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RAJASTHAN STATE ROAD DEVELOPMENT RAJASTHAN STATE ROAD DEVELOPMENT RAJASTHAN STATE ROAD DEVELOPMENT RAJASTHAN STATE ROAD

OAD DEVELOPMENT
CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION
DRAFT ETAILED PROJECT REPORT FOR
DEVELOPMENT OF JODHPUR
PHALODI ROAD
Draft Detail Project
RAJASTHAN STATE ROAD DEVELOPMENT RAJASTHAN STATE ROAD DEVELOPMENT RAJASTHAN STATE ROAD DEVELOPMENT RAJASTHAN STATE ROAD DEVELOPMENT
CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION

ETAILED PROJECT REPORT FOR
DEVELOPMENT OF JODHPUR OSIAN
PHALODI ROAD (SH 61)
Draft Detail Project Report
August 2010






CHAPTER 1................................................................................................................................................................ 7
1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................. 7
1.1 PURPOSE OF STUDY ...................................................................................................................................... 7
1.2 SOCIO ECONOMIC PROJECT ......................................................................................................................... 7
1.3 TRAFFIC SURVEY AND ANALYSIS............................................................................................................... 10
1.4 TRAFFIC FORECAST .................................................................................................................................... 10
1.5 ALIGNMENT AND ENGINEERING ............................................................................................................... 11
1.6 MATERIALS & SOURCES ............................................................................................................................ 12
1.7 PAVEMENT DESIGN .................................................................................................................................... 12
1.8 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURES ......................................................................................................................... 13
1.9 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS .................................................................................................. 14
1.10 COST - ESTIMATES ..................................................................................................................................... 14
1.11 ECONOMIC EVALUATION AND FINANCIAL VIABILITY .............................................................................. 15
CHAPTER 2.............................................................................................................................................................. 16
2.0 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................... 16
2.1 PURPOSE OF STUDY .................................................................................................................................... 16
2.2 SCOPE OF WORK ......................................................................................................................................... 16
2.3 METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................................................................... 17
2.3.1 Establishment......................................................................................................................................... 17
2.3.2 Technical Approach ............................................................................................................................... 17
2.4 CONTENTS OF THE FEASIBILITY REPORT ................................................................................................... 19
CHAPTER 3.............................................................................................................................................................. 20
3.0 SOCIO ECONOMIC PROFILE ................................................................................................................. 20
3.1 INTRODUCTIONS......................................................................................................................................... 20
3.2 GENERAL FEATURES .................................................................................................................................. 20
3.3 PROJECT CORRIDOR ................................................................................................................................... 20
3.4 DEMOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................................ 21
3.4.1 Rajasthan ............................................................................................................................................. 21
3.4.2 Jodhpur District .................................................................................................................................. 22
3.4.3 Rural and Urban Population ............................................................................................................ 22
3.5 AGRICULTURE ............................................................................................................................................ 23
3.6 LAND UTILISATION .................................................................................................................................... 23
3.7 TRANSPORT NETWORK .............................................................................................................................. 24
3.7.1 Air Transport ....................................................................................................................................... 24
3.7.2 Water Transport .................................................................................................................................. 25
3.7.3 Rail Transport ..................................................................................................................................... 25
3.7.4 Road Transport ................................................................................................................................... 25
3.7.5 Vehicle Population ............................................................................................................................. 25
3.8 STATE ECONOMY ....................................................................................................................................... 26
3.8.1 Growth State Domestic Product ...................................................................................................... 26
3.8.2 Per Capita Income Growth ............................................................................................................... 27
3.8.3 Growth Trend ...................................................................................................................................... 27
4.0 TRAFFIC SURVEY & ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................ 28
4.1 HISTORICAL DATA ..................................................................................................................................... 28
4.1.1 All India Statistics ................................................................................................................................. 28
4.1.2 Rajasthan Statistics ............................................................................................................................... 30
4.1.3 Project Road ........................................................................................................................................... 32


4.2 TRAFFIC SURVEYS ....................................................................................................................................... 32
4.2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 32
4.2.2 Classified Traffic Volume Count............................................................................................................ 33
4.2.2.1 Traffic Composition ..................................................................................................................................52
4.2.2.2 Peak Hour Traffic ......................................................................................................................................53
4.2.2.3 Local Traffic ................................................................................................................................................53
4.2.2.4 Average Annual Daily Traffic .................................................................................................................53
4.2.2.5 Directional Split Traffic............................................................................................................................53
4.2.2.6 Homogenous Sections ...............................................................................................................................54
4.2.3 Origin & Destination Survey ................................................................................................................ 54
4.2.6.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................55
4.2.6.2 Equivalent Standard Axle Load...............................................................................................................55
4.2.6.3 Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF) .................................................................................................................55
4.2.7 Pedestrian Surveys ................................................................................................................................ 56
4.2.8 Speed / Delay Survey ............................................................................................................................. 56
4.2.10 Toll Rate Survey ............................................................................................................................... 57
4.2.11 Traffic Accident Study ...................................................................................................................... 57
4.3 TRAFFIC ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................................................... 58
4.3.1 Traffic Volume Characteristics .............................................................................................................. 58
4.3.1.1 Rural Traffic ................................................................................................................................................58
4.3.2 Origin & Destination Survey ................................................................................................................ 58
CHAPTER 5.............................................................................................................................................................. 65
TRAFFIC FORCAST ................................................................................................................................................. 65
5.1 GENERAL .................................................................................................................................................... 65
5.2 ELASTICITY TRAFFIC DEMAND .................................................................................................................. 65
5.3 PAST TRAFFIC DATA .................................................................................................................................. 65
5.5 GROWTH RATE BASED ON ECONOMIC INDICATORS................................................................................. 65
5.6 TRAFFIC APPRAISAL ................................................................................................................................... 66
5.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 66
5.6.2 India Past ............................................................................................................................................ 67
5.6.3 India Future ........................................................................................................................................ 86
5.6.4 Rajasthan Future ................................................................................................................................ 87
5.6.5 Elasticity of Traffic Demand .................................................................................................................. 88
5.6.6 Project Influence Area ........................................................................................................................... 88
5.6.7 Seasonal Variation ................................................................................................................................. 88
5.6.8 Traffic Growth Rates ............................................................................................................................. 88
5.6.9 Traffic Forecast ...................................................................................................................................... 89
5.7 GENERATED TRAFFIC ................................................................................................................................. 89
5.8 DIVERTED TRAFFIC..................................................................................................................................... 89
CHAPTER 6.............................................................................................................................................................. 90
ALIGNMENT & ENGINEERING .......................................................................................................................... 90
6.1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................................... 90
6.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 90
6.1.2 Location and Terrain Condition. ........................................................................................................... 90
6.1.3 Land use ................................................................................................................................................. 91
6.1.4 Geology .................................................................................................................................................. 92
6.1.5 Meteorological Data ............................................................................................................................... 92
6.1.6 Existing Alignment ............................................................................................................................... 92
6.1.6.1 Horizontal Alignment ...............................................................................................................................92
6.1.6.2 Vertical Alignment ....................................................................................................................................93
6.1.6.3 Road Width .................................................................................................................................................94
6.1.6.4 Pavement .....................................................................................................................................................94


6.1.7 Traffic .................................................................................................................................................... 94
6.1.7.1 Rural Sections .............................................................................................................................................94
6.2 ROAD INVENTORY ...................................................................................................................................... 94
6.3 TOPOGRAPHICAL AND CADASTRAL SURVEY ............................................................................................ 96
6.3.1 Topographic Survey ............................................................................................................................... 96
6.3.1.1 Route Maps .................................................................................................................................................96
6.3.1.3 Total Station Traverse Control. ...............................................................................................................96
6.3.1.4 Height Control ............................................................................................................................................96
6.3.1.5 Map Compilation .......................................................................................................................................96
6.3.2 Cadastral Survey ................................................................................................................................... 96
6.3.2.1 Existing ROW .............................................................................................................................................97
6.3.2.2 Proposed ROW ...........................................................................................................................................97
6.3.2.3 Additional Land Requirement ................................................................................................................97
6.3.2.4 Cadastral Survey Documents and Computerisation ...........................................................................98
6.3.2.5 Cadastral Survey Documents...................................................................................................................98
6.3.2.6 Methodology ...............................................................................................................................................98
6.4 GEOMETRIC DESIGN ................................................................................................................................... 98
6.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 98
6.4.2 Design Standards.................................................................................................................................. 99
6.4.2.1 Design Speed ..............................................................................................................................................99
6.4.2.2 Sight Distances ...........................................................................................................................................99
6.4.2.3 Horizontal Curves ....................................................................................................................................100
6.4.2.4 Vertical Curves .........................................................................................................................................100
6.4.2.5 Gradients ...................................................................................................................................................100
6.4.2.6 Side Slopes ................................................................................................................................................101
6.4.2.7 Road Furniture .........................................................................................................................................101
6.4.2.7.1 Road Signs ...........................................................................................................................................101
6.4.2.7.2 Road Markings ....................................................................................................................................101
6.4.2.7.3 Road Delineators ................................................................................................................................101
6.4.2.7.4 Traffic Barriers ....................................................................................................................................101
6.4.3 Typical Cross Sections ......................................................................................................................... 102
6.5 ROAD ALIGNMENT .................................................................................................................................. 103
6.5.1 Widening of Existing Alignment ........................................................................................................ 103
6.5.2 Proposed Bypasses ............................................................................................................................... 103
6.5.2.1 Mathania Bypass .....................................................................................................................................103
6.5.2.2 Ummaid Nagar Bypas .............................................................................................................................104
6.5.2.3 Osian Realignment ..................................................................................................................................104
6.5.2.4 Sharp bend realignment .........................................................................................................................104
6.5.3 Interchanges and Intersections ............................................................................................................ 107
6.5.3.2 Intersections ..............................................................................................................................................107
6.5.3.4 Vehicular cum Pedestrian Underpass ..................................................................................................111
6.6 UTILITY RELOCATION .............................................................................................................................. 111
6.7 TOLL PLAZAS ........................................................................................................................................... 112
6.8 PARKING AREAS AND REST AREAS ......................................................................................................... 114
6.9 LAND ACQUISITION ................................................................................................................................. 115
6.10 LANDSCAPING .......................................................................................................................................... 115
6.11 SERVICE ROADS ........................................................................................................................................ 115
6.12 Bus Bays and Shelters: ..................................................................................................................... 116
CHAPTER 7............................................................................................................................................................ 118
7.1 MATERIAL INVESTIGATION ............................................................................................................ 118
7.1.1 Methodology Adopted .......................................................................................................................... 118
7.1.2 Scope of Work....................................................................................................................................... 118
7.1.3 Material Investigations ........................................................................................................................ 119
7.1.4 Subgrade Investigation ........................................................................................................................ 120
7.1.5 Borrow Area Soil.................................................................................................................................. 121


7.1.6 Material for GSB.................................................................................................................................. 121
7.1.7 Sand ..................................................................................................................................................... 122
7.1.8 Stone Aggregate ................................................................................................................................... 122
7.2 PAVEMENT DESIGN ........................................................................................................................... 122
7.2.1 Traffic Loading ..................................................................................................................................... 123
7.2.2 Sub-Grade Characteristics ................................................................................................................... 129
7.2.2.1 New Formation & Bypass .......................................................................................................................130
7.2.2.2 Existing Pavement....................................................................................................................................130
7.2.3 Flexible Pavement Design.................................................................................................................... 133
7.3 PAVEMENT TESTING.......................................................................................................................... 133
7.3.1 Pavement Condition Survey ................................................................................................................ 133
CHAPTER 8............................................................................................................................................................ 141
BRIDGES AND STRUCTURES STUDIES ......................................................................................................... 141
8.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 141
8.2 TYPICAL CROSS SECTIONS ............................................................................................................... 141
8.3 FIELD INVESTIGATIONS ............................................................................................................................ 143
8.4 INVENTORY AND CONDITION SURVEY .................................................................................................... 143
8.4.1 Inventory Survey ................................................................................................................................. 143
8.4.2 Condition Survey ................................................................................................................................. 150
8.5 HYDRAULIC AND HYDROLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. ............................................................................ 152
8.5.1 Gundar River ..........................................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
8.5.2 Vellar River .............................................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
8.5.3 Minor Bridges ...................................................................................................................................... 152
8.7 GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION & SUB SOIL EXPLORATION .................................................. 155
8.7.1 Scope of Work....................................................................................................................................... 155
8.7.2 Methodology of Investigation .............................................................................................................. 155
8.7.2.1 Standard Penetration Test ......................................................................................................................155
8.7.2.2 Sampling ...................................................................................................................................................155
8.7.2.3 Ground Water Level ................................................................................................................................156
8.7.2.4 Laboratory Testing ...................................................................................................................................156
8.7.3 Proposed Design of Structure .............................................................................................................. 156
8.8 SUB SOIL INVESTIGATION FOR CULVERTES ............................................................................... 156
CHAPTER 9............................................................................................................................................................ 158
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS ................................................................................................ 158
9.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 158
9.2 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT ................................................................................ 158
9.3 SOCIAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT ...................................................................................................... 158
CHAPTER 10.......................................................................................................................................................... 160
COST ESTIMATES ................................................................................................................................................. 160
10.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 160
10.2 UNIT RATES .............................................................................................................................................. 160
10.2.1 Project Details ................................................................................................................................. 160
10.2.2 Unit Rates Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 161
10.2.2.1 Hard Broken Stone ..................................................................................................................................161
10.2.2.2 Sand ............................................................................................................................................................161
10.2.2.3 Gravel .........................................................................................................................................................162
10.2.2.4 Earth from Borrow areas .........................................................................................................................162
10.2.2.5 Cement, Steel, Bitumen and Pipes ........................................................................................................162
10.2.2.6 Labour ........................................................................................................................................................162
10.2.2.7 Hire Charges for Machineries................................................................................................................162


10.2.2.8 Unit Rates ..................................................................................................................................................162
10.3 UNIT COSTS .............................................................................................................................................. 162
10.3.1 Estimation of Quantities ................................................................................................................. 162
10.3.2 Cost Estimate for Road Works ........................................................................................................ 163
10.3.3 Cost Estimate .................................................................................................................................. 163
10.3.4 Slab Culverts ................................................................................................................................... 163
10.3.5 Pipe Culverts ................................................................................................................................... 163
10.3.6 R.O.B .............................................................................................................................................. 164
10.3.7 Pedestrian cum median vehicular underpass. ................................................................................. 164
10.4 LAND ACQUISITION COST ....................................................................................................................... 164
10.5 CONTINGENCIES AND SUPERVISION CHARGES. ...................................................................................... 164
10.6 CONSTRUCTION COST .............................................................................................................................. 164




Chapter 1 Executive Summary


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CHAPTER 1
1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1 Purpose of Study
Rajasthan State Road Development Construction Corporation (RSRDCC) has
commissioned M/s. Meridian Constructions, in a contract to carry out Consultancy
services for SH 61 Jodhpur - Osian - Phalodi Section in Rajasthan.
The Project consists of preparation of Detailed Project Report for Development of
Jodhpur - Osian Phalodi from Km 2.000 to 121.475 of SH 61 in Rajasthan which was
divided into 2 Parts :-
1. Osian Chainage 73.000 to Jodhpur (NH-65) Chainage 121.475
2. Phalodi (NH-15) Chainage 2.000 to Osian Chainage 73.00
The project commencing from the junction of NH-15 (Jaiselmer to Bikaner) with project
road (SH-61). The Project road Ends at the Intersection of NH-65 (Jodhpur to Nagaur)
with Project Road (SH-61)

The study is to be carried out under the following stages:
Stage 1: Inception Report
Stage 2: Draft Detail Project Report
Stage 3: Detailed Project Report

Inception Report, Stage 1, has already been submitted.
The present submission comprises the Stage 2, Draft Detail Project Report

1.2 Socio Economic Project
The project road passes through 3 towns, namely, Phalodi, Osian and Jodhpur in
Rajasthan.
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Phalodi, Osian and Jodhpur are the three main towns through which the corridor passes.
The project road passes only in Jodhpur District. Jodhpur district has an area of 22,56,405
Hectare.

The population details with % of rural and urban split for the 3 towns are furnished
hereunder in Table 1.1
Table 1.1

Population Details

S. No. Name of city Population as per
2001 Censes
Split
Rural Urban
Population % Population %
1 Phalodi 4.32 Lacs 3.87 89.58 0.45 10.42
2 Osian 3.53 Lacs 3.53 100.00 0.00 0.00
2 Jodhpur 10.70 Lacs 2.09 19.53 8.61 80.47


A Summary about the Jodhpur District :-

Total Geographical Area 2256405 Hectares
Total Irrigated Area 131752 Hectares
Total Un Irrigated Area 911166 Hectares
Pasture Land 125701 Hectares
Rural Population 1909423
Urban Population 977082
Literacy Rate 57.38%
General Rain Fall 318.7 mm
State Assembly Seats 10 (Jodhpur, Sardarpura, Sursagar, Phalodi,
Osian, Bilara, Bhopalgarh, Luni, Shergarh.
Lohawat)
Subdivisions 07 (Jodhpur, Pipar City, Phalodi, Osian, Luni,
Shergarh, Bhopalgarh)
Tehsils 07 (Jodhpur, Luni, Bilara, Bhopalgarh,
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Osia,Phalodi, Shergarh)
Uptehsils 04 (Bap, Jhanwar, Balesar, Tinwari)
Panchayat Samiti 10 (Luni, Mandore, Balesar, Shergarh, Osia,
Bhopal garh, Bilara, Phalodi, Bap, Bawari)
Gram Panchayat 339
Revenue Villages 1157
Municipal Corporation 01 (Jodhpur)
Municipal Board 03 (Phalodi, Bilara, Pipar city)
Land Records Circles 55
Major Hospitals 08
A Grade Veterinary Hospitals 07
Veterinary Dispensaries 00
Poly Clinic 01
Veterinary Hospitals 84
Veterinary Sub-Center 46
University 03
Colleges 12
Schools 6388
Post Offices 559
Superintendent of Police 02 ( Urban and Rural)
Police Stations 30
Jails & Sub jails 03

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1.3 Traffic Survey and Analysis

The collection of Traffic data are essential in any road project based on which decisions
are made. On this project various traffic surveys were carried out to provide as basis for
making highway engineering design decisions and also on the viability of the concept of
B.O.T.

The following traffic surveys were carried out:
1. Classified traffic volume count at 4 locations to establish the important base year
AADT.
2. Origin and Destination surveys to assess the travel pattern of passengers and
goods for prediction of traffic grow.
3. Axle load surveys to obtain equivalent standard axle loads.
4. Pedestrian surveys to decide pedestrian facilities
5. Intersection surveys to identify junction improvements by space or time
segregation.
6. Speed and delay studies to assess the areas of congestion and other bottlenecks.

Accident data on the project road were collected from the police records to highlight
those areas, where road safety is a major concern, and to assist the design of the highway
widening.

The data collected were analysed and used as a basis for forecasts which are used in
various sections of this report.




1.4 Traffic Forecast

The present traffic conditions are very heterogeneous along the project road with some
2510 motor vehicles in the stretch lying in Phalodi Osian and 3582 per day in the stretch
Osian Phalodi. Trucks contribute nearly 15.03% and 10.78% of the traffic volume and
PCU is 3376 & 4507 in 2 Streches Phalodi to Osian & Osian Jodhpur respectively. Most
of the traffic is local in Rajasthan state. The volume of traffic in Phalodi to Osian stretch
passes through Lohawat town. The volume of traffic in Osian to Jodhpur (NH-65) stretch
passes through Osian & Mathania town. Mathania town is very crowded and very
narrow and with crude geometrics in town which causes delays.

The data received from the PWD related to traffic census is not sufficient to work out the
growth of traffic in recent years. So the traffic forecast for each category of vehicle is not
calculated by consultant. As far as the traffic growth in this type of region is assumed to
be 5% growth. This is a fair assumption adopted by the consultant.
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Bottlenecks is such as weak flushed Causeway and narrow culverts and the presence of 5
Railway level crossing and passing through the geometrically poor and very heavily
congested town Mathania have to be removed soon in order to avoid massive congestion
with the resulting large increase in vehicle operating costs (VOCs) and personal time
costs. 2 Railway Crossings at Mathania & Manaklao have TVU more than 2.0 Lac, which
shows the congestion at the time of closer of Railway Crossing. The above mentioned
bottleneck, if removed would increase the economic cost benefit of the road, as there is
no other major economic factor planned as of now. Probably, if the road is improved as
planned though not in full but in phase this would facilitate to the growth of economic
activities in the districts concerned.

1.5 Alignment and Engineering

The existing road alignment is proposed to be retained except in a few places where
minor realignment which would enhance the overall geometric of the project road is
considered essential.

The widening of the existing road to a 2 lane carriageway with paved shoulder
configuration will normally be made through widening either on the left or on the right
side depending upon the site conditions.

The consultants have studied the project road for improvement and have felt the
necessity of forming by passes for the following major towns and heavily built-up area
and sharp hairpin bend i.e.
Mathania
Ummed Nagar

The major village along the road is Mathania, an Industrial centre. The Mathania village
has a 3.5 to 5.5m wide road which passes through the built-up area with poor geometrics,
for which the consultant propose to have a bypass outside the village area. There are 2
Railway crossings in between Manaklao & Mathania which have TVU more than 2.0 Lac.
The First option as taken by RSRDCC is to construct ROBs on these Level Crossings.

It is suggested to have by pass at Mathania village to end with Manaklao before Level
Crossing. It is almost a route of same length. It will reduce the time of construction of
project as the construction of ROB takes more than 2.0 years and it involves the railway
department also. On the other hand construction of new road takes less time and
acquisition of land is not a problem here. New Bypass will by pass to congested Level
crossings which ease out the traffic movement.
The entire stretch of the project road lying in Jodhpur district passes through Ummed
Nagar village which has a sharp hair pin bend and a intersection, which makes this area
an accidental prone area. Consultant proposes to have by pass this village. The bypass
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before Ummed Nagar reduces the travel length by approx. 1.10 km. This reduces the
travel time & accidents.
Another bottleneck is at Osian it has a 90 intersection at Osian Mata temple. The new
alignment reduces the travel length by 113m and bypasses the sharp bend / intersection.

Hence the consultant have suggested bypasses outside the municipal / village limits
which will ultimately provide free and uninterrupted flow for through traffic and relieve
congestion within the town / villages which will incidentally help the local traffic.

The intersections & junctions will be studied individually in order to ensure free flow
condition for the through and heavy fast traffic.


1.6 Materials & Sources

An investigation program was undertaken to identify suitable sources of all
constructions materials. It was ascertained that hard broken stones are available at the
following location as shown below which are already declared as government quarries.

Phalodi Quarry
Pokran Quarry

As, regards gravel, the identified sources are existing all along the project road, as seen
from the Quarry Map.


Samples were taken from all the these sources identified and subjected to a testing
programme to know about their physical and chemical properties Based on IRC
requirement, their suitability for adoption for the road improvement work were
examined from the results and actual inspection of these sources indicated that sufficient
quantity of material are available in these sources for use in the road improvement work.

1.7 Pavement Design

The TOR requires that pavement designs be prepared for the following:

Strengthening of the existing carriageway to 2 lane with paved shoulders.
New pavement for additional carriageway and for formation of bypasses.
Shoulder pavement

Based on an initial pavement condition survey an extensive testing program was
instigated to investigate the characteristics of the existing pavement and ground
condition for new carriageway and new alignments.
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The collection of the above required particulars for design of pavement, required for
various needs have been completed fully.

A summary of the pavement designs is shown in Table 1.2

Table 1.2
Pavement Design
GSB - 200 mm
WMM - 250 mm
DBM - 075 mm
BC - 040 mm


1.8 Bridge and Structures

In the project road there are no major river / streams only Flushed causeway with
Culverts & Minor Bridges are present.

Initially 2 ROBs are proposed at Mathania & Manaklao, which is having TVU more than
2.0 Lac. Instead of it a Mathania Bypass has been proposed to eliminate the ROBs.

At new alignment of Mathania Bypass 1 Minor Bridge at near manaklao has been
proposed by the consultant on existing nalah. 2 Culverts has also been proposed by the
consultant.
With regard to minor bridge, 5 nos. already exist and all Flushed Causeway had to be
converted to Flushed Causeway / Culvert. This also required to widened to 2 lane
carriage way.

The span for the minor bridge at near Manaklao across existing nalah taken 6*6m skew.

Regarding geo-technical investigation, the bore holes have been driven and type of soil
met with have been collected to find out its bearing capacity of soil and the N-values
have been ascertained. The investigation has been completed for all the minor bridges &
Culverts.

Detailed inventory and condition survey of the existing bridges provided valuable
information for the retention or reconstruction and also planning the new structures.





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1.9 Environmental and Social Impacts

The Environmental and Social Impacts screening report has already been prepared and
submitted

The Environmental report identified the potential major environmental issues that are
likely to be encountered in the course of executing the road improvement works,
established the need for an environmental screening. The report highlighted the need for
assembling relevant data, analysing them and subsequently making an environmental
assessment arising out of the analysis.

The need for a social impact study was highlighted and methodology for conducting
such a study explained.

As a first step a pilot study was commissioned. The data collected from the pilot study
was analysed with particular reference to those below the Poverty Line. These are the
most vulnerable sections, and hence the Social Screening Study thought it fit to focus
attention on this category. Special attention will be paid to the disadvantaged groups
Below the Poverty Line.


1.10 Cost - Estimates

To obtain the cost estimate for the project as a whole, it has been conveniently divided
into 3 Homogenous section based on travel pattern and pavement composition and
traffic loading factor as shown below

Section 1: Km. 73/000 - 121/500 (Excluding Bypasses)

Section 2: Bypasses at Mathania, Ummed Nagar & realignment at Osian

Section 3: Km. 2/0 73/0

The unit rates for each of the above segments were calculated based on the PWD NH BSR
of Jodhpur & Jaipur 2010. The rate analysis has been done for the items which are not
available in BSR. Rate analysis has been done by enquiry made at local market in respect
of quarry material and state schedule of rates was followed for labour rates and the
Standard Data Book of MoSRT&H for item wise data. The quantities and costs were
determined for 1km length for road work and detailed estimate for bypasses and unit
rate for 1m length of bridges structures were worked out. Provision has also been made
for reconstruction and or widening the existing bridges and one ROB, intersections, land
acquisition, social settlement and other road appurtenances and safety features.
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Cost has been adopted based on the flexible pavement design worked out for the 10, 15,
25 years, design life.

1.11 Economic Evaluation and Financial Viability

Private sector participation in the finances, construction, maintenance and operation of
highways under the concept of Build-Operate Transfer (BOT) is one of the methods; the
Government is seriously pursuing to assist in the modernisation of its highway network.
The primary reason for BOT options are being studied by the Government.

In view of the above policy, the present project was examined for its possible eligibility as
a potential BOT candidate.

To examine its potentiality, the Financial Analysis of the project was analysed under the
following.
Traffic evaluation by sectors
Investment Cost by section
Operating costs
Level of Toll Rates
Anticipated Revenues
Other Financial Parameters
Main Results
Conclusion

Only 85% of the net revenue calculated has been taken into account, allowing the balance
towards such vehicles not utilising the corridor fully such traffic using the other roads
avoiding paying of toll rates.

Only 70% for Trucks & 60% - 65% for Cars & Buses of the traffic has been taken into
account, allowing the balance towards such vehicles has monthly or 24 hour pass for the
route.


Due consideration has been given for possible inflation during the concession period and
interest to be paid by the concessionaire on the invested amount or borrowed money.
Cost towards annual maintenance to be carried out during the concession period was
included in the analyses.

The overall financial picture of the BOT is under finalisation and its viability examined as
a potential BOT (annuity) candidate.

