PART 1: FRONTL|NLS 29

2. CLI!dven: TLe Iovgotten VIctIms In
MexIco's Ðvug Wuv
5, Arom 8orro ond uon|e| jo|o,
|ntroouctlon
M, goternnen/ ie oIeolu/el, Je/ernineJ /o con/inue [gl/ing
ogoine/ crininoli/, ui/lou/ quor/er un/il ue pu/ o e/op /o /lie
connon enen, onJ oI/oin /le Mexico ue uon/.
IrosIdonf IoIIµo CnIdoron
l
We lite in o e/o/e of uor onJ clilJren ore lef/ /o Jrif/.
AuroIIo Inoz,
Orµhnnngo dIrocfor, CIudnd Juároz
2
Tho ¨wnr on drugs,¨ In mosf µIncos, Is mofnµhorIcnI. Tho form Is rnroIy
usod by govornmonfs nnd wns roconfIy nbnndonod ns n rhoforIcnI
dovIco by fho !nIfod Sfnfos.
3
In MoxIco, howovor, fho wnr on drugs
hns n vory ronI dImonsIon. If Is ¨docInrod¨ govornmonf µoIIcy, If Is
mIIIfnrIzod, nnd If Is oxfromoIy bIoody. ShorfIy nffor fnkIng µowor,
IrosIdonf IoIIµo CnIdoron ordorod n mIIIfnry offonsIvo ngnInsf fho
counfry`s drug cnrfoIs fhnf ovonfunIIy InvoIvod fons of fhousnnds of
frooµs. KooµIng drugs nwny from MoxIco`s chIIdron hns boon n confrnI
jusfIhcnfIon.
4

WhIIo fho consoquonf vIoIonco In MoxIco hns boon woII documonfod,
fho sµocIhc consoquoncos for chIIdron nro nof so offon broughf fo fho
foro. ÐosµIfo IrosIdonf CnIdoron`s jusfIhcnfIon bnsod on fho woIfnro
of chIIdron, hIs docIsIon, combInod wIfh n zoro-foIornnco nµµronch fo
drug uso, hns confrIbufod fo condIfIons In whIch chIIdron hnvo boon
kIIIod, orµhnnod, nnd nogIocfod. SInco fho wnr on drugs bognn, fhoro
hnvo boon Incronsod kIIIIngs of chIIdron nnd µnronfs wIfh fhousnnds
dond nnd fons of fhousnnds orµhnnod; Incronsod nffncks on drug
rohnbIIIfnfIon confors, IncIudIng mnssncros of young drug usors; nnd
Incronsod nffncks on schooIs rosuIfIng In n sIgnIhcnnf droµ In schooI
nffondnnco for fonr of vIoIonco. Wo consIdor fhoso offocfs of fho drug
wnr nnd fho Iong-form µsychoIogIcnI dnmngo oxµorIoncod by chIIdron
who nro surroundod by conßIcf nnd vIoIonco. Ðuo fo sµnco consfrnInfs,
wo cnnnof nnnIyzo nII nsµocfs of MoxIco`s drug µrobIoms nnd µoIIcIos.
Tho InvoIvomonf of chIIdron In drug frnfhckIng, for oxnmµIo, Is nof
30 CH|LDRLN OF THL DRUG WAR
covorod, nor Is fho IncnrcornfIon of µnronfs. Wo focus Insfond on fho
mIIIfnry InforvonfIon ngnInsf fho drug cnrfoIs, fho roInfod oscnInfIon
In vIoIonco, nnd fho connocfod zoro-foIornnco nµµronch fo drug uso
nnd doµondonco.
WIfh fhIs focus, If bocomos cIonr fhnf fho hnrms of fho drug wnr
nof onIy oxIsf In fho µrosonf buf nIso wIII rovorbornfo fhrough mnny
gonornfIons duo fo fho sµocIhc hnrms InßIcfod on chIIdron. Þoxf fo
fhom, fho smnII gnIns ngnInsf fho cnrfoIs nro rondorod monnIngIoss.
Affor four yonrs of µoor rosuIfs In fronfnIIy combnfIng drug cnrfoIs nnd
ndoµfIng zoro-foIornnco nµµronchos fo drugs, rofhInkIng govornmonf
sfrnfogIos Is now unnvoIdnbIo.
Mllltary |nterventlon Agalnst tbe Drug Cartels
Soon nffor fnkIng µowor In 2006, IrosIdonf IoIIµo CnIdoron dIrocfod
fho MoxIcnn nrmy fo wngo n bnffIo ngnInsf drug cnrfoIs fhnf, ns ho
hImsoIf snId, couId nof bo µuf off nny Iongor. MIIIfnry oµornfIvos soon
oxfondod fo sovornI MoxIcnn sfnfos such ns ChIhunhun, SInnIon, nnd
Injn CnIIfornIn, nnd hIghwnys nnd sfroofs woro soon hIIod wIfh nrmod
mon. In n mnffor of dnys, moro fhnn 30,000 soIdIors woro doµIoyod In
dIfforonf cIfIos In fho counfry In ordor fo nvoId, ns CnIdoron oxµInInod
(somowhnf IronIcnIIy In hIndsIghf) fho rIsk of ¨boIng domInnfod by
crImo, InsocurIfy nnd vIoIonco rosuIfIng from fho ncfIvIfIos of crImInnI
grouµs.¨
5
CombInod wIfh n µrogrnm fo nddross corruµfIon wIfhIn fho µoIIco
forco, fho sfrnfogy wns Infondod fo shnffor fho cnrfoIs by cnrryIng
ouf nrrosfs of gnng Iondors, oxfrndIfIng fhom fo fho !nIfod Sfnfos
whon µossIbIo, nnd soIzIng drug shIµmonfs. AccordIng fo n roµorf
by fho SocurIfy CnbInof fo roßocf fho nchIovomonfs mndo In fhroo
yonrs of fho drug wnr, from Ðocombor l, 2006, fo AµrII 30, 2009,
66,62l crImInnI susµocfs woro cnµfurod.
6
HIgh-µrohIo crImInnIs woro
oxfrndIfod for frInI In fho !nIfod Sfnfos In fnr gronfor numbors fhnn
In µrovIous ndmInIsfrnfIons,
?
fhousnnds of mofrIc fons of IIIIcIf drugs
(mnInIy cnnnnbIs) woro soIzod, nnd hundrods of mIIIIons of doIInrs
woro frozon.
8

