBS ch loai anh sang cho bi en:
I
H
L
en si ot (Incandescent lamp)
en phong ien cao ap (High pressure discharge lamp)
en phong ien thap ap (Low pressure discharge lamp)
- Ch th hai ch vat lieu lam bong en si ot, hay chat kh cha trong en phong ien:
105


G
Q
M
I
S
Thuy tinh (Glass)
Thach anh (Quartz)
Thuy ngan (Mercury)
Metal halide
Sodium
- Ch th ba hoac nhom ch con lai: ch hnh dang bong en, co hay khong co lp phan xa:
A
E
PAR
R
T
TC
Thong dung (General)
Ellip (Ellipsoidal)
Parabol phan xa (Parabolic reflector)
Phan xa (Reflector)
Hnh tru (Tubular)
Compact (Compact tubes)
- Sau ma chnh, noi tiep bang dau gach ngang (-), ma LBS con mot phan uoi noi ve kieu
en hay i en
DE
CB
CBC
EL
D
DSE
DEL
L
Hai au uoi (Double eneded)
Tia lanh, khong vo (Coolbeam, without cover)
Tia lanh, co vo (Coolbeam, with cover)
Khong co stater cho ballast ien t (Without stater for EB)
4 U (with 4 discharge tubes)
4 U, co ballast ien t nam trong (with 4 discharge tubes, with intergal EB)
4 U, khong co stater cho ballast ien t (with 4 discharge tubes, without starter for EB)
Bong dai (Linear).

3. Mot so ma en tieu bieu tng ng gia 2 he thong ma en ILCOS va LBS :
LBS
(ZVEI)
ILCOS Mo ta
A IA en si ot thong dung
106


R
QT
QT-DE
QPAR
QR
QR-CBC
T16
T26
T16-R
TC-S
TC-SEL
TC-L
TC-D
TC-DEL
TC-T
TC-TEL
TC-DD
LMG-lHf
HIT-DE
HIT-DE-CE
HIT
HIE
HIE-CE
HME
HSE
HSE-I
HST
IRR
HSG
HDG
HA
HAG/HMG
HRG
FDH
FD
FSC
FSD
FSDH
FSD
FSQ
FSQH
FSM
FSMH
FSS
FSS
MD
MT
MT
ME
ME
QE
SE
SE/I
ST
en phan xa
en si ot halogen
en si ot halogen, en dai hai au uoi
en si ot halogen, ien ap nguon chnh (220V) vi co phan xa
en si ot halogen, ien ap thap, co phan xa
en halogen, ien ap thap, co phan xa lng sac va vo thuy tinh.
en huynh quang ong 16mm
en huynh quang ong 26mm
en huynh quang tron 16mm
en huynh quang compact (1U)
en huynh quang compact (1U) co ballast ien t en 80W
en huynh quang compact (1U) en 36W
en huynh quang compact (2U)
en huynh quang compact (2U) co ballast ien t
en huynh quang compact (3U) en 36W
en huynh quang compact (3U) co ballast ien t en 120W
en huynh quang compact (2D)
en cam ng (Philips loai QL)
en metal halide, bong tru hai au uoi
en metal halide 2 au uoi vi bo ot ceramic
en metal halide, bong tru 1 au uoi
en metal halide, bong bau 1 au uoi
en metal halide 1 au uoi vi bo ot ceramic
en thuy ngan cao ap
en sodium cao ap, bong bau 1 au uoi
en sodium cao ap, bong bau 1 au uoi, bo moi ben trong
en sodium cao ap, bong tru 1 au uoi
107


HSE-MF
HST-MF
HSE-CRI
HST-CRI
HST
HST
HST-DE
LST
SE
ST
SEM
STH
STH
STH
SD
LS
en sodium cao ap, bong bau 1 au uoi
en sodium cao ap, bong tru 1 au uoi
en sodium cao ap, bong bau 1 au uoi, tang cng quang thong
en sodium cao ap, bong tru 1 au uoi, tang cng quang thong
Sodium c.ap, bong bau 1 au uoi, cai thien CRI, (Philips SON Comfort Protype)
Sodium c.ap, bong tru 1 au uoi, cai thien CRI, (Philips SON-T Comfort Protype)
Sodium c.ap, bong tru 2 au uoi, CRI cao (Philips SDW-T, Iwasaki NHT-SDX)
en sodium thap ap, bong tru 1 au uoi.
(Bang ma so sanh vi mo ta bang tieng Anh)
LBS (ZVEI) ILCOS Description
A IA General purpose incandescent lamp
R IRR Reflector lamps
QT HSG Halogen incandescent lamps
QT-DE HDG Halogen incandescent lamps, linear double-ended
QPAR HA Halogen incandescent lamps for mains voltage with reflector
QR HAG / HMG Low voltage halogen incandescent lamps with reflector
QR-CBC HRG Low volt. halogen incand. lamp with dichroic reflector and glass cover
T16 FDH Fluorescent lamps 16mm
T26 FD Fluorescent lamps 26mm
T16-R FSC Circular fluorescent lamps 16mm
TC-S FSD Compact fluorescent lamps (1 tube)
TC-SEL FSDH Compact fluorescent lamps (1 tube) for electronic ballast up to 80W
TC-L FSD Compact fluorescent lamps (1 tube) up to 36W
TC-D FSQ Compact fluorescent lamps (2 tubes)
TC-DEL FSQH Compact fluorescent lamps (2 tubes) for electronic ballast
TC-T FSM Compact fluorescent lamps (3 tubes) up to 36W
TC-TEL FSMH Compact fluorescent lamps (3 tubes) for electronic ballast up to 120W
108


TC-DD FSS Compact fluorescent lamps (double D)
LMG-lHf FSS Induction lamps (Philips QL type)
HIT-DE MD Double ended tubular metal halide lamp
HIT-DE-CE MT Double ended tubular metal halide lamp with ceramic burner
HIT MT Single ended tubular metal halide lamp
HIE ME Single ended elliptical metal halide lamp
HIE-CE ME Single ended elliptical metal halide lamp with ceramic burner
HME QE High pressure mercury discharge lamp
HSE SE Single ended elliptical high pressure sodium lamp
HSE-I SE/I Single ended elliptical high pressure sodium lamp with internal ignitor
HST ST Single ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp
HSE-MF SE Single ended elliptical high pressure sodium lamp, increased light output
(MF = more luminous flux)
HST-MF ST Single ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp, increased light output
HSE-CRI SEM Single ended elliptical high pressure sodium lamp improved CRI
(Philips SON Comfort Pro type)
HST-CRI STH Single ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp improved CRI
(Philips SON-T Comfort Pro type)
HST STH Single ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp with high CRI
(e.g. Philips SDW-T, Iwasaki NHT-SDX)
HST-DE SD Double ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp
LST LS Single ended tubular low pressure sodium lamp





109


III. AC TNH CAC EN THONG DUNG:


110




111




112




113




114




115




116




117




118




119




120




121




122


IV. CAC MACH IEU KHIEN EN:
1. Van e tiet kiem nang lng:
Nang lng ien tieu thu trong mot bo en la do bong en va bo ieu khien (control gear). Neu
choa en c cai thien ieu kien nhiet o, th nang lng ien tieu thu co the giam mot phan.
Ngi ta con thay neu cai tien ballast cua bo en th nang lng hao ph tiet kiem c kha nhieu.
Ch so hieu qua nang lng EEI (energy efficient index) phan loai cac ballast en huynh quang
thanh 7 hang va c cac nha san xuat ghi nhan cho cac ballast:
Hang Ballast
A1
A2
A3
B1
B2
C
D
Ballast ien t co dimmer
Ballast ien t giam ton hao
Ballast ien t
Ballast t, ton hao rat thap
Ballast t, ton hao thap
Ballast t, ton hao ang ke (ballast quy c), cam ban t 21/11/2005
Ballast t, ton hao rat cao (ballast quy c), cam ban t 21/5/2002.

2. Cac phu tung cua bo ieu khien en:
a. Ballast:
Ballast la bo phan chnh cua bo ieu khien trong mot bo en phong ien hay en huynh quang.
Trong ballast co to hp cac cuon cam, tu ien, va ien tr, nham han dong qua bong en. Ballast
con lam cac nhiem vu: tao ien ap khi ong, dong ien nung en, giam hieu ng hoat nghiem,
cai thien he so cong suat, triet nhieu vo tuyen, cai thien khi ong nguoi.
b. Bo moi:
Bo moi la kh cu khi ong, tao cac xung ien ap e khi ong en phong ien. Mot bo moi quy
c (i cu) khong co c cau bao ve. Ngha la neu bong en hay mach co van e, khong khi
ong c, th bo moi se c moi mai cho en khi nao co ngi tat en hoac ballast b hong. Bo
moi i mi co mot c cau bao ve la mot bo kiem soat chu ky (anti-cycling control), giup ngat bo
moi neu en khong khi ong c. Vi en metal halide, thi gian nay c 15 phut, vi en
sodium cao ap c 5 phut.
123


c. Tac-te (starter): con goi la con moi, dung trong en huynh quang thong dung, giup khi
tao mot xung ien ap qua bong en.
3. Cac mach en:
a. Mach en metal halide va sodium cao ap:

Bo moi noi tiep, bong
en c mac gia bo
moi va trung tnh.


b. Mach en sodium thap ap:

Bo moi c mac
song song vi bong
en.


c. Mach en huynh quang:
- Mach ballast t:
Bong en c mac noi
tiep vi ballast. Toan
mach c mac song
song vi tu ien e cai
thien hscs. Khi khi ong
starter noi tiep e nung
hai tim en hai au en,
roi nha ra tao xung ien
ap moi en.


124


- Mach ballast ien t:

Khong co starter cung
khong co tu bu. Mac
en theo s o ghi tren
ballast. Neu ballast co
chc nang dimmer, co
them nhng day ieu
khien.

d. Mach en khan cap (emergency light):


Xem mach ien mot bo en chieu sang khan cap, thuoc loai duy tr (maintained). Mach en co
them hai thanh phan: mot bo oi ien (inverter) va mot bo pin th cap (co the nap c). Khi van
hanh bnh thng, en c van hanh vi nguon chnh, cung cap xuyen qua bo oi ien. Khi
nguon chnh b mat, en c van hanh t bo oi ien, nhan nang lng t bo pin. Trong mot bo
en nhieu bong en, co the ch co mot bong lam nhiem vu khan cap c noi day qua bo oi
ien, cac bong khac noi day bnh thng.