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CHAPTER 2
2.0 INTRODUCTION
2.1 Purpose of Study
Rajasthan State Road Development Construction Corporation (RSRDCC) has
commissioned M/s. Meridian Constructions, in a contract to carry out Consultancy
services for part of SH - 61 Jodhpur - Osian - Phalodi Section in Rajasthan.
The Project consists of preparation of Detailed Project Report for Development of
Jodhpur - Osian - Phalodifrom Km 2/000 to 122/00 of SH 61 in state of Rajasthan, as
already stated in chapter 1 para 1.1.
The Commission date for the Project was proposed to be 1
st
January 2011.
2.2 Scope of Work
The Main objectives for the Consultancy Services are:
To prepare a Detailed Project Report for development of the existing State Highway to a
minimum of 2 lane highway with paved shoulder in the most economical manner, taking
into consideration the environmental and social aspects of the area.
To prepare bid documents including pre-qualification documents for tendering
purposes.
To prepare project report and economical analysis, suitable to meet the requirements of
state government national contracting agencies.
The scope of work for the Consultancy Services are divided as under:
Stage 1: Inception Report
Quality Assurance Plan
Stage 2: Draft Detail Project Report
Stage 3: Final Feasibility Report

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2.3 Methodology
2.3.1 Establishment
The consultant decided to establish a site office in the middle of the project road, in order
to facilitate the data collection and organize various investigations taking place along the
project road.
Accordingly a site office was located at Osian.
The following professional staff have been engaged and their expertise have been fully
utilized in data collection, investigation and drafting of this feasibility report.
A. Key personnel
Senior Highway Engineer cum Team Leader
Bridge Engineer
Traffic cum Safety Expert
Surveyor
Financial Analyst
Quantity Surveyor / Documentation Expert

Data collection was carried out with the supporting staff stationed at Osian, and other
surveys and investigations were carried out through the staff for specific items of survey
and investigation works.
All the test & Surveys has been done by the Meridian Constructions in house. The
consultant Meridian Constructions has its own laboratory which is ISO 9001:2008 and
has executed testing work for all the major government departments.
2.3.2 Technical Approach
Based on the objectives and scope of work for the consultancy, an appropriate
methodology was developed so as to address the other requirements, which includes
intermediate target, completion period, manning schedule and interaction with RSRDCC
and field inspection of RSRDCC officials. In accordance with the above, a programme of
schedule has been developed for adherence.
In accordance with the above and in order to complete the whole work, comprehensively
and accurately the whole work was decided into various tasks to be followed to ensure
quality assurance.
A list of tasks is furnished here under:


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FIELD INVESTIGATIONS
Review of data and documents
Social Analysis & Social Impact Screening
Environmental Assessment Screening

o Traffic Surveys
Traffic Volume Count
Turning Movement Survey

o Engineering Surveys & Investigations
Reconnaissance and Alignment
Topographic Survey, LS & CS
Utility Surveys
Road Inventory Surveys
Pavement Composition & Road Condition Survey
Sub grade Characteristics
Inventory of Bridge Survey
Condition Survey of Culverts
Geotechnical Investigation of Bridges & Sub soil Exploration
Hydraulic & Hydrological Investigation.
Material Investigation


DETAILED PROJECT REPORT
Social Evaluation and Rehabilitation
Environmental Evaluation & Impact Assessment
Traffic Demand Estimates
Pavement Study and Design
Strip Plans for road and Utilities
Toll Study
Land Acquisition

o Cost Estimates
Unit cost for road widening
Unit cost for strengthening
Unit cost for bridges
Unit cost for culverts
Rough cost estimate
Project Viability

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2.4 Contents of the Detailed Project Report
The Draft Feasibility Report is arranged in the following manner.
Volume I : Main Report
Volume II : Design Report
Volume III : Material Report
Volume IV : Environment Impact assessment Report
Volume V : Technical Specifications
Volume VI : Rate analysis
Volume VII : Cost Estimates
Volume VIII : Bill of Quantities
Volume IX : Drawings
Volume X : Civil work contract agreement
Volume XI : Project Clearances
Chapter 3 Socio Economic Profile


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CHAPTER 3
3.0 SOCIO ECONOMIC PROFILE
3.1 Introductions
The main objective of the socio economic analysis is to provide an overview of the
socio economic status and the relative status of the project influence area within the
state. The socio economic profile of the project influence area of the corridor is
required to establish the likely growth prospects which will have a bearing on the
road improvements proposed. It gives the present scenario, past performance and the
perspective growth of economy, population and urbanization. It also provide an
overall view of spatial distribution of economic activities and provide inputs for
estimation of future growth in transport demand on the basis of perspective economic
growth rates and transport demand elastically. In the light of the above, certain
economic parameters are identified for an in-depth study for arriving at realistic
traffic growth rates.
3.2 General Features
The project road of 119 kms lying in the state of Rajasthan traverses through two
towns, namely Phalodi and Jodhpur. The lengths of the project road falling within the
various towns are given below:


Phalodi km. 2.000 km. 75.200

Jodhpur km. 75.200 km. 94.000

As such, the Project influence area falls within the state of Rajasthan, under the above
Jodhpur districts. The socio economic profile of the state of Rajasthan has therefore
been included in this report.
3.3 Project Corridor
The Project road branches off at km. 2/000 of SH-61 at NH-15 Junction.

The Projectr starts at km 2/0 of SH-61 and proceeds in a eastern direction via,
Lohawat, Osian, Mathania and ends at Junction of NH-65 with SH-61 (at Jodhpur).
The project road, for most of its length, runs west to east.

The primary land use along the corridor is Agricultural only and a little of Industrial,
near Lohawat & Mathania.

The entire portion of the project road lies in Jodhpur District. As such, the study is
confined to Jodhpur district only and is taken as the project influence area (PIA)

Chapter 3 Socio Economic Profile


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The total area of Rajasthan is 3,42,239 Sq.km it accounts for 4.11% of the area of India.
The Project Influence Area Jodhpur has an area of 22,850 Sq.km and accounts for
6.58% of the total area of the State.
3.4 Demography

3.4.1 Rajasthan

The total population of Rajasthan, as per 2001 census is 565.07 lacs. It constitutes
6.06% of Indias population and ranks 6th in the country. Its density is 165 persons per
Sq.km, compared to a nationwide density of 325 persons per Sq.km. The growth of
total population of the country and that of the state over a period of 10 years is shown
in Table 3.1 and 3.2 respectively.

Table 3.1
Population Growth in India
S. No. Details Population in Lacs
1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
1 India 4392 5,481.6 6,833.3 8,335.3 10,290
2 Percentage
Growth for 10
Years
24.8 24.66 21.98 23.45
3 Annual Growth in
Percentage
2.48 2.47 2.2 2.35


Table 3.2
Population Growth in Rajasthan
S.
No.
Details Population in Lacs
1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
1 Rajasthan 336.9 412 484.1 558.6 565.07
2 Percentage Growth for
10 Years
22.29 22.29 17.5 15.39 11.72
3 Annual Growth in
Percentage
2.23 1.75 1.54 1.81
4 Density in No. of
Persons per Sq.Km
121 126 135 429 165

The Registrar of India carried out population forecast for the period 1996-2016. The
adopted population growth for India and Rajasthan is given Table 3.3






Chapter 3 Socio Economic Profile


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Table 3.3
Adopted Growth of Population Rate
Period India Rajasthan
1991-2000 1.81% 1.17%
2001-2006 1.57% 0.80%
2006-2011 1.50% 0.65%
2011-2016 1.40% 0.50%




3.4.2 Jodhpur District

The total population detail of the above district is furnished below:

S. No. Details Population as per 2001
census
% of States
Population
1 Jodhpur 28.86 Lacs 5.10%

3.4.3 Rural and Urban Population

The rural population of Rajasthan as per 2001 census is 432.14 Lacs and the urban
population is 132.14 Lacs. Corresponding figures for Jodhpur district is shown in
Table 3.4

Table 3.4
Rural and Urban Population of Rajasthan and Jodhpur
S.
No.
Name of Place Rural Population Urban Population
1971 1981 1991 2001 1971 1981 1991 2001
1 Rajasthan in Lacs 287 324 368 432 125 160 191 132
2 Annual Growth in % 1.35 1.29 1.35 0.52 3.4 2.8 1.9 4.4
3 Jodhpur in Lacs 12.1 2.50
4 Annual Growth in %

The 2001 census figures for India indicate that rural population is more than urban
population. The rural and urban split scenario is depicted in Table 3.5 for the country,
state and PIA.
Table 3.5
Rural and Urban Population Split

S.
No.
India /
District
Area
Sq.Km
Total
Population
in Lacs
Rural
Population
in Lacs
Urban
Population
in Lacs
Percentage
(%)
Rural Urban
1 India 3,065,024 10,290
2 Rajasthan 130,058 624.1 349.3 274.8 55.97 44.03
3 Jodhpur 4,086 11.6 8.3 3.3 71.55 28.45

Chapter 3 Socio Economic Profile


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The above figures reveal that the annual growth rate of population in urban is faster
than rural. The density of population for the district is furnished below:

1 Jodhpur 165 persons per Sq.km
3.5 Agriculture
The growth pattern of agriculture is volatile mainly due to the natural vagaries
experienced by the sate such as draught and floods.

The area of crops grown in Rajasthan is given in Table 3.6

Table 3.6
Area of Crops Grown
S.
No
Crops Area Grown in Hectares
2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
1 Cereals 2,813 2,766 2,229 2,300 2,699
2 Pulses 688 686 563 537 590
Total Food Grains 3501 3452 2792 2837 3289
3 Oil seeds 699 663 502 592 616
4 Other Non-Food Crops 485 485 337 290 351
5 Total Non-Food Crops 1184 1148 831 882 967

3.6 Land Utilisation
The land utilization details for the state as well as districts concerned are furnished
below in Table 3.7, 3.8 and 3.9, respectively
Table 3.7
Land Utilisation in Rajasthan in Hectares
S. No. Category 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
1 Forests 2,131,726 2,131,604 2,122,041 2,122,069
2 Barren &
uncultivable Lands
477,381 478,237 509,378 509,275
3 Land put to Non
Agricultural Use
1,998,296 2,012,025 2,113,353 2,124,564
4 Cultivable Waste 386,806 389,289 379,439 374,026
5 Permanent Pastures
& Other Grazing
Lands
118,463 118,313 113,474 113,563
6 Land under
Miscellaneous Use
271,363 277,596 282,380 290,072
7 Current Fallow
Lands
1,025,851 1,502,616 953,963 691,926
8 Other Fallow Lands 1,408,944 1,491,311 1,862,861 1,704,139
9 Net Area Sown 5,172,492 4,590,331 4,689,156 5,097,011
10 Total Geographical
Area by Village
Documents
12,991,322 12,991,322 13,026,645 13,026,645

Chapter 3 Socio Economic Profile


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11 Total Cropped Area 6,226,457 5,191,108 5,316,027 5,889,069
12 Area Sown More
Than once
1,053,965 600,777 626,871 792,058



Table 3.8
Land Utilisation in Jodhpur District in Hectares
S.No. Category 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
1 Forests 21,877 21,877 21,877 21,877
2 Barren & uncultivable
Lands
4,747 4,747 4,747 4,747
3 Land put to Non
Agricultural Use
115,541 115,581 117,157 117,367
4 Cultivable Waste 16,721 18,377 18,383 18,375
5 Permanent Pastures &
Other Grazing Lands
1,367 1,367 1,367 1,367
6 Land under
Miscellaneous Use
10,418 8,893 8,561 1,367
7 Current Fallow Lands 12,688 9,772 10,827 6,824
8 Other Fallow Lands 127,029 128,545 124,415 117,358
9 Net Area Sown 108,512 109,741 111,566 122,173
10 Total Geographical Area
by Village Documents
418,900 418,900 418,900 418,900
11 Total Cropped Area 108,787 109,741 111,566 122,173
12 Area Sown More Than
once
275 0

0 0


From the above it could be seen that about 39.12% of the area is net sown area in the
state, whereas the same for Jodhpur district is 34.04%.

3.7 Transport Network
Rajasthan has three modes of transport airways, rail and road. The rail and road
network are the only two major transport modes which serve the entire state.

3.7.1 Air Transport
Jaipur, the states capital, Jodhpur, Udaipur, are the only four places where air
transport facilities are available. Jaipur airport is an international airport, whereas
Jodhpur, Udaipur are domestic airports. From Jaipur airport, international air routes
are operated. Domestic airlines operate all the four airports. The project road will have
much impact due to the presence of the airports as Jodhpur airport is situated at the
beginning of the project road.



Chapter 3 Socio Economic Profile


Page 25 of 166

3.7.2 Water Transport
No water transport is available in Rajasthan.

3.7.3 Rail Transport

The rail network at present has Broad gauge. The existing broad gauge is having a
route from Jodhpur to Phalodi.

3.7.4 Road Transport
The state has a good and well connected road network. The total length of roads
under the control of State Highways and Rural Department is shown below:-

Table 3.10
Road in Kilometre
S. No Category 2001-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
1 NH 3,789 3,864 3,850 3,850 4,091 4,091 4,254
2 SH 4,192 7,136 7,163 7,222 7,230 7,207 6,849
3 MDR 10,051 7,136 7,163 7,376 7,383 7,383 7,569
4 ODR 40,814 40,853 40,963 41,156 41,191 41,209 41,002
5 S.C.Rd - - 1,366 1,563 1,635 1,635 1,747
Total 58,846 59,261 60,704 61,157 61,530 61,525 61,421

Out of the total road network of Rajasthan including Panchayat and Panchayat
Union, and Municipal and Forest roads 72% was surfaced.

The average road density for Rajasthan is 276km per lakh of population of 165. as
against all India average of 240km per lakh of population of 2001.

Likewise Rajasthan is having a road length of 132km per 100 Sq.km of area as against
all India figure of 140km per 100 Sq.km. It is seen therefore that the above figures
pertains to Rajasthan are lower than all India figure.

3.7.5 Vehicle Population

The No. of Motorised vehicles registered in Rajasthan as per 2004-05 is furnished in
Table 3.11
Table 3.11
Registered Vehicles in Rajasthan for 2004-05
S. No. Type of Vehicles No. of Vehicles
1 Car/Jeep/Van 68,302
2 Buses 28,054
3 Trucks 1,45,636
4 Tractors Trailer 1,23,568
5 3 Wheelers 33,264
6 2 Wheelers 61,06,057
7 Others 18,776
Total 71,88,260
Chapter 3 Socio Economic Profile


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Total of registered Motor Vehicles in Rajasthan for the year 2003-04 is 67,52,473.

The growth of vehicle population for the state is about 6.45%

The No. of vehicle population for the PIA that is for Jodhpur Districtsis shown in
Table 3.12 below.

Table 3.12
Registered Motor Vehicles in PIA for 2004-05

S.
No.
Town Car,
Jeep,
Van
Buses Trucks Tractor
Trailer
3
Wheeler
2
Wheeler
Auto
Rickshaw
Others Total
1 Phalodi 2,945 560 1,22 2,716 791 86,899 996 252 96,981
2 Jodhpur 4,45 639 2,448 1,56 913 74,899 1,111 104 85,725


Percentage of Tractor/Trailer, 3 Wheeler, 2n Wheeler = 92.25% for Phalodi District
Percentage of Tractor / Tailer, 3 Wheelers, 2 Wheelers =90.08% for Jodhpur District.
The remaining is made up of Car, Taxis, Jeeps, Auto, Van, Trucks and Lorries. Buses
account for 05% for Phalodi and 0.55% for Jodhpur Districts.
3.8 State Economy

3.8.1 Growth State Domestic Product
The Net State Domestic Product (NSDP State Income at Current Prices are given in
Table 3.13 below. It has increased from Rs.516.42 billion in current prices in 1993-94 to
Rs.1671.81 billion in 2004-05.
Table 3.13
NSDP of Rajasthan State at Current Prices

S.
No.
Sector
1993-
1994
1994-
1995
1995-
1996
1996-
1997
1997-
1998
1998-
1999
1999-
2000
2000-
2001
2001-
2002
2002-
2003
2003-
2004
2004-
2005

1
Primary 135.50 151.22 147.24 166.80 200.18 225.67 206.58 223.02 224.6 185.73 191.27 225.10

2
Secondary 166.09 201.90 236.72 250.73 268.09 297.40 337.72 369.33 330.16 377.70 385.37 425.39

3
Tertiary 214.83 259.63 313.23 373.63 458.60 534.21 587.22 667.35 713.89 808.43 913.41 1021.92


Total 516.42 612.75 697.19 791.16 926.87 1057.28 1127.52 1259.7 1268.65 1371.86 1490.05 1671.81


Per capita
Income
8,953 10,503 11,819 13,269 15,388 17,383 18,337 20,346 20,326 21,740 23,358 25,965




The NSDP at Constant Prices was Rs.516.42 billions in 1993-94 and it has increased to
Rs.901.37 billions in 2004-05. The same is furnished in Table 3.14 below



Chapter 3 Socio Economic Profile


Page 27 of 166


Table 3.14
NSDP of Rajasthan at Constant Price of 1993-94

Sl.
No
Sector 1993-
1994
1994-
1995
1995-
1996
1996-
1997
1997-
1998
1998-
1999
1999-
2000
2000-
2001
2001-
2002
2002-
2003
2003-
2004
2004-
2005

1 Primary 135.50 151.22 131.06 129.68 141.19 154.37 145.78 152.52 152.47 118.17 115.66
132.32

2 Secondary 166.09 189.63 208.61 207.16 211.19 205.79 229.21 248.04 215.65 238.79 228.28
239.22

3 Tertiary 214.83 238.57 258.92 296.31 325.83 344.88 371.85 403.95 411.06 444.17 483.25
529.83

Total 516.42 579.42 598.59 623.15 678.21 705.04 746.84 804.51 779.18 801.13 827.19
901.37


Per capita
Income
8,955 9,932 10,147 10,451 11,260 11,592 12,167 12,994 12,484 12,696 12,976 13,999




3.8.2 Per Capita Income Growth

The Per Capita Income at current prices was Rs.8,955 in 1993-94, which has increased
to Rs.18,337 in 1999-2000 and to Rs.25,965 in 2004-05. The corresponding annual
growth rate achieved was estimated at 8.08%.

The same at constant prices of 1993-94 was Rs.8,955 in 1993-94 and increased to
Rs.12,151 in 1999-2000 and Rs.13,999 in 2004-05. the corresponding annual growth rate
achieved was estimated at 3.01%.


In terms of contribution to the state income, the services sector contributes 61%
followed by secondary sector with 25% and primary sector with 13%. Perusal of
NSDP index at constant prices reveal Trade, Hotels and restaurants as major economic
activity followed by Manufacturing, Financing, Insurance and Real Estates,
Agriculture and Community services.


3.8.3 Growth Trend

The NSDP sector wise, both at constant and current prices for the period from 1993-94
to 2004-05 are furnished in the graph shown in Figure 3.1 & 3.2. It is seen there from
that the annual growth of the state has been fluctuating with little up and downs but
showing overall increase over a period of 10 years.


Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


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CHAPTER 4
4.0 TRAFFIC SURVEY & ANALYSIS
4.1 Historical Data
Historical data have been collected related to traffic growth and background data for
traffic growth.
4.1.1 All India Statistics
The total area of India is 32,91,080 Sq. Km.
The total population of India has grown from 1981 to 2001 as shown below in
Table 4.1
Table 4.1
Growth of Population
Year Population in Million Decennial Growth
1911 252.100 5.7%
1921 251.300 0.4%
1931 279.000 11.0%
1941 318.700 14.2%
1951 361.100 13.3%
1961 439.2 00 21.6%
1971 548.2 00 24.8%
1981 683.329 24.7%
1991 846.303 23.8%
2001 1028.700 21.35%

The total length of the road has grown as shown below in Table 4.2
Table 4.2
Length of Roads and NH
Year Length of Road (Km) Length of NH (Km)
1991 23,31,080 33,650
1997 24,85,877 34,849
2000 52,010
2001 43,00,000 57,737
2002 58,112
2003 58,112
2004 65,569
Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


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Vehicle registration particulars, both passenger and goods in the country are
furnished below in Table 4.3 for the years 1997 to 2002.

Table 4.3
Registration of Vehicles
Year All Vehicles Passenger Goods
1997 37,332,600 41,04,000
1998 41,367,600 45,14,000
1999 44,875,000 48,97,000
2000 48,857,000 53,19,000
2001 54,991,000 57,95,000
2002 58,863,000 61,00,000

The Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways has time and again pointed
out the increase in traffic accidents in the country. The number of accidents occurred
during 2000 is in the order of 81,000. The year wise details of accident occurred in all
India basis are furnished here under in Table 4.4

Table 4.4
Accidents Details
Years No. of Accidents Fatal Injured
1997 1998 3,69,000 79,000 3,86,000
1998 1999 4,14,000 81,000 4,18,000
1999 2000 4,49,000 85,000 4,53,000

Gross Domestic Product at current price and at 1993 1994 price for a period from
1990-91 to 2003-04 and the current growth rate in percentage are furnished in Table
4.5 shown below.

Table 4.5
Gross Domestic Product
Year At Current Price % At 1993- 94 Price %
1990-91 568,674 - 771,450 -
1995-96 1,188,012 21.75 995,450 5.81
1998-99 1,740,985 15.51 1,182,021 6.25
1999-2000 1,936,831 11.25 1,266,284 7.13
2000-01 2,089,499 7.88 1,316,201 3.94
2001-02 2,282,143 9.22 1,384,011 5.15
2002-03 2,469,564 8.21 1,447,595 4.59
2003-04 2,772,194 12.25 1,567,399 8.28

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4.1.2 Rajasthan Statistics
The area of Rajasthan is Sq. Km
The Population of Rajasthan has grown as shown below in Table 4.6
Table 4.6
State Population
Year Population % Growth
1911 20.90 Millions 8.57%
1921 21.63 Millions 3.47%
1931 23.47 Millions 8.52%
1941 26.27 Millions 11.91%
1951 30.12 Millions 41.75%
1961 33.69 Millions 11.85%
1971 41.20 Millions 22.30%
1981 48.41 Millions 17.54%
1991 55.85 Millions 15.39%
2001 62.11 Millions 11.72%

It is seen there from that the total length of the straight roads remained static whereas
the volume of vehicles plying on these roads have shown upward growth.
The total length of National Highways in the state of Rajasthan has grown from 2002
Kms in 1999 to 4254 Km in 2006 as shown below in Table 4.8


Table 4.8
Length of NH
Years Length (Km)
1991 2002
1998 2587
1999 3788
2000 -
2001 3862
2002 3850
2003 3852
2004 4091
2005 4091
2006 4254



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The registered vehicles has grown as shown below in Table 4.9
Table 4.9
Registered Motor Vehicle
Year No. of Vehicles
1997 31,81,819
1998 36,14,248
1999 40,70,734
2000 46,07,228
2001 51,62,082
2002 56,58,091
2003 62,09,037
2004 67,52,473
2005 74,03,744
2006 82,22,730
The statistics relating to accidents and fatalities occurred in the state during the period
from 2002 to 2006 are furnished below in Table 4.10
Table 4.10
Details of Accidents
Year
No of
Accidents
Fatal
Grievous
Injuries
Minor
Injuries
2002 53,503 9,939
2003 51,025 9,275 5,830 32,183
2004 52,505 9,507 5,163 31,600
2005 51,152 9,215 4,875 38,222
2006 55,145 11,009 4,992 32,841

The State Economic Indicatory NSDP and Per Capital Income for the period from
1993-94 to 2004-05 with percentage of growth are furnished Table 4.11 below.
Table 4.11
State Economic Indication
Year NSDP % Growth PCI (lacs) % Growth
1993-94 5,164,329 - 8.955 -
1994-95 5,794,317 12.20 9.932 10.91
1995-96 5,986,121 3.31 10.147 2.16
1996-97 6,231,570 4.10 10.451 3.00
1997-98 6,782,227 8.84 11.260 7.74
1998-99 7,050,517 3.96 11.592 2.95
1999-2000 7,468,504 5.93 12.167 4.96
2000-01 8,044,255 7.72 12.994 6.80
2001-02 7,791,952 3.15 12,484 3.92
2002-03 8,011,378 2.82 12.696 1.70
2003-04 8,271,993 3.25 12.976 2.21
2004-05 9,013,787 8.97 13.999 7.88
Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


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4.1.3 Project Road
The project road Jodhpur - Osian - Phalodi Section runs in the Jodhpur District.
The length of the project road lying in the District are shown below:
Jodhpur Km 2/0 to 122/0 : 119 Kms
The Vital statistics - area, population, length of roads / NH of this district is
furnished here under in Table 4.12
Table 4.12
Vital Statistics District wise
S.
No
Name of
District
Area in
Sq.Km
Population in Dicennial
Growth
since 1981
(%)
Length in
1991 2001
All
Roads
NH
1. Jodhpur 4,651 0.188 1.452 14.72 2,022 87

The traffic accident details occurred in the project road are given below in Table 4.13
Table 4.13
Accident Statistics
Year No. of
Accidents
Fatal Grevious
Injuries
Simple
Injuries
Property
Damage
2001 295 44 26 110 115
2004 142 32 10 187 11
2005 82 37 15 115 8
2006 Upto 09/06 50 28 10 61 1
4.2 Traffic Surveys
4.2.1 Introduction
Traffic on Phalodi - Jodhpur section of SH-61 is characterized by a variety of transport
modes ranging from pedestrian, bicycles and other non-motorised vehicles to
passenger cars, two and three wheelers, trucks and buses. Added to this there is a
high intensity of road side parking of vehicles in some location in front of industries.
Information about traffic is indispensable for any highway project since it would help
for design of pavement, fixing the number of traffic lanes, deign of intersection and
economic appraisal of the project. Traffic surveys are proposed to be carried out to
identify the present and likely future traffic problems to device the suitable remedial
measures and to evolve appropriate details therefore. These traffic surveys are
carried out with the following primary objectives.
To determine the characteristics of traffic movement on the project road.
To collect the historical growth in the project road
To assess the future growth rate during the future design life of the project.
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To determine the travel pattern as well as types and weight of the commodities
carried out by trucks.
To determine the spectrum of actual loads and the vehicle damaging factor of
commercial vehicles.
To determine the turning movements of traffic at intersections
To identify traffic bottlenecks and the need for the bypasses to congested urban
areas.
To determine parking area and facility requirements.
In order to fulfil the above objectives, the following traffic surveys were carried out in
the project section.
Traffic volume count surveys at 4 locations for 7 days.
Origin & Destination surveys for 24 hours at 2 locations
Turning movement surveys for 24 hours at 2 locations
Accident data collection and analysis.

4.2.2 Classified Traffic Volume Count
Traffic volume count studies are the initial steps of any road project whether
improvements or new construction. These studies are the base for deciding the
components of the road way, such as width of road way, pavement layer composition
etc., Count of traffic is the basic study required in connection with many types of
Highway project. Knowledge of the vehicular traffic using a road network is
important for understanding the efficiency at which the system works at present.
The project road was divided into 4 sections. Traffic studies at mid blocks of these 4
sections are carried out at the following 4 different locations. The Count station
locations are shown in Annexure 4.01

L1: @Km 6/500 - After Phalodi
L2: @Km 39/900 - After Lohawat
L3: @Km 90/000 - After Osian
L4: @Km 119/500- After Mathania.


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At each location, traffic was counted manually and continuously for 24 hours for 7
days. The number of vehicles passing through was recorded in every 15 minutes
intervals for 15 different categories of vehicles. The classified traffic volume count
was carried out from Morning 08:00 Hours to 08:00 Hours of next day, during the
period from 18/05/2010 to 25/05/2010.
The date wise details of traffic volume count, Average Hourly Variation of ADT
vehicle wise and Hourly Variation of total no of vehicle and PCUs, with daily traffic
variation category wise in the form of bar chart, hourly variation vehicle wise in the
form of graph and percentage share of traffic in the form of pie chart for each of 4
traffic count locations are furnished in Annexure 4.02 1 to 4.02 24















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Annexure 4.02 01
Average Daily Traffic (Location : km 119.000)

Motorised Pasenger Vehicle Motorised Goods Vehicle Non Motorised
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Wheelers Bus
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Truck Tractor
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Slow moving
vechile
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Day
(24
Hour)
T
w
o

T
h
r
e
e

C
a
r


J
e
e
p

M
i
n
i

F
u
l
l

L
C
V

2
-
A
x
l
e

3
-
A
x
l
e

M
u
l
t
i

A
x
l
e


W
i
t
h

T
r
a
i
l
o
r

W
i
t
h
o
u
t

T
r
a
i
l
o
r

C
y
c
l
e

A
n
i
m
a
l
s

/

C
a
r
t
s

O
t
h
e
r
s

PCU 0.5 1 1 1 1.5 3 1.5 3 3 4.5 4.5 1.5 18 0.5 8 6
18.05.10 1469 53 835 543 178 183 3261 2982 298 228 98 18 69 36 747 1871 26 5 8 39 101 4047 4953
19.05.10 1290 30 636 590 89 152 2787 2491 364 214 130 13 95 24 840 2100 5 1 0 6 10.5 3633 4601
20.05.10 1493 70 662 775 79 156 3235 2840 349 244 111 24 89 22 839 2130 4 3 9 16 80 4090 5050
21.05.10 1306 56 716 670 81 151 2980 2670 413 250 149 40 72 20 944 2351 5 1 2 8 22.5 3932 5043
22.05.10 1395 47 852 556 83 168 3101 2781 336 248 123 26 59 18 810 2027 13 1 7 21 56.5 3932 4864
23.05.10 1749 199 747 633 147 162 3637 3160 311 216 116 23 51 28 745 1838 20 6 11 37 124 4419 5122
24.05.10 1478 40 645 582 73 224 3042 2788 436 231 132 24 86 27 936 2279 28 3 10 41 98 4019 5164
Total 10180 495 5093 4349 730 1196 22043 19710 2507 1631 859 168 521 175 5861 14594 101 20 47 168 493 28072 34796
ADT 1454 70.7 727.6 621.3 104 171 3149 2816 358 233 123 24 74.4 25 837.3 2085 14.4 2.86 6.71 24 70.4 4010 4971
ADT
PCU
727.1 70.7 727.6 621.3 156 513 537 699 368 108 335 37.5 7.21 22.9 40.3









Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


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Annexure 4.02- 02
Hourly Variation of Traffic
TIME

(Hourly)
Motorised Passenger Vehicle Motorised Goods Vehicle Non Motorised
G
.