InIfInIIy, fhIs sfrnfogy mnnngod fo roduco somowhnf fho µrosonco
nnd vIsIbIIIfy of gnngs nnd cnrfoIs In fho sfnfos whoro fhoy usod
fo oµornfo, such ns SInnIon, Injn CnIIfornIn, nnd ChIhunhun.
ÞovorfhoIoss, fho so-cnIIod cockronch offocf soon bocnmo ovIdonf nnd
PART 1: FRONTL|NLS 31
cnrfoIs movod fo now µIncos.
9
In 200?, fho µrosonco of cnrfoIs wns
rogIsforod In fwonfy-ono of fho fhIrfy-fwo MoxIcnn sfnfos. Todny fhoy
nro In nII buf ono.
l0
As n rosuIf, vIoIonco nIso sµrond fo nn nInrmIng numbor of sfnfos,
cIfIos, nnd munIcIµnIIfIos, nnd fho numbor of cnsunIfIos of fho wnr hns
Incronsod wIfh ovory dny fhnf hns µnssod. AIfhough ofhcInI hguros nro
uncorfnIn, fho ÞnfIonnI SocurIfy Confor CISIÞ osfImnfos fhnf fhoro
hnvo boon moro fhnn 28,000 donfhs sInco fho wnr bognn In 2006.
ll

If Is n hguro fhnf hns nInrmod mnny nnfIonnIIy nnd InfornnfIonnIIy.
!ogroffnbIy, nII fhoso donfhs hnvo boon consIdorod sImµIy ns
¨coIInfornI dnmngo.¨
Cnsos whoro cIvIIInns hnvo dIod bocnuso of mIIIfnry oµornfIons nro
bocomIng moro nnd moro froquonf ns fho Incronso In comµInInfs fo
fho ÞnfIonnI CommIssIon on Humnn !Ighfs shows. QuorIos dIrocfod
ngnInsf fho mIIIfnry roso moro fhnn 900 µorconf In fho hrsf fhroo
yonrs of fho drug wnr, IncronsIng from l82 cnsos In 2006 fo l,?9l In
2009 nf jusf fho fodornI IovoI. ThIs doos nof IncIudo quorIos rogIsforod
nf IocnI commIssIons of humnn rIghfs.
l2
Howovor, In n roconf roµorf
of fho Ðofonso MInIsfry In rosµonso fo n roquosf from Congross, If
wns cInImod fhnf onIy 565 cIvIIInn donfhs mny bo IInkod fo mIIIfnry
ncfIon, n numbor fhnf IncIudos fhoso susµocfod of boIng IInkod wIfh
drug cnrfoIs.
l3

Kllllngs ot Cblloren ano Parents
Tho donfh foII nmong fhoso undor fho ngo of sovonfoon sInco fho wnr
bognn nmounfs fo ovor 900, nccordIng fo fho Þofwork for fho !Ighfs
of Infnncy In MoxIco. In fho hrsf hnIf of 20l0, If Is osfImnfod fhnf
nInofy chIIdron hnvo Iosf fhoIr IIvos fo drug-roInfod vIoIonco.
l4
Tho
snmo nongovornmonfnI orgnnIznfIon roµorfod fhnf homIcIdo rnfos for
chIIdron undor sovonfoon yonrs of ngo hnvo Incronsod, osµocInIIy In fho
sfnfos of Ðurnngo, Injn CnIIfornIn, ChIhunhun, nnd SInnIon. ÐurIng
fho µnsf fhroo yonrs, chIId homIcIdo rnfos hnvo frIµIod, IncronsIng
from 83 µor yonr fo 2?4 µor yonr. Ðurnngo IfsoIf snw nn Incronso of
moro fhnn 450 µorconf In homIcIdo rnfos for young µooµIo In 20068.
l5

Thoso mosf nffocfod hnvo boon young µooµIo bofwoon fho ngos of
hffoon nnd sovonfoon. Ior oxnmµIo, In Injn CnIIfornIn fho homIcIdo
rnfo for fhIs ngo grouµ Incronsod from 8.33 µor l00,000 In 200? fo
24.3 µor l00,000 In 2008nn Incronso of nImosf 300 µorconf. In
32 CH|LDRLN OF THL DRUG WAR
ChIhunhun fho rnfo roso from l2.6 fo 45.9 µor l00,000, nn Incronso
of 364 µorconf.
l6
In CIudnd Juároznow consIdorod fho mosf vIoIonf
cIfy In fho worIdfrom Soµfombor 2009 fo Iobrunry 20l0, fhroo
dIfforonf mnssncros fook µInco wIfh nf Ionsf forfy-hvo young µooµIo
ngod bofwoon hffoon nnd nInofoon boIng kIIIod. If Is osfImnfod fhnf 30
µorconf of fho 4,500 homIcIdos commIffod In Juároz from 200? fo 2008
InvoIvod young µooµIo undor fho ngo of nInofoon.
Iuf CIudnd Juároz Is nof fho onIy cIfy whoro mnssncros of young
µooµIo hnvo occurrod. In Ðurnngo, nn nrmod grouµ In fho munIcIµnIIfy
of IuobIo Þuovo gunnod down fon chIIdron nnd young µooµIo bofwoon
fho ngos of oIghf nnd fwonfy-ono nffor fhoy hnd rocoIvod schoInrshIµ
nwnrds nf nn ofhcInI coromony.
l?
In TIjunnn, fhroo sfudonfs (fwo boys
nnd n gIrI) nII ngod sIxfoon, dIod on fhoIr wny bnck from schooI whon
unknown gunmon nffnckod fhom wIfh hIgh-µoworod wonµons.
l8
In
Torroon, hvo young µooµIo bofwoon sovonfoon nnd nInofoon woro
found sfnckod In fho bnck of n µIckuµ fruck wIfh fho ongIno runnIng.
AII of fhom woro gnggod, hnd buIIof wounds, nnd sIgns of forfuro.
AccordIng fo somo noIghbors, shofs woro honrd nf nround hvo In fho
mornIng, fhough µoIIco nnd mIIIfnry forcos dId nof nrrIvo unfII nImosf
fwo hours Infor.
l9