V. LOAI EN CHO CAC KHONG GIAN VA HOAT ONG:
e chieu sang kinh te, cac chuyen gia cho rang mot mc o roi yeu cau phai kem theo loai en
phu hp, th thiet ke chieu sang lam viec se c tang cng chat lng ca ve nang suat th giac
va tien nghi th giac:
125


Khong gian, hoat ong o roi min khuyen ngh
E(lx)
Nguon sang
Van phong
Van phong nhieu ngi
Van phong m (t tng ngan)
Xng ve
X ly d lieu
CAD
Phong ien
Hanh lang
Cau thang
Cang-tin
Nha tam, ve sinh
Khu vc thng mai
Ca hang bach hoa
Quay thu tien
Sieu th
Tiep tan
Nha hang (an)
Ca-phe, bistro
Hang an t chon
Bep cang-tin
Bao tang, trien lam my thuat
Trien lam
Sanh hoi ch thng mai
Th vien, th vien media
Phong oc
300
500
750
750
500
200/500
200
50
100
200
100
300
300
500
500
200
200
200
300
500
200
300
300
300
500
T, TC
T
T,TC
T,TC
T,TC
A,QT,T,TC
TC
TC
T,TC
A, QT,QT-LV,TC
T,TC
QT,QT-LV,T,TC,HST,HSE,HIT
QT,QT-LV,T,TC,HST,HSE,HIT
T,TC
T,HIT
A,QT, QT-LV,TC
A,PAR,R,QT,QT-LV,TC
A,PAR,R,QT,QT-LV,TC
T,TC
T
A,PAR,R,QT,QT-LV,TC
PAR,R,QT,QT-LV,T,TC,HST,HSE,HIT
T,HME,HIT
T,TC
T,TC
126


The duc, tranh tai
The duc, huan luyen
Phong th nghiem
Tham my vien
Tiem uon toc
Benh vien, phong benh
- Chieu sang moi trng,
- Chieu sang e oc,
- Chieu sang e kham
Benh vien, phong kham

Tiep tan, hanh lang
Khu vc lu thong
Phong hoc
Phong hoc ln
ai sanh cua trng ai hoc
Phong hoa s
Phong th nghiem
ai giang ng, thnh phong
Khong gian a chc nang
Sanh hoa nhac, san khau, le hoi
San khau hoa nhac
Phong hop
Nha th
400
200
500
750
500

100
200
300
500

100
200
300/500
750
500
500
500
500
300
300
750
300
200
T,HME,HIE,HIT
T,HME,HIE,HIT
T
QT,QT-LV,T,TC
T,TC

T,TC
A,QT-LV,T,TC
QT,T,TC
T

QT,T,TC
QT,T,TC
T,TC
T,TC
T,TC
T,TC
T,TC
QT,T,TC
QT,T,TC
A,PAR,R,QT
PAR,R,QT
A,QT,TC
A,PAR,R,QT


127


VI. CHOA EN DUNG CHO CHIEU SANG BEN TRONG:
i. Ray en (light tracks):
Ray en giup cho cac thiet ke chieu sang linh ong
hn, v ngi ta co the thay en hoac thay oi v tr
cua en de dang. Chot cai tren choa en thc hien
ca ket noi ien va c gia en vi ray. Ray en co
the dung cho cac loai en chieu iem, en pha, en
quet tng. Co ca loai ray lap am tran. Dung ray a
pha cho phep ieu khien nhieu mach en ong thi.


Cong trnh dung en ray : Teattri
Ravintola, Helsinki- Phong chng
bay Christie, New York- Caffe
Caras Gourmet Kranzlereck, Berlin-
Nha rieng Kayser, Neuenrade (anh
cua ERCO).


2. en chieu iem (spotlights):
en chieu iem cho phep thay oi v tr lap en va goc xoay cua
en, c che tao vi nhieu goc tia chieu t rat hep en hep, va
phan bo cng o sang khac nhau. Ngi ta chon en chieu iem
theo nhiet o mau, o choi, cng o sang, va tuoi tho. Goc tia
chieu c xac nh do bo phan xa. Goc bao ve cua en giup han
che choi loa va tang tien nghi th giac. en co the ieu chnh ca chieu xoay va ngieng. Cac phu
tung cua en gom thau knh, bo loc, bo che choi loa.
128


en chieu iem (spotlights) co tia chieu t rat hep (khoang 10o) en hep (khoang 30o), oi xng
tron xoay, dung e chieu sang iem nhan (accent lighting).

en chieu vien (contour spotlights) co thau knh vi goc tia chieu thay oi, e chieu sang phong
anh (projection lighting) len tng hoac man anh.

en chieu iem c ng dung cho: bao tang, trien lam,
phong tranh nghe thuat, chng bay san pham, khu vc trnh
dien va trnh chieu. en chieu iem rat thch nghi khi thay
oi cong viec. Tia hep cua en co the chieu sang mot dien
tch nho t xa. Ngc lai, en vi goc phan bo rong cho phep
chieu sang mot khu vc rong ma ch dung mot en. Gobos,
thau knh
va tam
loc la
cac phu
tung lam
tang hieu
qua s dung en.
Cong trnh ap dung en chieu iem: Nha au
gia Christies, New York (anh cua ERCO).
129


3. en pha (floodlights):

en pha co ac tnh tia chieu t hep en rong, thng c che tao vi IDC oi xng. Tieu ch e
chon en pha la: mau, o sang, tuoi tho, hieu suat, o ong eu cng o sang: . Co the toi u bo
phan xa e co o roi eu, lam du ng bien, hoac tang ty suat quang thong ngo ra.
en pha c ng dung cho: the thao, bao tang, trien lam, hoi ch thng mai, khu vc ban hang,
khu vc trnh dien. Nen chon hnh thc cac bo en va cach bo tr sao cho hai hoa vi kien truc.

Cong trnh ap dung en pha :
Passeig de Gracia, Barcelona (anh cua
ERCO).



4. en quet tng (wallwashers):
en quet tng co ac tnh tia chieu rong,
phan bo cng o sang bat oi xng. Ngi
ta chon en theo mau, o sang, tuoi tho, o
ong eu cng o sang. Co the chon bo phan
xa toi u e cho ong deu o roi, ng bien
du, va ty suat quang thong ngo ra cao.


Co nhieu loai en quet tng :
130



en chieu iem quet tng (wallwashers spotlights) co phan bo cng o sang bat oi xng
nham muc ch cho o roi eu tren tng. Cac bo en quet tng lap ray cho phep ieu chnh
khoang cach cac en theo y muon.


en chieu iem quet tng, nghieng c (spotlight wallwashers, tiltable) en chieu iem nay
c gan them bo quet tng e co phan bo bat oi xng.


en quet (washlights) en nay co phan bo bat oi xng nhan tao ra o roi eu tren tng. Co
the gan them cho no mot phu kien downlight e chie u nen cho o roi eu.

131



en quet tng lng tieu (double-focus wallwashers) en nay co phan bo bat oi xng, cho
o roi tren tng vi he so ong eu tang cng. Nap che cua no tang goc bao ve cua en va
ngan tia choi.


en quet tng co thau knh (lens wallwashers) en nay co phan bo bat oi xng. Thau knh
dung e m rong goc tia chieu.


en quet tng (wallwashers) en nay cho phan bo bat oi xng.

132



en chieu bien (perimeter luminaires) e n nay co bo phan xa cho cho IDC bat oi xng, vi
bng n di nen cho o roi rat eu tren tng.
Khoang cach t tng en en quet tng (khoang offset)
khong nen nho hn 1/3 o cao tng, tng ng vi mot
goc min bang 20o. Ty le toi u gia khoang offset va
khoang cach en la 1:1. e khong phu thuoc vao o cao
thc te cua phong va khoang offset, ngi ta co the dung
cac en chieu iem co the quay nghieng lap phan di
cua tng.
Quet tng la mot thanh phan quan trong cua chieu sang
kien truc, e them s nhan manh vao cac khu vc cua
phong, va giup o roi ng cao hn tai cac be mat ng va
tng cua nha bao tang, trien lam, quay hoi ch, thnh
phong, sanh dinh th, sanh ca hang bach hoa, khu thng
mai, khu trnh dien. Nhng choa en lap tren be mat co tac
dung neu ac iem khong gian, co hnh dang va cach xap
at phu hp vi kien truc.

Cong trnh ap dung en quet tng: Bao tang Anh,London Nha li liem, Wiltshire -
Mediathek, Trng Cao ang Am nhac Sendai- Weimar (anh cua ERCO).
6. Ket cau sang (light structures):
Ket cau sang la nhng choa en ac biet cho phep kha nang gan them vao cac choa en di ong,
bang cach dung ray hay o cam. Ket cau sang thng gom nhng thanh phan hnh tru hoac dang
133


pa-nen treo di tran. Thong dung nhat la cac ket cau sang gan san cac en dai chieu sang trc
tiep va gian tiep phan xa vi tran. Cac thanh phan ket cau sang co the gan san nhng en chieu
iem (spotlight) hay choa en nh hng (directional luminaires) e chieu sang iem nhan
(accent lighting).

Ket cau sang vi cho a en trc tiep (Luminaires Direct Light structures) cho anh sang chieu
xuong oi xng truc.

Ket cau sang vi cho a en gian tie p (Luminaires Indirect Light structures) cho anh sang
chieu len oi xng truc.

Ket cau sang vi cho a en trc tiep / gian tiep (Luminaires Direct / Indirect Light
structures) cho anh sang chieu len va chieu xuong oi xng truc.

134



Ket cau sang vi cho a en quet tng (Luminaires Wallwashing Light structures) e chieu
sang quet tng, co IDC bat oi xng tao nen o roi eu tren mat tng.
Khoang offset t tng (a) nen chon bang khoang
cach en (b).
Khoang cach en (b) gia 2 ket cau sang nen chon
bang o cao treo en tnh en mplv.
Khoang cach en tran phu thuoc vao he so ong eu
yeu cau cua o roi tran. Vi choa en gian tiep, nen
chon khoang nay t nhat bang 0,8m
Cac ket cau sang c ap dung cho: chieu sang chung
trong van phong, phong kham va ieu tr y khoa, chieu
sang cac khu vc i bo, chieu sang iem nhan va chieu
sang quet tng, phoi hp vi cac choa en chieu
iem, en pha va en quet tng.

Cac cong trnh ap dung ket cau sang:
Reichstag, Berlin - Trng trung hoc
Xaverian Brothers, Westwood MA- Toa
nha chnh quyen a phng, Berlin-
Vien bao tang Thng Hai (anh cua
ERCO).


135





7. en chieu xuong (downlights):
en chieu xuong cho mot chum tia chieu xuong theo mot
goc thang goc hoac mot goc chnh theo yeu cau. en chieu
xuong co cac loai tia hep, tia rong, phan bo oi xng va bat
oi xng. Cac tieu ch e chon en chieu xuong: mau, tuoi
tho, hieu suat, cng o sang, goc chieu, goc bao ve, ty suat
quang thong ngo ra.
Vi downlight co bo phan xa kieu Darklight, goc bao ve cua
bong en bang goc bao ve cua choa en. Choa en nay cho
chum tia rong nhat co the ong thi toi u ty suat quang
thong ngo ra. Dung mot chup tan xa giup lam giam o choi
cua bo en va tang tien nghi th giac.

en chieu xuong lng tieu (double-focus downlights) co mot chum tia chieu oi xng tron
xoay, chieu thang xuong di. No co mot bo phan xa hnh dang ac biet, cho phep phat ra mot
quang thong cao, du la lo tran khoet nho.

136



en chieu xuong thong dung (general downlights) cho tia chieu xuong oi xng tron xoay,
chieu thang xuong mplv.


en chieu quet (washlights) cho chum tia bat oi xng, chieu xuong va chieu vao tng. Loai
ac biet goi la en quet kep (double washlights) quet mot luc hai tng oi dien va en quet goc
(corner washlights) e chieu quet goc phong.

en quet tng lng tieu (double-focus wallwashers) cho chum tia bat oi xng va trc tiep
vao mat ng cua tng, cho o roi eu tren mat tng. Loai en nay, c gan mot phu tung
ac biet, goi la oan quet tng ben trong (internal wallwasher segment), la mot cong nghe phan
xa, lam cho bong en c dau khuat, khong gay choi cho ngi quan sat moi goc nhn.

137



en quet tng co thau knh (lens wallwashers) cho chum tia sang bat oi xng chieu vao mat
ng cua tng, giup cho o roi eu tren tng. en co he thong phan xa vi thau knh ac biet,
bo phan xa Darklight, nen ngi co the nhn thang vao en t ben di ma khong b choi loa.


en quet tng (wallwashers) co IDC bat oi xng, chieu vao mat phang ng, cho o roi ng
ong eu.

en chieu xuong nh hng (directional downlights) c dung e neu bat nhng oi tng
hay nhng vung rieng biet vi mot chum tia hep hoac trung bnh. No ket hp li iem cua mot
en chieu xuong vi s linh ong cua mot en chieu iem nh hng. en co the xoay 360o va
nghieng 20o. Nh co bo phan xa Darklight, goc bao ve cua choa en khong oi theo moi hng.

138



Choa en nh hng (directional luminaires) dung e lam noi bat nhng oi tng hay nhng
vung rieng biet vi chum tia chieu hep hoac trung bnh.