T
o
t
a
l

T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Wheelers Bus
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Truck Tractor Total PCU Slow moving
vehicle
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

T
w
o

T
h
r
e
e

C
a
r

J
e
e
p

M
i
n
i

F
u
l
l

L
C
V

2
-
A
x
l
e

3
-
A
x
l
e

M
u
l
t
i

A
x
l
e

W
i
t
h

T
r
a
i
l
o
r

W
i
t
h
o
u
t

T
r
a
i
l
o
r

C
y
c
l
e

A
n
i
m
a
l
s
/

C
a
r
t
s

O
t
h
e
r
s

PCU 0.5 1 1 1 1.5 3 1.5 3 3 4.5 4.5 1.5 0.5 8 6
10.00 -
11.00AM
101 3 49 36 6 14 209 189.5 18 11 7 2 5 1 44 114 1 0 0 1 0.
5
25
4
304
11.00 -
12.00PM
155 4 58 43 6 17 283 242.5 20 11 6 1 4 1 43 105 1 0 0 1 0.
5
32
7
348
12.00 -
1.00PM
85 3 46 41 7 12 194 179 23 8 8 1 4 2 46 108 1 0 1 2 6.
5
24
2
293.5
1.00 -
2.00 PM
77 4 41 34 9 10 175 161 16 11 3 0 2 1 33 76.5 0 0 0 0 0 20
8
237.5
2.00 -
3.00 PM
57 6 39 32 8 8 150 141.5 16 10 6 2 2 1 37 91.5 1 1 0 2 8.
5
18
9
241.5
3.00 -
4.00 PM
61 7 39 34 10 16 167 173.5 18 9 5 1 5 2 40 99 1 0 0 1 0.
5
20
8
273
4.00 -
5.00 PM
71 8 37 38 9 13 176 171 14 10 6 2 4 2 38 99 1 0 0 1 0.
5
21
5
270.5
5.00 -
6.00 PM
83 9 37 35 10 14 188 179.5 21 12 4 2 4 2 45 109.5 3 0 1 4 7.
5
23
7
296.5
6.00 -
7.00 PM
108 3 52 47 10 9 229 198 18 12 5 2 4 3 44 109.5 2 0 0 2 1 27
5
308.5
7.00 -
8.00 PM
116 4 50 50 5 9 234 196.5 22 13 6 0 6 3 50 121.5 1 0 0 1 0.
5
28
5
318.5
8.00 - 92 2 47 32 5 5 183 149.5 22 11 6 0 3 2 44 100.5 0 0 0 0 0 22 250
Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


Page 37 of 166



9.00 PM 7
9.00 -
10.00PM
65 2 36 26 1 4 134 110 21 13 6 0 3 1 44 103.5 0 0 0 0 0 17
8
213.5
10.00 -
11.00PM
33 4 30 18 0 5 90 83.5 12 8 4 2 2 0 28 72 0 0 0 0 0 11
8
155.5
11.00 -
12.00PM
12 1 21 10 0 1 45 41 10 6 4 1 0 0 21 49.5 0 0 0 0 0 66 90.5
12.00 -
1.00 AM
4 0 11 9 0 0 24 22 8 6 4 1 0 0 19 46.5 0 0 0 0 0 43 68.5
1.00 -
2.00 AM
1 0 4 4 0 0 9 8.5 4 5 2 1 1 0 13 36 0 0 0 0 0 22 44.5
2.00 -
3.00 AM
2 1 5 5 0 3 16 21 12 6 4 1 1 0 24 57 0 0 0 0 0 40 78
3.00 -
4.00 AM
1 0 4 2 0 1 8 9.5 7 5 3 0 0 0 15 34.5 0 0 0 0 0 23 44
4.00 -
5.00 AM
7 0 4 3 0 1 15 13.5 7 7 4 0 1 0 19 48 0 0 0 0 0 34 61.5
5.00 -
6.00 AM
17 0 6 7 1 2 33 29 8 9 3 2 1 0 23 61.5 0 0 0 0 0 56 90.5
6.00 -
7.00 AM
42 2 23 16 2 2 87 71 9 10 5 1 4 1 30 82.5 1 0 0 1 0.
5
11
8
154
7.00 -
8.00 AM
69 1 27 27 4 5 133 110.5 16 11 7 1 4 0 39 100.5 1 0 0 1 0.
5
17
3
211.5
8.00 -
9.00 AM
99 2 30 36 6 8 181 150.5 17 14 8 0 4 2 45 112.5 1 0 0 1 0.
5
22
7
263.5
9.00 -
10.00AM
98 2 33 36 5 13 187 166.5 20 15 9 0 7 2 53 136.5 1 0 0 1 0.
5
24
1
303.5
ADT 145
6
68 729 621 104 172 315
0
2818 359 233 125 23 71 26 837 2075 16 1 2 19 28 40
06
4921
%age
Share
36.3
%
1.7
%
18.
2%
15.
5%
2.6
%
4.3
%
78.
6%
9.0
%
5.8
%
3.1
%
0.6
%
1.8% 0.6
%
20.9
%
0.4
%
0.0
%
0.0
%
0.5
%

Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


Page 38 of 166

Annexure 4.02-03
Location :Km 109.00




Annexure 4.02-04
Location :Km 109.00


0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
1
0
.
0
0

-
1
1
.
0
0
A
M
1
1
.
0
0

-
1
2
.
0
0

P
M
1
2
.
0
0

-
1
.
0
0
P
M
1
.
0
0

-
2
.
0
0

P
M
2
.
0
0

-
3
.
0
0

P
M
3
.
0
0

-
4
.
0
0

P
M
4
.
0
0

-
5
.
0
0

P
M
5
.
0
0

-
6
.
0
0

P
M
6
.
0
0

-
7
.
0
0

P
M
7
.
0
0

-
8
.
0
0

P
M
8
.
0
0

-
9
.
0
0

P
M
9
.
0
0

-
1
0
.
0
0

P
M
1
0
.
0
0

-
1
1
.
0
0

P
M
1
1
.
0
0

-
1
2
.
0
0

A
M
1
2
.
0
0

-
1
.
0
0

A
M
1
.
0
0

-
2
.
0
0

A
M
2
.
0
0

-
3
.
0
0

A
M
3
.
0
0

-
4
.
0
0

A
M
4
.
0
0

-
5
.
0
0

A
M
5
.
0
0

-
6
.
0
0

A
M
6
.
0
0

-
7
.
0
0

A
M
7
.
0
0

-
8
.
0
0

A
M
8
.
0
0

-
9
.
0
0

A
M
9
.
0
0

-
1
0
.
0
0

A
M
T
o
t
a
l

N
o
s
.

/

P
C
U
s
Average Hourly Variation
Total No.
PCUs
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
T
o
t
a
l

N
o
s
.

/

P
C
U
s
Daily Traffic Variation
Non Motorised
Motorised Goods Vehicle
Motorised Passenger Vehicle
Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


Page 39 of 166


Annexure 4.02- 05
Location :km 109.00

Annexure 4.02 06
Location :km 119.00

Two
36%
Three
2%
Car
18%
Jeep
15%
Mini
3%
Full
4%
LCV
9%
2-Axle
6%
3-Axle
3%
Multi Axle
1%
With Trailor
2%
Without Trailor
1%
Cycle
0%
Animals / Carts
0%
Others
0%
%age Share of traffic
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
T
o
t
a
l

N
o
s
.

Hourly Variation Vehiclewise
2 Wheeler
3 Wheeler
Car
Jeep
Mini Bus
Bus
LCV
2-Axle
3-Axle
Multi Axle
Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


Page 40 of 166

Annexure 4.02 07
Average Daily Traffic (Location : Km 109/500)


Motorised Pasenger Vehicle Motorised Goods Vehicle Non Motorised
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Wheelers Bus
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Truck Tractor
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Slow moving
vechile
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Day
(24
Hour)
T
w
o

T
h
r
e
e

C
a
r


J
e
e
p

M
i
n
i

F
u
l
l

L
C
V

2
-
A
x
l
e

3
-
A
x
l
e

M
u
l
t
i

A
x
l
e


W
i
t
h

T
r
a
i
l
o
r

W
i
t
h
o
u
t

T
r
a
i
l
o
r

C
y
c
l
e

A
n
i
m
a
l
s

/

C
a
r
t
s

O
t
h
e
r
s

PCU 0.5 1 1 1 1.5 3 1.5 3 3 4.5 4.5 1.5 18 0.5 8 6
18.05.10 196 15 185 131 20 33 580 558 156 72 66 24 24 3 345 868.5 11 0 0 11 5.5 936 1432
19.05.10 477 18 630 378 65 138 1706 1776 220 151 146 32 59 15 623 1653 7 0 0 7 3.5 2336 3433
20.05.10 652 12 532 401 56 151 1804 1808 256 162 130 45 23 41 657 1628 25 0 0 25 12.5 2486 3448
21.05.10 526 11 502 420 28 164 1651 1730 273 136 161 46 30 29 675 1686 20 0 0 20 10 2346 3426
22.05.10 657 7 563 504 23 174 1928 1959 247 108 128 27 22 12 544 1317 14 0 0 14 7 2486 3283
23.05.10 497 10 587 404 18 167 1683 1778 242 132 145 18 20 6 563 1374 10 2 0 12 21 2258 3173
24.05.10 569 0 565 496 3 173 1806 1869 270 134 137 44 36 22 643 1611 27 0 0 27 13.5 2476 3494
Total 3574 73 3564 2734 213 1000 11158 11478 1664 895 913 236 214 128 4050 10137 114 2 0 116 73 15324 21688
ADT 511 10 509 391 30 143 1594 1640 238 128 130 34 31 18 579 1448 16 0 0 17 10 2189 3098
ADT
PCU
255.3 10.4 509.1 390.6 45.6 429 356.6 384 391 152 138 27.4 8.14 2.29 0








Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


Page 41 of 166

Annexure 4.02 08
Hourly Variation of Traffic (Location: Km 109/500)

TIME

(Hourly)
Motorised Pasenger Vehicle Motorised Goods Vehicle Non Motorised
G
.

T
o
t
a
l

T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Wheelers Bus
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Truck Tractor Total PCU Slow moving
vechile
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

T
w
o

T
h
r
e
e

C
a
r

J
e
e
p

M
i
n
i

F
u
l
l

L
C
V

2
-
A
x
l
e

3
-
A
x
l
e

M
u
l
t
i

A
x
l
e

W
i
t
h

T
r
a
i
l
o
r

W
i
t
h
o
u
t

T
r
a
i
l
o
r

C
y
c
l
e

A
n
i
m
a
l
s
/

C
a
r
t
s

O
t
h
e
r
s

PCU 0.5 1 1 1 1.5 3 1.5 3 3 4.5 4.5 1.5 0.5 8 6
10.00 -
11.00AM
65 3 45 30 9 9 161 151 15 8 7 2 4 1 37 96 1 0 0 1 0.5 199 247.5
11.00 -
12.00PM
60 3 44 29 4 7 147 133 14 9 6 1 3 2 35 87 1 0 0 1 0.5 183 220.5
12.00 -
1.00PM
57 2 39 27 5 6 136 122 15 7 5 1 2 1 31 73.5 0 0 0 0 0 167 195.5
1.00 -
2.00 PM
50 2 27 21 8 6 114 105 13 10 4 1 1 3 32 75 0 0 0 0 0 146 180
2.00 -
3.00 PM
40 1 26 19 4 5 95 87 12 8 6 2 2 1 31 79.5 1 0 0 1 0.5 127 167
3.00 -
4.00 PM
35 1 22 19 5 9 91 94 12 9 6 1 2 1 31 78 1 0 0 1 0.5 123 172.5
4.00 -
5.00 PM
37 2 22 22 3 8 94 93 13 9 6 1 2 1 32 79.5 0 0 0 0 0 126 172.5
5.00 -
6.00 PM
44 1 18 17 5 7 92 86.5 13 10 4 2 2 1 32 81 2 0 1 3 7 127 174.5
6.00 -
7.00 PM
58 2 27 28 6 5 126 110 14 9 6 2 2 1 34 85.5 1 0 0 1 0.5 161 196
7.00 -
8.00 PM
68 2 22 27 3 4 126 101.
5
16 8 5 1 3 1 34 82.5 0 0 0 0 0 160 184
Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


Page 42 of 166


8.00 -
9.00 PM
59 1 26 20 3 2 111 87 16 7 5 1 2 1 32 75 0 0 0 0 0 143 162
9.00 -
10.00PM
40 1 22 17 0 3 83 69 17 7 3 1 2 1 31 70.5 0 0 0 0 0 114 139.5
10.00 -
11.00PM
31 1 25 18 0 4 79 71.5 11 6 5 2 2 0 26 67.5 0 0 0 0 0 105 139
11.00 -
12.00AM
23 0 28 13 0 3 67 61.5 14 5 5 1 1 1 27 61.5 0 0 0 0 0 94 123
12.00 -
1.00 AM
21 0 22 15 2 5 65 65.5 9 4 5 0 1 1 20 46.5 1 0 0 1 0.5 86 112.5
1.00 -
2.00 AM
22 0 19 16 2 4 63 61 8 5 2 1 1 1 18 43.5 1 0 0 1 0.5 82 105
2.00 -
3.00 AM
21 0 18 13 1 6 59 61 10 5 7 1 1 1 25 61.5 1 0 0 1 0.5 85 123
3.00 -
4.00 AM
23 0 19 18 2 3 65 60.5 6 5 5 0 0 1 17 40.5 1 0 0 1 0.5 83 101.5
4.00 -
5.00 AM
20 0 19 12 1 5 57 57.5 12 8 6 0 0 2 28 63 0 0 0 0 0 85 120.5
5.00 -
6.00 AM
20 0 15 16 3 6 60 63.5 10 8 9 1 2 2 32 82.5 0 0 0 0 0 92 146
6.00 -
7.00 AM
29 1 25 19 3 7 84 85 12 8 7 1 2 2 32 79.5 1 0 0 1 0.5 117 165
7.00 -
8.00 AM
42 0 30 25 3 11 111 113.
5
15 6 6 1 3 1 32 78 2 0 0 2 1 145 192.5
8.00 -
9.00 AM
58 0 32 29 5 12 136 133.
5
18 8 7 1 2 1 37 87 1 0 0 1 0.5 174 221
9.00 -
10.00AM
60 1 38 25 4 12 140 136 18 10 11 0 3 2 44 106.5 1 0 0 1 0.5 185 243
ADT 983 24 630 495 81 149 2362 2209 313 179 138 25 45 30 730 1781 16 0 1 17 14 3109 4004
%age
Share
31.
6%
0.8
%
20.3
%
15.9
%
2.6
%
4.8
%
76.0
%
10.
1%
5.8
%
4.4
%
0.8
%
1.4
%
1.0
%
23.5
%
0.5
%
0.0
%
0.0
%
0.5
%

Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


Page 43 of 166

Annexure 4.02 09
Average Hourly Variation at Km 109/500


Annexure 4.02 -10
Daily Traffic Variation at Km 109/500



0
50
100
150
200
250
300
T
o
t
a
l

N
o
s
.

/

P
C
U
s
Average Hourly Variation
Total Nos.
PCUs
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
T
o
t
a
l

N
o
s
.

/

P
C
U
s
Daily Traffic Variation
Non Motorised Vehicle
Motorised Goods Vehicle
Motorised Pessenger Vehicle
Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


Page 44 of 166


Annexure 4.02 11
% Share of Traffic at Km. 109/500


Annexure 4.02 12
Hourly Variation Vehicle wise at km. 109/500



Two
32%
Three
1%
Car
20%
Jeep
16%
Mini
3%
Full
5%
LCV
10%
2-Axle
6%
3-Axle
4%
Multi Axle
1%
With Trailor
1%
Without Trailor
1%
Cycle
0%
Animals / Carts
0%
Others
0%
%age Share of traffic
Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


Page 45 of 166

Annexure 4.02 13
Average Daily Traffic at km 6/00
Motorised Pasenger Vehicle Motorised Goods Vehicle Non Motorised
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Wheelers Bus
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Truck Tractor
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Slow moving
vechile
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Day
(24
Hour)
T
w
o

T
h
r
e
e

C
a
r


J
e
e
p

M
i
n
i

F
u
l
l

L
C
V

2
-
A
x
l
e

3
-
A
x
l
e

M
u
l
t
i

A
x
l
e


W
i
t
h

T
r
a
i
l
o
r

W
i
t
h
o
u
t

T
r
a
i
l
o
r

C
y
c
l
e

A
n
i
m
a
l
s

/

C
a
r
t
s

O
t
h
e
r
s

PCU 0.5 1 1 1 1.5 3 1.5 3 3 4.5 4.5 1.5 18 0.5 8 6
18.05.10 1391 129 410 577 224 111 2842 2481 217 175 53 5 117 23 590 1593 45 15 1 61 149 3493 4222
19.05.10 1270 143 345 407 23 74 2262 1787 243 228 150 18 108 39 786 2124 34 7 2 43 85 3091 3996
20.05.10 1156 128 391 430 16 98 2219 1845 203 209 170 27 107 23 739 2079 24 4 2 30 56 2988 3980
21.05.10 1305 117 373 432 18 103 2348 1911 299 171 196 30 112 14 822 2210 14 4 1 19 45 3189 4165
22.05.10 1281 127 372 501 14 86 2381 1920 283 178 163 24 106 17 771 2058 34 0 6 40 53 3192 4031
23.05.10 1295 127 467 399 25 77 2390 1909 287 184 165 16 108 23 783 2070 43 17 4 64 182 3237 4161
24.05.10 1079 76 472 467 21 77 2192 1817 274 192 195 38 122 19 840 2321 19 7 6 32 102 3064 4239
Total 8777 847 2830 3213 341 626 16634 13668 1806 1337 1092 158 780 158 5331 14454 213 54 22 289 671 22254 28793
ADT 1254 121 404 459 49 89 2376 1953 258 191 156 23 111 23 762 2065 30 8 3 41 96 3179 4113
ADT
PCU
626.9 121 404.3 459 73.1 268 387 573 468 102 501 33.9 15.2 61.7 18.9






Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


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Annexure 4.02 - 14
Hourly Variation of Traffic at km. 6/00

TIME

(Hourly)
Motorised Passenger Vehicle Motorised Goods Vehicle Non Motorised
G
.

T
o
t
a
l

T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Wheelers Bus
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

Truck Tractor Tot
al
PC
U
Slow moving
vechile
T
o
t
a
l

P
C
U

T
w
o

T
h
r
e
e

C
a
r

J
e
e
p

M
i
n
i

F
u
l
l

L
C
V

2
-
A
x
l
e

3
-
A
x
l
e

M
u
l
t
i

A
x
l
e

W
i
t
h

T
r
a
i
l
o
r

W
i
t
h
o
u
t

T
r
a
i
l
o
r

C
y
c
l
e

A
n
i
m
a
l
s
/

C
a
r
t
s

O
t
h
e
r
s

PCU 0.5 1 1 1 1.5 3 1.5 3 3 4.5 4.5 1.5 0.5 8 6
10.00 -
11.00AM
71 5 35 27 4 8 150 132.5 13 10 7 2 7 1 40 112.
5
2 1 0 3 9 193 254
11.00 -
12.00PM
86 8 40 28 4 8 174 149 12 10 7 0 5 1 35 93 4 1 0 5 10 214 252
12.00 -
1.00PM
83 7 39 32 5 8 174 151 16 11 7 2 5 1 42 111 3 1 0 4 9.5 220 271.5
1.00 -
2.00 PM
77 6 32 30 7 7 159 138 17 12 5 0 5 1 40 100.
5
2 0 0 2 1 201 239.5
2.00 -
3.00 PM
75 5 29 30 4 7 150 128.5 16 11 7 2 5 1 42 111 2 0 0 2 1 194 240.5
3.00 -
4.00 PM
75 5 30 32 5 10 157 142 14 12 7 1 5 2 41 108 1 0 0 1 0.5 199 250.5
4.00 -
5.00 PM
73 4 34 36 5 13 165 157 15 11 6 2 6 1 41 111 0 0 0 0 0 206 268
5.00 -
6.00 PM
70 4 28 28 7 10 147 135.5 17 10 5 1 6 2 41 105 2 0 1 3 7 191 247.5
6.00 -
7.00 PM
87 4 36 38 8 8 181 157.5 15 10 5 1 6 1 38 100.
5
1 0 0 1 0.5 220 258.5
7.00 - 104 6 32 40 6 7 195 160 19 11 6 0 6 2 44 109. 0 0 0 0 0 239 269.5
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8.00 PM 5
8.00 -
9.00 PM
91 6 36 35 4 5 177 143.5 22 9 7 1 6 2 47 115.
5
1 0 0 1 0.5 225 259.5
9.00 -
10.00PM
91 5 33 31 1 5 166 131 22 8 5 0 6 2 43 102 1 0 0 1 0.5 210 233.5
10.00 -
11.00PM
71 8 28 25 1 3 136 107 13 7 4 2 5 1 32 85.5 0 0 0 0 0 168 192.5
11.00 -
12.00AM
50 4 21 18 1 0 94 69.5 11 7 6 1 2 1 28 70.5 0 0 0 0 0 122 140
12.00 -
1.00 AM
31 5 18 16 1 0 71 56 11 8 7 0 2 0 28 70.5 0 0 0 0 0 99 126.5
1.00 -
2.00 AM
10 1 9 8 1 0 29 24.5 6 6 3 0 1 0 16 40.5 0 0 0 0 0 45 65
2.00 -
3.00 AM
10 1 9 6 1 2 29 28.5 6 7 6 0 1 0 20 52.5 0 1 0 1 8 50 89
3.00 -
4.00 AM
6 0 5 4 0 0 15 12 5 6 5 0 0 0 16 40.5 0 0 0 0 0 31 52.5
4.00 -
5.00 AM
4 0 5 3 0 0 12 10 7 7 6 0 0 0 20 49.5 0 0 0 0 0 32 59.5
5.00 -
6.00 AM
10 0 5 6 2 1 24 22 7 8 4 1 1 0 21 55.5 0 0 0 0 0 45 77.5
6.00 -
7.00 AM
19 1 13 11 1 2 47 42 6 9 8 1 2 1 27 75 0 0 0 0 0 74 117
7.00 -
8.00 AM
32 0 18 15 2 4 71 64 11 7 6 1 3 0 28 73.5 1 0 0 1 0.5 100 138
8.00 -
9.00 AM
51 1 21 23 2 7 105 94.5 14 7 7 0 4 1 33 82.5 2 1 0 3 9 141 186
9.00 -
10.00AM
60 2 29 24 3 8 126 113.5 16 12 11 0 4 1 44 112.
5
0 0 0 0 0 170 226
ADT 133
7
88 585 546 75 123 2754 2369 311 216 147 18 93 22 807 2088 22 5 1 28 57 358
9
4514
%age
Share
37.3
%
2.5
%
16.3
%
15.2
%
2.1
%
3.4
%
76.7
%
8.7
%
6.0
%
4.1
%
0.5
%
2.6
%
0.6
%
22.
5%
0.6
%
0.1
%
0.0
%
0.8
%

Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


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Annexure 4.02 15
Average Hourly Variation at km 6/00


Annexure 4.02 16
Daily Traffic Variation at km 6/00



0
50
100
150
200
250
300
T
o
t
a
l

N
o
s
.

/

P
C
U
s
Average Hourly Variation
Total Nos.
PCUs
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
T
o
t
a
l

N
o
s
.

/

P
C
U
s
Daily Traffic Variation
Non Motorised Vehicle
Motorised Goods Vehicle
Motorised Passenger Vehicle
Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


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Annexure 4.02 17
% Share of Traffic at km 6/00


Annexure 4.02 18
Hourly Variation Vehicle Wise at km 6/00
Two
37%
Three
2%
Car
16%
Jeep
15%
Mini
2%
Full
3%
LCV
9%
2-Axle
6%
3-Axle
4%
Multi Axle
1%
With Trailor
3%
Without
Trailor
1%
Cycle
1%
Animals / Carts
0%
Others
0%
%age Share of traffic
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
T
o
t
a
l

N
o
s
.

Hourly Variation Vehiclewise
2 Wheeler
3 Wheeler
Car
Jeep
Mini Bus
Bus
LCV
2-Axle
3-Axle
Multi Axle
Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


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The traffic data was collected in a prescribed standard format as per IRC:SP-2001:
Manual for Survey Investigation and Preparation of Road project (Second Revision),
IRC:09-1972: Traffic Census on Non Urban roads is also followed.
Data collected for various types is converted to a uniform unit i.e Passenger Car Unit
or PCU for the purpose of further analysis and composition IRC 64-1990 recommends
the following conversion factors to convert the number of vehicles in to PCU is
presented below in Table 4.14
Table 4.14
PCU Factor as per IRC
Vehicle Type PCU Factor
Two Wheeler 0.5
Three Wheeler 1.0
Car/Jeep/Van/Taxi 1.0
Standard Bus 3.0
Mini Bus 1.5
LCV 1.5
Two Axle Truck 3.0
Three Axle Truck 3.0
Multi Axle Vehicle 4.5
Tractor 1.5
Tractor Trailer 4.5
Cycle 0.5
Hand Cart 3.0
Bullock Cart 8.0
The traffic volume observed at the 3 location and summarized below, both in total
number of PCUs, and are given in the following Table 4.15

Table 4.15
Summary of Traffic Count

Count Station
No.
L1 L2 L3 L4
Location in Km 6/500 39/900 90/000 109/500
Date of Survey 18/05/2010 to 25/05/2010
MOTORISED TRAFFIC
Passenger
Vehicles
Nos. PCUs Nos. PCUs Nos. PCUs Nos. PCUs
Car/Jeep/Van 863 863 840 840 1,120 1120 1349 1349
2 Wheeler 1,254 627 519 260 519 260 1,454 727
3 Wheeler 121 91 10 8 10 8 71 53
Mini Bus 49 73 49 73 68 103 104 156
Standard Bus 89 268 88 265 150 450 171 513
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Goods Vehicles
LCV 258 387 251 377 308 462 358 537
2 Axle 191 573 187 562 179 538 233 699
3 Axle 156 468 152 457 134 402 123 368
Multi Axle 23 102 22 101 26 115 25 113
Tractor 111 167 23 34 21 31 25 38
Tractor Trailor 23 102 110 494 51 231 74 335
Others 7 42 0 0 0 0 3 18
Total 3,145 3,763 2,252 3,470 2,587 3,720 3,991 4,906
NON-MOTORISED TRAFFIC
Cycle 30 73.5 16 73.5 0 73.5 7 73.5
Total All Traffic 3,175 3,836 2,268 3,544 2,587 3,793 3,998 4,980

The Average Daily Traffic varies from 3175 to 4980 PCUs.

Total Motorised vehicles varies from 3145 Nos. to 3991.

Count
Station No.
L1 L2 L3 L4
Location in
Km
6/500 39/900 90/000 109/500
Date of
Survey
18/05/2010 to 25/05/2010
TRAFFIC
S. No. Year PCUs Year PCUs Year PCUs Year PCUs
1
2010-2011 3836 2010-2011 3544 2010-2011 3793 2010-2011 4980
2 2011-2012 4028 2011-2012 3721 2011-2012 3983 2011-2012 5229
3
2012-2013 4229 2012-2013 3907 2012-2013 4182 2012-2013 5490
4 2013-2014 4441 2013-2014 4103 2013-2014 4391 2013-2014 5765
5
2014-2015 4663 2014-2015 4308 2014-2015 4611 2014-2015 6053
6 2015-2016 4896 2015-2016 4523 2015-2016 4841 2015-2016 6356
7
2016-2017 5141 2016-2017 4749 2016-2017 5083 2016-2017 6673
8 2017-2018 5398 2017-2018 4987 2017-2018 5337 2017-2018 7007
9
2018-2019 5668 2018-2019 5236 2018-2019 5604 2018-2019 7357
10 2019-2020 5951 2019-2020 5498 2019-2020 5885 2019-2020 7725
11
2020-2021 6249 2020-2021 5773 2020-2021 6179 2020-2021 8111
12 2021-2022 6561 2021-2022 6061 2021-2022 6488 2021-2022 8517
13
2022-2023 6889 2022-2023 6364 2022-2023 6812 2022-2023 8943
14 2023-2024 7234 2023-2024 6683 2023-2024 7153 2023-2024 9390
15
2024-2025 7595 2024-2025 7017 2024-2025 7510 2024-2025 9860
16 2025-2026 7975 2025-2026 7368 2025-2026 7886 2025-2026 10353
17
2026-2027 8374 2026-2027 7736 2026-2027 8280 2026-2027 10870
18 2027-2028 8793 2027-2028 8123 2027-2028 8694 2027-2028 11414
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19
2028-2029 9232 2028-2029 8529 2028-2029 9129 2028-2029 11984
20 2029-2030 9694 2029-2030 8955 2029-2030 9585 2029-2030 12584
21
2030-2031 10179 2030-2031 9403 2030-2031 10065 2030-2031 13213
22 2031-2032 10687 2031-2032 9873 2031-2032 10568 2031-2032 13873
23
2032-2033 11222 2032-2033 10367 2032-2033 11096 2032-2033 14567
24 2033-2034 11783 2033-2034 10885 2033-2034 11651 2033-2034 15295
25
2034-2035 12372 2034-2035 11430 2034-2035 12233 2034-2035 16060


4.2.2.1 Traffic Composition

Traffic composition of vehicle by number in percentage at various count location are
given the Table 4.16 below.
Table 4.16
Percentage Composition

Count Station
No.
L1 L2 L3 L4
Location in Km 6/500 39/900 90/000 109/500
Date of Survey 18/05/2010 to 25/05/2010
MOTORISED TRAFFIC
Passenger
Vehicles
%age %age %age %age
Car/Jeep/Van 27.19 37.04 43.30 33.74
2 Wheeler 39.50 22.88 20.07 36.37
3 Wheeler 3.81 0.44 0.39 1.78
Mini Bus 1.53 2.15 2.65 2.61
Standard Bus 2.82 3.90 5.80 4.28
74.85 66.42 72.20 78.78
Goods Vehicles
LCV 8.13 11.08 11.90 8.96
2 Axle 6.02 8.26 6.94 5.83
3 Axle 4.91 6.72 5.19 3.07
Multi Axle 0.71 0.99 0.99 0.63
Tractor 3.51 1.00 0.81 0.63
Tractor Trailor 0.71 4.84 1.99 1.86
Others 0.22 0.00 0.00 0.08
Total 99.06 99.29 100.00 99.82
NON-MOTORISED TRAFFIC
Cycle 0.94 0.71 0.00 0.18
Total All Traffic 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

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It is seen from the above table that motorized passenger vehicles is in the range of 66
to 79 percent and motorized goods vehicle is in the range of 34 to 21 percent at count
station.