Tho kIIIIngs hnvo IncIudod cnsos whoro chIIdron hnvo dIod nf
mIIIfnry chockµoInfs, such ns fhnf of fho AImnnzn boys, kIIIod by
nrmy forcos on AµrII 3, 20l0, on n hIghwny In fho sfnfo of TnmnuIIµns.
AccordIng fo sfnfomonfs mndo by CynfhIn SnInznr, mofhor of fho
fwo brofhors, fho fnmIIy wns on fhoIr wny fo fho bonch fo sµond
fho hoIIdnys whon fhoy µnssod fhrough n mIIIfnry chockµoInf. Thoy
roducod fhoIr sµood nnd soIdIors nIIowod fhom fhrough fo confInuo
fhoIr journoy. Howovor, n fow mofors down fho rond, soIdIors oµonod
hro, kIIIIng Irynn nnd MnrfIn AImnnzn, ngod hvo nnd nIno.
20
ThIs cnso rosuIfod In n rocommondnfIon from fho ÞnfIonnI
CommIssIon on Humnn !Ighfs fo fho mIIIfnry forcos. WhIIo fho ofhcInI
vorsIon gIvon by fho mIIIfnry nnd ovon by fho MInIsfry of InforIor
nrguod fhnf fho fnmIIy wns cnughf In crosshro bofwoon fho mIIIfnry
nnd drug cnrfoIs, fho ÞnfIonnI CommIssIon on Humnn !Ighfs rojocfod
fhIs nnd concIudod fhnf fho vnn In whIch fho fwo chIIdron nnd oIovon
ofhor µooµIo woro frnvoIIng wns In fncf undor dIrocf nffnck from fho
mIIIfnry.
2l
A couµIo of monfhs Infor, nufhorIfIos nccoµfod fhIs vorsIon,
buf no ono hns yof boon chnrgod or IndIcfod for fho nIIogod crImos nor
hns n fuII nnd crodIbIo InvosfIgnfIon boon conducfod.
PART 1: FRONTL|NLS 33
ThIs wns nof nn IsoInfod cnso. SInco 2006, mIIIfnry chockµoInfs
hnvo boon wIdoIy usod In fho drug wnr. In Juno 200?, fwo womon
nnd fhroo chIIdron, ngod fwo, four, nnd sovon, woro shof nnd kIIIod
whon fhoy fnIIod fo sfoµ nf n mIIIfnry chockµoInf InvoIvod In ¨fho
µormnnonf cnmµnIgn ngnInsf drug frnfhckIng.¨
22
Moro roconfIy,
n chIId of hffoon nnd hIs fnfhor dIod nffor boIng shof by soIdIors In
fho cIfy of Monforroy. Tho mIIIfnry nrguod fhnf fho vohIcIo mIssod
n chockµoInf, whIIo ofhor roInfIvos who survIvod fho nffnck docInrod
fhoy woro shof nf wIfhouf hnvIng boon gIvon nny IndIcnfIon fo sfoµ.
23
VIoIonco In MoxIco hns hnd myrInd ImµIIcnfIons for socIofy nnd
sµocIhcnIIy for chIId dovoIoµmonf nnd woII-boIng.
24
If hns, for oxnmµIo,
orodod nduIfs` cnµncIfIos fo cnro for, nurfuro, nnd µrofocf chIIdron. If
Is Imµorfnnf fo nofo fhnf mnny of fho 28,000 who hnvo boon kIIIod
sInco fho wnr on drugs bognn woro µnronfs. WhIIo noIfhor MoxIco`s
govornmonf nor fho vnrIous nongovornmonfnI orgnnIznfIons workIng
In fhIs nron kooµ frnck of fho numbor of chIIdron who hnvo Iosf ono
or bofh µnronfs In fho wnr, If Is osfImnfod fhnf fons of fhousnnds of
chIIdron nro orµhnnod dIrocfIy bocnuso of fho drug wnr.
25
Humnn rIghfs Inwyor nnd InvosfIgnfor for fho ChIhunhn IocnI
commIssIon for humnn rIghfs, Cusfnvo do In !osn HIckorson, hns
nnnIyzod fhoso numbors nnd concIudod fhnf, bnsod on dnfn fhnf
MoxIcnn mon ngod oIghfoon fo fhIrfy-hvo hnvo on nvorngo l.? chIIdron,
In CIudnd Juároz nIono, fho wnr hns Ioff moro fhnn 8,500 orµhnns.
26

IxfondIng fhIs hguro fo fho nnfIonnI IovoI, n fofnI of 50,000 drug wnr
orµhnns Is µossIbIo.
Tho growIng foII of chIIdron Ioff orµhnnod bocnuso of fho wnr Is
dnmngIng nof onIy fo fhom buf nIso fo fho counfry`s socInI nofwork.
Covornmonf ofhcInIs nf nII fho dIfforonf IovoIs hnvo Ignorod fho
µrobIom, nnd fnIIod fo fnko Info nccounf fho fufuro rnmIhcnfIons.
IducnfIon nnd onfry Info fho Inbor mnrkof, for oxnmµIo, mny bo
moro dIfhcuIf for fhoso chIIdron. Ior somo fhIs mny bo nn nddIfIonnI
fncfor µushIng fhom fownrd fho drug frndo whoro omµIoymonf Is nII
buf nssurod. ¨Thoro Is nn oµµorfunIfy cosf from fhoso hundrods of
fhousnnds of youfhs In MoxIco who nro oIfhor orµhnnod or µnrf of
crImInnI gnngs,¨ snId Idunrdo IuscngIIn, nn oxµorf on nrmod conßIcf
nnd MoxIco`s drug frndo. ¨Thoso nro µooµIo who nro growIng uµ wIfh
hIgh IovoIs of doµrIvnfIon, In dysfuncfIonnI fnmIIIos, wIfh soxunI
nbuso, nnd fhoso rIsk fncfors shouId bo nddrossod.¨
2?