- Sap at en cho chieu xuong:
Khoang offset t tng nen chon bang khoang cach en e
at c u o sang tren tng. Khoang cach en (d) khong
nen vt qua o cao lap at (h) vi ty le 1,5:1 e co o roi
eu tren mplv. o ong eu toi u at c khi d=h.
e co nhng vong sang (light scollop) oi xng goc phong,
mot downlight phai c at v tr ung 45o t goc.


d- Sap xep cho en chieu tng:
Khoang offset t tng t nhat phai bang 1/3 o cao cua phong,
tng ng vi goc chng 20o theo hnh ve.
o ong eu toi u at c khi khoang canh en bang
khoang cach offset t tng, va khong nen gap ri khoang
cach nay.
o ong eu ch co the at toi u khi so en toi thieu la 3 en.
V tr en goc phong phai nam tren ng 45o t goc.

139


en chieu xuong la cong cu pho bien e thc hien chieu sang chc nang, chieu sang kien truc, va
chieu sang iem nhan. en chieu xuong am tran (recessed downlights) la mot chi tiet kien truc
dau kn, trong khi en chieu xuong lap noi (surface-mounted downlights) va en chieu xuong loai
treo (pendant
downlights) lai tac
dung nh mot phong
cach cua can phong.
Hnh dang va cach xep
at cac en chieu
xuong cung nen phu
hp vi kien truc.

Cong trnh ap dung
en chieu xuong: Bao
tang Hang hai Osaka
(anh cua ERCO)


8. en ban (task lights):
en ban (task lights) phat anh sang xuong di, len mplv.
Co loai tia chieu hep va tia chieu rong. Tieu ch quan trong
e chon en: co the xoay va nghieng, t choi, tuoi tho, hieu
suat, cng o sang. en ban dung thch hp cho tram lam
viec (may vi tnh).





Projects:Van phong Kien truc,
Stockholm (anh cua ERCO).

140



9. Choa en lap tng (wallmounted luminaire):
Choa en lap tng c goi ten theo kieu lap,
ma khong theo ac tnh quang cua no. Nhieu loai
en vi IDC khac nhau, nh en tia hep, tia rong,
oi xng, bat oi xng, va nhieu hng chieu
khac nhau. Tieu ch chon en: mau, tuoi tho,
hieu suat, cng o sang. Goc tia chieu c xac
nh vi bo phan xa. Goc bao ve han che choi
loa va gia tang tien nghi th giac. Ty suat quang
thong ngo ra c tang cng nh cong nghe cua
bo phan xa.

en quet tran (ceiling washlights) co IDC bat oi xng, chieu chum sang len mat phang ngang
cua tran, cho o roi tran ong eu tren dien tch ln. Nh bo phan che goc cat (cut-off shield) tren
choa en, dien tch phan tran can chieu sang c ieu chnh xen doc theo truc cua day en. Chu
y en chieu len khac vi en quet tran do cau tao hnh hoc cua bo phan xa, IDC khac, va ty suat
quang thong ngo ra cao hn.

en quet nen (floor washlights) co IDC bat oi xng, chieu chum sang xuong mat ngang nen.
141


en quet tran phai lap cao hn tam mat.Khoang cach
en tran phu thuoc vao o ong eu can thiet, t nhat
la 0,8m.
en quet nen lap gan cho ngi ngoi, phai at thap
hn tam mat (1,2m), thng cho 0,8m cach nen.
en quet tran va quet nen c ap dung chieu sang:
nha th, nha hat, bao tang, khu vc i bo.
en am tran va am nen la mot chi tiet cua kien truc,
ngc lai en lap noi la mot phong cach co la chon
cho kien truc.



Cong trnh: Citibank,
Paris- Bao tang lch s,
Barcelona- Khach san
Hilton, Dubai Creek-
Toa nha Anh sang,
Frankfurt (anh cua
ERCO).






142


10. en chieu bien (perimeter luminaires) :
en chieu bien la
choa en dai vi tia
chieu rong, dung e
chieu o roi eu tren
cac mat phang ng.
No c ap dung
nhng ni en huynh
quang tuyp c cay thang vao trong gioang tran. Co choa en chieu bien khong co ca bo phan
xa. Tuy nhien, e cho o roi cao va eu, choa en can co bo phan xa, va en phai lap vi mot
khoang offset t tng. o sang cua en thap. Tieu ch e chon en chieu bien la o ong eu,
phu thuoc vao bo phan xa.
en khung thang (linear
grazing light)
en khung thang la en
chieu bien lap thang vao au
tng. o roi tren tng
giam nhanh vi khoang cach
en en. en ap dung cho:
bao tang, trien lam, khu vc bieu dien, nhan manh mat hong cua cac bo phan kien truc.
en chieu bien lap am thng la cac chi tiet kien
truc dau kn. Cac bo en chieu bien lap noi vi bo
phan xa thong xuong t tran, cho o roi tng rat
ong eu t tran xuong san.
Cong trnh: Reichstag, Berlin- The Tricycle,
London Nha hang Pacific Rim, Hong Kong
Quan bar tht nng Polygon, London(anh cua
ERCO).


143



11. en am nen (recessed floor luminaires):
en am nen phong chum tia len tren, thng co cac loai tia chieu hep, tia chieu rong, IDC oi
xng va bat oi xng.
en chieu len (uplights): co
chum tia oi xng chieu trc
tiep thang len, IDC hep, oi
xng tron xoay, dung chieu noi
bat (highlighting) cac oi tng.
Choa en nh hng
(directional luminaires) : dung
chieu sang noi bat cac vung
hoac oi tng rieng biet, IDC
t trung bnh en hep, chum tia
co the chnh nghieng (tiltable).
en chieu len, khuyech tan
(uplight, diffuse) : la bo en am
nen, IDC khuyech tan, dung
anh dau loi i hoac nhan manh
cac ng net kien truc. en
c ng dung e chieu sang
iem nhan hay chieu sang pha cho nha hat, khu
vc bieu dien, thng mai, khu vc tiep tan va
sanh vao.

Cong trnh: Deutsche Bank, Tokyo-Burj Al
Arab, Dubai-Burj Al Arab, Dubai- Bao tang
Hang hai, Osaka (anh cua ERCO).


144


12. en dan hng (oriention luminaires) :
en dan hng co the la nguon quang thong, nhng o ch la nhiem vu phu. Nhiem vu chnh cua
no la en tn hieu, tao chu y va hng dan phng hng. Tieu ch e chon en : noi bat so vi
canh quan xung quanh.
Choa en dan hng tai cho (Local Orientation
luminaires) co thau knh dang iem, lap am nen.
en quet nen (floor washlights) Lap nhng
iem tren tng, phuc vu nh en dan hng cho
mat phang nen.
Ap dung en dan hng cho: ng net kien truc,
bac thang bo, khu vc han che, loi vao, li i, loi
thoat nan.
Cong trnh: Ca hang Bach hoa Sevens, Dusseldorf
Khach san Hilton, Dubai - Instituto Frances,
Barcelona Khach san Hilton, Dubai (anh cua
ERCO)




13. en ch dan (directive luminaires) :
en ch dan cho nhng thong tin va hieu lenh ro
rang bang hnh ve va ch. en khan cap la mot v
du, ch ng thoat nan trong trng hp khan
cap. Tieu ch chon en : noi bat, hnh dang mau
sac, phu hp tieu chuan.
Ap dung : ch ng thoat nan, nguon ien khan
145


cap, khu vc y te, khu ve sinh. en ch dan phai c tiep tuc sang trong trng hp mat ien
nguon chnh, va nguon d phong cha kp thay the, nen en ch dan thng co the m nguon pin.
Chu y : cac en ch dan phai tuan theo cac quy nh cua a phng.

Cong trnh: Palazzo della
Ragione, Bergamo - Potsdamer
Platz, Berlin Bao tang Hang
khong Norwegian, Bodo - GIRA,
Radevormwald (anh cua ERCO).









VII. BAO DNG CHIEU SANG:
1. Vn bo dng chiu sn:
Khi mt h thng lp t chiu sng c nghim thu ban u, cc trng thi k thut ang ti u,
ngha l cha n, bng n, cc b mt phn x trong khng gian chiu sng u mi v sch. Qua
thi gian s dng, cc trng thi ny s suy gim do lo ha v bm bi. Khi chiu sng khng
cn hiu qu nh lc u.
Do , khi thit k mt h thng lp t chiu sng, ngi ta thng thit k mt tr s duy tr :
ri duy tr E
m
, hay chi duy tr L
m
. Mc chiu sng duy tr ny l mc chiu sng s c c
ti thi im h thng c nng sut thp nht, ngay trc lc bo dng nh k.

146


Bo dng nh k mt h thng chiu sng gm c 3 cng vic chnh:
- Lm sch v bo dng cha n;
- Lm sch v bo dng n (bng n v b iu khin n);
- Lm sch v bo dng cc b mt phn x trong khng gian chiu sng. i vi chiu
sng bn ngoi, cc vic ny c th b qua. Tuy nhin nhng ni nh hm giao thng, ng
ngm, mt tin kin trc, vic lm sch thng xuyn cc b mt nh trn, vch, trong khng
gian chiu sng c th tng cng hiu sut ca h thng chiu sng.
Xem mt v d, mt h thng lp t chiu sng c bo dng theo nh k : lau sch cha n 2
nm mt ln; thay bng v lm sch cc b mt mi su thng. Trong v d ny, h s duy tr l 67%,
ngha l khi h thng t nht trong thi gian vn hnh th mc chiu sng ban u cng cn c
67%.
Ch rng, trong qu trnh vn hnh v bo dng, mc chiu sng khng bao gi tr li c mc
ban u ca h thng.

Nhng yu t nh hng n suy gim hiu sut ca h thng chiu sng l:

*Lo n ch nh trong h thng lp t:

Trong nhng mi trng nhiu bi, s dng cha n loi h s cho php bi ng bn trong cha
n, rt kh lm sch. Nn dng nhng b phn gn kn, khng cho bi vo bn trong n, nh vy
ch c phn bn ngoi n cn lm sch. Vic lm sch do rt d dng, thm ch c th lm theo
cch mnh bo nh xt nc, nu cha n c ch s bo v IP ph hp.

* Cn n n:

Cc loi n khc nhau c nhng c tnh khc nhau lin quan n tnh duy tr quang thng v
tui th ca n. Khi no phi thay bng n s ph thuc vo s kt hp hai yu t ny.
Chn mt n vi h s duy tr quang thng tt trong sut tui i ca n, s lm bt suy gim
quang thng do n b lo ha.
Tuy nhin , nng sut ca h thng lp t cng cn ph thuc vo ton th (hoc t nht l a s) vn
hnh ca cc n trong h thng. Do vic thay cc bng n phi c thc hin khi quang thng
b suy gim n mt mc ti thiu c th chp nhn c, hoc khi s lng n hng trong h thng
lp t ti mt s ti a c th chp nhn c.

2. H s duy tr a h thng chiu sn:

T nhng kt qu phn tch trn, h s duy tr MF ca mt h thng chiu sng l tch s nhiu tha
s MF ca cc yu t gp phn vo suy gim quang thng.
Ta c cng thc:

MF ca h thng lp t = MF c n x MF qun tn n x MF tui th n x MF b mt phn x.

Vi:
147


MF ca cha n: h s suy gim chiu sng do cha n tri qua thi gian v bm bi.
MF quang thng n: h s suy gim chiu sng do suy gim quang thng ca n khi n
tri qua thi gian.
MF tui th n: h s suy gim chiu sng do n trong h thng b hng v cha c
thay ngay.
MF cc b mt phn x: h s suy gim chiu sng do suy gim h s phn x ca cc b
mt phn x (trn, tng, sn) trong h thng lp t.
D liu v cc h s ny c th tham kho t nh sn xut. Tuy nhin khi dng cc d liu
ny phi hiu rng b n cn c vn hnh trong nhng iu kin ch nh bi nh sn
xut. Vn hnh ngoi cc iu kin ny c th lm thay i tnh nng ca cc b n. V d
vn hnh mt n trong mi trng nng c th lm tng quang thng ng ra ca n,
nhng tui th ca n s b gim.

Nhiu phn mm thit k chiu sng cho php xc nh chu k bo dng, v dng n
tnh h s duy tr ca h thng chiu sng. Tuy nhin c th tm thy cc ch dn su hn v
cch tnh ton v p dng cc h s MF trong cc tiu chun :
- CIE 97:2006, Bo dng h thng Chiu sng in Bn trong;
- CIE 154:2003, Bo dng H thng Chiu sng Bn ngoi.