Out of the motorized passenger vehicle two wheeler is in the range of 20 to 39 percent.
Out of the motorized goods vehicle, LCV, are in the range of 8 to 11 percent and 2 axle
trucks in the range of 5 to 8 percent and 3 axle trucks 3 to 7 percent and multi axle
vehicle are very negligible.
4.2.2.2 Peak Hour Traffic
The peak hour is 5 am to 6 am for locations L3 & L4 and it is 6 am to 7 am at locations
L1 & L2. The hourly traffic for different locations shows the peak hour values for each
locations. It is seen that the peak hour volume varies between 5.8% to 6.86% of ADT.
The highest peak hour flows recorded are shown in Table 4.17
Table 4.17
Peak Hour Flow

Locations
(Km)
Peak Hour
Volume
24 Hr Volume Peak Hour %
Nos. PCU Nos PCU Nos. PCU
6/500 239 271.5 3,589 4,514 6.66 6.01
39/900 238 270 3,556 4,480 6.69 6.03
90/00 199 247.5 3,109 4,004 6.40 6.18
109/500 327 348 4,006 4,921 8.16 7.07

4.2.2.3 Local Traffic
Traffic Volume in section 4 is more than in station 1, 2 and 3 due to the mathania
industrial area.


4.2.2.4 Average Annual Daily Traffic
The traffic counts for this project were carried out in the Month of June 2006. Seasonal
correction factor is assumed as 1.0, hence ADT recorded are also the same as AADT.
AADT is the same as ADT shown in Table 4.15
4.2.2.5 Directional Split Traffic
The directional traffic flow for the above 4 locations are furnished below in Table 4.18

Table 4.18
Directional Flow of Traffic

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Location Up
Traffic
Down
Traffic
% Split
Up Down
6/500 1604 1575 50.47 49.53
39/900 1153 1115 50.83 49.17
90/00 1083 1520 41.61 58.39
109/500 2023 1989 50.43 49.57

It is seen there from, that the directional split is 49% to 51% except at Location 90/000
i.e. 41% to 51%.


4.2.2.6 Homogenous Sections
From the perusal of the traffic volume count at various count stations, the following
Homogenous Sections have been identified as.

Homogenous Section 1 : km 0/2 73/00 = 71.00
2 : km 73 103/00 = 29.00
3 : km 103/00 122/00 = 19.00

= 119.00
4.2.3 Origin & Destination Survey
The OD Survey is conducted to assess the information regarding travel characteristics
by different modes of vehicles within the project area. Knowledge of vehicular
volume using the existing road is important for understanding the future traffic flow
characteristic on the project road. The OD survey is useful to assess the traffic from
the existing and diverting away and diverting towards due to improvement of new
facility. The results of the OD survey are used to describe the user characteristic, for
the passenger and goods vehicles, such as distribution of local and through traffic,
type and weights of goods carried by trucks. The information will be useful in
describing the need for bypasses to heavily built up urban sections along the project
corridor.
The OD survey was conducted for passenger and commercial vehicles at the 4 volume
count locations L1, L2, L3 & L4 for 24 hours adopting the road side interview method
as detailed in IRC:102-1988. They covered both directions at each site and more than
20% of all vehicles were surveyed.
For study purposes, the entire country was divided into 15 zones in such-a-way that
the characterization of inter-zonal and intra-zonal trips could be clearly analysed on
the project section. Further for purposes of estimating the trips from and to in the
major towns of the corridor zone No. 1, 2, & 3 were assigned to Trichy, Phalodi and
Karaikudi Towns respectively. The OD zone map is furnished in Annexure 4.03 and
OD Matrix for the 4 OD survey matrix are furnished in

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4.2.6 Axle Load Characteristics
4.2.6.1 Introduction

Traffic loading on highway pavements is heterogeneous combination of different
types of vehicles, carrying a wide spectrum of wheel loads. It is very much essential to
convert this heterogeneous traffic to and equivalent homogenous traffic in terms of a
chosen standard vehicle. One means of achieving this objective is the use of
Equivalent Standard Axle Load (ESAL) factors. Axle load surveys of commercial
vehicles were carried out to establish Vehicle Damage Factor for use in pavement
design. Since, lighter vehicles have a very small equivalent standard axle load value
and less damaging effect, these vehicle types were excluded in the present axle load
survey. Axle load survey locations are shown in Annexure 4.08
4.2.6.2 Equivalent Standard Axle Load
Equivalent Standard Axle Load is defined as the damage per pass caused to a specific
pavement system by the vehicle in question to the damage per pass of an arbitrary
standard vehicle moving on the pavement system. Thus, the ESAL or Vehicle Damage
Factor (VDF) of a vehicle (j) relative to a standard vehicle s is given by.
Fj = dj/ds = Nfs / Nfj
Where, dj = damage per pass for vehicle j
ds = damage per pass for the standard vehicle s
Nfj = No. of repetitions of vehicle j to cause failure of a given pavement
system.
Nfs = No. of repetitions of standard vehicle to cause failure of the same
pavement system.
4.2.6.3 Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF)
The Vehicle Damage Factor is an important indexing factor for characterizing the
traffic loading for a road. The VDF can be computed from the axle load data by the
following formula, provided sufficiently large and fairly distributed sample of
vehicles are included in the axle load survey.
VDF = Total EAL / Number of vehicles weighed

Where,
Total EAL =

No. of Axles in each weight class x Load equivalency factors


of the weight class.
The IRC Load Equivalency factors were used for computation of equivalent
standard axle.
Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


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For design of pavements, the intensity of traffic loading is an important parameter.
The intensity of traffic loading is defined in terms of cumulative number of Standard
Axle load repetitions in a given period of time. IRC:37-2001 provides the scientific
method for design of flexible pavements based on the concept of Equivalent Standard
Axle (ESA) and Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF).

Axle Load Survey studies hasnt been worked out here as the motorised goods traffic
is almost less than 30%. The VDF is taken as per the IRC: 37-2001.
4.2.7 Pedestrian Surveys
The pedestrian traffic is only at the Mathania was present but due to Bypass at it, the
study is not required.
Another pedestrian traffic point to be considered is at Osian Mata Temple. At the time
of Field survey there was not much pedestrian traffic was present but according to the
villagers there were very much pedestrian traffic during the holy days. The tenure of
total holy days is more than 75 days during the whole year.
The Osian is a holy place and due to pedestrian traffic there is a requirement of 4 Lane
undivided road with 2.0m wide footpaths at the road sides along the approx. 2.0km
area.
It is seen from the above table that pedestrian crossing are going along the road in all
the above mentioned locations are less than 200 numbers of persons. Based on
IRC: 103-1988 guidelines for pedestrian facilities the minimum width of 1.5m is
adopted for side wall on either side of SH at the above locations.
4.2.8 Speed / Delay Survey
Speed and Delay studies are conducted to observe the undue congestion and delay or
other factors resulting in reduced travel speeds on road sections, so that suitable
remedial measures could be suggested to improve the over all travel speeds on roads.
The studies were made along the project corridor Km 2/0 to 122/0 of SH-61 to assess
the optimum journey speeds at different locations. The journey time taken to travel
the road in blocks of two kilometers were observed by the moving car method. In this
method the test vehicle is run at the average speed of the traffic stream so that the
number of vehicles overtaken by the test vehicle and the number of vehicles
overtaking the test vehicle are approximately same. The travel time and delay in
section of two kilometers of the project road is determined by the observer by using
stop watches.
A total of four runs were made in each section and the mean taken as the optimum
journey speed of the stretch considered.
The study has revealed that the average travel speed is less than 30 kms in the built up
area at Mathania only, and now this area has been bypassed. So the speed at mathania
has been discarded.
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The average speed at Ummed Nagar also more than 40km / hr. It reduces here due to
Sharp bend this area also has been bypassed.
The average speed at Osian Mata Temple area is 40km/hr. Due to Sharp 90
intersection and a Curve on the road, this sharp Intersection has been bypassed.
After excluding all bottle necks (Bypasses), An average speed of 55 kmph is observed
in the study section.
The average speed works out to 57.89 km per Hour
The low speed in the built up area could be attributed to traffic congestion.
The existence of ribbon development on both sides in the built up area of the project
road is the major cause of traffic friction. The journey speeds at this location could be
increased by suitable provisions. The traffic condition could be improved in other
urban section by provision of bypasses to cater to through traffic.
4.2.10 Toll Rate Survey
Toll rate surveys in the form of willingness to pay have been conducted at two
locations i.e. at O-D survey locations. Questions of simple nature, as to how are the
present road condition etc. were posed to truck operators. They have informed that if
an improved facility, giving them a safe, comfortable and speedy travel is provided to
them, were they willing to pay a certain percentage of benefit they get. Further they
were asked how much toll they can pay in the event of a toll being levied. As this is
more of a study to estimate the attitude of road users to pay for the service facility
they get, the questions were only of an informatory nature.
The analysis of the study reveals that there is awareness amongst road users to pay as
Toll for better services received. But here it is required to mention that local
villagers do not want to give the Toll, where they are driving their car or tractors.
This study was restricted to car users, Tractor and truck drivers only.
4.2.11 Traffic Accident Study
Traffic accidents are fewer occurrences due to less traffic & overall good condition of
the road. Traffic accidents details have been collected for the Project Road for 4 years
from 2006 10 and given in Table 4.13.
In 2009 totally 28 traffic accidents have occurred in the project road of these 15 have
been fatal and 13 have been injuries of a serious nature.
They have identified some accident prone kilometer stretches which warrants special
attention.
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4.3 Traffic Analysis
4.3.1 Traffic Volume Characteristics
From the volume count survey conducted for the 4 locations, it is seen that the traffic
volume at count stations L1, L2 & L3 are more or less equal to the average daily traffic
volume in the range of 2756 and 3052 vehicles.
The volume count in location L4 is more than that at L1, L2 & L3. It is in the range of
3556 Vehicles.
4.3.1.1 Rural Traffic
The traffic volume count stations were intentionally located as far as possible away
from the town and villages that would contribute local traffic.
The variation between hours of the day are considerably even and getting decreased
during night and is at the minimum at the mid-night. Again it starts increasing in the
later end of the night period.
The above phenomenon shows peak hour traffic volume at only 8 am to 12 pm & least
11 pm to 6 am of ADT.
4.3.2 Origin & Destination Survey
The O-D survey is conducted to assess the information regarding travel
characteristics, by different modes of vehicle within the project area. Results of the O-
D surveys are used to describe the user characteristics for passenger and goods
vehicles such as distribution of local and through traffic, commodity type and weights
of goods carried by trucks. The information will be useful in describing the need for
by passes to heavily built-up urban sections along the project corridor.
The O-D survey was conducted for passage and commercial vehicles at four locations
for 24 hours adopting the road side interview method as detailed in IRC: 102-1988.
They covered both directions at each site. Over 10-20% of all vehicles were surveyed.

Origin Destination Survey


Phalodi - Jodhpur near Mathania

Table 1 : Modewise Goods
S. No. Mode Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 LIGHT GOODS VEHICLES 30 32.61%
2 2-AXLE TRUCK 34 36.96%
3 3-AXLE TRUCK 18 19.57%
4 MULTI AXLE TRUCK 10 10.87%
Total 92 100%


Chapter 4 Traffic Survey & Analysis


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Table2 : Destination Wise

S. No. Route Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 Mathania to Jodhpur (35-40 km) 45 48.91%
2 Jodhpur to Osian (65 - 70 km) 23 25.00%
3 Jodhpur to Phalodi (145-150 km) 24 26.09%
Total 92 100%

Table 3 : Round Trip


S. No. Round trip on same day Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 YES 68 73.91%
2 NO 24 26.09%
Total 92 100%

Table 4 : Fequency


S. No. Frequency Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 20-30 6 6.52%
2 10-20 42 45.65%
3 5-10 28 30.43%
4 0-5 16 17.39%
Total 92 100%

Table 5 : Commodity

S. No. Commodity Type Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 Stone 22 24.01%
2 Agricultural Products 61 66.57%
3 Cement 6 6.55%
4 Others 3 2.87%
Total 92 100%

Table 5 : Goods Weight

S. No. Load (Tons) Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 Empty 21 22.83%
2 1-5 Tons 30 32.61%
3 6-10 Tons 4 4.35%
4 11-20 Tons 17 18.48%
5 21-30 Tons 6 6.52%
6 31-40 Tons 4 4.35%
7 > 40 Tons 10 10.87%
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Total 92 100%


Origin Destination Survey


Phalodi - Jodhpur near Lohawat

Table 1 : Modewise Goods
S. No. Mode Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 LIGHT GOODS VEHICLES 18 29.03%
2 2-AXLE TRUCK 19 30.65%
3 3-AXLE TRUCK 18 29.03%
4 MULTI AXLE TRUCK 7 11.29%
Total 62 100%

Table2 : Destination Wise

S. No. Route Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 Phalodi to Lohawat (25 - 35 km) 4 6.45%
2 Lohawat to Osian (70 - 80 km) 28 45.16%
3 Phalodi to Mathania (100 - 110 km) 10 16.13%
3 Phalodi to Jodhpur (145-150 km) 20 32.26%
Total 62 100%

Table 3 : Round Trip

S. No. Round trip on same day Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 YES 51 82.26%
2 NO 11 17.74%
Total 62 100%

Table 4 : Fequency

S. No. Frequency Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 20-30 12 19.35%
2 10-20 31 50.00%
3 5-10 10 16.13%
4 0-5 9 14.52%
Total 62 100%

Table 5 : Commodity

S. No. Commodity Type Total Trips Percentage (%)
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1 Stone 14 22.58%
2 Agricultural Products 37 59.68%
3 Cement 5 8.06%
4 Others 6 9.68%
Total 62 100%

Table 5 : Goods Weight

S. No. Load (Tons) Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 Empty 7 11.29%
2 1-5 Tons 21 33.87%
3 6-10 Tons 7 11.29%
4 11-20 Tons 17 27.42%
5 21-30 Tons 4 6.45%
6 31-40 Tons 4 6.45%
7 > 40 Tons 2 3.23%
Total 62 100%



Origin Destination Survey


Phalodi - Jodhpur near Mathania

Table 1 : Modewise Passenger
S. No. Mode Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 Car 54 52.94%
2 Jeep/Van 23 22.55%
3 Mini Bus 10 9.80%
4 Bus 15 14.71%
Total 102 100%

Table2 : Destination Wise

S. No. Route Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 Mathania to Jodhpur (35-40 km) 54 52.94%
2 Jodhpur to Osian (65 - 70 km) 32 31.37%
3 Jodhpur to Phalodi (145-150 km) 16 15.69%
Total 102 100%





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Table 3 : Round Trip

S. No. Round trip on same day Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 YES 82 80.39%
2 NO 20 19.61%
Total 102 100%

Table 4 : Frequency of Passenger Vehicle

S. No. Frequency Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 20-30 69 67.65%
2 10-20 12 11.76%
3 5-10 12 11.76%
4 0-5 9 8.82%
Total 102 100%

Table 5 : Trip Purpose of Passenger Vehicle

S. No. Commodity Type Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 Work / Bussiness 71 69.86%
2 Education 18 17.71%
3 Religious / Tourist 10 9.84%
4 Others 3 2.59%
Total 102 100%

Table 5 : Occupancy of Passenger Vehicle

S. No. Passenger No. Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 1 -3 Passenger 48 47.06%
2 4- 8 Passenger 16 15.69%
3 9 -12 Passenger 6 5.88%
4 13 -20 Passenger 16 15.69%
5 21 -30 Passenger 4 3.92%
6 31 -50 Passenger 12 11.76%
7 > 50 Passenger 0 0.00%
Total 102 100%







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Origin Destination Survey


Phalodi - Jodhpur near Lohawat

Table 1 : Modewise Passenger
S. No. Mode Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 Car 34 43.59%
2 Jeep/Van 19 24.36%
3 Mini Bus 11 14.10%
4 Bus 14 17.95%
Total 78 100%

Table2 : Destination Wise

S. No. Route Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 Phalodi to Lohawat (25 - 35 km) 8 10.26%
2 Phalodi/Lohawat to Osian (70 -
80km)
22 28.21%
3 Phalodi to Mathania (100 - 110 km) 26 33.33%
3 Phalodi to Jodhpur (145-150 km) 22 28.21%
Total 78 100%

Table 3 : Round Trip

S. No. Round trip on same day Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 Yes 61 78.21%
2 No 17 21.79%
Total 78 100%

Table 4 : Frequency of Passenger Vehicle

S. No. Frequency Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 20-30 34 43.59%
2 10-20 29 37.18%
3 5-10 9 11.54%
4 0-5 6 7.69%
Total 78 100%
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Table 5 : Trip Purpose of Passenger Vehicle

S. No. Commodity Type Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 Work / Bussiness 53 67.95%
2 Education 11 14.10%
3 Religious / Tourist 9 11.54%
4 Others 5 6.41%
Total 78 100%

Table 5 : Occupancy of Passenger Vehicle

S. No. Passenger No. Total Trips Percentage (%)
1 1 -3 Passenger 28 35.44%
2 4- 8 Passenger 22 27.85%
3 9 -12 Passenger 5 6.33%
4 13 -20 Passenger 10 12.66%
5 21 -30 Passenger 8 10.13%
6 31 -50 Passenger 6 7.59%
7 > 50 Passenger 0 0.00%
Total 79 100%













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CHAPTER 5
TRAFFIC FORECAST
5.1 General
Forecast over a 25 year period are obviously very uncertain but nevertheless
necessary in order to assess different design alternatives and financing operation. The
traffic forecast has been carried out by adopting the transport demand elasticity
method, which is an accepted and famous forecasting technique, both in India and
abroad. Where by the growth rate is worked out.

5.2 Elasticity Traffic Demand
The traffic growth rate can be worked out based on time series of past data on
population, Net State Domestic Product, Net District Domestic Product pertaining to
the district concerned and the per capita income of the state as well as for the district
were collected from the Department of Economic and Statistic. The Motor vehicle
Registration data have also been collected from the Department of Economic &
Statistic. (source : Statistical Handbook of Rajasthan)

Based on the above log-log regression curve fits have been developed for each type of
vehicle and the corresponding elasticity coefficient determined. Passenger traffic
demand is a function of growth of population and per capita income. Similarly freight
traffic growth is mostly governed by state on district income growth and / or the
secondary sector income, which is primarily influenced by the manufacturing sector
performance. The Elasticity values for different categories of vehicles have been
computed based on past traffic growth in the project corridor as well as motor vehicle
registration data.

5.3 Past Traffic Data
Detailed traffic volume studies have been conducted every year by the National
Highways wing of the State Highways Department. The data pertaining to year 2009
is collected from PWD and other previous data couldnt be made available from the
PWD. The data received from the PWD shown no comparison as per actual fact of
Traffic Census. As traffic PCU is much more showed what it has been recorded by the
consultant. So, only 5% growth assumed.

5.5 Growth Rate Based on Economic Indicators
Since the past data are not reliable, the growth rate based on economic indicator is
considered. Details of economic indicators such as Net Domestic Product and per
capita income have been obtained from Department of Economic and Statistic and the
same are given below.
Net Domestic Product & Per Capital Income
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Year 1998 99 1999- 2000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 Annual
Growth
%
Economic
Parameter
N D P
(Rs. Lacs
121.306 127.816 138.187 137.599 135.967 5.282%
P C I (Rs) 9331 9832 9985 9425 9313 2.91%

Net State Domestic Product & Per Capital Income Rajasthan
Year 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Annual
Growth %
Economic
Parameter
N S D P
(Rs. Lacs
7791.952 8011.378 7271.993 9013.785 5.0%
Per Capital 62416 63104 63749 64388 1.0%
P C I (Rs) 12484 12696 12976 13999 3.9%

It is seen that the per capita income growth rate in Rajasthan is 3.9 percent, based on
NSDP growth rate of 5.0 percent and a population growth rate of 1.0 percent. In the
case of district while the Net Domestic Product growth is only marginally higher at
5.28 percent, the per capita income growth is 2.9 percent.
The Vehicle growth rate based on Net State Domestic Product growth and per capita
income both for Rajasthan and for District along with. Elasticity growth rate of traffic
for various categories of vehicles are furnished in Annexure 5.01 & 5.02.

5.6 Traffic Appraisal
5.6.1 General
Traffic growth rates needed to assess the likely future traffic levels on the project road
are a product of the economic growth rate and the elasticity of the traffic demand vis-
-vis economic growth. This can be expressed by the following equation.

Tg = e x Eg .1

Where Tg = Traffic Growth Rate
e = Elasticity of Traffic Demand
Eg = Economic Growth Rate

Future economic growth rates in the project influence area are necessary for
estimating the traffic growth rates. The same was estimated based on the national
economic forecasts. Elasticity of traffic demand e can be computed considering the
historic traffic volumes and economic trends. The same are detailed in latter sections.
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5.6.2 India Past
The Economic Growth indicated at National level Sectorwise , GDP trend, Elasticity
of Traffic Demand and Growth Rates for different scenarios low, medium and high
are furnished separately in Appendix A.





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Appendix A
Traffic Appraisal (Table A-1 to A33)
Table A-1: India - National Income (1993-
94 Prices) [Historical]
Table A-2: India - Sectoral Income (1993-
94 Prices) [Historical]
Table A-3: India - Primary Sector Income
(1993-94 Prices) [Historical]

Year
GDP
(Cr)
Annual
Growth (%)
Growth (%)
Since 1980

Year
Pri/Sec
(Cr)
Annual
Growth (%)
Growth (%)
Since 1980

Year Pri (Cr)
Annual
Growth
(%)
Growth (%)
Since 1980

1980 401128 1980 254375 1980 167770
1981 425073 5.97 5.97 1981 270370 6.29 6.29 1981 177341 5.70 5.70
1982 438079 3.06 4.50 1982 272995 0.97 3.60 1982 177300 -0.02 2.80
1983 471742 7.68 5.55 1983 297500 8.98 5.36 1983 193508 9.14 4.87
1984 492077 4.31 5.24 1984 306827 3.14 4.80 1984 196353 1.47 4.01
1985 513990 4.45 5.08 1985 314042 2.35 4.30 1985 198353 1.02 3.41
1986 536257 4.33 4.96 1986 321587 2.40 3.98 1986 198740 0.20 2.86
1987 556778 3.83 4.80 1987 328152 2.04 3.71 1987 196735 -1.01 2.30
1988 615098 10.47 5.49 1988 369833 12.70 4.79 1988 227095 15.43 3.86
1989 656331 6.70 5.62 1989 389368 5.28 4.84 1989 231389 1.89 3.64
1990 692871 5.57 5.62 1990 411715 5.74 4.93 1990 242012 4.59 3.73
1991 701863 1.30 5.22 1991 407220 -1.09 4.37 1991 239253 -1.14 3.28
1992 737792 5.12 5.21 1992 427380 4.95 4.42 1992 252205 5.41 3.46
1993 781345 5.90 5.26 1993 447129 4.62 4.43 1993 262059 3.91 3.49
1994 838031 7.25 5.40 1994 480141 7.38 4.64 1994 276049 5.34 3.62
1995 899563 7.34 5.53 1995 504251 5.02 4.67 1995 275153 -0.32 3.35
1996 970082 7.84 5.67 1996 546309 8.34 4.89 1996 299461 8.83 3.69
1997 1016595 4.79 5.62 1997 551172 0.89 4.65 1997 295051 -1.47 3.38
1998 1082748 6.51 5.67 1998 578440 4.95 4.67 1998 312485 5.91 3.52
1999 1148367 6.06 5.69 1999 593318 2.57 4.56 1999 323291 3.46 3.51
2000 1198592 4.37 5.63 2000 612015 3.15 4.49 2000 323896 0.19 3.34
2001 1267945 5.79 5.63 2001 638929 4.40 4.48 2001 342666 5.80 3.46
2002 1318362 3.98 5.56 2002 639975 0.16 4.28 2002 323485 -5.60 3.03
2003 1430548 8.51 5.68 2003 695773 8.72 4.47 2003 354435 9.57 3.31
2004 1538080 7.52 5.76 2004 730379 4.97 4.49 2004 358702 1.20 3.22
2005 1676380 8.99 5.89 2005 778447 6.58 4.58 2005 371582 3.59 3.23
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2006 1830525 9.20 6.01
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Table A-6: Indian Economy - Trend GDP - 2000-2050
Year GDP-1 GDP-2 GDP-3 GDP-4 GDP-5 Avg
2000 4.37 4.37 4.37 4.37 4.37 4.37
2001 5.79 5.79 5.79 5.79 5.79 5.79
2002 3.98 3.98 3.98 3.98 3.98 3.98
2003 8.51 8.51 8.51 8.51 8.51 8.51
2004 7.52 7.52 7.52 7.52 7.52 7.52
2005 8.99 8.99 8.99 8.99 8.99 8.99
2006 9.20 9.20 9.20 9.20 9.20 9.20
2007 6.93 7.37 9.19 9.19 7.11 7.89
2008 9.00 8.68 10.37 10.37 8.77 9.41
2009 8.70 7.35 9.28 9.28 8.08 8.50
2010 9.45 7.68 9.93 9.93 8.91 9.14
2011 7.95 6.08 8.13 8.13 7.67 7.55
2012 7.80 6.40 7.99 7.89 7.78 7.55
2013 9.61 8.72 9.34 8.49 9.66 9.15
2014 9.74 8.73 8.46 7.59 9.49 8.77
2015 10.72 9.51 8.50 8.40 10.21 9.42
2016 9.42 8.14 6.74 7.93 8.74 8.14
2017 9.01 8.01 6.91 8.29 8.46 8.10
2018 9.70 9.59 9.02 10.02 9.46 9.55
2019 8.73 9.15 9.38 9.62 8.81 9.13
2020 8.93 9.11 10.17 9.49 9.10 9.35
2021 7.76 7.53 8.90 7.28 8.03 7.88
2022 8.12 7.74 8.78 6.91 8.52 7.98
2023 9.34 10.14 10.10 8.62 9.94 9.61
2024 9.14 10.91 9.79 9.29 10.04 9.82
2025 9.17 12.03 9.65 10.43 10.20 10.25
2026 7.49 11.03 8.09 9.63 8.67 8.90
2027 7.47 11.52 8.51 9.99 8.59 9.12
2028 9.21 12.81 10.81 11.29 9.72 10.69
2029 10.38 11.18 11.94 11.31 10.40 11.03
2030 11.07 11.32 12.94 11.02 10.78 11.40
2031 9.82 9.79 11.93 9.48 9.56 10.08
2032 9.19 9.50 12.44 9.92 9.24 9.99
2033 9.42 9.97 13.90 11.91 9.82 10.88
2034 9.66 10.45 14.25 12.87 10.10 11.34
2035 10.62 11.09 13.95 13.49 10.88 11.93
2036 10.38 10.39 12.36 12.24 10.34 11.10
2037 10.62 10.94 12.33 12.54 10.35 11.32
2038 11.41 12.16 12.90 14.14 11.12 12.30
2039 12.33 12.90 12.74 14.54 11.97 12.87
2040 13.04 13.18 12.74 14.17 12.67 13.15
2041 12.00 11.55 11.25 12.68 11.62 11.81
2042 12.17 10.88 10.95 12.94 11.86 11.74
2043 12.54 11.24 11.08 13.44 12.44 12.12
2044 12.35 12.18 11.70 13.43 12.47 12.41
2045 11.67 13.61 12.33 12.44 11.95 12.38
2046 10.49 13.28 11.81 10.89 10.75 11.40
2047 11.40 14.11 12.54 11.51 11.55 12.18
2048 12.95 14.98 13.61 13.14 13.08 13.53
2049 14.17 15.76 14.47 13.95 14.10 14.47
2050 14.65 16.37 14.59 14.07 14.56 14.83

Table A-4: India - Secondary Sector
Income (1993-94 Prices)
[Historical]
Year
Sec
(Cr)
Annual
Growth
(%)
Growth
(%)
Since
1980
1980 86605
1981 93029 7.42 7.42
1982 95695 2.87 5.12
1983 103992 8.67 6.29
1984 110474 6.23 6.27
1985 115689 4.72 5.96
1986 122847 6.19 6.00
1987 131417 6.98 6.14
1988 142738 8.61 6.44
1989 157979 10.68 6.91
1990 169703 7.42 6.96
1991 167967 -1.02 6.21
1992 175175 4.29 6.05
1993 185070 5.65 6.02
1994 204092 10.28 6.31
1995 229098 12.25 6.70
1996 246848 7.75 6.77
1997 256121 3.76 6.59
1998 265955 3.84 6.43
1999 270027 1.53 6.17
2000 288119 6.70 6.19
2001 296263 2.83 6.03
2002 316490 6.83 6.07
2003 341338 7.85 6.14
2004 371677 8.89 6.26
2005 406865 9.47 6.38
Table A-5:Economic Growth
(%) During
Different Periods
(@ Constant 1993 Prices)
Period GDP Pri/Sec
1981 - 1992 5.22 4.37
1992 - 2007 6.60 4.74
1981 - 2007 6.01 4.58
1982 - 1987 4.76 3.53
1987 - 1992 5.53 4.83
1992 - 1997 6.69 6.05
1997 - 2002 5.50 3.18
2002 - 2007 7.62 5.06

