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Chapter 11 Rocks and Soil Part II


A) Made up of element 1. Element Gold, Silver, Copper




B) Made up of compound The atoms of elements in a mineral usually join together to form crystal structure.

Quartz ( silicon + oxygen) C) Rare Minerals Some rarer minerals have attractive properties ( shiny surface , pleasing colour) Example : Opal, diamond and beryl Beryl ( from atoms of beryllium, aluminiumn silicon and oxygen)

Diamond ( from carbon atoms)

Ores Rocks that possess large quantities of metal compounds.

Bauxite Ore rich in aluminium Soil Soil

Haematite ore rich in iron

Made from small particles or ___________of rock. Formed when larger rocks ____________. The process is called ________________. Weathering i) Physical weathering of rocks ii) Chemical weathering changes in temperature the effect of ice abrasion the effect of plants rainwater hot and wet weather conditions

Soil Layer

Layer Litter layer

Description - ________________layer. - made mainly from the __________of _________plants and animals. - As the remains of plants and animals rot, they form a substance called _________. - thicker layer - a mixture of __________and _____________ _______________________. -light in color - made up mostly of ________ and _______ - having lost most of its minerals and clay as water drips through the soil - Below the topsoil - paler than ____________because less humus. - Contain _________and minerals _________ ( like iron, aluminium oxides and etc. ) - Contains lumps of ____________.
The parts of a soil = Humus + rocky fragments

Substances / Components -Remains of _______animals and plants. - _______________.


- ____________ - ____________ - _____________ - _____________

Zone of leaching


- _____________ -______________


Rocky Fragments - _______________

i) _________________ ii) _________________ iii) _________________ iv) _________________ 3

Humus The parts of a soil

The Properties of a Soil

The Properties of a Soil Procedure :

i) Dry samples (using soil are + thumb)apparatus soil gritty, silty soil silky, clay soils 1. texture of the finger set up as sandy in diagram 11.1.

sticky ii) The same amount of water is poured onto each soil sample and water is allowed to drain 2. drainage / ability time. for the same amount ofto hold water (in pg 175)
iii) TheThe amount of water measuring cylinder is recorded. 3. volume of water in each

4. pH Type of soils Soil Texture ( How the soil feels) Drainage and water holding ( Passage of water) Air In The Soil ( air present in the spaces between the soil particles) Soil pH ( how acidic and alkaline soil is)

Observations :

Sandy soil Clay Soil Silt

i) How to Investigate The drainage / ability to Hold Water

Discussion : 4 The more volume of water in the measuring cylinder, the _________the ability of the soil to ___________water.


i) Soil is added to a measuring cylinder until 50cm3 has been added. ii) Water is poured in on top of the soil until the level of the water reaches 100cm3. iii) The soil is stirred. iv) The final volume of water for each soil sample is recorded.

ii) How to Investigate The drainage / ability to Hold Water Observations Type of soil sample Sand soil Silt Clay soil Conclusion : ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 5 Final volume of water in measuring cylinder

iii) pH

Have low pH (acidic) form on granite Have high pH (alkaline) form on limestone Heavy rainfall acidic Sandy soil acidic Clay soils alkaline


___________sand, __________silt, ____________clay.

-Contains large amount of __________. - Humus soaks up some water and holds dissolved _________for the plant roots to take up. Have larger ________________. ( help plant roots to respire and to grow down through soil.)

Loam S Suitable for crop to grow. 6