Khi khng c nhng d liu t nh sn xut, c th dng cc h s MF cha n v MF cc
b mt phn x theo cc bng trong CIE 97.

Mun dng cc bng ny, trc tin ta phi phn loi mi trng chiu sng thnh cc loi:
rt sch, sch, bnh thng, v nhiu bi. ng thi phi phn loi cha n theo c tnh
chng bi ( t loi A n G):

Chu k kim tr tu bu cho nhn u kin m trn k nu


Chu k kim tra M trng Vn lm vc hay hot ng
(Inspection interval) (Environment) (Activity or Task area)
3 nm
Rt sch


Sch
Nhng phng sch; nh my bn dn;

Khu vc iu tr ca bnh vin*, trung tm my tnh,
vn phng, trng hc;

2 nm Bnh thng Ca hng, phng th nghim; tim n; nh kho; khu
vc lp rp; xng sa cha;
1 nm Nhiu bi Xng st; xng ha; l c; xng hn; xng xi
m; xng mc;

*Trong nhng khu vc iu tr ca bnh vin, c th cn chu k kim tra thng xuyn hn.

148


M t loi n:

Loai Loai choa Mo ta choa en
Type Luminare type Luminaire description
A
Choa en h (Bare batten) Choa n h (bare lamp luminaires)

B
Hop en h pha tren (loai t
thong gio va t lam sach)-
Open top housing (natural
ventilated and self cleaning
types).
Choa en Trc tiep/Gian tiep khong che boc; choa en Trc tiep/Gian tiep vi bo phan
quang gian tiep va bo quang hoc c che boc; choa en que t tng (h theo chieu doc),
choa en lap tng h tren va ay, en dowlight h nh -- Direct-indirect luminaires
without cover, direct-indirect luminaires with indirect reflector and closed optical device,
wallwashing luminaires (vertical opening), wall mounted luminaires open top and base,
downlights with open top.
C
Hop en kn pha tren (khong thong
gio) - Closed top housing
(unventilated)
Choa en am tran va lap noi ( v du co cac canh tan xa), downlight, spotlight -- Recessed
and surface mounted luminaires (e.g. with louvres), downlights, spotlights
D
Che kn IP2X -- Enclosed IP2X Cho a en thong du ng co vo boc va pha n quang che kn - General purpose luminaires
with closed covers and optics
E
Chong bui PX - Dust proof IP5X Chong bui PX (choa en phong sach, co bao ve) - Dust proof IP5X (protected, clean room
luminaires)
F
en gian tiep va en chieu len -
Indirect lighting and uplight
Chan en di ong, en treo, en chieu len gan tng co ay kn, en vom - Free standing,
pendant, wall mounted uplighters with closed base, cove lights

G
Dan gio va thong gio cng bc -
Air handling and forced ventilated

Than en va bo quang cho dan gio dung vi he thong HKK hay thong gio -- Air handling
body and optic used with air-conditioning or ventilation systems
Sau khi xac nh loai moi trng va choa en, ta co the tra bang e xac nh MF cua choa en va
MF cua be mat phong trong Phu luc G.
MF cua be mat phong phu thuoc vao ty le quang thong chieu xuong DFF (Downward Flux
Fraction) cua choa en .
V du: bo en kn mat tren lap am tran co canh tan xa, co ty le quang thong chieu len bang 0,
dung cac en T16/14W (Osram FH), c lap trong mot van phong vi cac he so phan xa cua tran
tng san la 70%, 50%, va 20%. Chu ky bao dng choa en va phong la 3 nam, va cac bong en
c thay moi 8.000 gi. Do o:
MF cua choa en LMF (Luminaire maintenance factor) : LMF = 0.74.
MF cua be mat phong RSMF (Room surface maintenance factor) : RSMF = 0.94.
MF quang thong bong en LLMF (Lamp lumen maintenance factor): LLMF = 0,92
MF tuoi tho en LSMF (Lamp survival maintenance factor) : LSMF = 0,96
Do o He so Duy tr MF cua he thong chieu sang c tnh nh sau:
MF = MF x RSMF x LLMF x LSF = 0.74 x 0.94 x 0.92 x 0.96 = 0.614
---oooOOOooo---
149


PHU LUC A: CAC YEU CAU AT CHUAN CHO CHIEU SANG BEN
TRONG THEO TIEU CHUAN QUOC GIA TCVN 7114-1:2008

150




151



152




153




154





155




156





157





158




159




160



161



E
m
(lx): o roi duy tr (gia tr trung bnh); UGR
L
:gii han h s choi loa ng nhat; R
a
: ch so
the hien mau.





162


PHU LUC B1:
CAC YEU CAU AT CHUAN CHO CHIEU SANG BEN NGOAI
(THEO TCXDVN 333:2005)





163





164











165


PHU LUC B2:
CAC YEU CAU AT CHUAN CHO CHIEU SANG AN TOAN VA BAO
VE TAI NHNG NI LAM VIEC NGOAI NHA
THEO TCVN 7114-3:2008



166


TCVN 7114-3:2008 Bang 1 (ket thuc)

E
m
(lx): o roi duy tr; U
o
: o ong eu;
GR
L
: Gii han choi loa; R
a
: Ch so the hien mau









167


PHU LUC B3:
CAC YEU CAU AT CHUAN CHO CHIEU SANG BEN NGOAI
THEO CIE S 015/E-2005 ; ISO 8995-2:2005(E)

Bang 5.1 Khu vc van chuyen nhng ni lam viec ngoa i tri
So
Tham
chieu
Loai khu vc, cong viec hay hoat
ong
Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi chu
5.1.1 Khu vc danh rieng cho ngi i bo 5 0,25 50 20
5.1.2 Khu vc giao thong chay cham (max 10
km/h) v du x ap, xe tai, may xuc
10 0,40 50 20
5.1.3 Khu vc giao thong eu eu (40km/h) 20 0,40 45 20 Tai ben tau thuyen.
GR co the bang 50.
5.1.4 Le ng cho khach bo hanh, iem
quay xe, xep d hang
30 0,40 50 20 e oc nhan: Em =
50lx.

Bang 5.2. San bay
So tham
chieu
Loai khu vc,
cong viec hay
hoat ong
Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi chu
1. Tranh anh sang trc tiep theo hng cua
thap khong lu, va hng may bay ha canh.
2. Han che anh sang trc tiep len tren
phng ngang t nhng en pha.
5.2.1 Them hang-ga 20 0,10 55 20
5.2.2 Them nha ga 30 0,20 50 40
5.2.3 Khu vc xep
hang
30 0,20 50 40 e oc nhan: Em =50lx.
5.2.4 Kho nhien lieu 50 0,20 50 40
5.2.5 Be bao dng 200 0,50 45 60
168




Bang 5.3. Cong trng xa y dng
So
tham
chieu
Loai khu vc, cong viec hay hoat ong Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi
chu
5.3.1 Phat hoang, ao xuc va chat ong 20 0,25 55 20
5.3.2 Khu vc xay dng, lap at ong thoat, nhng cong viec
van chuyen, bo tr va nhap kho
50 0,40 50 20
5.3.3 Lap at cac bo phan khung sn, cong viec gia co nhe,
lap at khuon go va khung sn, lap at ong va day cap
100 0,40 45 40
5.3.4 Ket noi cac bo phan, lap at dien, may va ng ong
theo yeu cau
200 0,50 45 40



Bang 5.4. Kenh a o, ca cong va ben tau
So
tham
chieu
Loai khu vc, cong viec hay hoat ong Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi chu
5.4.1 Ben i tai kenh ao va ca cong 10 0,25 50 20
5.4.2 Cau tau va loi i rieng cho khach bo hanh 10 0,25 50 20
5.4.3 Kiem soat ca cong 20 0,25 55 20
5.4.4 X ly hang hoa, chat hang va xuong hang 30 0,25 55 20 e oc nhan:
Em 50lx
5.4.5 Khu vc du khach trong ben tau 50 0,40 50 20
5.4.6 Ket noi voi, ong va day thng 50 0,40 50 20
5.4.7 Phan nguy hiem cua loi i va ng xe chay 50 0,40 45 20

169


Bang 5.5. Nong trai
So
tham
chieu
Loai khu vc, cong viec hay hoat ong Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi chu
5.5.1 San phi 20 0,10 55 20
5.5.2 Kho nong cu 50 0,20 55 20
5.5.3 Chuong suc vat 50 0,20 50 40
Bang 5.6. Tram xang
So
tham
chieu
Loai khu vc, cong viec hay hoat ong Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi chu
5.6.1 Khu vc au xe va khu kho 5 0,25 50 20
5.6.2 Loi xe vao ra, moi trng toi (v du nong
thon hay ngoai o)
20 0,40 45 20
5.6.3 Loi xe vao ra, moi trng sang (v du thanh
pho)
50 0,40 45 20
5.6.4 iem kiem tra ap suat k.kh va nc, nhng
khu vc dch vu khac
150 0,40 45 20
5.6.5 Khu vc oc ong ho 150 0,40 45 20
Bang 5.7. Cong trng cong nghiep va khu kho
So
tham
chieu
Loai khu vc, cong viec hay hoat ong Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi chu
5.7.1 X ly tam cac bo phan ln va nguyen lieu
tho, xep d hang hoa ran, cong kenh
20 0,25 55 20
5.7.2 Tiep tuc x ly cac bo phan ln va nguyen
lieu tho, xep d hang hoa, v tr nang ha
cho cau, san chat hang lo thien
50 0,40 50 20
5.7.3 oc a ch, san chat hang co che, s dung
cong cu, nhng cong viec uc va gia co
trong xng beton
100 0,50 45 20
5.7.4 Lap at va kiem tra ien, may, ng ong 200 0,50 45 60 Ch. sang tai cho.
170




Bang 5.8. Ket cau dau kh ngoai khi
So
tham
chieu
Loai khu vc, cong viec hay hoat
ong
Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi chu
5.8.1 Mat bien di dan 30 0,25 50 20
5.8.2 Thang, bac thang, loi i 100 0,25 45 20
5.8.3 Khu vc o thuyen, khu vc van
chuyen
100 0,25 50 20
5.8.4 Boong au trc thang 100 0,40 45 20 Tranh anh sang trc tiep
vao bai ap, han che anh
sang en pha chieu len.
5.8.5 Thap khoan 100 0,50 45 40
5.8.6 Khu vc x ly 100 0,50 45 40
5.8.7 Khu vc, boong e gia ong 150 0,50 45 40
5.8.8 Tram th nghiem, nguon nc 200 0,50 45 40
5.8.9 Khu vc bm 200 0,50 45 20
5.8.10 Khu vc phao cu sinh 200 0,40 50 20
5.8.11 San khoan 200 0,50 40 40
5.8.12 Phong bun, lay mau 300 0,50 40 40
5.8.13 Bm dau tho 300 0,50 45 40
5.8.14 Khu vc nha may 300 0,50 40 40
5.8.15 Ban quay 500 0,50 40 40




171



Bang 5.9. Bai o xe
So
tham
chieu
Loai khu vc, cong viec hay hoat ong Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi chu
5.9.1 Mat o giao thong thap, v du bai o xe cua ca tiem,
san o xe cua khu can ho, bai xe ap
5 0,25 55 20
5.9.2 Mat o giao thong trung bnh, v du bai o xe cua ca
hang bach hoa, cao oc van phong, nha may, chuoi
phc hp cac toa nha the thao va a chc nang
10 0,25 50 20
5.9.3 Mat o giao thong cao, v du bai o xe cua trng hoc,
nha th, trung tam mua sam ln, chuoi phc hp ln
cac toa nha the thao va a chc nang
20 0,25 50 20

Bang 5.10. Cong nghe hoa dau va nhng cong nghe nguy hiem khac
So
tham
chieu
Loai khu vc, cong viec hay hoat ong Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi chu
5.10.1 Thao tac nhng cong cu bao dng, s dung
nhng van van hanh bang tay, khi ong va
dng cac ong c, chieu sang lo ot
20 0,25 55 20
5.10.2 o ay va xa het cac xe tai va toa xe
container, cha cac chat khong rui ro, kiem
tra ro r, ng ong va thung cha
50 0,40 50 20
5.10.3 o ay va xa het cac xe tai va toa xe
container, cha cac chat nguy hiem, thay
bm, thung cha, sa cha tong quat, oc
dung cu o
100 0,40 45 40
5.10.4 Cong trng xep d nhien lieu 100 0,40 45 20
5.10.5 Sa cha may moc va kh cu ien 200 0,50 45 60 Dung en tai
cho.