34 CH|LDRLN OF THL DRUG WAR
Young Drug Users: Zero-Tolerance, Stlgma, ano vlolence
Anofhor gonI of fho CnIdoron ndmInIsfrnfIon`s drug wnr wns
fo µrovonf fho uso of drugs, whIch fho govornmonf nrguod hnd
nInrmIngIy Incronsod In roconf yonrs.
28
WhIIo fhIs nrgumonf wns on
fho rIghf frnck, fho govornmonf`s zoro-foIornnco rosµonso, InvoIvIng
fho crImInnIIznfIon of drug usors nnd IImIfod fronfmonf oµfIons, hns
boon dooµIy ßnwod. ArfIcIo 4 of fho MoxIcnn ConsfIfufIon µrovIdos for
unIvorsnI nccoss fo honIfh sorvIcos, buf fhIs Is fnr from fho cnso for
µooµIo who uso drugs. WhIIo fhIs shouId IncIudo unIvorsnI nccoss fo
fronfmonf oµfIons, IncIudIng nccoss fo mofhndono nnd buµronorµhIno
ns subsfIfufIon fhornµy, µubIIc fundIng of syrIngo oxchnngo µrogrnms,
nnd fho nvnIInbIIIfy of nnIoxono for fho fronfmonf of oµInfo ovordoso,
such sorvIcos nro scnrco nnd hnmµorod by n Inck of socurIfy, crImInnI
Inws, nnd drug-roInfod sfIgmn.
Somo yonrs ngo, fhoro wns onIy ono µubIIcIy fundod mofhndono
µrogrnm cIInIc In fho counfry, Iocnfod In CIudnd Juároz, nnd fodny
onIy fwo mofhndono cIInIcs nro funcfIonIng In nII of MoxIcobofh
Iocnfod In fho norfhorn cIfIos of TIjunnn nnd CIudnd Juároz, whoro
uso of InjocfnbIo drugs Is moro common nnd horoIn doµondonco hns
Incronsod In roconf yonrs. AccordIng fo sfnfIsfIcs µrovIdod by fho
HonIfh MInIsfry In 2008 (ÞnfIonnI Ðrug AddIcfIon Survoy), fhoro
woro moro fhnn 5,000 horoIn usors In Juározwhoro mosf drug usors
nro bofwoon fho ngos of fwoIvo nnd sovonfoon.
29
ÐosµIfo fhIs, fow
offorfs nro boIng ImµIomonfod oIfhor by fho govornmonf or by cIvII
socIofy fo hoIµ hII fho gnµs In sorvIcos.
In nddIfIon, fho crImInnIIznfIon of drug usors by fho fodornI
govornmonf hns ncfod ns n sIgnIhcnnf bnrrIor fo honIfh µoIIcIos,
confrIbufIng fo µubIIc sfIgmnfIznfIon, nnd drIvIng fhom nwny from
sorvIcos. Tho ÞnfIonnI Ðrug AddIcfIon Survoy nIso sfnfos fhnf onIy
l6 µorconf of µrobIomnfIc drug usors sook fronfmonf.
30
MonnwhIIo,
nIfhough drug uso nmong young µooµIo Is n consIsfonf jusfIhcnfIon
for fho offonsIvo ngnInsf fho cnrfoIs, nddIcfIon rnfos confInuo fo rIso,
IncIudIng nmong oIomonfnry nnd hIgh schooI sfudonfs.
3l

MoxIcnn socIofy, howovor, soos IIffIo nood fo µrofocf fho humnn
rIghfs of drug usors nnd µooµIo nffocfod by drug uso. !oconfIy,
wIdosµrond sfIgmn nnd nognfIvo µubIIc nffIfudos fownrd drug usors
combInod wIfh fho drug wnr hnvo mndo vIoIonco ngnInsf fhIs µnrfIcuInr
communIfy n vnIId µoIIfIcnI sfnfomonf. KIIIIngs of young drug nddIcfs
ns dIrocf fnrgofs sfnrfod In CIudnd Juároz, buf dIsnµµonrnncos,
PART 1: FRONTL|NLS 35
leton/onee,
32
kIdnnµµIngs nnd kIIIIngs quIckIy oxµnndod fo fho whoIo
counfry. ThIs Is n IIffIo-known µhonomonon buf If Is IncronsIngIy soon
ns cnrfoIs ongngIng In n form of ¨socInI cIonnsIng.¨
33
Tho nInrm wns
rnIsod onIy roconfIy whon nInofoon young drug usors woro gunnod
down by nn nrmod commnndo who onforod n rohnbIIIfnfIon confor In
Juároz. Mnny of fho vIcfIms woro youngor fhnn sIxfoon.
34

ThIs mnssncro, howovor, wns In fncf fho hffh roµorfod nffnck on
rohnbIIIfnfIon confors cIoso fo fho norfhorn MoxIcnn bordor sInco
Augusf 2008, whon fwo AIcohoI nnd Ðrug AddIcfIon InfogrnfIon
Confors woro nffnckod, nnd fon young drug usors woro kIIIod. In
2009, fwo ofhor nffncks woro roµorfod, ono on Juno 6 nf fho Ðoconvn
TrndIcIon confor, whoro nn Inforn wns Injurod by gunhro nnd fhon
dIod nf fho IocnI hosµIfnI; fho ofhor ono wns on Mny 3l, whon hvo mon
woro murdorod In fho rohnbIIIfnfIon confor !n vIdn sIn AdIccIonos.
35

In CIudnd Juároz, fhoro woro nf Ionsf forfy-sIx kIIIIngs of young µooµIo
nf dIfforonf fronfmonf confors durIng 2009.
36
Tho govornmonf`s nogIocf of drug doµondonco nnd fronfmonf Is
ovIdonf In fho fncf fhnf fhoro Is no roguInfIon of rohnbIIIfnfIon cIInIcs.
Mnny now funcfIon ns ¨fronfs¨ for crImInnI gnngs, nnd oµornfo ns
confors for rocruIfmonf or dIsfrIbufIon.
3?
As oxµInInod by ChIhunhun`s
µubIIc socurIfy mInIsfor, ¨rohnb confors hnvo bocomo n nosf for
crImInnI grouµs fo rocruIf young µooµIo ngod sovonfoon fo fwonfy-
fhroo yonrs, consIdorod 'dIsµosnbIo` bocnuso If fhoy nro dofnInod or dIo
fhoy cnn bo quIckIy roµIncod.¨
38