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Table A-8: Horizon GDP Rates
Year Low Medium High
2006-2020 8.1 8.6 9.0
2020-2040 6.2 8.0 9.7
2006-2040 6.9 8.2 9.4
Table A-9: India - Sectoral Growth (1993-
94 Prices) [Primary/Secondary Sector
- %]
Year
Growth Scenario
Low Medium High
2006 5.80 5.80 5.80
2007 5.05 5.40 4.75
2008 5.93 6.42 6.15
2009 5.03 5.81 5.95
2010 5.26 6.24 6.45
2011 4.17 5.17 5.44
2012 4.39 5.17 5.34
2013 5.96 6.25 6.56
2014 5.97 5.99 6.64
2015 6.49 6.43 7.31
2016 5.57 5.57 6.43
2017 5.48 5.54 6.15
2018 6.55 6.52 6.62
2019 6.25 6.24 5.96
2020 3.92 5.02 6.10
2021 3.41 4.36 5.31
2022 3.57 4.56 5.55
2023 4.10 5.24 6.38
2024 4.01 5.13 6.24
2025 4.03 5.15 6.26
2026 3.29 4.21 5.13
2027 3.29 4.20 5.11
2028 4.04 5.17 6.29
2029 4.55 5.82 7.08
2030 4.85 6.20 7.54
2031 4.31 5.51 6.70
2032 4.04 5.16 6.28
2033 4.14 5.29 6.43
2034 4.24 5.42 6.59
2035 4.66 5.95 7.24
2036 4.55 5.82 7.08
2037 4.66 5.95 7.24
2038 5.00 6.39 7.77
2039 5.40 6.90 8.38
2040 5.71 7.29 8.86


Table A-7: Assumed GDP Rates
2006-2040
Year Low Medium High
2006 9.20 9.20 9.20
2007 7.37 7.89 6.93
2008 8.68 9.41 9.00
2009 7.35 8.50 8.70
2010 7.68 9.14 9.45
2011 6.08 7.55 7.95
2012 6.40 7.55 7.80
2013 8.72 9.15 9.61
2014 8.73 8.77 9.74
2015 9.51 9.42 10.72
2016 8.14 8.14 9.42
2017 8.01 8.10 9.01
2018 9.59 9.55 9.70
2019 9.15 9.13 8.73
2020 5.72 7.33 8.93
2021 4.96 6.36 7.76
2022 5.19 6.66 8.12
2023 5.98 7.66 9.34
2024 5.85 7.49 9.14
2025 5.87 7.52 9.17
2026 4.79 6.14 7.49
2027 4.78 6.13 7.47
2028 5.89 7.55 9.21
2029 6.64 8.51 10.38
2030 7.08 9.08 11.07
2031 6.28 8.05 9.82
2032 5.88 7.54 9.19
2033 6.03 7.72 9.42
2034 6.18 7.92 9.66
2035 6.80 8.71 10.62
2036 6.64 8.51 10.38
2037 6.80 8.71 10.62
2038 7.31 9.36 11.41
2039 7.89 10.11 12.33
2040 8.35 10.70 13.04
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Table A-10: India - Economic
Growth (1993-94
Prices)
[Primary Sector- %]

Table A-11: India - Sectoral
Growth (1993-94 Prices)
[Secondary Sector - %]

Table A-12 Rajasthan - Economic
Growth (1993-94 Prices)
[NSDP - %]


Year
Growth Scenario
Year
Growth Scenario
Year
Growth Scenario
Lo
w
Mediu
m
High

Lo
w
Mediu
m
High

Low Medium High
2006 5.40 5.40 5.40 2006 7.17 7.17 7.17 2006 7.08 7.08 7.08
2007 3.31 3.54 3.11 2007 7.06 7.56 6.63 2007 5.69 6.09 5.35
2008 3.88 4.20 4.02 2008 8.31 9.00 8.61 2008 6.69 7.24 6.93
2009 3.30 3.80 3.89 2009 7.04 8.14 8.33 2009 5.67 6.55 6.71
2010 3.44 4.08 4.22 2010 7.35 8.75 9.04 2010 5.93 7.04 7.28
2011 2.74 3.39 3.56 2011 5.82 7.23 7.61 2011 4.70 5.82 6.13
2012 2.88 3.39 3.50 2012 6.13 7.23 7.47 2012 4.95 5.82 6.02
2013 3.90 4.09 4.29 2013 8.35 8.76 9.20 2013 6.72 7.05 7.40
2014 3.90 3.92 4.34 2014 8.36 8.39 9.32 2014 6.73 6.76 7.49
2015 4.24 4.21 4.77 2015 9.10 9.02 10.26 2015 7.32 7.26 8.25
2016 3.65 3.65 4.20 2016 7.79 7.80 9.01 2016 6.28 6.28 7.25
2017 3.59 3.63 4.02 2017 7.67 7.76 8.62 2017 6.18 6.25 6.94
2018 4.28 4.26 4.32 2018 9.18 9.14 9.28 2018 7.38 7.36 7.46
2019 4.09 4.08 3.90 2019 8.76 8.74 8.35 2019 7.05 7.03 6.73
2020 2.58 3.29 3.99 2020 5.47 7.01 8.55 2020 4.42 5.65 6.88
2021 2.24 2.86 3.48 2021 4.75 6.09 7.42 2021 3.84 4.91 5.98
2022 2.34 2.99 3.63 2022 4.97 6.37 7.77 2022 4.02 5.14 6.26
2023 2.69 3.43 4.17 2023 5.72 7.33 8.94 2023 4.62 5.91 7.19
2024 2.63 3.36 4.08 2024 5.60 7.17 8.74 2024 4.52 5.78 7.04
2025 2.64 3.37 4.09 2025 5.62 7.19 8.77 2025 4.53 5.80 7.06
2026 2.16 2.76 3.36 2026 4.59 5.88 7.17 2026 3.71 4.75 5.78
2027 2.16 2.76 3.35 2027 4.58 5.87 7.15 2027 3.70 4.73 5.76
2028 2.65 3.39 4.11 2028 5.64 7.23 8.81 2028 4.55 5.82 7.09
2029 2.99 3.81 4.62 2029 6.36 8.15 9.93 2029 5.13 6.56 7.98
2030 3.18 4.05 4.92 2030 6.78 8.69 10.59 2030 5.47 6.99 8.51
2031 2.83 3.61 4.38 2031 6.02 7.71 9.40 2031 4.86 6.21 7.56
2032 2.65 3.38 4.11 2032 5.63 7.22 8.80 2032 4.55 5.82 7.08
2033 2.71 3.46 4.20 2033 5.77 7.39 9.01 2033 4.66 5.96 7.25
2034 2.78 3.55 4.31 2034 5.92 7.58 9.24 2034 4.78 6.11 7.44
2035 3.06 3.90 4.73 2035 6.51 8.34 10.16 2035 5.25 6.71 8.17
2036 2.99 3.81 4.62 2036 6.36 8.15 9.93 2036 5.13 6.56 7.98
2037 3.05 3.89 4.72 2037 6.51 8.33 10.16 2037 5.25 6.71 8.17
2038 3.28 4.18 5.07 2038 6.99 8.96 10.92 2038 5.64 7.21 8.77
2039 3.54 4.51 5.46 2039 7.55 9.67 11.79 2039 6.09 7.78 9.47
2040 3.74 4.76 5.77 2040 7.99 10.23 12.47 2040 6.44 8.22 10.01

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Table A-13 Rajasthan - Economic Growth
(1993-94 Prices)
[Primary Sector- %]

Table A-14 Rajasthan - Sectorial Growth
(1993-94 Prices)
[Secondary Sector - %]

Year
Growth Scenario
Year
Growth Scenario
Low Medium High Low Medium High
2006 1.50 1.75 2.00 2006 4.19 4.19 4.19
2007 1.50 1.75 2.00 2007 3.38 3.61 3.18
2008 1.50 1.75 2.00 2008 3.96 4.29 4.11
2009 1.50 1.75 2.00 2009 3.37 3.88 3.97
2010 1.50 1.75 2.00 2010 3.52 4.17 4.31
2011 1.75 2.00 2.25 2011 2.79 3.46 3.64
2012 1.75 2.00 2.25 2012 2.94 3.46 3.57
2013 1.75 2.00 2.25 2013 3.98 4.17 4.38
2014 1.75 2.00 2.25 2014 3.99 4.00 4.43
2015 1.75 2.00 2.25 2015 4.33 4.30 4.87
2016 2.00 2.25 2.50 2016 3.72 3.72 4.29
2017 2.00 2.25 2.50 2017 3.67 3.71 4.11
2018 2.00 2.25 2.50 2018 4.37 4.35 4.42
2019 2.00 2.25 2.50 2019 4.17 4.16 3.99
2020 2.00 2.25 2.50 2020 2.63 3.36 4.08
2021 2.25 2.25 2.25 2021 2.29 2.92 3.55
2022 2.25 2.25 2.25 2022 2.39 3.05 3.71
2023 2.25 2.25 2.25 2023 2.75 3.51 4.26
2024 2.25 2.25 2.25 2024 2.69 3.43 4.17
2025 2.25 2.25 2.25 2025 2.70 3.44 4.18
2026 2.00 2.00 2.25 2026 2.21 2.82 3.43
2027 2.00 2.00 2.25 2027 2.21 2.82 3.42
2028 2.00 2.00 2.25 2028 2.71 3.46 4.20
2029 2.00 2.00 2.25 2029 3.05 3.89 4.72
2030 2.00 2.00 2.25 2030 3.25 4.14 5.03
2031 1.75 2.00 2.00 2031 2.89 3.68 4.47
2032 1.75 2.00 2.00 2032 2.71 3.45 4.19
2033 1.75 2.00 2.00 2033 2.77 3.54 4.29
2034 1.75 2.00 2.00 2034 2.84 3.62 4.40
2035 1.75 2.00 2.00 2035 3.12 3.98 4.83
2036 1.50 1.75 1.75 2036 3.05 3.89 4.72
2037 1.50 1.75 1.75 2037 3.12 3.98 4.83
2038 1.50 1.75 1.75 2038 3.35 4.27 5.18
2039 1.50 1.75 1.75 2039 3.61 4.60 5.58
2040 1.50 1.75 1.75 2040 3.82 4.86 5.89

Table A-15: Elasticity of Traffic Demand - National Estimates (1980-91)
Vehicle
Type
Base
Elasticity
Next Five
Years 91-96
Next Five Years
96-2001
Next Five Years
2001-06
Next Five Years
2006-11
Buses 1.76 1.67 1.58 1.51 1.43
Cars 1.83 1.74 1.65 1.57 1.49
2-Wheelers 3.06 2.91 2.76 2.62 2.49
HGVs 2.61 2.48 2.35 2.23 2.12
LGVs 2.98 2.83 2.69 2.56 2.43
Source: Time Series Data on Road Transport Passenger and Freight Movement 1951-91 IRC:SP:45
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Table A-16: Elasticity of Traffic Demand
Table A- 16: Elasticity of Traffic Demand
Year 2 Wheelers Cars Buses LCVs Trucks Slow Vehs
2006 2.49 1.49 1.43 2.43 2.12 1.00
2007 2.49 1.49 1.43 2.43 2.12 1.00
2008 2.49 1.49 1.43 2.43 2.12 1.00
2009 2.49 1.49 1.43 2.43 2.12 1.00
2010 2.49 1.49 1.43 2.43 2.12 1.00
2011 2.37 1.42 1.36 2.31 2.02 0.95
2012 2.37 1.42 1.36 2.31 2.02 0.95
2013 2.37 1.42 1.36 2.31 2.02 0.95
2014 2.37 1.42 1.36 2.31 2.02 0.95
2015 2.37 1.42 1.36 2.31 2.02 0.95
2016 2.25 1.35 1.29 2.19 1.92 0.90
2017 2.25 1.35 1.29 2.19 1.92 0.90
2018 2.25 1.35 1.29 2.19 1.92 0.90
2019 2.25 1.35 1.29 2.19 1.92 0.90
2020 2.25 1.35 1.29 2.19 1.92 0.90
2021 2.14 1.28 1.23 2.08 1.82 0.86
2022 2.14 1.28 1.23 2.08 1.82 0.86
2023 2.14 1.28 1.23 2.08 1.82 0.86
2024 2.14 1.28 1.23 2.08 1.82 0.86
2025 2.14 1.28 1.23 2.08 1.82 0.86
2026 2.03 1.22 1.16 1.98 1.73 0.81
2027 2.03 1.22 1.16 1.98 1.73 0.81
2028 2.03 1.22 1.16 1.98 1.73 0.81
2029 2.03 1.22 1.16 1.98 1.73 0.81
2030 2.03 1.22 1.16 1.98 1.73 0.81
2031 1.93 1.16 1.11 1.88 1.64 0.77
2032 1.93 1.16 1.11 1.88 1.64 0.77
2033 1.93 1.16 1.11 1.88 1.64 0.77
2034 1.93 1.16 1.11 1.88 1.64 0.77
2035 1.93 1.16 1.11 1.88 1.64 0.77
2036 1.83 1.10 1.05 1.79 1.56 0.74
2037 1.83 1.10 1.05 1.79 1.56 0.74
2038 1.83 1.10 1.05 1.79 1.56 0.74
2039 1.83 1.10 1.05 1.79 1.56 0.74
2040 1.83 1.10 1.05 1.79 1.56 0.74



Table A-18: Seasonal Factor
Car P-Van MiniBus Bus LCV Truck-2Axle Truck-3Axle MAV
1.02 1.02 1.35 1.35 1.06 0.99 1.03 1.03



Traffic forecast taken as 5% increase every year.

According to 5% increment future traffic calculated for each stretches.
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For 28.0 km

S.No. Year Traffic
Growth
Traffic Volume ( Vehicle Per Day)
Cat1(a) Cat1(b) Cat2 Cat3(a) Cat3(b) Cat4
1 2010-2011 5% 0 61 9 20 7 1
2 2011-2012 5% 0 64 9 21 7 1
3 2012-2013 5% 0 67 10 22 8 1
4 2013-2014 5% 0 71 10 23 8 1
5 2014-2015 5% 0 74 11 24 9 1
6 2015-2016 5% 0 78 11 26 9 1
7 2016-2017 5% 0 82 12 27 9 1
8 2017-2018 5% 0 86 13 28 10 1
9 2018-2019 5% 0 90 13 30 10 1
10 2019-2020 5% 0 95 14 31 11 2
11 2020-2021 5% 0 99 15 33 11 2
12 2021-2022 5% 0 104 15 34 12 2
13 2022-2023 5% 0 110 16 36 13 2
14 2023-2024 5% 0 115 17 38 13 2
15 2024-2025 5% 0 121 18 40 14 2
16 2025-2026 5% 0 127 19 42 15 2
17 2026-2027 5% 0 133 20 44 15 2
18 2027-2028 5% 0 140 21 46 16 2
19 2028-2029 5% 0 147 22 48 17 2
20 2029-2030 5% 0 154 23 51 18 3
21 2030-2031 5% 0 162 24 53 19 3
22 2031-2032 5% 0 170 25 56 20 3
23 2032-2033 5% 0 178 26 59 20 3




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For 45.0 km

S.No. Year Traffic
Growth
Traffic Volume ( Vehicle Per Day)
Cat1(a) Cat1(b) Cat2 Cat3(a) Cat3(b) Cat4
1 2010-2011 5% 0 51 8 46 16 2
2 2011-2012 5% 0 54 8 48 17 2
3 2012-2013 5% 0 56 9 51 18 2
4 2013-2014 5% 0 59 9 53 19 2
5 2014-2015 5% 0 62 10 56 19 2
6 2015-2016 5% 0 65 10 59 20 3
7 2016-2017 5% 0 68 11 62 21 3
8 2017-2018 5% 0 72 11 65 23 3
9 2018-2019 5% 0 75 12 68 24 3
10 2019-2020 5% 0 79 12 71 25 3
11 2020-2021 5% 0 83 13 75 26 3
12 2021-2022 5% 0 87 14 79 27 3
13 2022-2023 5% 0 92 14 83 29 4
14 2023-2024 5% 0 96 15 87 30 4
15 2024-2025 5% 0 101 16 91 32 4
16 2025-2026 5% 0 106 17 96 33 4
17 2026-2027 5% 0 111 17 100 35 4
18 2027-2028 5% 0 117 18 105 37 5
19 2028-2029 5% 0 123 19 111 39 5
20 2029-2030 5% 0 129 20 116 40 5
21 2030-2031 5% 0 135 21 122 42 5
22 2031-2032 5% 0 142 22 128 45 6
23 2032-2033 5% 0 149 23 135 47 6







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For 73.0 km

S.No. Year Traffic
Growth
Traffic Volume ( Vehicle Per Day)
Cat1(a) Cat1(b) Cat2 Cat3(a) Cat3(b) Cat4
1 2010-2011 5% 0 116 17 92 32 5
2 2011-2012 5% 0 122 18 97 34 5
3 2012-2013 5% 0 128 19 101 35 6
4 2013-2014 5% 0 134 20 107 37 6
5 2014-2015 5% 0 141 21 112 39 6
6 2015-2016 5% 0 148 22 117 41 6
7 2016-2017 5% 0 155 23 123 43 7
8 2017-2018 5% 0 163 24 129 45 7
9 2018-2019 5% 0 171 25 136 47 7
10 2019-2020 5% 0 180 26 143 50 8
11 2020-2021 5% 0 189 28 150 52 8
12 2021-2022 5% 0 198 29 157 55 9
13 2022-2023 5% 0 208 31 165 57 9
14 2023-2024 5% 0 219 32 173 60 9
15 2024-2025 5% 0 230 34 182 63 10
16 2025-2026 5% 0 241 35 191 67 10
17 2026-2027 5% 0 253 37 201 70 11
18 2027-2028 5% 0 266 39 211 73 11
19 2028-2029 5% 0 279 41 221 77 12
20 2029-2030 5% 0 293 43 232 81 13
21 2030-2031 5% 0 308 45 244 85 13
22 2031-2032 5% 0 323 47 256 89 14
23 2032-2033 5% 0 339 50 269 94 15







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For 73.0 km

S.No. Year Traffic
Growth
Traffic Volume ( Vehicle Per Day)
Cat1(a) Cat1(b) Cat2 Cat3(a) Cat3(b) Cat4
1 2010-2011 5% 0 197 28 49 17 3
2 2011-2012 5% 0 207 29 51 18 3
3 2012-2013 5% 0 217 31 54 19 3
4 2013-2014 5% 0 228 32 57 20 3
5 2014-2015 5% 0 239 34 60 21 4
6 2015-2016 5% 0 251 36 63 22 4
7 2016-2017 5% 0 264 38 66 23 4
8 2017-2018 5% 0 277 39 69 24 4
9 2018-2019 5% 0 291 41 72 25 4
10 2019-2020 5% 0 306 43 76 26 5
11 2020-2021 5% 0 321 46 80 28 5
12 2021-2022 5% 0 337 48 84 29 5
13 2022-2023 5% 0 354 50 88 31 5
14 2023-2024 5% 0 371 53 92 32 6
15 2024-2025 5% 0 390 55 97 34 6
16 2025-2026 5% 0 410 58 102 35 6
17 2026-2027 5% 0 430 61 107 37 7
18 2027-2028 5% 0 452 64 112 39 7
19 2028-2029 5% 0 474 67 118 41 7
20 2029-2030 5% 0 498 71 124 43 8
21 2030-2031 5% 0 523 74 130 45 8
22 2031-2032 5% 0 549 78 137 47 8
23 2032-2033 5% 0 576 82 143 50 9





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For 27.0 km

S.No. Year Traffic
Growth
Traffic Volume ( Vehicle Per Day)
Cat1(a) Cat1(b) Cat2 Cat3(a) Cat3(b) Cat4
1 2010-2011 5% 0 102 19 33 9 2
2 2011-2012 5% 0 107 20 35 9 2
3 2012-2013 5% 0 112 21 36 10 2
4 2013-2014 5% 0 118 22 38 10 2
5 2014-2015 5% 0 124 23 40 11 2
6 2015-2016 5% 0 130 24 42 11 3
7 2016-2017 5% 0 137 25 44 12 3
8 2017-2018 5% 0 144 27 46 13 3
9 2018-2019 5% 0 151 28 49 13 3
10 2019-2020 5% 0 158 29 51 14 3
11 2020-2021 5% 0 166 31 54 15 3
12 2021-2022 5% 0 174 32 56 15 3
13 2022-2023 5% 0 183 34 59 16 4
14 2023-2024 5% 0 192 36 62 17 4
15 2024-2025 5% 0 202 38 65 18 4
16 2025-2026 5% 0 212 39 69 19 4
17 2026-2027 5% 0 223 41 72 20 4
18 2027-2028 5% 0 234 44 76 21 5
19 2028-2029 5% 0 245 46 79 22 5
20 2029-2030 5% 0 258 48 83 23 5
21 2030-2031 5% 0 271 50 88 24 5
22 2031-2032 5% 0 284 53 92 25 6
23 2032-2033 5% 0 298 56 97 26 6







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For 20.0 Km

S.No. Year Traffic
Growth
Traffic Volume ( Vehicle Per Day)
Cat1(a) Cat1(b) Cat2 Cat3(a) Cat3(b) Cat4
1 2010-2011 5% 0 488 92 197 41 9
2 2011-2012 5% 0 512 97 207 43 9
3 2012-2013 5% 0 538 101 217 45 10
4 2013-2014 5% 0 565 107 228 47 10
5 2014-2015 5% 0 593 112 239 50 11
6 2015-2016 5% 0 623 117 251 52 11
7 2016-2017 5% 0 654 123 264 55 12
8 2017-2018 5% 0 687 129 277 58 13
9 2018-2019 5% 0 721 136 291 61 13
10 2019-2020 5% 0 757 143 306 64 14
11 2020-2021 5% 0 795 150 321 67 15
12 2021-2022 5% 0 835 157 337 70 15
13 2022-2023 5% 0 876 165 354 74 16
14 2023-2024 5% 0 920 173 371 77 17
15 2024-2025 5% 0 966 182 390 81 18
16 2025-2026 5% 0 1015 191 410 85 19
17 2026-2027 5% 0 1065 201 430 89 20
18 2027-2028 5% 0 1119 211 452 94 21
19 2028-2029 5% 0 1174 221 474 99 22
20 2029-2030 5% 0 1233 232 498 104 23
21 2030-2031 5% 0 1295 244 523 109 24
22 2031-2032 5% 0 1360 256 549 114 25
23 2032-2033 5% 0 1428 269 576 120 26







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For 71.0 km

S.No. Year Traffic
Growth
Traffic Volume ( Vehicle Per Day)
Cat1(a) Cat1(b) Cat2 Cat3(a) Cat3(b) Cat4
1 2010-2011 5% 0 44 7 21 6 1
2 2011-2012 5% 0 46 7 22 6 1
3 2012-2013 5% 0 49 8 23 7 1
4 2013-2014 5% 0 51 8 24 7 1
5 2014-2015 5% 0 53 9 26 7 1
6 2015-2016 5% 0 56 9 27 8 1
7 2016-2017 5% 0 59 9 28 8 1
8 2017-2018 5% 0 62 10 30 8 1
9 2018-2019 5% 0 65 10 31 9 1
10 2019-2020 5% 0 68 11 33 9 2
11 2020-2021 5% 0 72 11 34 10 2
12 2021-2022 5% 0 75 12 36 10 2
13 2022-2023 5% 0 79 13 38 11 2
14 2023-2024 5% 0 83 13 40 11 2
15 2024-2025 5% 0 87 14 42 12 2
16 2025-2026 5% 0 91 15 44 12 2
17 2026-2027 5% 0 96 15 46 13 2
18 2027-2028 5% 0 101 16 48 14 2
19 2028-2029 5% 0 106 17 51 14 2
20 2029-2030 5% 0 111 18 53 15 3
21 2030-2031 5% 0 117 19 56 16 3
22 2031-2032 5% 0 123 20 59 17 3
23 2032-2033 5% 0 129 20 61 18 3







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For 44.0 km

S.No. Year Traffic
Growth
Traffic Volume ( Vehicle Per Day)
Cat1(a) Cat1(b) Cat2 Cat3(a) Cat3(b) Cat4
1 2010-2011 5% 0 180 33 68 16 3
2 2011-2012 5% 0 189 35 71 17 3
3 2012-2013 5% 0 198 36 75 18 3
4 2013-2014 5% 0 208 38 79 19 3
5 2014-2015 5% 0 219 40 83 19 4
6 2015-2016 5% 0 230 42 87 20 4
7 2016-2017 5% 0 241 44 91 21 4
8 2017-2018 5% 0 253 46 96 23 4
9 2018-2019 5% 0 266 49 100 24 4
10 2019-2020 5% 0 279 51 105 25 5
11 2020-2021 5% 0 293 54 111 26 5
12 2021-2022 5% 0 308 56 116 27 5
13 2022-2023 5% 0 323 59 122 29 5
14 2023-2024 5% 0 339 62 128 30 6
15 2024-2025 5% 0 356 65 135 32 6
16 2025-2026 5% 0 374 69 141 33 6
17 2026-2027 5% 0 393 72 148 35 7
18 2027-2028 5% 0 413 76 156 37 7
19 2028-2029 5% 0 433 79 164 39 7
20 2029-2030 5% 0 455 83 172 40 8
21 2030-2031 5% 0 478 88 180 42 8
22 2031-2032 5% 0 501 92 189 45 8
23 2032-2033 5% 0 527 97 199 47 9









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For 117.0 km

S.No. Year Traffic
Growth
Traffic Volume ( Vehicle Per Day)
Cat1(a) Cat1(b) Cat2 Cat3(a) Cat3(b) Cat4
1 2010-2011 5% 0 149 25 97 28 5
2 2011-2012 5% 0 156 26 102 29 5
3 2012-2013 5% 0 164 28 107 31 6
4 2013-2014 5% 0 172 29 112 32 6
5 2014-2015 5% 0 181 30 118 34 6
6 2015-2016 5% 0 190 32 124 36 6
7 2016-2017 5% 0 200 34 130 38 7
8 2017-2018 5% 0 210 35 136 39 7
9 2018-2019 5% 0 220 37 143 41 7
10 2019-2020 5% 0 231 39 150 43 8
11 2020-2021 5% 0 243 41 158 46 8
12 2021-2022 5% 0 255 43 166 48 9
13 2022-2023 5% 0 268 45 174 50 9
14 2023-2024 5% 0 281 47 183 53 9
15 2024-2025 5% 0 295 49 192 55 10
16 2025-2026 5% 0 310 52 202 58 10
17 2026-2027 5% 0 325 55 212 61 11
18 2027-2028 5% 0 342 57 222 64 11
19 2028-2029 5% 0 359 60 233 67 12
20 2029-2030 5% 0 377 63 245 71 13
21 2030-2031 5% 0 395 66 257 74 13
22 2031-2032 5% 0 415 70 270 78 14
23 2032-2033 5% 0 436 73 284 82 15




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Graph - A-1: Growth of Economy - India - 1950-2007 - Trend
-16
-14
-12
-10
-8
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Y E A R
P

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C

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N

T
Poly. (1 Agriculture & Allied) Poly. (2 Industry)
Poly. (3 Services (Tertiary)) Poly. (7 Gross Domestic Product)
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It is observed that the GDP of the India has increased from Rs. 401128 Crores in 1980-
81 to Rs. 2530525 Crores in 2008-09 resulting in a growth of economy of about 6
percent per annum (Table A-1) during the period. The primary and secondary sectors
during the same period registered a growth rate of about 4.58 percent per annum. The
high and low economic growth rates occurred in FY 1988-89 (10 percent) and in FY
1991-92 (1 percent). The high and low growth rates of primary and secondary sectors
(Table A-2) also occurred in FY 1988-89 (12 percent) and in FY 1991-92 (-1 percent).
Tables A-3 and A-4 indicate that the long term average growth rate of primary sector
is over 3 percent and that of secondary sector is over 6 percent during the period 1980-
2006.

The annual growth of economy exhibited different characteristics during two distinct
periods, one between 1980-81 and 1991-92 and the other between 1992-93 and 2006-07.
The annual growth of economy during the earlier period (1980-92) exhibited greater
fluctuations as compared to that during the latter period. The economy during this
period varied between 1.30 percent (in 1991-92) and 10.47 (in 1988-89) percent. The
economy during the latter period is following a definite pattern as evidenced from the
annual growth rates, realized during this period. It peaked to a value of 9.2 percent (in
2006-07) from an initial value of 5.12 (in 1992-93). In fact during the past five years
2002-2007 the GDP registered an average growth rate of 7.6 percent. The steady
growth of the economy during this period can be attributed to the economic policies
framed in the post liberalization era, which commenced in 1991.

Graph - A-2: Growth of Economy - India - 2000-2050 - Trend - GDP
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
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10
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Y EA R
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Poly. (GDP-1) Poly. (GDP-2) Poly. (GDP-3) Poly. (GDP-4) Poly. (GDP-5) Poly. (Avg)
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The long term economic growth measured against the base year 1980-81 has
decreased to 4.80 percent (in 1987-88) from 5.97 percent (in 1981-82). Thereafter, the
long-term economic growth is over 5 percent and is 6 percent currently (2006-07), a
period of over 25 years. A marginal fall in this growth rate is observed in 1991-92 and
1992-93, the period in which the changes in macro economic policies were initiated.

Average growth of economy during the post liberalization period, 1992-2007, is 6.6
percent per annum (Table A-5) as against 5.22 percent per annum during the previous
period (1981-1992). It is observed that the Indian economy (GDP) is over 5 percent in
any review period except during the period 1982-87 when it was about 4.8 percent.
The 5-year growth rate during the period 1992-97 is about 6.7 percent. This is the first
5-year period post liberalization of the economy. Currently, during the period 2002-
2007 is over 7.5 percent and is the highest growth period during the past 25 years or
so.