172



Bang 5.11. Nha ma y nang lng, ien, gas, va nhiet
So
tham
chieu
Loai khu vc, cong viec hay hoat ong Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi chu
5.11.1 i bo trong khu vc an toan ien 5 0,25 50 20
5.11.2 Thao tac cong cu bao dng, than a 20 0,25 55 20
5.11.3 Kiem tra tong the 50 0,40 50 20
5.11.4 Cong viec sa cha tong quat va oc
dung cu o
100 0,40 45 40
5.11.5 Tu-nen gio, sa cha va van hanh 100 0,40 45 40
5.11.6 Sa cha kh cu ien 200 0,50 45 60 Dung en tai cho.
Bang 5.12. ng sat va ng tau ien
So
tham
chieu
Loai khu vc, cong viec hay hoat
ong
Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi chu
ng sat bao gom ng sat nhe,
ng tau ien, monorail, ng ray
nho, metro

5.12.1 Loi i trong khu vc tram hanh khach 10 0,25 50 20 Ud 1/8
5.12.2 Bai xe, don toa, lu toa, phan loai 10 0,40 50 20 Ud 1/5
5.12.3 Khu vc chat ong 10 0,40 45 20 Ud 1/5
5.12.4 Loi i hang hoa, van hanh ngan han 10 0,25 50 20 Ud 1/8
5.12.5 San ga lo thien, xe la a phng va
nong thon, t hanh khach
15 0,25 50 20 Chu y bien san ga.
Ud1/5
5.12.6 Loi i bo 20 0,40 50 20
5.12.7 Cong xe la 20 0,40 45 20
5.12.8 San ga lo thien, xe la ngoai o va khu
vc vi ong hanh khach, hoac dch vu
noi th vi t hanh khach
20 0,40 45 20 Chu y bien san ga.
Ud1/5
173


5.12.9 Loi i hang hoa, van hanh lien tuc

20 0,40 50 20 Ud 1/5
5.12.10 San ga lo thien khu vc hang hoa 20 0,40 50 20 Ud 1/5
5.12.11 Tau sa cha va au may 20 0,40 50 40 Ud 1/5
5.12.12 Khu vc thao tac cua bai xe 30 0,40 50 20 Ud 1/5
5.12.13 Khu vc noi toa 30 0,40 45 20 Ud 1/5
5.12.14 Cau thang, ga nho va va 50 0,40 45 40
5.12.15 San ga lo thien, dch vu noi th 50 0,40 45 20 Chu y bien san ga.
Ud1/5
5.12.16 San ga co mai che, tau a phng va
khu vc, hoac dch vu noi th t hanh
khach
50 0,40 45 40 Chu y bien san ga.
Ud1/5
5.12.17 San ga co mai che khu vc hang hoa,
van hanh ngan han
50 0,40 45 20 Ud 1/5
5.12.18 San ga co mai che, dch vu noi th 100 0,50 45 40 Chu y bien san ga.
Ud1/3
5.12.19 Cau thang, ga ln 100 0,50 45 40
5.12.20 San ga co mai che khu vc hang hoa,
van hanh lien tuc
100 0,50 45 40 Ud 1/5
5.12.21 Tram kiem tra 100 0,50 40 40 Dung en tai cho
t choi.

Bang 5.13. Nha ma y xe go
So
tham
chieu
Loai khu vc, cong viec hay hoat ong Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi chu
5.13.1 Thao tac cay go tren mat at va trong nc, bang tai
mun ca va dam bao
20 0,25 55 20
5.13.2 Phan loai cay go tren mat at va trong nc, iem
d cay go va ca y go to, nang vao bang tai, chat
ong
50 0,40 50 20
174


5.13.3 oc nhan va dau ghi tren cay go to 100 0,40 45 40
5.13.4 Phan hang va chat ong 200 0,50 45 40
5.13.5 a go vao may doc vo va may xe 300 0,50 45 40

Bang 5.14. Ben tau va xng ong tau
So
tham
chieu
Loai khu vc, cong viec hay hoat ong Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi chu
5.14.1 Chieu sang tong quat cho khu vc ong sa tau, khu
kho cho nhng hang hoa tien che
20 0,25 55 40
5.14.2 Thao tac ngan han nhng bo phan ln 20 0,25 55 20
5.14.3 Lam sach vo tau 50 0,25 50 20
5.14.4 Sn va han vo tau 100 0,40 45 60
5.14.5 Lap at phu tung c ien 200 0,50 45 60

Bang 5.15. Nha ma y cap nc va x ly nc thai
So
tham
chieu
Loai khu vc, cong viec hay hoat ong Em
(lx)
Uo GR
L
R
a
Ghi chu
5.15.1 Thao tac nhng cong cu bao dng, s dung nhng
van van hanh bang tay, khi ong va dng cac ong
c, nha may cap nc, thu nc
50 0,40 45 20
5.15.2 Thao tac hoa chat, kiem tra ro r, thay bm, sa cha
tong quat, oc dung cu o
100 0,40 45 40
5.15.3 Sa cha ong c va kh cu ien 200 0,50 45 60




175


PHU LUC C: CAC YEU CAU CHO CHIEU SANG
THE THAO THEO EN 12193:1999
Loai hnh van ong Cap tranh tai o roi yeu
cau toi thieu
Em
Ch so
truyen
at
mau
Ra
o ong
eu chung
Uo
nh
mc
choi loa
GR
Aerobic (giai tr) 200 20 0,5
Ban cung (lan/ch) 200/750 60 0,5/0,8
ien kinh (trong nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
500
300
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.6
0.5

ien kinh (ngoai tri) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
500
200
100
60
60
20
0.7
0.5
0.5
50
55
55
Cau long Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
300
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.7

Bong ro (trong nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5

Bong ro (ngoai nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
500
200
75
60
60
20
0.7
0.6
0.5
50
55
55
Bi-da Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
500
80
80
80
0.8
0.8
0.8

176


Cau may (trong nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
300
200
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5

Cau may (ngoai tri) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
200
100
50
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5
50
55
55
Bi sat (trong nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
300
200
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5

Bi sat (ngoai tri) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
200
100
50
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5
50
55
55
Bowling ( 10 pin/9pin) Lan
Lan pin 25m
Lan pin 50m
200
Ev 1000
Ev 2000
60 0.5
0.8
0.8

Quyen Anh Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
2000
1000
500
80
80
60
0.8
0.8
0.5

Leo nui Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
300
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5

Bong chay (trong ong, ngoai
ong)
Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750/500
500/300
300/200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.7
50
50
55
Bong chay li Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
1500
1000
750
60
60
20
0.8
0.8
0.8
50
50
55
177


Bong tuyet (ch/vung chi) 300/200 0.7 0.7 50
Xe ap (trong nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5



Xe ap (ngoai nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
500
300
100
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5
50
50
55
Khieu vu Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
500
300
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.6
0.5

Nem lao Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
Eh200/Ev750
Eh100/Ev500
Eh50/Ev300
60
60
20

Nhay sao Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
Eh750/Ev500
Eh500/Ev300
Eh300/Ev200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.7

Bong a (trong nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5

Bong a (ngoai nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
500
200
75
60
60
20
0.7
0.6
0.5
50
50
55
The duc Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
500
300
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5

Bong nem (trong nha) Cap I
Cap II
750
500
60
60
0.7
0.7

178


Cap III 200 20 0.5
Bong nem (ngoai nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
500
200
75
60
60
20
0.7
0.6
0.5
50
50
55
Khuc con cau (trong nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.7

Khuc con cau (ngoai nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
500
200
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.7
50
50
55
Khuc con cau tren bang (trong
nha)
Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
300
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.7

Khuc con cau tren bang (ngoai
nha)
Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5

Trt bang Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
300
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.7

Judo Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5

Kendo/Karate Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5

Bong li (trong nha) Cap I
Cap II
750
500
60
60
0.7
0.7

179


Cap III 200 20 0.5
Bong li (ngoai nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
500
200
75
60
60
20
0.7
0.6
0.5
50
50
55
Petanque (trong nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
300
200
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5

Petanque (ngoai nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
200
100
50
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5
50
50
55
Racket Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
300
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.7

Trt bang Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
500
300
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.6
0.5

The thao trng hoc Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5

Ban sung 200/Ev750 60 0.5/0.8
Snooker Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
500
80
80
80
0.8
0.8
0.8

Trt bang toc o Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
500
300
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.6
0.5

180


Squash Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
700
500
300
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.7

Bi loi Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
500
300
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5

Bong ban Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
700
500
300
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.7

Quan vt (trong nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
300
60
60
60
0.7
0.7
0.5

Quan vt (ngoai nha) Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
500
300
200
60
60
60
0.7
0.7
0.6
50
50
55
C ta Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5

o vat Cap I
Cap II
Cap III
750
500
200
60
60
20
0.7
0.7
0.5


---oooOOOooo---



181


PHU LUC D: PHN B QUANG THNG CA CC LOI CHA N
Loai
en
Kieu
chieu
sang
Quang thong phan bo trong cac goc khoi cua khong gian
F1 F2 F3 F4
Gii
han
Trung
bnh
Gii
han
Trung
bnh
Gii
han
Trung
bnh
Gii
han
Trung
bnh
A
B
C
D
E
Trc
tiep
hep
900
767
633
533
433
830-970
700-830
570-700
470-600
370-500
967
933
900
834
767
900-1000
870-1000
830-970
770-900
700-830
1000
1000
967
867
967
930-1000
930-1000
900-1000
900-1000
900-1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
930-1000
930-1000
930-1000
930-1000
930-1000
F
G
H
I
J
Trc
tiep
rong
400
367
333
267
233
330-470
300-430
270-400
200-330
170-300
867
667
600
667
500
800-930
600-730
530-670
600-730
430-570
1000
900
833
933
767
930-1000
830-970
770-900
870-1000
670-800
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
930-1000
930-1000
930-1000
930-1000
930-1000
K
L
M
N
Na
trc
tiep
367
300
233
333
300-430
230-370
170-300
270-400
600
500
433
500
530-670
430-570
370-500
430-570
733
633
567
567
670-800
570-700
500-630
500-630
800
700
633
633
730-870
630-770
570-700
570-700
O
P
Q
R
S
Hon
hp
267
200
100
67
133
200-330
130-270
30-170
0-130
70-200
433
333
233
200
267
370-500
270-400
170-300
130-270
200-330
533
433
367
334
367
470-600
370-500
300-430
270-400
300-430
600
500
500
500
400
530-670
430-570
430-570
430-570
330-47
T Gian
tiep
0 0-70 0 0-70 0 0-70 0 0-70

182


PHU LUC E: H S LI DNG QUANG THNG CA CC CP
B N (THEO PHN CP B N CA CIE)
LOI N A
s max 0,9h
H s
phn x
Trn
Tng
Sn
8
7
3
8
7
1
7
7
3
7
7
1
7
5
3
7
5
1
7
3
1
7
1
1
5
5
1
5
3
1
5
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
0
0
0
T
s
treo
n
J=0







T
s
treo
n
J=1/3







Ch
s
phng
0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00

0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00
88
95
101
107
110
116
119
122
125
126