ÐosµIfo fho cruoIfy of fho kIIIIngs nf fho confors, fho govornmonf
roncfIon Is fo ImmodInfoIy nrguo fhnf fho vIcfIms woro dIrocfIy IInkod
fo orgnnIzod crImo, ovorshndowIng nny duo dIIIgonco roquIrod fo
µrofocf vuInornbIo young µooµIo from hnrm. Ior oxnmµIo, on fho snmo
dny fhnf fon young µooµIo woro mnssncrod nf n rohnb confor In Junroz
on Soµfombor l?, 2009, ChIhunhun`s Covornor Joso !oyos Inozn
nrguod ¨If Is no coIncIdonco, fhoro Is n cIonr mofIvnfIon: ovoryfhIng
Is hnµµonIng In fho confoxf of n wnr bofwoon dIfforonf crImInnIs.
Ðoµondonf drug usors nf fho cIInIc boIong fo ono grouµ or nnofhor.¨
39

Jusf n fow dnys onrIIor, nf fho rohnb confor II AIIvInno, nIso In
CIudnd Juároz, hIf mon forcod fwonfy-fwo young drug usors fo form n
row ngnInsf fho wnII boforo shoofIng wIfh AK-4? rIßos, kIIIIng oIghfoon
of fhom, mnny undor ngo sIxfoon who hnd nrrIvod jusf wooks onrIIor.
Affor fho shoofIng, fho sfnfo nffornoy docInrod, ¨fho mofIvo for fhoso
crImos Is oxformInnfIon bofwoon crImInnI grouµs.¨
40
36 CH|LDRLN OF THL DRUG WAR
Humnn rIghfs dofondors hnvo quosfIonod fho nufhorIfIos` rosµonsos
fo fhoso cruoI ncfs. Cusfnvo do In !osn, nn InvosfIgnfor nf fho IocnI
CommIssIon on Humnn !Ighfs, crIfIcIzod fho govornmonf rosµonso for
µuffIng fho bInmo on chIIdron. Ho nddod fhnf ¨fho roIo of nufhorIfIos
Is nof fo dIscrImInnfo bofwoon good nnd bnd µooµIo who dIo; fhIs
onIy rovonIs fho uffor confomµf for fhoso who hnvo fnIIon Info drug
nddIcfIon.¨
4l
ConNlct ano Psycbologlcal Damage
If Is Imµorfnnf fo fnko Info nccounf fho Iong-form µsychoIogIcnI
dnmngo fo chIIdron nssocInfod wIfh hIgh IovoIs of vIoIonco nnd fho
rosuIfnnf bronkdown In fnmIIy, communIfy, nnd socInI sfrucfuros.
Thnf dnmngo Is woII known nnd documonfod from ofhor conßIcf
zonos In fho worId, nnd somo of fhoso counfrIos nro sfIII sfruggIIng
wIfh fho hnrmfuI offocfs on chIIdron mnny yonrs nffor fho conßIcf
ondod.
ConßIcf nnd vIoIonco hnvo dIrocf consoquoncos for fho IndIvIdunI
chIId, ImmodInfo fnmIIy, nnd communIfy fhnf cnn bo dovnsfnfIng,
buf whIIo fho Iong-form corrosIvo offocfs of fho bronkdown of socInI
nnd µoIIfIcnI sfrucfuros mny fnko fho sovorosf foII, fhoy nro bnroIy
sµokon of. In nddIfIon fo undorsfnndIng fho dnmngo fo chIIdron`s
dovoIoµmonfnI µrocossos cnusod by oxµosuro fo ongoIng nrmod
vIoIonco, If Is ossonfInI fo undorsfnnd how fho mnInfonnnco of fnmIIy
nnd communIfy norms In nddIfIon fo funcfIonIng sfnfo sfrucfuros
such ns oducnfIon nnd honIfh sorvIcoscnn mIfIgnfo fho dIro sIfunfIon
In whIch chIIdron hnd fhomsoIvos whon fhoy IIvo In communIfIos
oxµosod fo vIoIonco.
42
Thoro Is no doubf fhnf oxµosuro fo vIoIonco, doµrIvnfIon, fonr, nnd
sfross nffocfs chIIdron`s dovoIoµmonf ovon boforo bIrfh.
43
If Is woII
documonfod fhnf IndIvIdunI dovoIoµmonf Is chnrncforIzod by fho
InforµIny of onvIronmonfnI nnd bIoIogIcnI fncfors from fho oufsof. Ior
oxnmµIo, ovIdonco from nouroIogIcnI rosonrch rovonIs fhnf, In uforo,
fho wIrIng of fho brnIn Is nffocfod by oxfornnI fncfors such ns ndoqunfo
nufrIfIon nnd IovoIs of mnfornnI sfross, whIch, In µrognnncy, mny nffocf
fho unborn Infnnf`s brnIn dovoIoµmonf. In ossonco, oxµosuro fo sfross
hormonos boforo bIrfh cnn µofonfInIIy Iond fo Iongor form bohnvIornI
dIsordors such ns hyµorncfIvIfy nnd nffonfIon dohcIf dIsordor In fho
young chIId, whIch In furn cnn bo µrocursors of nggrossIvo bohnvIor,
PART 1: FRONTL|NLS 37
mnkIng If moro IIkoIy fhnf cycIos of vIoIonco nro roµroducod from ono
gonornfIon fo nnofhor.
Inch chIId Is dIfforonf, nnd mnny vnrInbIos such ns ngo, cuIfurnI
norms, gondor, nnd IndIvIdunI fomµornmonf wIII modInfo how chIIdron
oxµorIonco fho fhronf or ronIIfy of vIoIonco. ÞonofhoIoss, rosonrch
drnws ouf cIusfors of fyµIcnI roncfIons of chIIdron oxµorIoncIng Ioss
nnd frnumn. Whon fncod wIfh fho donfh or mnImIng of n fnmIIy or
communIfy mombor, chIIdron`s roncfIons wIII vnry fromondousIy, nnd
wIII doµond on fho nbIIIfy of fho fnmIIy nnd communIfy fo µrovIdo
ronssurnnco nnd oxµInnnfIon. Howovor, roncfIons fo ongoIng vIoIonco
mny IncIudo Incronsod nnxIofy, whIch mnnIfosfs fhrough omofIonnI
nnd µhysIcnI wIfhdrnwnI (o.g., oIocfIvo mufIsm or InnbIIIfy fo ongngo
In ovorydny fnsks such ns wnshIng) or domonsfrnfIons of nggrossIon.
ChIIdron mny nIso hnd If dIfhcuIf fo soµnrnfo from fnmIIy mombors
for fonr of whnf wIII hnµµon durIng soµnrnfIon, fhoroby mnkIng
nffondnnco nf onrIy chIIdhood sorvIcos or schooI vory dIfhcuIf. Somo
chIIdron rogross fo onrIIor sfngos nnd mny, for Insfnnco, fnIk or bohnvo
IIko n much youngor chIId. Iod woffIng Is nnofhor common oxnmµIo
of rogrossIvo bohnvIor. Ofhor chIIdron bocomo hyµorvIgIInnf, fooIIng
If Is fhoIr rosµonsIbIIIfy fo kooµ fho fnmIIy snfo. Trusf In nduIfs nnd
fho fufuro cnn nIso bo orodod, IonvIng chIIdron wIfhouf hoµo. ThIs
Is µnrfIcuInrIy fho cnso whon chIIdron wIfnoss fho hoIµIossnoss of
µnronfs nnd cnrogIvors fo sfoµ vIoIonco.
If doos nof mnffor fo chIIdron whofhor vIoIonco Is cnusod by sfnfos,
mIIIfIns, roboIs, or crImInnI grouµs; whnfovor fho cnuso nnd whoovor
Is fo bInmo, chIIdron oxµorIonco vIoInfIon nnd dIsfross fhnf cnn hnvo
Iong-form consoquoncos. In fho curronf sIfunfIon In MoxIco, fho
govornmonf musf bo hoId nccounfnbIo for uµhoIdIng fho rIghfs of
chIIdron nnd for µuffIng Info µInco monsuros fo roduco fho vIoIonco
chIIdron nro oxµorIoncIng, µnrfIcuInrIy If If omnnnfos from ngonfs of
fho sfnfo, In nddIfIon fo µrovIdIng sorvIcos nImod nf mIfIgnfIng fho
offocfs of vIoIonco on chIIdron.
Attacks on Scbools
Tho consfnnf bnffIos bofwoon drug cnrfoIs nnd fho mIIIfnry hnvo
mndo If IncronsIngIy dIfhcuIf nnd dnngorous for chIIdron In somo
µIncos fo ronch schooI. In Ifs 20l0 roµorf 1Juco/ion InJer A//oc/,
!ÞISCO documonfod n sIgnIhcnnf numbor of cnsos In whIch schooIs,
38 CH|LDRLN OF THL DRUG WAR
fonchors, nnd sfudonfs woro nffnckod nnd fhronfonod, bofh by cnrfoIs
nnd by µoIIco or mIIIfnry forcos.
Tho roµorf found ns ronsons for fhoso nffncks, nmong ofhors, fho
dosIro of IrroguInr grouµs fo undormIno conhdonco In govornmonf
confroI of nn nron or ovon fho funcfIonIng of fho oducnfIon sysfom.
44