Graph A-1 shows the pattern of growth of Indian economy over the past six decades.
This clearly indicates that the growth rate of industry was the highest until 1970, a
period of twenty years. During the next twenty years period (1970-90) growth rates of
industry and services were almost similar. Since 1990 the growth rate of services
sector is the highest.

5.6.3 India Future
Growth of different sectors of Indian economy was forecast in to the future
considering the historical data during the period 19502007 under different trend
growth scenarios. GDP growth rates estimated on the basis of growth of individual
sectors is presented in Table A-6 and shown in Graph A-2. It is observed fro the
graph that the trend followed by GDP forecast under GDP-5 scenario and Average
Scenario is almost similar. Hence Average growth Scenario is considered to be the
Medium Growth Scenario for this project. It is also observed that forecast of GDP
under different scenarios up to 2020 is almost similar except in the case of GDP-2
Scenario which is lower than the rest. Thus GDP-2 Scenario is considered to be the
Low Growth Scenario for this project. GDP-1 Scenario is almost similar to GDP-3 and
GDP-4 scenarios up to 2020 and considered as the Highest Growth Scenario for this
project. Post 2020, GDP-1 growth is lower than the rest but is considered as to
represent the highest growth scenario to be on a conservative side. Thus post 2020
growth rates of Low and Medium growth scenarios have been estimated as a
proportion of the values of High growth scenarios. Thus, the estimated and assumed
growth rates of future GDP are as presented in Table A-7.

GDP estimates by different agencies are presented in Appendix A-1. The average
GDP indicated for 2007-08 is about 8.1 percent and varies between 7.2 and 9 percent.
The GDP assumed as given in Table A-7 for 2007-08 varies between 6.9 and 7.9
percent.



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Appendix A-1: GDP Growth Estimates by Different Agencies
Date Agency
2006-07 2007-08
Remarks Min Max Min Max
17-Aug-06 NCAER 7.90 7.90
06-Sep-06 ADB 7.80 7.80 7.80 7.80
18-Sep-06 RBI 8.00 9.00 8.00 9.00 Draft XI-Plan - 8 to 9 %
27-Sep-06 CS 8.50 8.50 Credit Suisse
29-Sep-06 BL 7.50 8.00 7.50 8.00 Hindu - Business Line
Q1 - 8.9 v/s
8.5
07-Nov-06 NCAER 8.20 8.20 8.20 8.20 2007-12
XI-
Plan
09-Dec-06 GOI 9.00 9.00 Approach Paper XI-Plan
10-Dec-06 CII 8.60 8.60
14-Dec-06 GI 8.00 8.00 Global Insight
15-Dec-06 WB 8.70 8.70 7.20 7.20 World Bank
04-Apr-07 RBI 8.00 8.50
Moving towards
sustainable growth
04-Apr-07
PHD -
CC 8.00 8.00
Uncertain - Long term
9% GDP
05-Apr-07 7.80 8.00
International agencies -
several
16-Apr-07 NCAER 8.30 8.30
Average 8.13 8.30 7.98 8.20
Min 7.50 7.80 7.20 7.20
Max 8.70 9.00 9.00 9.00


GDP growth rate estimates or different horizons such as 2020 (based on Vision 2020)
and 2040 considering a 30 year project period starting 2010 (assuming the project is
opened to traffic post improvements) are presented in Table A-8. Goldman Sachs
(Paper No. 152) indicates that the Indian economy would grow at about 8.2 percent
between 2006 and 2010, at about 8.5 percent between 2011 and 2020 and, at about 6.2
percent between 2021 and 2050. These values and those estimated for the low and
medium growth scenarios in the above table are almost similar.

Since the long term average growth between 1981 and 2007 is about 6 percent, the
average growth rate forecast of about 7, 8 and 9 percent, under different growth
scenarios, between 2006 and 2040 appear reasonable.

Estimated primary and secondary sector growth rates (based on regression model) at
national level is presented in Tables A-9 to A-11.
5.6.4 Rajasthan Future
The economic forecasts at state level are not available. The same for the states in the
influence area (mainly Rajasthan) was estimated based on the regression models
developed for the purpose between NSDP (of a state) and GDP (of India) and
corresponding primary/secondary sector growth.

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Estimated economic growth rates for Rajasthan based on regression models
developed between national and state economic indicators.

5.6.5 Elasticity of Traffic Demand
Elasticity of traffic demand for the study has been assessed based on the time series
data, published by Indian Roads Congress, on Passenger and Tonne Kilometres
covered by different vehicle types in the absence of reliable historical traffic data on
the project corridor. This information is presented in Table A-15. The elasticity of
traffic demand is assumed to remain constant for a period of five years and the same
have been reduced by 5 percent every five years. It is also assumed that the elasticity
of traffic will reduce to 1.0 and no lower. The elasticity value for slow vehicles is
assumed to be unity initially and reduce by 10 percent every five years to a limiting
value of 0.50. The computed elasticity of traffic demand for each category of vehicle is
presented in Table A-16.
5.6.6 Project Influence Area
Analysis of origin-destination (Table A-17) data indicates that nearly 95 percent of the
passenger traffic is generated in Rajasthan. It is also observed that about 92 percent of
truck and LCV traffic is generated in Rajasthan. Essentially, this indicates that most of
the traffic is generated within Rajasthan. About 4 percent of goods and 3 percent of
passenger traffic is generated in the Karnataka.
5.6.7 Seasonal Variation
Traffic levels along a study stretch vary during different periods of time i.e., in
different months/seasons. Information on this aspect is necessary to estimate the
AADT (Average Annual Daily Traffic). This is best understood by studying monthly
historical traffic volumes on the project road/corridor. This however is not available
for the study stretch. In the absence of this direct information, it is thought prudent to
consider the monthly sales of petrol and diesel, in kiloliters, at the gas stations along
the project road/corridor or on the road stretches in its environs. Reliable information
on these parameters is also not available. Monthly data available from a toll road
within the state was analysed and the estimated seasonal factors are presented in
Table A-18.
5.6.8 Traffic Growth Rates
Traffic growth rates necessary to estimate the traffic levels in future on the project
road are a product of economic growth in the project influence area and elasticity of
traffic demand. Traffic growth rates for various categories of vehicle types were
estimated based on the economic forecasts in the influence area, the corresponding
elasticity of traffic demand and the weights of each economic zone (represented by the
percentage of traffic generation in each zone) defined earlier. The estimated growth
rates of traffic for the three (low/medium/high) growth scenarios are presented in
Tables A-19 to A-21.
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5.6.9 Traffic Forecast
The traffic forecasts for the project road in different growth scenarios are estimated on
the basis of the traffic growth rates as suggested earlier and the estimated AADT
based on the seasonal factor indicated earlier. Traffic forecast for each of the four
traffic count locations and for the three growth scenarios are presented I Tables A-22
to A-33.

5.7 Generated Traffic
Reduced travel time and vehicle operating cost for the new road will tend to
encourage more and more frequent trips, than what road users considered
worthwhile before the project. Generated traffic is new traffic which only occurs for
that reason i.e. only if the project is implemented. The volume of such traffic is usually
estimated, if at all on the basis of on assumed price elasticity for passenger transport
and on annual changes in production and distribution patterns for goods transport.
Both are largely hypothetical.

The volume of traffic can be significant in uses where the relative improvements are
very large, say, from poor dirt track to a modern paved access controlled road. This
project road is existing in fairly good condition and with the same alignment as the
proposed road. The main differences appreciated by the road users will be that the
existing bottlenecks are removed and that the level of service will be better on the
whole. Secondly it can be argued that the long term trends considered for the growth
of normal traffic already embeds the effects of some continual improvements. If so it
would be double counting to as also include these effects separately. For there
reasons, the consultant refrains from adding any generated traffic in the traffic
forecasts.

5.8 Diverted Traffic
If the project road is improved to enable much lower travel times and costs than at
present, then some traffic could conceivably be attracted from other routes or modes.
This would increase the traffic volume beyond the normal traffic growth estimated
and result in additional economic benefits .

There is no acceptance for diverted traffic on this route.
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CHAPTER 6
ALIGNMENT & ENGINEERING
6.1 Project Description
6.1.1 General
The project road Jodhpur - Osian - Phalodi Section - is part of SH-61: Phalodi
Jodhpur road which connect Jodhpur on NH-65 and Phalodi on NH-15. The project
road runs from km 2/000 to km 122/000 of SH-210 and the total length of this stretch
is 119.00km.
The project road passes through only 1 district viz: Jodhpur
Major portion of the project road lies within the jurisdiction of Phalodi district, and
small portion lies in Jodhpur Districts as shown below:
Phalodi Town : km 2/0000 75/200 = 73.00 km
Jodhpur Town : km 75/200 122/0000 = 47.00 km
Total =119.00 km
The project road after taking off from Intersection at SH-61 & NH-15 at Phalodi. It
passes through Lohawat, Osian & Mathania villages.
The stretch of project road crosses mainly through villages.
The project road crosses the Railway line from Jodhpur Jaiselmer at 5 locations as
shown below:
6.1.2 Location and Terrain Condition.
The start of the project road is at km 2/000 and the termination point is at km 122/0 of
SH-61. The latitude and longitude of the start and end points of the project road are
furnished below:

Latitude Longitude
Start Point : km 2/0 :27
0
06 41.75 72
0
22 30.54

End Point : km 122/00 :26
0
22 08.61 73
0
03 48.29

The alignment generally runs from West to East. The start point is situated at about
2km from Phalodi and the end point is located at about 15km from Jodhpur City.

The terrain of the project road is generally flat and plain. In some stretches it passes
through high terrain. No river / streams cross the alignment. Only few nalahs crosses
the route.
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6.1.3 Land use
The project road is mainly runs through barren land and less habitable region

The land use along the alignment upto Mathania is a mixture of industrial and
institutional. Beyond Mathania it is open land for agriculture.
Picture Showing Built up Areas









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6.1.4 Geology

Generally in parts of Phalodi to Jodhpur Silty sand is available. Due to high wind
velocity in the Phalodi region sand blows throughout the season. In Summer it is
more. Blown sand lies on the road.

6.1.5 Meteorological Data
The temperature is low during the months of November, December, January and
February and maximum during the months of April, May, June and July. The
maximum temperature recorded is in the range of 40
0
to 47
0
C and minimum is in the
range of 3
0
C to 5
0
C.

Humidity is generally low throughout the year. In summer the relative humidity is
between 15to 20% while during monsoon months it is generally above 40%.


The average annual rain fall for Phalodi is 310mm.

6.1.6 Existing Alignment

6.1.6.1 Horizontal Alignment
The project road is having bad alignment. It has lot of sharp horizontal curves which
needs to be ease out for the speed of 80km/hr / 65 km / hr.

Improvement in Horizontal alignment requires at these chainage.

S.
No.
Width
of
C/W
Chainage Length Present
Design
speed
Proposed
Design
speed
Shift
of
Centre
LA
Required
1 5.5 3912 163 45 65 4.92 0
2 5.5 15200 136 45 80 8.34 793.968
3 5.5 33100 324 40 100 9.49 2152.332
4 5.5 38350 147.62 45 80 3.64 268.67
5 7 59700 141 40 65 7.13 703.73
6 5.5 62525 93.52 40 65 8.14 532.88
7 5.5 65025 117.44 50 80 3.9 320.61
8 5.5 70715 92 50 80 15.66 1152.58
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9 5.5 72485 126 45 65 4.98 376.49
10 5.5 73155 96 50 80 3.18 152.64
11 7 120970 150 45 65 2250
12 7 119870 487 45 80 14610
13 5.5 81950 240 40 80 1800
14 7 75300 371 45 65 257.72
15 7 75150 387 40 80 220.63
TOTAL
LENGTH
3071.58 25592.24


6.1.6.2 Vertical Alignment
The vertical alignment is generally bad along the entire length of the road and it is not
acceptance level of SH standards. The Summit & valley curves had to be designed. Lot
of Cutting has been required in improving the vertical profile.

Improvement in Vertical alignment requires at these chainage.

S.
No.
Width
of
C/W
Chainage Length
(M)
Start End
1 5 5950 7925 1975
2 7 10060 13620 3560
3 7 13388 13620 232
4 7 14809 15700 891
5 5.5 17962 18445 483
6 5.5 24563 25088 525
7 7 28625 28775 150
8 7 30975 31975 1000
9 5.5 32750 33500 750
10 3.5 40700 40840 140
11 7 52672 53037 365
12 7 59600 59950 350
13 7 61712 62750 1038
14 7 73425 73200 225
15 7 74425 73535 890
15 7 74750 74380 370
16 7 75425 75115 310
17 7 80200 77850 2350
18 7 113600 113500 100
19 7 119175 119312 137
20 7 120200 120312 112
TOTAL
LENGTH
15953.00
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6.1.6.3 Road Width
The existing road for its entire length is of 5.50, - 7.0m except the reach from km
38/500 to 44/050 which is of Single lane with earthen shoulders of 0.5 to 1.5m on
either side for the entire length of the project road.

6.1.6.4 Pavement
The entire stretch of the project road is having a bituminous surfacing. On a visual
examination it is seen that the pavement is accepted. Besides the edges have also been
broken and distorted in some stretches.
A detailed survey on the condition of, the existing pavement has been carried out for
noting down the % of cracking, ravelling and rut and number of potholes. The survey
details are furnished in Annexure -6.1

6.1.7 Traffic
6.1.7.1 Rural Sections
The AADT on rural section of the road as per Traffic survey conducted during the
period of 18.05-2010 to 25-05-2010 is as follows.

Location 1. at km 6/500 = 2756 vehicles / day
2. at km 39/900 = 2717 vehicles / day
3. at km 90/000 = 3052 vehicles / day
4. at km 109/500 = 3558 vehicles / day

The peak hour flow is around 5.8% to 6.45% of Daily Traffic. This will improve by
separate bypasses for heavily congested town the peak hour volume is likely to
increase. The directional split is 49% and 50% and this will remain, even after carrying
out the proposed improvements.

The projected traffic at the end of 25 year period with an assumed growth factor of 5%
as per IRC guide lines would be around 580 PCUs per hour which is well within 3000
PCUs per hour for a level of service C.


6.2 Road Inventory
A road inventory survey is made for the entire stretch of the project road, from km
2/0 to km 122/00. Detailed observations for all physical and natural elements of the
highway were collected. The major categories listed in this road Inventory included,
the cross road, their type of surface, cross drainage structures including major and
minor bridges existing on the highway, major and minor intersection, railway
crossing, presence of irrigation tank and surplus weirs and other utility services like
electric and telephone cables, optical fiber cables, H.T .power transmission lines and
H.T. transmission tower located near the road. Overhead carryings of power lines are
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also noted. Presence of any industries and building and other heritages valued
structures and sentiment attached structures like temples, mosques, churches,
graveyard and cemetery are also noted.

The above listed information have been collected in the prescribed form Road
Inventory and shown in Annexure -6.2 and also shown in the strip plan enclosed.
The information collected will be used for assessing the type and location of the
improvement needed for strengthening and widening of the road.
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6.3 Topographical and Cadastral Survey
6.3.1 Topographic Survey
6.3.1.1 Route Maps
The existing topo maps are scanned and route map prepared. For bypasses topo maps
are prepared on a large scale of 1:25000, duly marked therein the proposed alignments
with take-off km and joining km with the existing NH road.

6.3.1.3 Total Station Traverse Control.
Total station control points at every 250m intervals by using Nikon Total Station. The
residual error within limits have been adjusted and distributed.

6.3.1.4 Height Control
Height control has been provided by fly-leveling using Digital / Auto levels by
connecting to the GTS Bench Mark fixed at the beginning of the project road. This
Bench Mark has been fixed by connecting to a permanent GTS Bench Mark available
in the city and located at about 2km away from the start point of the project road.

The temporary Bench Marks (TBMs) have been established at 250m. interval along the
length of the road on Bench Mark pillars of size 15cm x 15cm square and embedded in
C.C foundation for 30cm depth. The closing error, if found, within the limit have been
adjusted between there Bench mark pillars.

6.3.1.5 Map Compilation
Detail survey has been done for the entire length of the project road for a strip width
of 15m on either side. This is carried out using total stations, commencing and closing
on existing TBM. The horizontal and vertical disclosures within limits have been
distributed within the stretch.

The total station data is downloaded to a computer to generate the drawing on Auto
Civil 3D format. Recognized codes and symbols are used with suitable descriptive
remarks with data capture and text of coding.
Individual project alignment plans for 1km lengths are proposed on 1:2500 scale with
all survey details noting therein all available structures and detail. Separate layers is
used for spot levels and longitudinal and cross section levels.

6.3.2 Cadastral Survey
Cadastral survey is being carried out along the existing and proposed alignment of
the bypasses and an inventory of existing right of way (ROW) and proposed ROW for
the proposed widening to 2 lane and bypasses. Based on the proposed ROW the
requirement of additional land for widening of roads forming of bypasses, Curve
improvement etc. The draft gazette notification No:3 for details of land to be acquired
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village wise, taluck wise and district wise will be prepared for submission to
RSRDCC for necessary notification and acquisition of land.

The project road traverse through the administrative jurisdiction of Phalodi and
Jodhpur Town.

6.3.2.1 Existing ROW
The existing project road has a ROW ranging approx. 30.00m. Average width of ROW
in most of the stretches varies between 23m to 30m. Existing ROW has already been
physically demarcated at site and the necessary boundary pillars in cubicle shape
have been fixed at site. Encroachments, if any within the existing ROW will be
removed for utilising the ROW width for the widening proposals. The existing ROW
limits have been clearly shown on the cadastral survey plan and field measurements
sketches.

6.3.2.2 Proposed ROW
For new by passes of the project road, a minimum of 45m width of ROW is required.
At the time of actual preparation of land plan schedule for acquisition of new land,
available width will be taken in to account and accordingly actual requirement of land
will assessed.

6.3.2.3 Additional Land Requirement
Additional land is required for smoothening of curve of the exiting road carriageway,
new facilities, road junctions and bypasses. Estimated land requirement is furnished
hereunder in Table 6.2


Table 6.2

Estimated Land Requirement

S.No. Description No. L B QTY. Unit Rate Amount
1 Land required for widening
for lay byes.
1 250 30 7500.00 Sqm. 80.00 600000.00
2 For Toll Plaza Administrative
Building
4 45 30 5400.00 Sqm. 80.00 432000.00
3 Other land required for By
Passes
1 14279 45 642555.00 Sqm. 80.00 51404400.00
4 Land Required for Horizontal
Curve Improvement
25592.24 Sqm. 80.00 2047379.32
5 Compensation of House /
Building
500000.00
681047.24 TOTAL 54983779.32

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6.3.2.4 Cadastral Survey Documents and Computerisation

Cadastral survey is required to generate and inventory of existing ROW and acquiring
additional land required for widening of roads forming of bypasses and new facilities
way side amenities and interchanges / intersections.

The project road traverses through the administrative jurisdiction of Jodhpur districts
of Rajasthan. There are 5 taluks and 16 villages. Adjoining land existing ROW are
mostly private owned.

6.3.2.5 Cadastral Survey Documents

Authenticated cadastral survey maps will be provided from the directorate of survey
and land records. Supporting documents such as Field Measurement Book and
extracts for ownership details are maintained at the local village and district land
office. They will be collected from them at the time of preparation of land plan
schedules. If any shot comings between the village maps and F.R sketches, will be
looked into at the time of L.P scheduler.

6.3.2.6 Methodology

The following details and documents will be collected from the concerned authorities.

1. Cadastral survey plans & F.R.B sketches & ownership details.
2. Identification and listing of effected survey numbers adjoining the existing
ROW, & collections of respective F.R. Sketch & the ownership details.
3. Accurate transferring of existing road alignment on to the cadastral survey
map with the help of identifiable reference points such km stone, details that
appear both on cadastral map & topographic survey plan like, bridge locations
, road center line / boundary, road junction etc.
4. After scaling of existing cadastral survey plan & super imposition of major
topographic survey details survey number limits survey number etc shall be
digitized covering the required width, say 60m on either side.
5. The new road alignment will then be transferred to the cadastral survey plan
and additional area required will be identified.
6. Area of extra land required will be clearly noted and calculated.
7. L.A. statement will thereafter be proposed as per requirement.
8. Separate L.A plan will be prepared for bypass.

6.4 Geometric Design
6.4.1 General
The consultant has reviewed IRC publications and MOST circulars regarding design
standards.

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The consultant has also reviewed as a guide, AASHTO A Policy on Geometric Design
of Highways and Streets, a well-reputed publication used in many parts of the world.

The following design parameters, are recommended to be used in this project.
6.4.2 Design Standards

6.4.2.1 Design Speed
Design speed is the maximum safe speed that can be maintained over a specified
section of highway when conditions are so favourable that the design features of the
highway govern.

The design speed recommended by IRC 73-1980 is for National and State Highways in
plain terrain is the following
taken
Ruling design speed 100km / h
Minimum design speed 80km/h

The terrain for the project road is plain and the existing road alignment is, except in a
few places, good and the Consultant proposes the design speed to be 80km/h.

6.4.2.2 Sight Distances
Sight distance is the length of roadway ahead visible for the driver. The minimum
sight distance available on a roadway should be sufficiently long to enable a vehicle
travelling at or near the design speed to stop before reaching an object on its path.

There are three types of relevant sight distances to comply with when designing
highways:

Stopping sight distance
Overtaking sight distance
Intermediate sight distance

Multilane divided highways are normally designed to have continuously adequate
stopping sight distance. It is though desirable to increase the sight distance, it is
preferable to have intermediate sight distance at least.

The three types of sight distances for different speed are shown in Table 6.3








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Table 6.3

Recommended Minimum Sight Distance for Different Speed

Speed
(km/h)
Safe Stopping Sight
Distance (m)
Intermediate Sight
Distance (m)
Overtaking Sight
Distance (m)
80 120 240 470
100 180 360 640

The consultant propose to design the road for safe stopping sight distance for 80
km/h. We also intend to apply the Intermediate Sight Distance for as much of the
length as can be economically justified.

6.4.2.3 Horizontal Curves
The minimum horizontal radius is limiting value of curvature for a given design
speed and is determined from the maximum rate of super elevation and the
maximum side friction factor selected for design.

In accordance with the IRC the minimum radius of horizontal curve for 100km/h is
360m. & 235m for 80 km/hr.

The use of minimum radius is generally undesirable and it will only be used in
unavoidable circumstances The Consultant is in generally going to use considerably
larger radii in order to achieve a smooth and safe road alignment.

6.4.2.4 Vertical Curves
Vertical curves are introduced for smooth transition at grade changes. The major
control for safe operation on vertical curves is the provision of sufficient sight distance
for the design speed. Minimum stopping sight distance will be provided along the
project road.

IRC recommends vertical curves to be introduced when the grade change is 0.5% or
more for design speed 100km/h. Minimum length of curve shall be 60m for design
speed 100km/h.

In order to increase motorists comfort and in order to provide an aesthetically better
road the Consultant proposes to use longer vertical curves wherever economically
and physically feasible.

6.4.2.5 Gradients
Roads should be designed to encourage uniform operation throughout its length.

The practices of passenger car operators with respect to grades vary greatly, but there
is a general acceptance that nearly all passenger cars can readily negotiate, grades as
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steep as 3 to 4% without appreciable loss in speed below that normally maintained on
level highways.

The effect of grades on truck speeds is much more pronounced than on speeds of
passenger cars. Average speed of trucks on level sections of highway approximates
the average speed of passenger cars. On upgrades the maximum speed that can be
maintained by a truck is dependent primarily on the length and steepness of the grade
and the mass / power ratio, which is the gross vehicle mass divided by the engine
power.

IRC standard for plain terrain recommend the maximum slope 3.3 % which should
not be of any difficulty to adhere to.


6.4.2.6 Side Slopes
The rate of the side slope is a very important safety factor for road design. A side
slope 1:2 will be adopted for the entire length of the project road.

6.4.2.7 Road Furniture
Road furniture proposed to be provided includes road signs, road markings, road
delineators, kilometer stones and traffic barriers.

6.4.2.7.1 Road Signs
Road sign are to be placed in accordance with IRC:67 Code of Practice for road sign.
The signs are proposed to be placed 2 m from the edge of the carriageway.

6.4.2.7.2 Road Markings
Road markings as per IRC:35 -1997 will be made for centre and edge lines using
reflectorised thermoplastic paints. Appropriate road markings will also be provided
at road junctions and pedestrian crossings.

6.4.2.7.3 Road Delineators
Road delineators, in accordance with IRC:79 1981 to serve as roadway indicators,
hazard markers and object markers will be provided .

Reflective road studs will be provided. along the curves and all along the approaches
to interchanges and intersections.


6.4.2.7.4 Traffic Barriers
Crash barriers are used to minimize the severity of accidents involving vehicles
leaving the roadway where the consequences of striking the barrier are less than
leaving the roadway.

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W-Beam metallic crash barriers will be mainly used at high embankments and at
bridge approaches. It will also be provided in bridges between carriageway and
footpath. CC crash barrier will be provided at the outer edge of the footpath in
bridges. The metallic crash barriers will be located at the edge of the shoulder and in
line with the bridge crash barrier.

6.4.3 Typical Cross Sections
No feature of a highway has a greater influence on safety and comfort of driving than
the width and condition of the surface.

The basic principles followed in our design are to develop a cross section based on
guidelines of IRC and if possible to be accommodated within ROW.

The widening of the present road to 2 lane with paved shoulder.
The Consultant has developed four alternative cross sections as explained below.
Typical cross sections are shown in Drawing

Cross section A is to be used on bypass.
Cross section B is to be used for strengthening the existing 2 lane
carriageway and adding paved shoulder to bothsides.
Cross section C is to be used for strengthening and widening of existing
road less than 2 lane to 2 lane with paved shoulder.

Cross Section A
The cross section A is to be used for new formation and bypasses which
consists of a 2 lane carriageway with 1.5m width of paved shoulder and
1.0m width of gravel shoulder.


Cross Section B
The cross section B is to be used for existing 2 lane carriageway
strengthening the widening of paved shoulder of 1.5m wide on both sides.

Cross Section C
The cross section C is to be used for strengthening and symmetric
widening. The roads which are less than 2 lane widened to 2 lane
carriageway with paved shoulders of 1.50m on both sides.


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6.5 Road Alignment
6.5.1 Widening of Existing Alignment
The general alignment of the project is mostly adequate except a very few stretches
with poor geometric standards. These parts will be improved to standards adopted
for the project road.

The widening to 3 lane carriageway configuration will normally be arranged by
adding the new carriageway either on left or on right side of the existing carriageway.
The alignment widening will shift from the left to the right depending on field
conditions such as the presence of the electric power lines, telephone lines, Optic Fibre
Cables (OFC) and coaxial cables, nearness of the railway line and railway
embankment and boundary and adjoining tank bund.


6.5.2 Proposed Bypasses
The project road passes through many heavily built up areas with poor road
geometric. Therefore it is essential to provide bypass to these village and towns to
avoid local traffic as also to ensure free and uninterrupted flow of through traffic.

6.5.2.1 Mathania Bypass
The project road passes through the built up area of Mathania village which is located
between km 103/0 to 106/0 of SH-61. The population of Mathania village is approx.
15039. This town consist of industrial area of Mathania. There is lot of traffic due to
local traffic and goods traffic. The village is congested and it also having a Level
Crossing in it.

The proposal alignment will have 2 Lane carriageway with paved shoulder is
proposed.

The Key Map and topo map showing the proposed alignment of the bypass is
furnished in Annexure - 6-4.













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Annexure 6.4
Key Map & Topo Map of Mathania Bypass


6.5.2.2 Ummed Nagar Bypass
The stretch of the project road passes through Ummed Nagar village. After crossing
Ummed nagar there is very sharp hair pin bend, and it it also have junction at this
location. This increases the chances of accidents. So to rectify this deficiency the
bypass before Ummed Nagar is proposed. This also reduces the route by 1.0 km.

The Alignments is show in Annexure -6.5

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6.5.2.3 Osian Realignment
The stretch of the project road passes through Osian village. At Osian Mata Temple
there is a T Junction / almost 90 bend at Near Osian Mata Temple entrance area. To
Byepass this sharp band a realignment to by pass this bend has been proposed. It also
bye pass the entrance area of Osian Mata Temple. During Holy days this area
becomes over crowded by pedestrian traffic. This will ease out the route.

Key Map & Topo Map of Osian realignment

The Alignments is show in Annexure -6.6



6.5.2.3 Sharp bend Realignment at km 121
The stretch of the project road passes through a sharp almost 90 bend. Ease out of
curve is not possible as there is a temple inner side of curve. A short realignment near
to railway track has been proposed. This alignment requires demolision of private
property. But not much demolition is required. The good compensation can solve this
issue. Realignment will ease out the traffic at speed of 80km/hr.







Chapter 6 Alignment & Engineering


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Key Map & Topo Map of Curve realignment

The Alignments is show in Annexure -6.7



.

Proposed Bypass Locations
S.No. Name of Bypass
Existing
Chainage (Km)
Existing
Road
Length
Bye Pass
Length (m)
Start End (m)
1 Osian 75500 76150 650 533
2 Ummed Nagar 96000 98400 2400 1288
3 Mathania 101760 114775 13015 12133
4 Sharp Curve 119610 120160 550 325













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6.5.3 Interchanges and Intersections
Interchanges and intersections will be provided to allow for a safe connection to the
project road. The traffic using the existing junctions has been studied and projections
will be made for its future development as well as future volumes of various crossing
and turning movements.

The interchanges and intersection will be designed for maximum visibility for the
different conflicting movements in order to arrive at the safest possible connection.