85
91
97
103
106
112
116
119
122
124
81
87
91
95
97
101
103
104
106
107

79
85
89
93
96
100
102
104
105
106
87
94
99
104
107
113
116
118
121
122

84
90
96
101
104
110
113
116
119
121
81
86
90
94
96
100
102
103
105
106

79
84
89
92
95
99
101
103
104
105
78
85
91
96
100
107
111
114
118
120

76
82
88
93
97
103
108
111
115
117
74
80
85
89
92
97
100
102
104
105

73
78
84
88
91
95
99
101
103
104
70
76
81
86
89
94
98
100
103
104

69
76
80
84
88
93
96
99
102
103
67
73
78
83
86
92
96
99
102
103

67
72
78
82
86
91
95
98
101
102
74
79
84
88
91
95
98
100
102
103

73
78
83
87
90
94
97
99
101
103
70
75
81
85
88
93
96
99
101
102

69
75
80
84
87
92
96
98
100
102
67
72
78
82
86
91
95
98
100
102

67
72
77
82
85
90
94
97
99
101
70
75
80
84
87
92
95
97
100
101

69
74
80
84
87
91
95
97
99
101
67
72
78
82
89
90
94
96
99
100

67
72
77
81
85
90
93
96
98
100
66
71
76
80
83
89
92
95
97
98

66
71
76
80
83
89
92
95
97
98
183



LOI N B
S max 1,1h
H s
phn x
Trn
Tng
Sn
8
7
3
8
7
1
7
7
3
7
7
1
7
5
3
7
5
1
7
3
1
7
1
1
5
5
1
5
3
1
5
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
0
0
0
T
s
treo
n
J=0







T
s
treo
n
J=1/3







Ch
s
phng
0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00

0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00
80
89
96
102
106
113
117
120
123
125

76
84
91
98
102
109
113
117
120
123
74
81
86
90
94
98
101
102
104
105

71
78
84
88
92
97
100
102
104
105
78
87
93
99
103
109
113
116
119
121

75
83
90
96
100
107
111
114
117
119
73
80
86
89
92
97
99
101
103
104

71
78
83
88
91
96
99
101
103
104
68
76
84
90
95
102
107
111
115
117

66
73
80
87
92
99
104
108
112
115
65
72
78
83
87
93
96
99
101
103

63
70
77
82
86
92
95
98
101
102
60
67
73
79
83
90
94
97
100
102

59
66
72
78
82
88
93
96
99
101
56
63
70
75
80
87
91
95
98
101

56
63
69
75
79
86
90
94
97
100
64
71
77
82
86
91
95
97
100
101

63
70
76
81
85
90
94
96
99
101
59
66
73
78
82
88
92
95
98
100

59
66
72
77
81
88
92
94
98
99
56
63
69
75
79
86
90
94
97
99

56
62
69
74
79
85
90
93
96
98
59
66
72
77
81
87
91
94
97
98

59
65
72
77
81
87
91
93
96
98
56
63
69
74
79
85
89
92
96
98

56
62
69
74
78
85
89
92
95
97
54
61
67
73
77
83
87
90
93
95

54
61
67
73
77
83
87
90
93
95


184




LOI N C
S max 1,3h
H s
phn x
Trn
Tng
Sn
8
7
3
8
7
1
7
7
3
7
7
1
7
5
3
7
5
1
7
3
1
7
1
1
5
5
1
5
3
1
5
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
0
0
0
T
s
treo
n
J=0







T
s
treo
n
J=1/3






Ch
s
phng
0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00

0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00
71
82
90
97
102
109
113
116
120
122

67
77
85
92
98
105
110
113
117
120
66
74
81
86
90
95
98
100
102
103

63
71
78
84
88
93
96
99
101
102
70
80
87
94
99
105
109
112
116
118

66
76
84
90
95
102
107
110
114
116
65
73
79
85
88
93
96
98
100
102

62
71
77
83
87
92
95
97
100
101
58
68
76
84
89
97
103
106
111
113

55
65
73
80
86
94
99
103
108
111
55
64
71
77
82
88
92
95
98
99

53
62
69
76
80
87
91
94
97
99
49
58
65
72
77
84
88
92
95
97

48
58
64
71
75
83
87
90
94
96
44
53
61
68
73
80
85
89
93
95

44
53
60
67
72
80
84
88
92
94
54
63
70
76
80
86
90
93
96
97

53
62
69
75
79
86
89
92
95
97
48
57
64
71
76
83
87
90
93
95

48
56
64
70
75
82
86
89
93
95
44
53
60
67
72
80
84
88
91
94

44
52
60
67
71
79
84
87
91
93
48
57
64
70
75
82
86
89
92
94

48
56
63
70
74
81
85
88
91
93
44
54
60
67
72
79
83
87
90
92

44
52
60
66
71
78
83
86
90
92
42
51
58
65
70
77
81
84
88
90

42
51
58
65
70
77
81
84
88
90
185



LOI N D
S max 1,6h
H s phn
x
Trn
Tng
Sn

8
7
3
8
7
1
7
7
3
7
7
1
7
5
3
7
5
1
7
3
1
7
1
1
5
5
1
5
3
1
5
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
0
0
0
T
s
treo
n
J=0







T
s
treo
n
J=1/3







Ch
s
phng
0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00

0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00
66
77
85
93
98
106
111
114
118
121

62
72
80
88
94
102
107
111
116
119
61
70
76
82
86
92
96
98
101
102

58
67
74
80
84
90
94
97
100
102
64
75
82
90
95
102
107
110
114
117

61
71
79
86
91
99
104
108
112
115
60
68
75
81
85
91
94
96
99
101

57
66
73
79
83
89
93
96
99
100
51
62
70
78
84
93
99
104
109
112

49
59
67
75
81
90
96
100
106
110
49
58
66
72
77
85
89
92
96
98

47
56
64
71
76
83
88
91
95
97
42
51
59
66
72
80
85
89
93
96

41
50
58
65
70
78
84
87
92
95
37
46
54
61
67
75
81
85
90
93

37
45
53
60
66
74
80
84
89
93
48
57
64
71
76
83
87
90
94
96

47
56
63
70
74
82
86
89
93
96
42
51
58
65
70
78
83
87
91
94

41
50
57
64
69
77
83
86
91
93
37
46
53
61
66
75
80
84
89
92

37
45
53
60
66
74
80
83
88
91
41
50
57
64
69
77
82
86
90
92

41
49
57
64
69
77
82
85
89
92
37
46
53
60
66
74
79
83
88
91

37
45
53
60
65
73
79
83
87
90
35
44
51
58
63
72
77
81
85
88

35
44
51
58
63
72
77
81
85
88

186



LOI N E
S max 1,9h
H s phn
x
Trn
Tng
Sn

8
7
3
8
7
1
7
7
3
7
7
1
7
5
3
7
5
1
7
3
1
7
1
1
5
5
1
5
3
1
5
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
0
0
0
T
s
treo
n
J=0







T
s
treo
n
J=1/3







Ch
s
phng
0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00

0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00
61
72
80
88
94
103
108
112
117
120

56
67
75
84
90
99
105
109
114
118
56
65
72
79
83
89
93
96
99
101

52
62
69
76
81
88
92
95
99
101
59
70
78
85
91
99
104
108
113
116

55
66
74
82
88
96
102
106
111
114
55
64
71
77
81
88
92
95
98
100

52
61
68
75
80
86
91
94
97
99
45
56
64
73
80
89
96
101
107
111

43
53
61
70
76
86
93
98
104
108
43
52
60
67
73
81
86
90
94
97

41
50
58
65
71
79
85
89
93
96
35
45
53
60
66
75
81
86
91
94

34
43
51
59
65
74
80
84
90
93
30
39
47
55
61
70
77
82
88
92

30
38
46
54
60
69
76
81
87
91
42
51
58
66
71
79
84
88
92
95

41
50
57
64
70
78
83
87
91
94
35
44
52
59
65
74
80
84
89
92

34
43
51
58
64
73
79
83
88
92
30
39
46
54
60
70
76
81
87
90

30
38
46
54
60
69
75
80
86
90
34
43
51
58
64
73
78
82
88
91

34
43
50
58
64
72
78
82
87
90
30
38
46
54
60
69
75
80
85
89

30
38
46
53
60
68
75
79
85
88
28
36
44
51
57
66
73
77
83
86

28
36
44
51
57
66
73
77
83
86

187



LOI N F
S max 1,9h
H s phn
x
Trn
Tng
Sn

8
7
3
8
7
1
7
7
3
7
7
1
7
5
3
7
5
1
7
3
1
7
1
1
5
5
1
5
3
1
5
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
0
0
0
T
s
treo
n
J=0







T
s
treo
n
J=1/3






Ch
s
phng
0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00

0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00
57
70
80
89
96
104
110
113
118
120

52
65
75
84
91
100
106
110
115
118
52
64
72
79
84
91
95
97
100
102

48
60
69
76
82
89
93
96
99
101
55
68
77
86
92
101
106
109
114
116

51
64
73
82
89
96
103
107
112
114
51
62
70
77
83
89
93
96
99
100

48
59
68
75
81
88
92
95
98
100
40
53
64
74
81
91
98
102
108
111

37
50
60
70
77
88
95
99
105
109
38
50
60
68
74
83
88
91
95
97

36
48
58
66
73
81
86
90
94
97
30
42
52
61
68
77
83
87
92
95

29
41
51
60
67
76
82
86
91
94
24
36
46
56
63
73
79
84
89
92

24
36
45
55
62
72
78
83
88
91
37
49
58
66
72
81
86
89
93
95

36
48
57
65
71
80
85
88
92
95
30
42
51
60
67
76
82
86
90
93

29
41
50
59
66
75
81
85
90
92
24
36
46
55
62
72
78
83
88
91

24
36
45
55
62
72
78
82
87
90
29
41
50
59
66
75
80
84
89
91

29
41
50
59
65
74
80
84
88
91
24
36
45
55
62
71
77
82
87
90

24
36
45
54
61
71
77
81
86
89
22
34
43
52
59
69
75
79
84
87

22
34
43
52
59
69
75
79
84
87

188



LOI N G
S max 2,0h
H s phn
x
Trn
Tng
Sn

8
7
3
8
7
1
7
7
3
7
7
1
7
5
3
7
5
1
7
3
1
7
1
1
5
5
1
5
3
1
5
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
0
0
0
T
s
treo
n
J=0







T
s
treo
n
J=1/3







Ch
s
phng
0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00

0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00
58
68
76
84
90
99
104
108
114
117

53
63
71
79
85
95
101
105
111
115
53
62
69
75
79
86
90
93
97
99

50
58
65
72
77
84
88
92
96
98
56
66
74
81
87
95
100
104
109
112

52
62
70
77
83
92
98
102
107
111
52
60
67
73
78
84
88
91
95
97

49
58
64
71
75
82
87
90
94
97
42
51
59
68
74
84
91
96
102
106

39
48
56
64
70
80
87
92
99
104
40
48
56
62
68
76
81
85
90
93

38
46
53
60
65
74
80
84
89
92
32
40
47
54
60
69
75
80
86
90

31
39
46
53
59
68
74
79
85
89
26
34
41
48
54
63
70
75
82
86

26
33
40
47
53
63
69
74
81
85
39
47
54
61
66
74
79
83
88
91

37
45
52
59
64
73
78
82
87
90
31
39
46
53
59
68
74
78
84
88

30
38
45
52
58
67
73
77
83
87
26
34
41
48
54
63
69
74
81
85

26
33
40
47
53
62
68
73
80
84
31
39
45
52
58
66
72
77
82
86

30
38
45
52
57
66
72
76
82
86
26
33
40
47
53
62
68
73
79
83

26
33
40
47
53
62
68
73
79
83
24
31
38
45
50
59
66
70
76
80

24
31
37
45
50
59
66
70
76
80

189



LOI N H
S max 1,9h
H s phn
x
Trn
Tng
Sn

8
7
3
8
7
1
7
7
3
7
7
1
7
5
3
7
5
1
7
3
1
7
1
1
5
5
1
5
3
1
5
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
0
0
0
T
s
treo
n
J=0







T
s
treo
n
J=1/3







Ch
s
phng
0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00

0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00
56
66
74
82
87
96
101
105
111
114