In Þovombor 2008, nrmod drug gnngs fhronfonod fonchors In sIx
dIfforonf schooIs, sfnfIng fhnf fhoy wouId kIdnnµ sfudonfs If fhoy woro
nof µnId ChrIsfmns bonusos. Mosf of fhoso schooIs hnd fo ovncunfo nII
of fhoIr sfudonfs nnd cIoso fhoIr doors for moro fhnn fhroo wooks duo
fo n Inck of socurIfy fhnf shouId hnvo boon µrovIdod by fho sfnfo.
45

On Mnrch l?, 2009, moro fhnn fwonfy hIgh-cnIIbor cnrfrIdgos woro
found on fho cnmµus of fho 83rd InccnInuronfo SfudIos InsfIfufo, In
fho TrIquI rogIon of Snn Junn CoµnIn, Onxncn, foIIowIng n rnId by
nrmod gnngs on n communIfy nIong Ifs µorImofor. Thoso woro dnys
of confInuod nrmod nffncks nffrIbufod fo fho !nIon of SocInI WoIfnro
of fho TrIquI !ogIon, n µnrnmIIIfnry grouµ fhnf forcod µrImnry nnd
socondnry hIgh schooIs fo susµond cInssos durIng AµrII 2009.
46

IoIIco nnd mIIIfnry forcos hnvo nIso boon dIrocfIy InvoIvod In cnsos
whoro nccossIbIIIfy fo schooIs, nnd ovon fho vory socurIfy of sfudonfs,
hns boon comµromIsod. In Mnrch 20l0, IocnI µoIIco bursf Info n
hIgh schooI In CIudnd Juároz IookIng for drugs nnd nrms wIfhouf
nny µrovIous nofIhcnfIon fo schooI nufhorIfIos. Thoy ovIcfod 2,600
sfudonfs nnd fook fhom ouf for InsµocfIon. Affor n fow hours, fho µoIIco
rofronfod nnd concIudod fhnf fho sfudonfs woro nof In µossossIon of
drugs.
4?