6.5.3.2 Intersections
Intersections are an important part of the highway because to a great extent the
efficiency, safety and capacity depend on their design.

All intersections shall be designed to provide adequate capacity and maximum safety.

The Consultant proposes two types of intersections:

- Minor intersection
- Major intersection

The minor intersections will be used to connect minor road and will be designed
without traffic islands.

The major intersection will be used to connect major roads to SH-61. The intersection
will be designed with traffic islands as required.

In this project road there are 15 major intersection as shown in Annexure 6.8 (A) & (B)



Annexure 6.8 (A)
List of Major Intersections

S.No. Details
1 NH-15 Crosses the project Road at km 2/000 - Start
2 At 73/300 for Nagaur
3 New By pass at km 38500 & 44050 (Osian)
4 New By pass at km 96000 & 98400 (Ummed Nagar)
5 New By pass at km 101760 & 114775 (Mathania & Manaklao)
6 New By pass at km 119610 & 120160 (Sharp Curve)
7 NH-65 Crosses the project Road at km 122/800 - End


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Annexure 6.8 (B)
New Intersections created for entry and exit of bypasses
S. No. Location (Km)
Project
Chainage
(Km)
Type of
Junction
Improvement
Proposals
Remarks
111..
Osian Bypass
branching
38/500

Improvement AT
Grade by providing
Traffic Island and
Erecting Traffic Signs
Entry to
Bypass
2
Osian bypass
joining
44/050

Improvement AT
Grade by providing
Traffic Island and
Erecting Traffic Signs
Exit from
Bypass
3
Ummed Nagar
Bypass branching
96/000

Improvement AT
Grade by providing
Traffic Island and
Erecting Traffic Signs
Entry to
Bypass
4
Ummed nagar
Bypass joining
98/400

Improvement AT
Grade by providing
Traffic Island and
Erecting Traffic Signs
Exit from
Bypass
5
Mathania Bypass
branching
101/760

Improvement AT
Grade by providing
Traffic Island and
Erecting Traffic Signs
Entry to
Bypass
6
Mathania Bypass
joining
114/775

Improvement AT
Grade by providing
Traffic Island and
Erecting Traffic Signs
Exit
from
Bypass
7
Sharp Curve
branching
119/610

Improvement AT
Grade by providing
Traffic Island and
Erecting Traffic Signs
Entry to
Bypass
8
Sharp Curve
joining

120/160


Improvement AT
Grade by providing
Traffic Island and
Erecting Traffic Signs
Exit
from
Bypass

There are 28 minor & Majorintersections which can be improved at grade by suitable
design by the concessionaire at the time of implementation of the project as shown in
Annexure 6.9











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Annexure 6.9
List of Minor & Minor Intersections
S
.

N
o
.

C
h
a
i
n
a
g
e

(
k
m
)


T
y
p
e

o
f

J
u
n
c
t
i
o
n

Cross Road
Left
Cross Road
Right
Type of
Junction
Surface
Type
Cross Road
Leads to
Cross Road
Leads to
1 2500

Riico Industrial
Area
- Minor BT Road
2 8200

- Bapini
Minor BT Road
3 8900

Jalora
Minor BT Road
4 19800

Sadri
Minor BT Road
5 22750

Jaitana
Minor BT Road
6 30475

Lohawat
Minor BT Road
7 43900

Jeria
Minor BT Road
8 49200

- Nausar
Minor BT Road
9 57700

Punya Ki Dhani
Minor BT Road
10 57975


Balaji

Minor BT Road
11 60400

- Cheerai
Minor BT Road
12 71850

Cheerai
Minor BT Road
13 73300

Nagaur

Major
BT Road
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S
.

N
o
.

C
h
a
i
n
a
g
e

(
k
m
)


T
y
p
e

o
f

J
u
n
c
t
i
o
n

Cross Road
Left
Cross Road
Right
Type of
Junction
Surface
Type
Cross Road
Leads to
Cross Road
Leads to
14 73500

Osian Village -
Minor BT Road
15 75300

Osian
Minor BT Road
16 75900


Osian

Minor BT Road
17 76400

Osian Mata temple
Minor BT Road
18 78400

Nagaur
Minor BT Road
19 85600

Newra
Minor BT Road
20 92800

- -
Minor BT Road
21 97700

Nagaur
Minor BT Road
22
12100
0

Jodhpur
Minor BT Road
23
12908
0

Nagaur
Minor BT Road
24

2000

Jaiselmer Bikaner
Minor BT Road
25
15000

Dayakore Chhela
Minor BT Road
26 28600

Koli
Minor BT Road
27 29200

Bhakri, Peevla Lohawat
Minor BT Road
Chapter 6 Alignment & Engineering


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S
.

N
o
.

C
h
a
i
n
a
g
e

(
k
m
)


T
y
p
e

o
f

J
u
n
c
t
i
o
n

Cross Road
Left
Cross Road
Right
Type of
Junction
Surface
Type
Cross Road
Leads to
Cross Road
Leads to
28 73300

Ram Nagar Kumho Ki Thani
Minor BT Road


Typical layouts of major and minor intersection are furnished in Standard Drawings.

6.5.3.4 Vehicular cum Pedestrian Underpass / Foot Over Bridge
In the project road Educational Institution like, only schools exist. These are not big /
major schools. There is no need of Pedestrian / Vehicular Underpass.

On the route, only one place need to be has FOB at Osian. Right now there is no need
but at the holy days, lot of devotees came to Osian Mata Temple. Then there is
demand of FOB at 2 Locations


Table 6.5
Location of Foot Over Bridge
S.No. Chainage Locations
1 km. 73/800 Osian Market
2 km. 74/400 Osian Market

A typical layout and cross section of the proposed Foot Over Bridge is furnished in
Typical Drawings.
6.6 Utility Relocation
The proposed widening of the SH-61 will affect various utility services located along
the road. The different types of utilities include fibre optic cable, electrical poles,
telephone poles and high tension cable towers.

The widening of the road is normally taking place on either side of the road and the
utility services on one side of the road will be required to be shifted and relocated to
suitable places. This work will be interacted with concerned service departments and
owners of the utility lines.

In the cost estimate provision for shifting of utility lines are incorporated. Actual cost
estimate will be incorporated in the Detailed Project Report after obtaining cost
estimates from the owners of the utility lines.
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6.7 Toll Plazas
The Government of Rajasthan proposes to collect tolls from the users of state
highways. However, these would be levied on isolated sections of the upgraded
highway, as an open system without control of access. Toll plazas shall be constructed
at pre-selected locations on the highway. Initially, semi automatic system of collection
is proposed. This could be upgraded in future to an automatic system.

Toll plazas, to include additional right - of - way, service lanes, toll booths, lighting
and toll booth equipment, would approximately 1% to 2% to the cost of the highway.

In the present context, the collection system should aim to capture the maximum
traffic given the condition of the open system.

Toll plazas should be away from major intersections, on flat ground, in a length of
straight, clear visibility. Sufficient land should be available for future expansion. The
carriageway should be built in concrete in the toll plaza locations in order to take care
of the friction factors involved in acceleration / declaration at toll plazas.

For this project 4 toll Plazas are proposed one at km. 6/500 ahead of Phalodi, at Km
39/900 after Lohawat, at km 90/000 before Mathania and at km. 109/500 after
Manaklao. Provision of toll plazas depends on the viability of the project for collecting
tolls from the users of the project road.

The statement showing the tollable traffic is show in Table 6.5-A
Table 6.5-A
Traffic for Telescopic
Reach
Tractors
(Agricultu
re)
Tractors
(Non -
Agricultur
e)
Car and
Jeep
Buses Trucks
< 5 MT
Trucks >
5 MT
Multi
axle
trucks
Deduction 100% 100% 30.18% 35.81% 30.48% 30.48% 30.48%
For
(Phalodi -
Lohawat)
28.0
km
0 0 62 9 20 7 1
For
(Lohawat -
Osian)
45.0
km
0 0 52 8 47 16 2
For
(Phalodi -
Osian)
73.0
km
0 0 118 17 94 33 5
For
(Phalodi -
Mathania)
73.0
km
0 0 201 29 50 17 3
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3D images of proposed design of Toll Plaza & Toll Administrative Buildings





For (Osian -
Mathania)
27.0
km
0 0 104 19 34 9 2
For
(Mathania -
Jodhpur)
20.0
Km
0 0 498 94 201 42 9
For
(Lohawat -
Mathania)
71.0
km
0 0 45 7 21 6 1
For (Osian -
Jodhpur)
44.0
km
0 0 184 34 69 16 3
For
(Phalodi -
Jodhpur)
117.0
km
0 0 152 25 99 29 5
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6.8 Parking Areas and Rest Areas
Wayside amenities are very much part of highway projects. They play an important
role in giving relief to drivers and travellers, particularly for long distance travellers,
by avoiding long detours off the highway into normally crowded towns alongside.
These facilities must be comfortable and reasonable. They also must incorporate all
the basic needs of travellers like food, fuel, rest and recreation areas, whilst providing
for basic shopping needs besides providing washing and servicing facilities to the
trucks with repair shops to attend to minor repairs and valcanising facilities.
Alongside these, there could be emergency medical services and public telephone
facilities as well.

Analysis needs to be made of the following in order to select site locations and
requirements:

Inbound and outbound destinations to be served
Accessibility to main traffic arteries
Obstructions such as bridges, underpasses, crossings
Zoning of the site
Proximity to towns, urban / regional plans for vicinity
Utility provisions

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6.9 Land Acquisition
Land acquisition documents will be prepared in accordance with TOR, and as
outlined in Highway Act. The ROW available at present varies between 25m to 30m
only. The improvement proposal of widening the carriageway to 2 lane with Paved
shoulder does not need any Land Acquisition.
Land Acquisition is needed for new Bye Passes, Easing out of Curves, change of
alignment, Toll Plazas etc.
Acquisition of the extra land by the normal procedure as per Land Acquisition Act,
will take considerable time. A fast track approach is required for acquiring this extra
land since time is of an essence on this project. This could be a achieved by following
the portions of the Rajasthan State Road Development Act which provides for
acquisition of any land for public purposes under the provisions of the State
Highways. This act provides for acquisition of any land required for public purposes.
As per this clause, any required land can be acquired by the Competent Authority
after duly making a notification in the Official Gazette of requirement of the land for
any public purposes.

It is estimated that approximately 68 Hectares of land are to be acquired for forming
the project. Necessary land plan schedules will be prepared as required in TOR.
6.10 Landscaping
Aesthetics of areas surrounding the roadways are a prime consideration in the design
of roads. This must be in line with road safety considerations. Landscaping of the
environment in the vicinity of roads contributes in a number of ways like;

Controls soil erosion
Noise abatement
Safety barrier
Glare reduction at night from oncoming traffic
Visual barrier where required
Indicative guide for direction of traffic movement

It is recommended that local / regional varieties of trees, plants and shrubs should
primarily be used. Amongst the considerations for selection would be tolerance to
pollution, as well as stop the blown sand on the Road, cyclones, particularly in the
case of trees in proximity to the edge of the roadway. Whilst the latter is normally
discouraged, the shade provided by the trees would be of great advantage given the
hot climate of the area.

6.11 Service / diversion Roads

To segregate main traffic from local traffic it is proposed to provide service road on
either side of the main carriageway in the built of areas. The details of service roads
proposed only in the built up area of Osian, which is proposed in the form of the 2.0m
wide Footpaths on both sides of road .
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Diversion Roads proposed for the construction of Culverts / Bridges with widening
of Single lane road to 2 Lane road with paved shoulders.




Annexure 6.10 - Details of Proposed Service / Diversion Roads
S.No Location
Project
Chainage (Km) Side
Length
(m)
From To
1 Osian Village (Footpaths) 73250 75150 Both 1850
2 Widening of Single Lane road 38500 44050 One 5550
3
At Several construction of new
culverts / bridges
-

-

One 3750


6.12 Bus Bays and Shelters:

It is proposed to construct 2 Nos. Bus Bays with shelters along the project road. The
typical layout of Bus Bay with shelter is shown in Fig. 6.1. Details of proposed Bus
Bays are furnished in Annexure 6.11.


Annexure 6.11 - Proposed Bus bay along Project Road

S. No. Location Side Description Type
1 10/886 Both sides
Lordia Bus-Bay with Shelter
2 13/190 Both sides
Lohawat Bus-Bay with Shelter
3 13/210 Both sides
Balaji Bus-Bay with Shelter
4 15/530 Both sides Bhikamkor Bus-Bay with Shelter
5 16/050 Both sides Osian Bus-Bay with Shelter
6 19/080 Both sides
Osian Bus-Bay with Shelter
7 22/060 Both sides
Nagaur Tiraha Bus-Bay with Shelter
8 24/325 Both sides
Mathania Bus-Bay with Shelter
9 29/619 Both sides
Manaklao Bus-Bay with Shelter



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Chapter 7 Material Investigation


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CHAPTER 7
7.1 MATERIAL INVESTIGATION
The main objective of the material investigation report is to determine the strength of
the existing subgrade of the embankment along the alignment. The objectives for
investigations on borrow materials were to ascertain the suitability of the material as a
fill for embankment and use as selected subgrade and to ensure that adequate
quantity of material is available in the identified areas.

Accordingly details soil and material investigations were carried out along the entire
stretch of the project road which includes:

Subgrade soil investigation for road design
Investigation for construction materials

The main focus of the above investigations was to determine the mechanical
characteristics of:

Subgrade soil along the existing alignment
Borrow area soil
Construction materials to be obtained from quarries

7.1.1 Methodology Adopted

The methodology adopted to achieve the aforementioned objective is as follows:
Excavation of trial pit along the alignment
Excavation of trial pits in borrow areas
Determination of disturbed, undisturbed and bulk samples
Laboratory tests on all samples collected from trial pits
Conducting filed CBR using DCP method in locations at the shoulder of the
existing pavement
Laboratory tests on representative samples collected from quarry sites

7.1.2 Scope of Work
The scope of work of material report includes
Carry out field and lab test to materials to determine their suitability for
various components of the work
Establish the quality and quantity of various construction materials
Recommendation of materials for their use on the basis of techno economic
principles
Preparation of mass haul diagram for haulage purpose giving quarry charts
indicating the location of selected borrow areas, quarries and the estimate
quantity available
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Use of excavated soil for use in embankment filling

7.1.3 Material Investigations
The bulk of the materials used in the construction of modern Highway Pavement is
obtained from natural occurring sources. The choice of materials for various
components of Highway pavement calls for vigorous investigation of both quality
and quantity of materials available for economical use on highway projects. The
appropriate choice of materials has assumed more important for highway in the
resent years in view of significant increases in the volume of traffic and axle loads,
variation in sub grade condition and the high level of service expected by user.

Material investigation has been carried out to identify and assess potential sources for
bulk procurement of the following materials.
Road Metal for use as base
Murram/ gravel for use as sub base
River Sand
General fill materials suitable for construction of high embankment

Potential sources of construction materials were identified and located in
such a way as to ensure that:
Sources could produce materials of quality that satisfied construction
specification.
Sufficient sources of each material type were identified.
Where possible, sources for any and materials type were distributed along the
project to minimize haulage.

Samples were obtained from each source and subjected to a testing program. The
testing program adopted was based on the standard construction specifications used
for each material.

The tests carried out on sub grade soil are as under:
In-situ density and moisture content test at each trail pits
Classification test for subgrade type (textured classification) @ 5000m interval
including grain size analysis, Atterberg limits, natural moisture content,
specific gravity, free swell index.
Laboratory moisture density characteristic using modified ASHTO
compaction test method.
Lab CBR at 4 days soaked condition.

The field and laboratory test results conducted are enclosed as Annexure at the end of
the report containing the following:

Trial pit details
Grain size distribution for borrow material
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Atterberg limit for borrow soil
Modified Proctor Compaction Test for Borrow Soil
CBR test results for Borrow Material
Gradation test results for various pavement components like WMM, BM,DBM,
BC/SDBC


7.1.4 Subgrade Investigation
Investigations along the existing subgrade have been carried out to assess the
adequacy of the existing pavement layers appropriate to present proposed subgrade
strength, so that, the strengthening and reconstruction requirement can be established
to cater to the design traffic. Objectives of investigation also includes the evaluation of
the existing pavement composition, characteristics of existing subgrade for design of
pavement, by means of in situ and laboratory tests as well the need for further
investigation along the widened part or proposed new alignment.

The existing subgrade characteristics such as the soil classification, their index
properties of plasticity, liquidity index, their moisture content, are evaluated with the
help of trial pits, dug for a size of 1.0m x 1.0m x 1.2m. The subgrade soil samples were
collected from each trail pit. The samples were transported to the Consultants
laboratory as Tricky and the following test parameters were analyzed.

In-Situ density and moisture content at each test pit:
Index properties of grain size analysis and Atterberg limits:
4 days soaked & unsoaked (CBR tests):
Laboratory moisture density characteristics (Modified Proctor Compaction)
The test results of the subgrade soil are furnished in Annexure 7.1



















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7.1.5 Borrow Area Soil
Subgrade is a layer of soil prepared to stand against the load of road material, traffic
load and environmental conditions. The load on pavement is ultimately received by
the sub grade soil for dispersion to the earth mass. Therefore, it is essential that at no
time the sub grade soil is overstressed, meaning that the pressure transmitted on the
top of the sub grade is within the allowable limit, not to cause excessive stress
condition or to deform the same beyond elastic limit. Soils, that is proposed to use in
sub grade and embankment, are identified from the approved borrow areas and other
locations are located in the vicinity of project road stretch.

Investigation has been carried out to identify and explore the potential sources for
embankment fill material and sub grade material for new alignment and also to assess
the general availability, nature and quantum or materials available for the project. The
borrow area identified for sub grade is from an average lead of 0.5km in selected
quarries along the project road. Soil samples were collected from this and tested for
Gradation, Atterberg limit, Modified Maximum Dry Density / optimum moisture
content and CBR values.

All these parameters are tested in accordance with following IS Standards.

Gain size analysis as per IS:2720 (part 4)
Atterberg limit as per IS :2720 (part 5)
Maximum Dry Density & Optimum Moisture Content as per IS:2720 (part 8)
CBR value as per IS :2720 (part 16)

Source identified for borrow area soils and the corresponding test results are
furnished hereunder in Annexure 7-1.

7.1.6 Material for GSB
Investigation has been carried out to identify and explore the potential sources for sub
base material and to assess the general availability, nature and quantum of materials
available for the project. The borrow area identified by the Public Works Department
for sub base (GSB) of gravel from approve quarry at lead distance of 10km. Necessary
design were carried out to meet the requirements as per MOST Clause 401. Soil
samples collected from the borrow pits are tested for Gradation, Atterberg limit,
Modified proctor density and CBR values.

All these parameters are tested in accordance with following IS Standards.

Gain size analysis as per IS:2720 (part 4)
Atterberg limit as per IS :2720 (part 5)
Maximum proctor density as per IS:2720 (part 8)
CBR value as per IS :2720 (part 16)

Chapter 7 Material Investigation


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Source for Material for used in GSB and their corresponding test results are furnished
hereunder in Annexure 7-1
7.1.7 Sand
Sand quarry has been identified at Loria River & Pipar Road Sand, the tests
performed were fineness modulus, specific gravity and gradation of sand. The test
conforms to IS: 2386 (part-1) -1963. The samples were collected and necessary tests
were carried out for assessment of suitability of use for construction.

The following tests were carried out:
Sieve analysis and fineness modulus
Specific gravity
Deleterious material
The fineness modulus of fine aggregate is 2.34

The test result satisfies the requirement of section 1000, 1008 of MORTH and it is
recommended.

7.1.8 Stone Aggregate
The aggregate is available from the approved quarry site, located along the project
road stretch where sufficient quantity of material is available.
The samples were collected and the following tests were conducted for assessing the
suitability of the material for use of construction.

Gradation
Specific gravity
Water absorption as per IS 2386 part 3
Los Angles abrasion test as per IS 2386 Part 4
Flaky and elongation index as per IS 2386 part 1
Aggregate Impact value as per IS 2386 Part 4
Stripping value as per AASHTO T-182
Soundness test (loss with Sodium Sulphate 5 cycles) as per IS 2386 Part 5
The sources for procurement of all material are furnished in Quarry Map shown in
Figure 7.1

7.2 PAVEMENT DESIGN

The TOR requires the pavement designs to be prepared for the following:
a. Strengthening of the existing 2 lane road / pavement
b. New pavement for additional carriageways
c. Pavement for shoulder.

To comply with the above requirements, the following IRC codes are followed.
Chapter 7 Material Investigation


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1. IRC:37-2001:
2. IRC :81-1997

To design the pavement the following details are required:

1. Predictions of the traffic loads which the pavement is to carry during its design
life. In this, the cumulative total of commercial vehicles is compiled from the
traffic survey conducted.

2. Characteristics of the sub-grade on which the pavement is to be constructed.

3. Characteristics of the materials which are being used in the pavement.

4. For the design of pavement overlays, additional information is required as to
the characteristics of the existing pavement particularly with respect to the
remaining capacity of the pavement to carry traffic loading.

For item (2) above, field investigation program is required to determine the sub-grade
characteristics.

For item (3) above, it has been assumed that the work will be constructed to IRC
standard specification and an investigation program has been undertaken to ensure
that material sources can provide materials that conform to these specifications.

7.2.1 Traffic Loading
In chapter 5, analyses were made of traffic survey conducted and traffic projection at
the end of the design life of 25 years has been arrived at.

In accordance with the requirement of IRC:37-2001, the traffic loading for the design
period and design lane are to be assessed. It is seen from Table 4.18 assumed that the
traffic is more or less equal in both directions. Vehicles constituting the commercial
vehicles are LCV, 2 Axles, 3 Axles and Multi Axles and Multi Axle Semi Articulated
vehicles.

The cumulative number of standard axles has been worked out by adopting the
following formula as per clause 3.3.6.1 of IRC 37-2001 N =
( ) [ ]
r
xAxDxF r
n
1 1 365 +
.

=
r
xAxDxF
r
n
(
(

\
|
+ 1
100
1 365



Chapter 7 Material Investigation


Page 124 of 166

=
100 / 00 . 5
1
100
00 . 5
1 365
26
xAxDxF
(
(

\
|
+



=
( )
xADF
05 . 0
1 05 . 0 1 365
26
+



=
( )
xADF
05 . 0
1 56 . 3 365


= xADF
x
05 . 0
75 . 0 4 . 934


= 14016 x A x D x F

The lane distribution for 2 lane carriageway a factor of 75% is adopted as per clause
3.3.5.1 of IRC 37-2001.

The growth factor of 5% is arrived at adopting the States & Districts Economic
Indicator. As this growth factor is seem to be low, an alternative method was adopted
for working out the growth rate based on Economic Growth of the country as a whole
Past future, and for the state, future.

The Vehicles Damage Factor has been arrived at for different class of vehicle based on
Axle Load Survey conducted. The VDF for various types of vehicles as per Table 4.28
of this report is adopted.

Adopting the above figures the cumulative number of standard axles are worked out
as follows


The cumulative total of commercial vehicles at the end of the design period, say 15
years, is worked out for each location based on the growth rates for medium scenario
and tabulated in Annexure 7.2-01 to 7.2-05.

Annexure 7.02- 01
Summary of Cumulative Million Standard Axles

Sl.
No
Location
Cumulative Standard
Axles
Design MSA
1 KM 6/500 34.98 x 10
6
35
2 KM 39/900 44.15 x 10
6
45
3 KM 90/000 62.16 x 10
6
65
4 KM 109/500 86.11 x 10
6
90
Chapter 7 Material Investigation


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Annexure 7.2-02
Projected Traffic & MSA Calculation
At km 6/500

VDF 3.5 Distribution
factor
0.75 MSA Design
MSA

Year 2A
Truck
3A
Truck
LCV MAV Tractor Trailer
2010-2011 449 156 137 23 23 111 0.33 0.25
2011-2012 471 164 144 24 24 117 0.71 0.53
2012-2013 495 172 151 25 25 123 1.14 0.86
2013-2014 520 181 159 26 26 129 1.64 1.23
2014-2015 546 190 167 27 27 135 2.20 1.65
2015-2016 573 199 175 29 29 142 2.85 2.14
2016-2017 602 209 184 30 30 149 3.58 2.68
2017-2018 632 220 193 32 32 157 4.41 3.31
2018-2019 663 230 203 33 33 165 5.34 4.01
2019-2020 697 242 213 35 35 173 6.40 4.80
2020-2021 731 254 224 37 37 182 7.59 5.69
2021-2022 768 267 235 39 39 191 8.93 6.70
2022-2023 806 280 247 41 41 200 10.44 7.83
2023-2024 847 294 259 43 43 210 12.12 9.09
2024-2025 889 309 272 45 45 221 14.02 10.51
2025-2026 933 324 285 47 47 232 16.14 12.10
2026-2027 980 341 300 49 49 243 18.51 13.88
2027-2028 1029 358 315 52 52 255 21.15 15.87
2028-2029 1081 375 330 54 54 268 24.11 18.08
2029-2030 1135 394 347 57 57 282 27.41 20.56
2030-2031 1191 414 364 60 60 296 31.09 23.32
2031-2032 1251 435 382 63 63 310 35.19 26.40
2032-2033 1313 456 402 66 66 326 39.76 29.82
2033-2034 1379 479 422 69 69 342 44.85 33.63
2034-2035 1448 503 443 73 73 359 50.50 37.88
2035-2036 1520 528 465 76 76 377 56.79 42.59
2036-2037 1596 555 488 80 80 396 63.77 47.83


Chapter 7 Material Investigation


Page 126 of 166

Annexure 7.2-03
Projected Traffic & MSA Calculation

At km 39/900

VDF 3.5 Distribution
factor
0.75 MSA Design
MSA

Year 2A
Truck
3A
Truck
LCV MAV Tractor Trailer
2010-2011 439 152 137 22 23 110 0.32 0.24
2011-2012 461 160 144 24 24 115 0.69 0.52
2012-2013 484 168 151 25 25 121 1.12 0.84
2013-2014 508 176 159 26 26 127 1.61 1.21
2014-2015 533 185 167 27 27 133 2.16 1.62
2015-2016 560 195 175 29 29 140 2.80 2.10
2016-2017 588 204 184 30 30 147 3.52 2.64
2017-2018 617 214 193 32 32 154 4.33 3.25
2018-2019 648 225 203 33 33 162 5.25 3.94
2019-2020 680 236 213 35 35 170 6.29 4.72
2020-2021 714 248 224 37 37 179 7.46 5.59
2021-2022 750 261 235 38 39 188 8.77 6.58
2022-2023 788 274 247 40 41 197 10.25 7.69
2023-2024 827 287 259 42 43 207 11.91 8.93
2024-2025 868 302 272 44 45 217 13.77 10.33
2025-2026 912 317 285 47 47 228 15.85 11.89
2026-2027 957 333 300 49 49 239 18.18 13.63
2027-2028 1005 349 315 51 52 251 20.78 15.59
2028-2029 1055 367 330 54 54 264 23.69 17.77
2029-2030 1108 385 347 57 57 277 26.93 20.20
2030-2031 1164 404 364 60 60 291 30.55 22.91
2031-2032 1222 425 382 62 63 306 34.57 25.93
2032-2033 1283 446 402 66 66 321 39.06 29.30
2033-2034 1347 468 422 69 69 337 44.05 33.04
2034-2035 1414 492 443 72 73 354 49.61 37.21
2035-2036 1485 516 465 76 76 372 55.79 41.84
2036-2037 1559 542 488 80 80 390 62.65 46.99






Chapter 7 Material Investigation


Page 127 of 166

Annexure 7.2 04
Projected Traffic & MSA Calculation

At km 90/000

VDF 3.5 Distribution
factor
0.75 MSA Design
MSA

Year 2A
Truck
3A
Truck
LCV MAV Tractor Trailer
2010-2011 487 134 218 26 21 51 0.34 0.26
2011-2012 512 141 229 27 22 54 0.74 0.55
2012-2013 537 148 241 28 23 57 1.19 0.89
2013-2014 564 155 253 30 24 60 1.71 1.28
2014-2015 592 163 266 31 25 63 2.30 1.72
2015-2016 622 171 279 33 27 66 2.97 2.23
2016-2017 653 180 293 34 28 69 3.73 2.80
2017-2018 685 189 307 36 29 72 4.60 3.45
2018-2019 720 198 323 38 31 76 5.58 4.18
2019-2020 756 208 339 40 32 80 6.68 5.01
2020-2021 794 219 356 42 34 84 7.92 5.94
2021-2022 833 229 374 44 36 88 9.32 6.99
2022-2023 875 241 392 46 37 92 10.89 8.16
2023-2024 919 253 412 48 39 97 12.65 9.49
2024-2025 965 266 432 51 41 102 14.62 10.97
2025-2026 1013 279 454 53 43 107 16.83 12.62
2026-2027 1063 293 477 56 46 112 19.30 14.48
2027-2028 1117 307 501 59 48 118 22.07 16.55
2028-2029 1172 323 526 62 50 124 25.15 18.86
2029-2030 1231 339 552 65 53 130 28.59 21.45
2030-2031 1293 356 580 68 55 136 32.43 24.32
2031-2032 1357 374 609 71 58 143 36.71 27.53
2032-2033 1425 392 639 75 61 150 41.47 31.11
2033-2034 1496 412 671 79 64 158 46.78 35.08
2034-2035 1571 433 704 82 67 166 52.68 39.51
2035-2036 1650 454 740 87 71 174 59.23 44.42
2036-2037 1732 477 777 91 74 183 66.52 49.89



Chapter 7 Material Investigation


Page 128 of 166

Annexure 7.2 05
Project Traffic & MSA Calculation

At km 109/500

VDF 3.5 Distribution
factor
0.75 MSA Design
MSA

Year 2A
Truck
3A
Truck
LCV MAV Tractor Trailer
2010-2011 591 123 275 25 25 74 0.41 0.30
2011-2012 621 129 289 26 26 78 0.88 0.66
2012-2013 652 135 304 28 28 82 1.41 1.06
2013-2014 684 142 319 29 29 86 2.03 1.52
2014-2015 719 149 335 30 30 90 2.73 2.05
2015-2016 754 157 352 32 32 95 3.53 2.65
2016-2017 792 164 369 34 34 100 4.44 3.33
2017-2018 832 173 388 35 35 105 5.46 4.10
2018-2019 873 181 407 37 37 110 6.62 4.97
2019-2020 917 190 427 39 39 115 7.93 5.95
2020-2021 963 200 449 41 41 121 9.41 7.06
2021-2022 1011 210 471 43 43 127 11.07 8.30
2022-2023 1062 220 495 45 45 134 12.93 9.70
2023-2024 1115 231 519 47 47 140 15.02 11.27
2024-2025 1170 243 545 49 49 147 17.37 13.03
2025-2026 1229 255 573 52 52 155 19.99 14.99
2026-2027 1290 268 601 55 55 162 22.93 17.20
2027-2028 1355 281 631 57 57 171 26.21 19.66
2028-2029 1423 295 663 60 60 179 29.88 22.41
2029-2030 1494 310 696 63 63 188 33.97 25.47
2030-2031 1568 326 731 66 66 197 38.53 28.89
2031-2032 1647 342 767 70 70 207 43.61 32.71
2032-2033 1729 359 806 73 73 218 49.27 36.95
2033-2034 1816 377 846 77 77 229 55.56 41.67
2034-2035 1906 396 888 81 81 240 62.57 46.93
2035-2036 2002 416 933 85 85 252 70.36 52.77
2036-2037 2102 436 979 89 89 265 79.02 59.26
Chapter 7 Material Investigation


Page 129 of 166

7.2.2 Sub-Grade Characteristics
The results of the investigation conducted on sub-grade soils, for CBR values for their
characteristics are furnished in Annexure -7.3

Annexure 7.3
S. No. Chainage Liquid Limit Plasticity Index CBR
1 5000 22.37 - 9.12
2 10000 21.43 - 9.68
3 15000 21.74 - 9.87
4 20000 20.98 - 10.37
5 25000 22.01 - 9.94
6 30000 21.67 - 10.34
7 35000 20.47 - 10.37
8 40000 21.86 - 10.88
9 45000 22.37 - 9.12
10 50000 20.25 - 10.26
11 55000 22.14 - 10.21
12 60000 22.07 - 10.23
13 70000 21.09 - 11.02
14 80000 21.14 - 12.22
15 90000 21.37 - 9.81
16 100000 21.27 - 10.41
17 MB-1 22.07 - 11.31
18 MB-2 21.42 - 9.87
19 MB-3 21.32 - 9.81
20 120000 21.64 - 9.69

Phalodi - Jodhpur km 2/6 to 122/00 C.B.R Values of Soils along Road taken as 9.0
CBR.