51
61
69
77
83
91
98
102
108
112
52
60
67
73
77
83
87
90
94
97

48
57
63
69
74
81
86
89
93
96
55
64
71
78
84
92
97
101
106
110

51
60
67
74
80
89
94
99
104
108
51
59
65
71
75
81
85
88
92
95

48
56
62
68
73
80
84
87
91
94
40
49
56
64
70
80
86
91
98
102

37
46
53
61
67
76
83
88
95
100
38
46
53
59
64
72
77
81
86
90

36
44
50
57
62
70
76
80
85
89
30
37
44
51
56
65
71
75
81
85

29
36
43
49
55
63
69
74
80
84
24
31
37
44
49
58
65
70
76
81

24
31
37
43
49
57
64
69
76
80
37
45
51
57
62
70
75
79
84
87

36
43
50
56
61
69
74
78
83
87
29
37
43
50
55
63
69
74
79
83

29
36
42
49
54
62
68
73
79
83
24
31
37
44
49
58
64
69
75
80

24
30
37
43
48
57
63
68
75
79
29
36
42
49
54
62
68
72
78
81

28
36
42
48
53
61
67
71
77
81
24
31
37
43
48
57
63
68
74
78

24
30
36
43
48
57
63
67
74
78
22
28
34
41
46
54
60
65
71
75

22
28
34
41
46
54
60
65
71
75

190



LOI N I
S max 2,3h
H s phn
x
Trn
Tng
Sn

8
7
3
8
7
1
7
7
3
7
7
1
7
5
3
7
5
1
7
3
1
7
1
1
5
5
1
5
3
1
5
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
0
0
0
T
s
treo
n
J=0







T
s
treo
n
J=1/3







Ch
s
phng
0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00

0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00
51
63
73
81
88
97
104
108
113
117

46
58
67
76
83
93
100
105
111
115
47
58
65
72
77
85
89
92
96
99

43
54
62
69
75
83
88
91
95
98
50
61
70
78
85
94
99
104
109
112

45
57
65
74
81
90
97
101
107
111
46
56
63
70
76
83
87
91
95
97

43
53
60
68
73
81
86
90
94
97
34
45
54
64
71
82
89
95
102
106

31
42
51
60
67
78
86
92
99
104
32
43
51
59
65
74
80
84
90
93

30
40
48
57
63
72
79
83
89
92
24
33
42
50
57
67
74
79
85
90

22
32
40
49
56
66
73
78
84
89
17
27
35
44
51
61
69
74
81
86

17
26
34
43
50
60
68
73
81
85
31
41
49
58
63
72
78
82
87
91

30
40
48
56
62
71
77
81
87
90
23
33
41
50
56
66
72
77
84
88

22
32
40
48
55
65
72
77
83
87
17
27
35
43
50
61
68
73
80
85

17
26
34
43
49
60
67
72
80
84
22
32
40
48
55
64
71
76
82
86

22
32
39
48
54
64
71
75
82
86
17
26
34
43
50
60
67
72
79
83

17
26
34
42
49
59
66
72
79
83
15
24
32
40
47
57
64
69
76
80

15
24
32
40
47
57
64
69
76
80

191



LOI N J
S max 2,3h
H s phn
x
Trn
Tng
Sn

8
7
3
8
7
1
7
7
3
7
7
1
7
5
3
7
5
1
7
3
1
7
1
1
5
5
1
5
3
1
5
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
0
0
0
T
s
treo
n
J=0







T
s
treo
n
J=1/3







Ch
s
phng
0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00

0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00
51
61
69
76
82
90
96
100
106
109

46
55
63
71
77
86
92
97
103
107
47
55
62
68
72
78
83
86
90
93

43
51
58
64
69
76
81
84
89
92
49
58
66
73
78
86
92
96
101
105

45
54
61
69
74
83
89
93
99
103
45
54
60
66
70
76
80
84
88
91

42
50
57
63
67
74
79
82
87
90
33
42
50
57
63
72
79
85
91
96

31
39
46
53
59
68
75
81
88
93
32
40
46
53
58
66
71
75
80
84

30
37
44
50
56
63
69
73
79
83
23
30
37
43
48
57
63
67
73
78

22
29
35
41
47
55
61
66
72
77
17
23
29
35
41
49
55
60
67
72

16
23
29
35
40
48
55
59
66
71
30
38
44
51
55
63
68
72
77
81

29
37
43
49
54
62
67
71
77
80
22
29
36
42
47
55
61
65
72
76

21
29
35
41
46
54
60
64
71
75
16
23
29
35
40
49
55
60
66
71

16
23
28
35
40
48
54
59
66
70
22
29
35
41
46
54
59
64
70
74

21
28
34
40
45
53
59
63
69
73
16
23
29
35
40
48
54
58
65
70

16
23
28
34
39
47
53
58
65
69
14
20
26
32
37
45
51
55
62
66

14
20
26
32
37
45
51
55
62
66

192



LOI N T
S max 6h
H s phn
x
Trn
Tng
Sn

8
7
3
8
7
1
7
7
3
7
7
1
7
5
3
7
5
1
7
3
1
7
1
1
5
5
1
5
3
1
5
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
0
0
0
T
s
treo
n
J=0







T
s
treo
n
J=1/3







Ch
s
phng
0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00

0,60
0,80
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
4,00
5,00
47
56
63
69
74
81
85
88
92
94

28
37
45
52
58
67
73
77
83
87
43
51
57
62
65
70
73
75
78
80

26
34
41
47
52
59
64
67
72
75
40
48
53
59
63
68
72
74
77
79

25
33
39
45
50
57
62
66
71
74
37
44
48
53
56
60
63
65
67
69

23
30
36
41
45
51
55
58
62
64
30
38
44
50
54
61
65
68
73
76

14
20
26
32
37
45
51
56
62
67
29
35
41
46
50
55
58
61
64
66

14
20
25
30
35
42
47
51
56
59
23
30
35
41
45
51
55
57
61
64

09
13
18
23
28
35
40
44
50
54
19
26
32
36
41
47
51
54
59
62

06
09
13
18
22
29
35
39
46
50
20
25
28
32
34
38
41
42
45
46

11
15
18
22
25
30
33
36
39
42
16
21
25
28
31
35
38
40
44
45

06
10
14
17
20
25
28
31
35
38
14
18
22
26
29
33
36
38
41
43

04
06
09
12
15
20
24
27
32
35
10
12
15
17
18
21
22
24
25
26

04
06
08
11
12
15
17
19
21
23
08
11
13
15
17
20
21
23
24
26

02
04
06
07
09
12
14
16
19
21
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00

00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00

193


PHU LUC F: (PHU LUC 9, TCXDVN 333:2005)

194



PHU LUC G:
CAC BANG THA SO MF E TNH HE SO
DUY TR MF CUA H THNG CHIEU
SANG THEO CIE 97:2006 VA CIE 154:2003




195



196



197



198



199










PHU LUC H:
BANG PHAN XA NG
(ROAD REFLECTION TABLES)
CHO CAC LOI MT NG R1, R2,
R3, R4 THEO PHAN LOAI CUA CIE
200



201



202



203



204


PHU LUC I : 846 t4t t4 0F

205



206


PHU LUCJ: t4t f04f 60 t4 84 F tIF0 f46
AN TOAN TH GIAC : visibility safety.
ANH SANG BAN NGA Y : daylight.
ANH SANG CAN TR : obstructive light.
ANH SANG GIA N TIEP : indirect light.
ANH SANG TRC TIEP : direct light.
BAC THANG O ROI : illuminance scale.
BANG PHAN XA NG : road reflection
tables.
BAT OI XNG : asymmetric
BE MAT : surface.
BIEU O BODMAN-SOLLNER : Bodman-
Sollner diagram.
BIEU O KRUITHOFF : Kruithoff diagram.
BONG EN, EN : lamp.
BO IEU KHIEN EN : lamp control gear.
BO OI IEN : invertor.
BO KIEM SOAT CHU KY : anti-cycling control
BO MOI : ignitor.
BO PHAN XA : reflector.
BO PHAN XA DARKLIGHT : darklight
reflector.
CAP BAO VE IEN : electrical safety class.
CAP BAO VE IP : ingress protection class.
CAP CHIEU SANG : lighting class
CAP TRANH TAI : level of competition.
CHAN EN, UOI EN : lamp base, lamp cap.
CH SO AC TRNG CUA EN : speccific
lamp index (SLI).
CH SO HAN CHE CHOI LOA G : glare control
mark G.
CH SO HIEU QUA NA NG LNG : energy
efficient index (EEI).
CH SO PHONG (HE SO KHONG GIAN): room
index (coefficient of cavity).
CH SO THE HIEN MAU Ra (CRI): colour
rendering index.
CH SO V TR GUTH: Guth position index.
CHIEU SANG BAO VE : protection lighting.
CHIEU SANG BEN TRONG, CHIEU SANG
NOI THAT : indoor lighting.
CHIEU SANG BEN NGOAI, CHIE U SANG
NGOAI TRI : outdoor lighting.
CHIEU SANG DA N H NG : orrientation
lighting.
CHIEU SANG D PHONG : standby lighting.
CHIEU SANG IEM NHA N : accent lighting.
CHIEU SANG GIA N TIEP : indirect lighting.
CHIEU HNH (CHIE U PHONG ANH) :
projection.
CHIEU SANG HON HP : mixed lighting.
CHIEU SANG KHU VC : area lighting.
CHIEU SANG KIEN TRUC: architecture
lighting.
CHIEU SANG NA GIAN TIEP : semi-indirect
lighting.
207


CHIEU SANG NA TRC TIEP : semi-direct
lighting.
CHIEU SANG QUET : washlighting.
CHIEU SANG QUET O I XNG : symmetrical
washlighting.
CHIEU SANG QUET BAT OI X NG :
asymmetrical washlighting.
CHIEU SANG S CO, CHIE U SANG KHA N
CAP : emergency lighting.
CHIEU SANG THE THAO : sports lighting.
CHIEU SANG THE THAO VA KHU VC
NGOAI TRI : outdoor sports and area lighting.
CHIEU SANG TRC TIEP, NH HNG:
direct, aimed lighting.
CHIEU SANG TRC TIEP, KHUYECH TAN :
direct, diffuse lighting.
CHIEU SANG TRC TIEP VA GIA N TIEP:
direct and indirect lighting.
CHIEU SANG VI EN CHIE U HNH :
projection lighting.
CHNH XAC TH GIAC: visual acuity.
CHOA EN, BO EN, E N : luminaire.
CHOA EN NH HNG : directional
luminaire.
CHOA EN GIA N TIEP : indirect luminaire.
CHOA EN TRC TIEP : direct luminaire.
CHOI LOA : glare.
CHOI LOA GIAM KHA NANG QUAN SAT:
disability glare.
CHOI LOA MAT TIEN NGHI : dicomfort glare.
CHOI LOA PHAN XA : reflected glare.
CHUM TIA : light beam.
CONG SUAT E N : lamp wattage
CONG VIEC TH GIAC : visual task.
CUON CHAN : choke.
CNG O NH : peak intensity.
CNG O SANG : luminous intensity.
DAN NG HIEU QUA : effective guidance.
EN AM NEN : recessed floor luminaire.
EN BAN : task light.
EN BONG BAU : elliptical lamp.
EN BONG TRU : tubular lamp.
EN CAU: globe light.
EN CAM NG : induction lamp.
EN CH DAN : directive luminaire.
EN CHIEU BIE N : perimeter luminaire.
EN CHIEU IEM : spotlight.
EN CHIEU LE N : uplight.
EN CHIEU QUET : washlight
EN CHIEU XUO NG : downlight.
EN CHIEU VIEN, SPOTLIGHT NG
VIEN : contour spotlight.
EN CO CHP : louvered luminaire.
EN DAN HNG : orientation luminaire.
EN AU TRU: post-top light.
EN HALOGEN : halogen lamp.
EN HOP GIA Y : shoes-box light.
EN HUYNH QUANG COM PACT : compact
fluorescent lamp.
EN HUYNH QUANG THONG DU NG :
general fluorescent lamp.
EN HUYNH QUANG TRON : circular
fluorescent lamp.
208