SchooIs hnvo boon n sµocIhc fnrgof In fho govornmonf`s sfrnfogy
fo roduco fho domnnd for drugs by crImInnIIzIng drug uso. Thus fho
µrogrnm Moclilo eeguro (Snfo schooIbng) wns ImµIomonfod. If consIsfod
of n sorIos of µoIIco-Iod rnndom sonrch offorfs InsµocfIng sfudonfs`
schooIbngs fo mnko suro fhoy nro nof cnrryIng wonµons or drugs wIfh
fhom. ÐIfforonf humnn rIghfs nufhorIfIos hnvo sµokon ngnInsf fhIs
µrogrnm bocnuso If nof onIy µushos sfudonfs nwny from schooIs nnd
dnmngos conhdonco bofwoon µuµIIs nnd fonchors, buf nIso Is nn InvnsIvo
monsuro fhnf vIoInfos fho rIghf fo µrIvncy of chIIdron nnd youfh.
48
In sfnfos such ns TnmnuIIµns, MoroIos, or ChInµns, sfudonfs
hnvo mIssod cInssos bocnuso of rumors fhnf honvy shoofIngs wIII
occur nround fho cIfy. In !oynosn, for oxnmµIo, nbsonco from schooI
oxfondod fo 90 µorconf of nII sfudonfs. TnmnuIIµns`s IducnfIon
MInIsfry oxµInInod fhnf: ¨fho ronson for fho Inrgo numbor of nbsoncos
PART 1: FRONTL|NLS 39
wns µrImnrIIy omnII chnIns fhnf confnInod µhrnsos such ns 'cnro for
your chIIdron` nnd 'don`f Ionvo homo bocnuso If wIII gof worso fhnn
Irnq.`¨
49
IxµorIonco from ofhor conßIcf zonos hns shown fho vnIuo of roducIng
fho hnrmfuI offocfs of vIoIonco on chIIdron by onsurIng fhnf fhoy hnvo
nccoss fo snfo sµncos such ns onrIy chIIdhood nnd communIfy sorvIcos
nnd schooIs.
50
If schooIs nro fhronfonod wIfh dIsruµfIon or fnrgofod ns
doscrIbod nbovo, fho sfnfo musf fnko ovory ncfIon fo onsuro fhnf fhoy
sfIII funcfIon. IducnfIon hns µrovod Ifs ossonfInI roIo In µrovIdIng
sfrucfuro, roufIno, nnd n focus on fho fufuro fhnf Is hIghIy bonohcInI
fo chIIdron nnd communIfIos nffocfod by vIoIonco nnd conßIcf.
IqunIIy, µrogrnms fhnf onnbIo chIIdron fo oxµIoro nnd como fo forms
wIfh fhoIr oxµorIoncos In n snfo onvIronmonf fhrough µIny, musIc,
nrf, nnd drnmn nro offon sufhcIonf fo hoIµ mosf chIIdron donI wIfh
fho oxfromo offocfs of oxµosuro fo vIoIonco. InIfInfIvos such ns fhoso
In CIudnd Juároz fo osfnbIIsh snfo sµncos for µIny, suµµorfod by fho
communIfy nnd WorId VIsIon, nn InfornnfIonnI ovnngoIIcnI roIIof nnd
dovoIoµmonf ngoncy, wIII go n Iong wny fo IossonIng fho offocfs of fho
vIoIonco fhnf fhoso chIIdron nro sfIII oxµorIoncIng.
5l
Concluslon
ArIol que crece /orciJo jonóe eu /ronco enJereco
MoxIcnn µrovorb
52
Affor four yonrs of µoor rosuIfs In nffomµfs fo dIrocfIy combnf drug
cnrfoIs nnd fo ndoµf zoro-foIornnco nµµronchos fo drugs, rofhInkIng
govornmonf sfrnfogIos Is now unnvoIdnbIo In fho fnco of grofosquo
vIoIonco nnd rIsIng rnfos of nddIcfIon (bofh nffocfIng chIIdron);
Incronsod schooI nbsoncos nnd fho bronkdown of oducnfIonnI
sfrucfuros; nnd fho µrosµocf of nImosf corfnIn Iong-form µsychoIogIcnI
dnmngo fo chIIdron oxµosod fo fho drug wnr.
A rndIcnI chnngo In dIrocfIon Is roquIrod, for ns moro nnd moro
chIIdron fnII vIcfIm fo vIoIonco dIrocfod nf fhom, fhoIr µnronfs, nnd
fhoIr schooIs, nnd ns moro nnd moro young µooµIo who uso drugs
nro nbnndonod by fho sfnfo, fho Iong-form Imµncf of MoxIco`s vIoIonf
oxµorImonf wIII bocomo cIonr. Þoxf fo fhIs µrognosIs, fho onrIIor gnIns
In forms of doIInrs frozon, crImInnIs oxfrndIfod, nnd mofrIc fons of
drugs soIzod, soom nII fho moro hoIIow nnd IrroIovnnf.
40 CH|LDRLN OF THL DRUG WAR
Iormor µrosIdonf VIconfo Iox hns now sfnfod fhnf ho Is In fnvor
of consIdorIng modoIs of IognI roguInfIon of curronfIy IIIIcIf drugs.
IrosIdonf CnIdoron, whIIo ngnInsf fhIs µroµosnI, snys fhnf fho dobnfo
Is Imµorfnnf.
53
Whnfovor fho oufcomo of such dobnfos, MoxIcnn
nufhorIfIos musf rofocus nnd Incronso ncfIons nImod nf µromofIng
young µooµIo`s comµrohonsIvo dovoIoµmonf, µnrfIcuInrIy In fho
nrons of oducnfIon, omµIoymonf, nnd IoIsuro. ThIs Is µossIbIo If If
Is µroncfIvoIy docIdod fhnf drugs shouId bo nddrossod ns n µubIIc
honIfh nnd dovoIoµmonf Issuo, rnfhor fhnn n socurIfy Issuo, nnd onIy
If chIIdron nro fruIy µIncod nf fho forofronf of moro offocfIvo drug
µoIIcIos rnfhor fhnn boIng Ioff fo drIff In n son of vIoIonco.
Lnonotes
¦