EN KHA N CAP : emergency light.
EN KHUNG THANG : linear glazing light.
EN MANG BANH: cobra-head light.
EN METAL HALIDE : metal halide lamp.
EN NAM: mushroom light.
EN QUE T GOC : corner washlight.
EN QUE T KEP : double washlight.
EN QUE T NEN : floor washlight.
EN QUE T TRAN : ceiling wash light.
EN QUE T T NG: wallwasher.
EN PHA: floodlight.
EN PHA CHIEU HEP : narrow-beam
floodlight.
EN PHA CHIEU RO NG : wide-beam
floodlight.
EN PHAN XA ALUMIN BONG BAU :
parabolic aluminized reflector (PAR).
EN PHO NG IE N : discharge lamp.
EN PHO NG IE N CNG O CAO : high
intensity discharge lamp (HID lamp).
EN SODIUM CAO AP : high pressure sodium
lamp.
EN SODIUM THAP AP : low pressure sodium
lamp.
EN SI O T : incandescent lamp.
EN (SI OT) THONG DUNG : general
service lamp (GSL)
EN THU Y NGA N CAO AP , EN CAO AP
HI THU Y NGA N : high pressure mercury
(vapour) lamp.
EN THU Y NGA N TRC TIEP : blended
lamp.
EN TO : bowl light.
EN TREO : pendant light.
IEN AP NGUON CHNH : mains voltage.
IEU TIET : accommodation.
NH HNG ANH SANG : directionality of
light.
NH LUA T LAMBERT : Lamberts Law.
NH LUA T COSIN : cosine rule.
O CHOI : luminance.
O CHOI BOI CANH : background luminance.
O CHOI MANG M TNG NG CUA
MOI TRNG : veiling equivalent luminance of
environment.
O CHOI MANG M TONG CONG, DO HE
THONG CHIEU SANG GAY NEN : total veiling
luminance, caused by the lighting installation.
O CHOI THCH NGHI : adaptive luminance.
O CHOI TRUNG BNH : average luminance.
O ONG EU CHUNG : overall uniformity
ratio.
O ONG EU CUA O CHO I : luminance
uniformity ratio.
O ONG EU CUA O ROI : illuminance
uniformity ratio.
O ONG EU DOC TUYE N : longitudal
uniformity ratio.
O NHAY TNG PHAN TNG OI :
relative contrast sensibility.
O NHN RO : visual clarity.
O ROI : illuminance.
O ROI DUY TR : maintained illuminance.
O ROI NG : vertical illuminance.
O ROI NG TOI A TREN CAC TOA NHA
: maximum vertical illuminance on properties.
209


O ROI LAM VIEC : task illuminance.
O ROI NGANG : horizontal illuminance.
O ROI (BAN)TRU : (semi-) cylindrical
illuminance.
O ROI TRUNG BNH : average luminance.
O ROI VUNG TIEP GIAP: illuminance of
surrounding area.
O SANG: brightness.
O TNG PHAN: contrast.
OI X NG : symmetric.
UI EN: lamp holder, lamp socket.
NG CONG PHA N BO CNG O SANG,
NG CONG TRAC QUANG : Intensity
Distribution Curve.
NG THOA T NAN : escape route.
GII NGHIEM : curfew.
GOC CHE CHAN CUA EN: luminaire
shielding (protection)angle.
GOC CAT : cut-off angle.
GOC KHOI : solid angle.
GOC NGHIENG : tilt angle.
GOC PHAN TAN ANH SANG, GOC TIA
CHIEU : beam angle.
GOC QUAY : turn angle.
HAI AU UOI : double - ended.
HE SO CHOI LOA : glare rating (GR).
HE SO CHOI LOA ONG NHAT : Unified
Glare Rating (UGR).
HE SO DUY TR : maintenance factor.
HE SO DUY TR CUA BE MAT : surface
maintenance factor.
HE SO DUY TR CUA CHOA EN : luminaire
maintenance factor.
HE SO DUY TR QUANG THONG CUA BONG
EN : lamp lumen maintenance factor.
HE SO TUOI THO CUA BONG EN : lamp
survival factor.
HE SO A DANG CUA O ROI : illuminance
diversity.
HE SO O CHOI : luminance coefficient.
HE SO O CHOI RUT GO N : reduced
luminance coefficient.
HE SO O CHOI TRUNG BNH Qo : average
luminance coefficient Qo.
HE SO HAP THU : coefficient of absorptance.
HE SO LI DU NG QUANG THONG: utiliance.
HE SO PHAN CHIEU S1 : specularity factor S1.
HE SO PHAN XA: coefficient of reflectance.
HE SO S DUNG QUANG THO NG : utilization
factor.
HE SO THE HIE N TNG PHAN : contrast
rendering factor (CRF).
HE SO TNG PHAN : coefficient of contrast.
HE SO XUYE N SANG: coefficient of
transmittance.
HIEU NG HOAT NGHIE M : stroboscopic
effect.
KET CAU SANG: light structure.
KHOA NG OFFSET : offset distance.
KHOA NG RONG : open area.
KHU VC CONG VIEC CO RUI RO CAO :
high risk task area.
KHUYECH TAN : diffuse.
210


KCH THC LI O KIEM O ROI:
illuminance grid size.
LAP AM : recessed.
LAP NOI : surface mounted.
LAP TNG : wall-mounted
LAP TRAN : ceiling-mounted
LI O KIEM O ROI : illuminance grid.
LNG TIEU : double - focus
MAT NG: road surface.
MAT PHANG LAM VIEC: working plane
MC O CHOI : luminance level.
MC TANG NGNG TNG O I TI:
relative threshold increment.
NANG SUAT TH GIAC: visual performance.
(IEU CHNH) NGHIE NG C : tiltable.
NGNG TNG PHAN : contrast threshold.
NHAP NHA Y : flickering.
NHIET O MAU : colour temperature.
MA EN : lamp code.
MOI TRNG ANH SANG: luminous
environment.
MOI TRNG TH GIAC : visual environment.
MOT AU UOI : single ended.
O NHIEM ANH SANG : light pollution.
ONG PHONG IEN : arc tube.
PIN TH CAP : secondary battery.
PHAN CHIEU : specular.
PHAN XA NH H NG : specular reflection.
PHAN XA HON HP NH H NG : mixed
specular reflection.
PHAN XA HON HP KHUYECH TAN : mixed
diffuse reflection.
PHAN XA KHUYECH TAN TOA N PHAN :
perfect diffuse reflection.
PHAN XA MANG M: veiling reflections.
PHAN BO O CHOI : luminance distribution.
PHAN BO QUANG THO NG CUA CHOA EN :
lumen distribution of luminaire.
PHNG PHAP C NG O SANG : light
intensity method.
PHNG PHAP HE SO CHO I LOA CUA CIE :
CIE glare rating method.
PHNG PHAP O CHOI TRUNG BNH :
average luminance method.
PHNG PHAP O ROI TRUNG BNH :
average illuminance method.
PHNG PHAP QUANG THONG luminous flux
method.
QUANG HIEU, HIEU SUAT PHAT QUANG :
luminous efficacy.
QUANG PHO CUA EN : lamp spectrum,
spectra.
QUANG THONG : luminous flux.
QUANG THONG BAN AU CUA EN : initial
lamp lumen.
QUANG THONG DUY TR : maintained flux.
RAY EN : light track.
SAU GII NGHIEM : post-curfew.
TAC-TE, CHUOT E N : starter.
TAI KHI NONG : hot re-strike
TAO BONG O : shadowing.
TE BAO HNH NO N : cone cell.
TE BAO HNH QUE : rod cell.
211


THANG O ROI : scale of illuminance.
THAU KNH : lens.
TH LC : visual capacity.
THCH NGHI : adaption.
THI GIAN AP NG CUA CHIE U SANG
KHAN CAP : response time of emergency
lighting.
THI GIAN TON TAI CUA CHIEU SANG
KHAN CAP : duration of emergency lighting.
TIEN NGHI TH GIAC : visual comfort.
TM NG : wayfinding, navigation.
TNH TAO HNH : modelling.
TREO : pendant.
TRC GII NGHIE M : pre-curfew.
TRNG NHN : visual field.
TU BU HSCS : power factor capacitor.
TUOI THO : rated life hours.
TY SO BO TR EN SHR: space to height ratio.
TY SO QUANG THO NG CHIEU LE N TOI A :
maximum upward light output ratio.
TY SUAT QUANG THO NG NGO RA : light
output ratio.
UY BAN QUOC TE VE CHIEU SANG :
Commission Internationale DEclairage (CIE).
VE MAU CUA EN : lamp colour appearance.
VUNG CHIEU SANG CUA MOI TRNG:
environmental lighting zones.
VUNG (KHU VC) LAM VIEC : task area.
VUNG TIEP GIAP, XUNG QUANH LAN CAN
VUNG LAM VIEC: surrounding area.
YEU TO MAU : colour aspects.
VANG SANG : light scollop.

oooUUUooo









212



LRL TRl LlEU THRM KHRU.
- Bao cao Khoa hoc Hoi thao Chieu sang Toan quoc Nam 2010, 2008, 2005, Hoi Chieu sang o th Viet Nam.
- So tay Ky thuat Chieu sang, Hoi Chieu sang o th Viet Nam, 2005.
- Ky thuat chieu sang, nhng khai niem c s thiet ke chieu sang, Patrica Van Deplanque, ngi dch: Le Van
Doanh, ang van ao, NXB Khoa hoc va ky thuat, 1996.
- Chieu sang t nhien va nhan tao, PGS TS Pham c Nguyen, NXB Khoa hoc va ky thuat, 1997.
- Bai giang Ky thuat chieu sang o th, Nguyen Manh Ha, Trng ai hoc kien truc a Nang, 2009.
- Tieu chuan Quoc gia TCVN 7114-1:2008, Ecgonomi Chieu sang ni lam viec Phan 1: Trong nha.
- Tieu chuan Quoc gia TCVN 7114-3:2008, Ecgonomi Chieu sang ni lam viec Phan 3: Yeu cau chieu sang
an toan va bao ve tai nhng ni lam viec ngoai nha.
- Tieu chuan Xay dng TCXD 16:1986, Chieu sang nhan tao trong cac cong trnh dan dung, Bo Xay dng, 1986.
- Tieu chuan xay dng Viet Nam TCXDVN 333:2005, Chieu sang nhan tao ben ngoai cac cong trnh cong cong
va ky thuat ha tang o th-Tieu chuan thiet ke, Bo Xay dng, 2005.
- Tieu chuan xay dng Viet Nam TCXDVN 259:2001, Tieu chuan thiet ke chieu sang nhan tao ng, ng pho,
quang trng o th, Bo Xay dng, 2001.
- Tieu chuan Viet Nam TCVN 5828:1994, en ien chieu sang thanh pho, yeu cau ky thuat chung, Bo Xay dng,
1994.
- Tieu chuan Viet Nam TCVN 3743:1983, Chieu sang nhan tao cac nha cong nghiep va cong trnh cong nghiep,
Bo Xay dng, 1983.
- ISO 8995: 2002 , CIE S 008/E: 2002, Lighting of indoor workplaces.
- ISO 8995-2:2002(E), CIE S 015/E:2001, Lighting of workplaces- Part 2: Outdoor.
- ISO 8995-3, CIE S 016/E:2006, Lighting of workplaces Part 3: Lighting requirements for safety and security
of outdoor work places.
- Lighting manual, Philips Lighting Design and Application Centres (LiDAC), 1993.
- Handbook of lighting design, Rudiger Ganslandt, Harald Hofmann, ERCO,1992.
- Lighting guide of ERCO, 2007.
- Sylvania lighting guide, Lumiance, 2006.
- Lighting Design Basic, Mark Karlen, Lames Benya, John Wiley and Sons, 2004.
- Calculux area lighting user manual, Ver.6.6, LiDAC, 2008.
- Calculux road lighting user manual, Ver.6.6, LiDAC, 2008.
- Advanced Lighting Guidelines, New Buildings Institute, 2003.
- THORN lighting handbook, 2008.
- Energy Efficiency Guide for Industry in Asia, UNEP, 2006.


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