Tho nufhors nro vory grnfofuI fo TInn Hydor, sonIor µrogrnm mnnngor nf fho
Oµon SocIofy IoundnfIons` InrIy ChIIdhood Irogrnm, for hor Imµorfnnf Inµuf
roInfIng fo chIIdron In conßIcf sIfunfIons.
l. !ory CnrroII, ¨MoxIco Ðrug Wnr: Tho Þow IIIIIng IIoIds,¨ GuorJion, Soµfombor
3, 20l0.
2. Quofod In 1npreeionee Lo/inoe, ¨CIudnd Juároz: InmIIIn y nInoz son nrrobnfndns,¨
Mny 25, 20l0.
3. ¨!.S. Ðrug Cznr CnIIs for Ind fo 'Wnr on Ðrugs,`¨ !oufors, Juno 8, 2009.
4. ÞofImox, ¨CoIobrn CnIdoron dofoncIon do '!n !oInn doI Incíhco,`¨ Ao/icieroe
Teletieo, Ocfobor 2, 200?; J. Cnsfnnodn, ¨Whnf`s SµnnIsh for QungmIro¨ IIvo
Myfhs Thnf Cnusod fho InIIod Wnr Þoxf Ðoor,¨ Ioreign Polic,, Jnnunry/Iobrunry
20ll, www.foroIgnµoIIcy.com/nrfIcIos/20l0/0l/04/whnfs_sµnnIsh_for_qungmIro/.
5. IrnncIsco !oIon, ¨InfrovIsfn n IoIIµo CnIdoron: !n sIfuncIon on MoxIco,¨ 1l Pole,
Jnnunry 2l, 200?.
6. Irocurndurín ConornI do In !oµubIIcn, Ieeul/oJoe Je lo Poll/ico Mexicono con/ro
lo Delincuencio OrgonicoJo, Juno 9, 2009.
?. Milenio, ¨CnIdoron IIovn 3l6 oxfrndIcIonos; Iox nµrobo 2l9,¨ Iobrunry 2l, 20l0.
8. Irocurndurín ConornI do In !oµubIIcn, Ieeul/oJoe Je lo Poll/ico Mexicono.
9. Jorgo Chnbnf, ¨!n rosµuosfn doI gobIorno do CnIdoron nI dosnfío doI nnrcofráhco:
Infro Io mnIo y Io µoor,¨ Confro do InvosfIgncIon y ÐoconcIn IconomIcn (CIÐI),
20l0, www.cIdo.odu/µubIIcncIonos/sfnfus/dfs/ÐTII°20l96.µdf.
l0. Idunrdo Cuorroro CufIorroz, ¨!os hoyos nogros do In osfrnfogIn confrn oI nnrco,¨
Aexoe, Augusf l, 20l0.
ll. TnIn !osns, ¨Vnn más do 28,000 muorfos, roconoco CIson,¨ 1l 1cononie/o, Augusf
3, 20l0.
l2. ÞnfIonnI CommIssIon on Humnn !Ighfs, Ac/iti/iee Iepor/ 19992009, www.cndh.
org.mx.
l3. 1l Initereol, ¨Vnn 565 cIvIIos muorfos durnnfo ndmInIsfrcIon: Sodonn,¨
Soµfombor 24, 20l0.
l4. !od µor Ios Ðorochos do In InfnncIn on MoxIco, Pronuncionien/o con/ro ornoe,
Mny l?, 20l0, www.dorochosInfnncIn.org.mx/IsµocInIos/IronuncInmIonfo_
confrnnrmns.hfmI.
l5. !ufh !odríguoz, ¨900 monoros hnn muorfo on guorrn nI nnrco,¨ 1l Initereol,
Juno 8, 20l0.
l6. !od µor Ios Ðorochos do In InfnncIn on MoxIco, Pronuncionien/o con/ro ornoe.
PART 1: FRONTL|NLS 41
l?. Lo Cr6nico, ¨InvosfIgnn nsosInnfo do jovonos on Ðurnngo,¨ Mnrch 29, 20l0.
l8. 1l Initereol, ¨Mnfnn n fros nIumnos do bnchIIIoros on TIjunnn,¨ Jnnunry 8, 20l0.
l9. 1l Siglo Je Torre6n, ¨Incuonfrnn n cInco jovonos nsosInndos,¨ Mnrch 2?, 2009.
20. 1l Initereol, ¨IjorcIfo mnfo n mIs hIjos: CynfhIn SnInznr,¨ AµrII l3, 20l0.
2l. ÞnfIonnI CommIssIon on Humnn !Ighfs, IeconnenJo/ion 36/2010, www.cndh.
org.mx.
22. Loe Angelee Tinee, ¨l9 In MoxIcnn Army HoId In Ðonfhs of 5,¨ Juno 5, 200?.
23. Junn CodIIIo, ¨Iuo un orror dIsµnrnrIo n fnmIIIn, ndmIfo Sodonn,¨ 1l Initereol,
Soµfombor ?, 20l0.
24. Ior nn ovorvIow of fho Issuos nnd ovIdonco roforrod fo In fhIs nrfIcIo, soo T. Hydor,
Wor, Confic/ AnJ Plo, (MnIdonhond, !K: Oµon !nIvorsIfy Iross, 2004).
25. ÐnnIoIn Insfrnnn, ¨MoxIcnn Covf Turns n IIInd Iyo fo Orµhnnod nnd ÐIsnbIod
ChIIdron,¨ Infor Iross SorvIco, JuIy 23, 20l0. A chIId who hns Iosf hIs or hor
fnfhor Is consIdorod ¨orµhnnod¨ In MoxIco.
26. CnfhorIno Iromor, ¨SµocInI !oµorf: MoxIco`s CrowIng !ogIon of Þnrco Orµhnns,¨
!oufors, Ocfobor 6, 20l0.
2?. IbId.
28. IoIIµo CnIdoron`s sµooch nf fho Inunch of fho µrogrnm ¨!ImµIomos MoxIco,¨ In
Monforroy, JuIy 2, 20l0.
29. SocrofnrIn do SnIud, 1ncuee/o Aocionol Je AJiccionee, 2008, 49, www.Insµ.mx/
oncuosfn-nncIonnI-do-ndIccIonos-2008.hfmI.
30. IbId., 52
3l. Milenio, ¨So Incromonfnn índIcos do nInos ndIcfos, dIco SSA,¨ Mny l0, 20l0.
32. IoµuInr nnmo gIvon fo n kInd of kIdnnµµIng commonIy cnrrIod ouf by crImInnI
gnngs fo Incronso fhoIr rnnks.
33. A sImIInr µhonomonon occurs In CoIombIn, whoro IIIognI nrmod grouµs hnvo boon
known fo µubIIcIy fhronfon drug usors nnd sox-frndo workors. In 2009, n Ionßof wns
droµµod In muIfIµIo cIfIos by n µnrnmIIIfnry grouµ mnkIng such fhronfs. In Snnfn
Io, n µoor nron In Iogofn, drug usors nnd sox workors woro subsoquonfIy kIIIod.
34. Lo Cr6nico, ¨Þuovn mnfnnzn on un confro do rohnbIIIfncIon do CIudnd Juároz,¨
Soµfombor l?, 2009.
35. !uIs CnrIos Cnno, ¨Sumnn l8 muorfos on confro do rohnbIIIfncIon on Juároz,¨ 1l
Initereol, Soµfombor 3, 2009.
36. 1l Agoro, ¨Vnn 46 ojocufndos on confros do rohnbIIIfncIon,¨ Soµfombor l?, 2009.
3?. 1l 1cononie/o, ¨CobIorno do ChIhunhun InvosfIgnrá confros do rohnbIIIfncIon,¨
Soµfombor l?, 2009.
38. 1l Initereol, ¨SIcnrIos fusIInn n l? jovonos on CIudnd Juároz,¨ Soµfombor 3,
2009.
39. Aler/o PerioJle/ico, ¨Acfos forrorIsfns, do oxformInIo onfro bnndns, jusfIhcnn
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42 CH|LDRLN OF THL DRUG WAR
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