Chapter 7 Material Investigation


Page 130 of 166

7.2.2.1 New Formation & Bypass
As the CBRs noted is good, the soil lying on the route can be used as soil of
embankment. But take care for not to use blown sand in embankment construction.


The pavement for widening the existing carriageway has been designed based on the
assumed CBR of 9 for various homogenous sections identified earlier in para 4.2.2.6


The pavement for the new formation for the bypasses has been designed according to
the CBR values assumed for the sub-grade at various bypasses. The CBR assumed for
various Bypasses is 9.0.


7.2.2.2 Existing Pavement

The overlay for strengthening the existing pavement has been designed as per IRC
guide line furnished in IRC :81-1997.


The characteristic deflection has been assessed at various locations based on
Benkelman Beam Deflection Test conducted already. The results of the above test are
furnished separately in Annexure 7.4

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Chapter 7 Material Investigation


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Chapter 7 Material Investigation


Page 133 of 166


The existing pavement composition noted at every kilometre is furnished in
Annexure 7.5

Annexure 7.5
Existing Pavement Composition (Layer Thickness in mm)

Table will be provided in final DPR

7.2.3 Flexible Pavement Design
a) New Formation & Bypasses

Flexible pavement design for new formation and widening of the existing pavement is
designed on the following:
1) 9 % CBR
2) 50 MSA

b) Overlay for Strengthening

Referring to IRC:81-1997, the overlay required for strengthening the existing
pavement has been designed by grouping the deflections noted at various locations
and average deflection is found 0.82 and according to it 50 DBM with 40 BC has been
provided in which DBM is also working for amber & Grade correction.

c) Diversion Road
Considering the lighter traffic to ply on the service roads a different pavement of lanes
density adopted as shown below.

Pavement Composition for Diversion road.
PMC with seal coat = 20mm
Water Bound Macadam = 150mm
Granular Sub Base of Sand Gravel Mix = 150mm
Subgrade & Embankment = 300- 500mm


7.3 PAVEMENT TESTING
7.3.1 Pavement Condition Survey

The objective of the pavement condition survey was to given an understanding of the
overall condition of the pavement through visual observation and field measurements
made at site. The survey was conducted during the period of June 2010.

The data collected for each kilometer comprised of five categories: road characteristic,
pavement condition, shoulder condition, embankment and drainage.
Chapter 7 Material Investigation


Page 134 of 166


The above mentioned data pertaining to road were collected during reconnaissance
survey. They are furnished in 2 formats as Road Condition Survey and Road
Inventory.
The details of Road are furnished in Annexure 7.5



Test pits were put up at every 5 kilometer and the existing pavement composition
were noted. The details of existing pavement are furnished in Annexure 7.6

Pavement Surface Condition









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Chapter 8 Bridges and Structures Studies


Page 141 of 166

CHAPTER 8
BRIDGES AND STRUCTURES STUDIES
8.1 GENERAL
The terms of reference (TOR) gives clear directions as to the various tasks pertaining
to brides and culverts to be covered in the Feasibility Report.


There are a number of Flushed causeway Culverts and Nala crossing the project road.
The width of these crossings varies from 7.50m to 12.0m. All these crossing do have
bridge structure with RCC slab superstructure besides these bridge structure there are
a good may culverts of both pipe and slab culverts. Most of the pipe culverts are
having NP2 / NP4 type of pipes only. In respect of super structure, they are R.C.C
Slab.

Detailed Inventory and conditions survey of the existing structures were carried out.
They provided valuable information either for rehabilitation or planning new
structures. The details collected during inventory and condition survey of bridges
were recorded in the format BRIDGE INVENTORY AND CONDITION SURVEY as
prescribed in IRC: SP: 19-2001.

8.2 TYPICAL CROSS SECTIONS
From the condition survey the existing structures were examined either for their
retention or require to be replaced with new structures. In cases of replacement with
new structures the new structures will be constructed one for carriageway of 12 lane
width.

Considering the future anticipated traffic, likely to be generated due to the
improvement proposed in this project and also due to the saving in distance involved
for the through traffic a decision has to be taken whether the new construction of
bridge have to be constructed for a 4 lane traffic. It is seen from other project being
finalized by RSRDCC, RSRDCC has considered the construction of bridge for 2 lane
traffic though the roadway is only for 2 lane traffic. In line with the above, tentative
cross sections are furnished hereunder for bridge for 2 lane width without footpath is
proposed and utilities can be hanged from outside.








Chapter 8 Bridges and Structures Studies


Page 142 of 166

Sl.
No.
Details 2 Lane Width 4 Lane Width
For Bridges
1 Shy-off distance on the median side 0.25 0.25
2 Carriageway width 10.50 7.50
3 Extra shoulder of 1.5 m width
corresponding to 1.5m width paved
shoulder
0.00 -
4 Shy-off distance on footpath side - 0.25
5 Crash Barrier between footpath and
carriageway
0.50 0.50
6 Footpath 0.00 1.20
7 Outer kerb for Hand rail - 0.55
8 Overall width for bridges 12.00 13.25
9 Overall width for the 2 bridges 22.00 19.50
10 Median opening with Crash Barrier
width of 0.50m
0.00 1.20
11 Total width for two carriageways 12.00 20.70

For Road way
1 Shy-off distance on the Median Side 0.00
2 Carriageway width 7.00
3 Paved Shoulder 1.50
4 Gravel Shoulder 1.00
5 Total width 12.00
6 Overall width for the 2 roadway 12.00
7 Median Width 0.00
Total width of full formation 12.00

Chapter 8 Bridges and Structures Studies


Page 143 of 166

8.3 Field Investigations
The field investigations, namely topographical surveys, hydraulic study, geological
investigations, inventory and condition surveys have all been carried out and they are
being studied for improvements on new construction, as the case may be.

Details of investigation and design of structure are show in Volume II. Design
Report for structures.

8.4 Inventory and Condition Survey
8.4.1 Inventory Survey
The detailed inventory of bridge, both major and minor, and culverts comprise of
relevant technical data and general features. In the project road there is no major
bridge.

There are 2 minor bridges. Their substructures are of R.R masonry. Super structures
are of R.C.C slab at km 103.420, 117.500. The clear roadway varies between 6.8m to
11.0m.

The foundation details of these minor bridges are not known as most these structures
are old. But the foundation and other structure seems to be sound.

Of the 2 nos. 1 bridge are to be widened as their formation is less than 12.0m. The
culverts & minor bridges can be retained which is in fair condition except some minor
repair work are needed. The bridge inventory survey details are furnished in the
format proscribed in IRC: SP: 19-2001. and furnished in Annexure -8.01.


Annexure -8.01.



Chapter 8 Bridges and Structures Studies


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1 3/1 2500 15 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
2 3/2 2900 12 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
3 4/1 3050 15 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
4 4/2 3700 15 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
5 9/1 8350 20 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
6 31/1 30075 25 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
7 34/1 33400 20 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
8 37/1 36850 15 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
9 50/1 49200 35 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
10 54/1 53825 12 12 1 1.2
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
RCC
Pipe
No 2 OK Nala 1.6 No
Chapter 8 Bridges and Structures Studies


Page 145 of 166

11 56/1 55525 11.1 12 1 2
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
RCC
Slab
No 4 OK Nala 2 No
12 56/2 55800 30 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
13 58/1 57400 8 12 2 1.2
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
RCC
Pipe
No 6 OK Nala 1.6 No
14 58/2 57625 5.1 7.5 2 1.5
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
RCC
Slab
No 6 OK Nala 1.5 Yes
15 59/1 58050 8 12 2 0.9
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
RCC
Pipe
No 68 OK Nala 1.6 No
16 59/1 58350 10 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
17 60/1 59900 30 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
18 60/2 59500 35 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
19 61/1 60700 12.2 12 3 0.9
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
RCC
Pipe
No 69 OK Nala 1.75 No
20 65/1 65600 35 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
21 68/1 67600 28 7.5 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 15 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
22 80/1 79350 30 8 1 -
RR
Stone
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 70 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
Chapter 8 Bridges and Structures Studies


Page 146 of 166

Masonry
23 80/2 79800 30 8 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 70 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
24 80/1 79900 30 8 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 70 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
25 81/1 80010 45 8 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 50 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
26 81/2 80400 35 8 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 45 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
27 82/1 81150 50 8 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 70 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
27A 81/1 80200 50 8 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
PCC FCW No 50 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
28 104/1 103420 12 7.5 4 3
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
RCC
Slab
No 16 OK Nala 2.5 Yes
29 115/1 114900 25 8 1 -
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
FCW No 45 OK Nala 1 New Culvert
30 118/2 117500 12 7.5 2 4
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
RCC
Slab
No 71 OK Nala 2.5 Yes
31 121/1 120000 37 9.4 15 0.9
RR
Stone
Masonry
RR Stone
Masonry
RCC
Pipe
No 69 OK Nala 1.75 New Culvert
31a 112/1 116600 8.5 8 5 0.9
RR
Stone
Masonry
PCC
R.C.C
Pipe
No 4.5 OK
Atiya
Nala
2.5 New Culvert
Chapter 8 Bridges and Structures Studies


Page 147 of 166

32 118/1 117100 10.2 12 6 0.9
RR
Stone
Masonry
PCC
R.C.C
Pipe
No 5.4 OK Nala 1.5 -
33 120/1 119375 3.4 8 2 0.9
RR
Stone
Masonry
PCC
R.C.C
Pipe
No 1.8 OK Nala 1.5 New Culvert
34 122/1 121425 10.2 12 6 0.9
RR
Stone
Masonry
PCC
R.C.C
Pipe
No 5.4 OK Nala 1.5 -
35 122/2 121700 1.7 9 1 0.6
RR
Stone
Masonry
PCC
R.C.C
Pipe
No 5.4 OK Nala 2.5 New Culvert


New Culverts has been proposed inplace of Flushed Causeway and replacement of few Pipe Culverts with new Minor bridges /
Culverts at Mathania By Pass.


New Culverts
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1 3/1 2500 9 12 6 1 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 1.25 12.00
2 3/2 2900 6 12 4 1 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 1.25 12.00
3 4/1 3050 9 12 6 1 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
4 4/2 3700 9 12 6 1 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
Chapter 8 Bridges and Structures Studies


Page 148 of 166

5 9/1 8350 9 12 6 1 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
6 31/1 30075 12 12 8 1 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
7 34/1 33400 9 12 6 1 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
8 37/1 36850 9 12 6 1 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
9 50/1 49200 15 12 10 1 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
10 53/1 52500 3 12 2 1 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 1.25 12.00
11 53/2 52600 3 12 2 1 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 1.25 12.00
12 79/1 78550 15 12 10 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
13 79/2 78725 15 12 10 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
14 79/3 78935 15 12 10 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
15 80/1 79175 15 12 10 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
16 80/2 79435 12 12 8 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
17 80/3 79725 15 12 10 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
18 81/1 80200 12 12 8 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
19 120/1 119650 15 12 10 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
20
Mathania
By Pass
40.4 12 6 6 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 3 12.00
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21
Mathania
By Pass
20.6 12 3 6 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 3 12.00
22
Mathania
By Pass
20.6 12 3 6 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 3 12.00
23
Mathania
By Pass
20.6 12 3 6 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 3 12.00
24 15 12 10 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
25 15 12 10 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
26 15 12 10 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
27 12 12 8 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
28 15 12 10 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
29 12 12 8 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
30 15 12 10 1.5 - PCC
RCC
Box
Yes New Nala 2.5 12.00
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8.4.2 Condition Survey
Detailed Conditions Survey of the existing structures was carried out simultaneously
based on detailed inventory survey. Signs of degradation and deterioration of the
structures such as cracks, spalling, exposure of reinforcement, rust, stains, corrosion
deflection, if any condition of expansion joints, bearing, drainage system were noted.

In general parapet and wearing coat, were damaged in some places. Drainage spouts
were to be replaced little damages were noted in the revetment and other protective
work.

In respect of minor bridges, general condition of these bridges is in good conditions.
In view of the substructures being R.R masonry, No bridge is required to be
reconstructed. The Condition Survey details of minor bridges are furnished in
Annexure 8.01

The details collected during condition survey in respect of major bridge are shown in
the format prescribed in IRC: SP: 19-2001 in Annexure 8.02

There are 14 culverts comprising of pipe culverts, RCC slab culverts in the entire
project road.

The Inventory Details of culverts are furnished in Annexure 8.03


The number of structures existing are listed below according to length of the bridges
in Table-8.1 below.

Table 8.1

Number of Structures

S.No. Details Numbers
1 Bridges >60m 0
2 Bridges >6m <60m 20
3 Culverts : Pipe 6
R.C.C Slab 2
RCC Box 9
Brick Arch 0
Total 37


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Pipe Culvert at Km 53/825


Slab Culvert at Km 55/525

Pipe Culvert at Km 57/400


Slab Culvert at Km 57/625

Pipe Culvert at Km 58/050


Pipe Culvert at Km 60/700

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Pipe Culvert at Km 120/000












Pipe Culvert at Km 121/700

Pipe Culvert at Km 122/850
8.5 Hydraulic and Hydrological Investigations.
The terrain along SH-61 is fairly level sloping from west to east. There is only Local
drainage / Nalas are crossing the road.


8.5.3 Minor Bridges
There are about 4 minor bridges of Span varying from 3.0m to 6.0m has been
proposed. The sub structures for 4 nos. of minor bridges are of R.R masonry and
superstructure is of RCC Slab / Post tensioned slab has been proposed.
8.5.4 Culverts

All Flushed Causeway has been proposed to be demolish and replaced with RCC Box
culverts.






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Annexure 8.03 A1
Details of Pipe / RCC Slab Culverts


Pipe Culvert at Km 53/825


Slab Culvert at Km 55/525
Pipe Culvert at Km 57/400

Slab Culvert at Km 57/625
Pipe Culvert at Km 58/050

Pipe Culvert at Km 60/700




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Pipe Culvert at Km 120/000











Pipe Culvert at Km 121/700

Pipe Culvert at Km 122/850


8.6.2 Railway Level Crossing

There are as many as 5nos. of railway level crossing on this road project. The road and
railway kilometer of these level crossings are furnished hereunder.

Details of Railway Level Crossings
S.No. Level Crossing Remarks TVU / Proposal
Road Km LC No.
1 37/175 50 E-2 After Lohawat 36150 / No ROB
2 61/350 44 After Bhikamkor 30309 / No ROB
3 72/800 23/T-2 Before Osian 34285 / No ROB
4 103/500 18/E-2 At Mathania 242232 / By Pass
5 114/550 42/E-2 At manaklao 224904 / By Pass

Of the above 5 level crossings, 2 nos. are eliminated by proposing bypasses. Other LC
doesn t have much traffic as the TVU is less than 1.0 Lac.

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The above railway line is the main line leading to Jaiselmer, Phalodi, Jodhpur. This
Railway track has only 1 Track of Broad Gauge and there no proposal to extend this in
near future.


8.7 GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION & SUB SOIL EXPLORATION
8.7.1 Scope of Work

As per TOR, bore hole requirement for bridges are generally as under.

S.No. Description Location of Boring
1 Over all length = 6 to 30m One abutment location
2 Overall length = 30 to 60m One abutment location
One intermediate location
3 Overall length = >60m Each abutment
Each Pier Location

Requirement of bore hole for various minor and major bridges have been worked out
and geotechnical investigations for bridge have been commenced. Depth of bore holes
and termination of bore holes has been generally carried out as per standard practice.

In addition geological investigations have also been carried out for ROB location at
km.21/6 (existing chainage) and for proposed flyover locations.

The number of bore holes proposed for each bridge & flyover are furnished below.

8.7.2 Methodology of Investigation
All bore holes are of 100mm dia bore holes will be put up using heavy duty calyx rig.

8.7.2.1 Standard Penetration Test
S.P.T to determine penetration resistance will be carried out in the bore holes at 1.5m
intervals, using the prescribed procedure described in IS 2131-198. The Penetration
Resistance- N is the number of blows required to drive the samples for 30cm. beyond
the seating driver. Where it is not possible to drive the samples for full 45 cm the
number of blows for every 15cm penetration has been recorded. When refusal stage is
reached, number of blows for every 30.0cm. is noted under refusal condition, N
values are recorded as more then 50.

8.7.2.2 Sampling
Undisturbed soil samples will be collected at 1.5cm intervals in depth or change of
strata whichever occurs earlier, for laboratory testing.

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Disturbed soils samples shall be collected and enclosed in polythene bags. The work
will be carried out as per IS: 2132.

8.7.2.3 Ground Water Level
The stranding ground water level in the bore hole after stabilisation will be recorded
upto exploration depth during boring and withdrawing the casing pipe.

8.7.2.4 Laboratory Testing

Soil sample collected will be tested in the laboratory for conducting various tests as
listed below related to bore log details.
Natural Moisture Content, bulk & dry density
Sieve Hydrometer analysis & grain size curves
Liquid & Plastic limits
Specific gravity
Primary consolidation test
Direct shear test
Triaxial test
Fines swell index
Swelling Pressure
Shrinkage limits
Modified Procter compaction test
CBR test soaked & un-soaked
Chemical analysis of soil
Silt factor test

Base on the tests results, the bearing capacity shall be computed on the basis of shear
and settlement failure as per IS 6403 & IS 8209 (part-I)

Geo Technical Investigations have been proposed for all the Bridges proposed.
8.7.3 Proposed Design of Structure
Based on the hydraulics and sub soil characteristics the foundation level will be fixed
and the required linear waterway will be calculated both by area reality method and
catchment area and the discharge flowing through the waterway. While fixing the
linear waterway the LWW of the existing bridges.

Will also be taken inter consideration. The road level will be fixed in accordance with
the longitudinal profile of the main highway as well as the minimum flood level.

8.8 SUB SOIL INVESTIGATION FOR CULVERTES

For slab culverts trial pit will be put up at every culvert location to a depth of 2m to
3m and the soil met with will be noted and clarified according to its characteristics.
The depth of foundation will be decided in accordance with the approximate bearing
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capacity of the type of soil met with corresponding to the pressure developed at the
location of the foundation of the structure.

Standard cross-section as per IRC S.P 13-2001 will be adopted for various culverts
according to the span & vent height.

For pipe culverts 1.2m dia internal NP4 type of pipes will be used.

All culverts, slab and pipe, will be constructed to the full formation width with
opening left at the centre for the median portion at slab level. The abutments for the
slab culverts will be constructed for the full length of the roadway.

















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CHAPTER 9
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS
9.1 GENERAL
The environmental and social servicing reports have been prepared after as extensive
survey of the project road by the environment course resettlement expert along with
social survey sub consultant.

9.2 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT
The environmental screening report is under compilation.

The report identified the potential major environmental issues that are likely to be
encountered in the course of executing the road improvement works and established
the need for as environmental screening. The report highlighted the need for
assembling relevant data, analysing there and subsequently making as environmental
assessment based on the analysis.

The report listed applicable statutes, policies and responsible agencies that would be
involved with the project at different stages. The procedures for obtaining
environmental clearance were also explained.

The scope of screening, which would cover topography, soils, rainfall, water resources
air and water quality, nose, roadside trees, area of ecological significant the possible
bypass locations was set out. In addition the need for consultations with local
communities was emphasised.

9.3 SOCIAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT
The social impact screening report is under compilation.

The need for a social impact study was highlighted & the methodology for conducting
such a study explained.

A pilot study was carried out. On the basis of the study, a sample survey of house
holder was carried out. The data so gathered was analysed with particular reference
to thou below poverty line. They are most vulnerable sections, and hence the social
screening study was thought to focus attention on this category. Special attention will
be paid to the disadvantaged groups below poverty line.

The RAP will deal with the following aspects.
Identification of adverse social impacts
L.A. and payment of compensation costs
Resettlement policy and entitlements
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Resettlement actions
Implementation plan
Monitoring schedule and institutionalise arrangement.
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CHAPTER 10
COST ESTIMATES
10.1 GENERAL
The cost of a major road project involves computing the cost of:

1. Road components such as earthwork for embankment, sub-base, base courses
and bituminous surface courses for flexible payment or designed mix concrete
for rigid pavements.
2. Bridge components such as culverts, minor and medium bridges, major bridges
and ROBs
3. Traffic components: such as interchanges, intersections, grade separators.
4. Land acquisition, including compensation to be given for acquisition of
structures.
5. Wayside amenities such as rest areas and Bus stops.
6. Road appurtenances such as km stones, pavement marking and sign boards.
7. Social settlement cost such s rehabilitation and resettlement and environmental
mitigation.
8. Miscellaneous items such as arboriculture and landscaping, communication,
office and residential accommodation for supervisory staff and engineers
including vehicles, removal of utilities etc,
9. Finally, provision for contingencies, and quality control.

For Draft report, the cost of the project has been arrived at after weighing the cost of
all the above components based on preliminary design, unit rates and unit costs.


10.2 Unit Rates
10.2.1 Project Details
The proposed project is having the following configuration

2 Lane carriageway 2x3.5 = 7.00
Paved shoulder on the outer side = 1.50
Gravel shoulder on the outer side = 1.00
------
12.00
------

Side slope 2 H / V
Assumed embankment = 0.300
Subgrade = 0.000
Pavement composition GSB = 0.200
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WMM = 0.250
DBM = 0.050
BC = 0.040
--------
0.790
--------

Bottom width of road embankment = 4x0.3 + 12.000
= 1.2 + 12.00
= 13.20m

There is no major need of service road / temporary bypass for construction. But for a
small stretch of approx. 5.0 km of 3.5m wide road and at re construction / widening
of Culvert & Minor Bridges needs service road during construction. The scheme and
methodology is shown in road composition.

After a thorough study of the project road, with reference to the improvements
required, location of minor bridges, Flushed Causeway, homogeneity of section and a
through preliminary investigation, various road segments as shown above have been
arrived at for working out common rates for the individual segments / packages as
shown below in Table 10.1


Table 10.1
Individual Segments / Packages

S. No. Road Segment Reach Reach Name
1 I Km. 2/00 73/00 Phalodi - Osian
2 II Km. 73/00 122/00 Osian - Jodhpur

10.2.2 Unit Rates Analysis
Data regarding the general construction materials such as hard broken stone, sand
and gravel have been collected after preliminary investigation, local enquires and
reference to state schedule of rates and quarry charts.

10.2.2.1 Hard Broken Stone
The following seven quarries have been identified based on preliminary investigation

Pokran quarry.
Phalodi Quarry

The leads worked out for the location of CMP. Local enquiries are made at these
quarries & the local rate providing were adopted as per TOR guidelines.

10.2.2.2 Sand
Sand from Manaklao, Loria River and best is Pipar Road.
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10.2.2.3 Gravel
Gravel is available throughout the length of the project road and weighted averages
for each road segment have been worked out.
Gravel can be received from the quarry at Phalodi, Roopa Ka beda.

10.2.2.4 Earth from Borrow areas
Earth has been proposed to be taken from the nearby road carriageway. The soil lied
in the formation width is suitable for the construction of Embankment. So, lead is not
more than 500m. in this case.

10.2.2.5 Cement, Steel, Bitumen and Pipes
Market rates for bulk quantities from various large marketing companies and public
sector firms such as Ambuja, Laxmi, SAIL and Indian Oil Corporation from have been
obtained and used in the rate analysing. NP 4 class Heavy Duty Pipes are proposed to
be used.

10.2.2.6 Labour
Labour rates for all skilled and unskilled labour required for the work have collected
from the local enquiries.

10.2.2.7 Hire Charges for Machineries
The hire charges for the various equipments and Machineries such as Hot mix plants,
Paver with censors, batching plant, vibrator roller, tipper JCB have been based on the
state BSR 2010.

A list of hire charges for equipment of machineries have been annexed in the Rate
Analysis Booklet.

10.2.2.8 Unit Rates
Unit rate for various road and CD Works items have been worked out as per the
MOST standard data book, duly growing allowance for overhead charges and
construction project as per MOST standard data book.

10.3 Unit Costs
10.3.1 Estimation of Quantities
Typical Cross section for
2 Lane with paved shoulder.
Four lane undivided widening in built up area of Osian (CC Road).
Two lane Paved shoulder with Bypass.

Pavement composition has been designed after preliminary investigation. The soil at
the road corridor is good for sub grade as its have CBR greater than 9. So, there is
need to construct new sub grade in embankment formation. The sub base layers have
been taken to the full width of the embankment to facilitate drainage and give
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strength and support to the carriageway. Base on the above cross sections quantities
have been worked out for 1 km length of work for the above 3 clarification of road for
all pavement items.

10.3.2 Cost Estimate for Road Works
Cost per km for the above 3 clarified road have been worked out based on the
quantities worked out wide para 10.3.1 and rates worked out as per para 10.3.2.

The cost of road works for the above 3 classification of road work has been computed
by multiplying cost per km of road with respective lengths of 2 lane widening for
widening and formation of bypasses.

10.3.3 Cost Estimate
There are 23 flushed causeway, 10 Pipe Culverts & 2 minor bridge in the existing SH
stretch. All Flushed causeway converted into RCC Box Culverts and few pipe culverts
which having formation width less than 12.0m, converted in to RCC box culvert. At
new by pass, Mathania to Manaklao 1, 6*6.0 m. & 2, 3*6.0m RCC Slab culvert has been
proposed. All the foundations of the CD Works & Bridges is open foundation.


10.3.4 Slab Culverts
In the existing 1.5 to 2 lane road, there are 2 slab culverts and 2 RCC slab minor
bridges. All the culverts & minor bridges are with RCC slab & Stone Pier &
Foundation. The Condition of Culverts is good they only need minor maintenance
like parapet construction, plastering etc. The slab culverts are having spans varying
from 1.0m to 4.0m. 1 Minor bridge is having formation width less than 12.0m. It
needs to be widened to 12.0m.

Rationalising cost of widening of culvert has been cost of slab culverts.

10.3.5 Pipe Culverts
In the project road, there are 10 nos. of pipe culverts. Of these some of the pipe
culverts are having only NP 2 pipe and of inadequate diameter. These culverts have to
be reconstructed with NP4 type hume pipes. Such of these pipes culverts where there
are already NP4 type pipes, will require to be extended to suit the 2 lane carriageway.
It is proposed to reconstruct all the pipe culverts to RCC Box culvert which having
formation width less than 12.0m.

In addition it is propose to construct required no of culverts in the bypasses.

In the bypass stretches Mathania to Manaklao 4 new minor bridges have to be
constructed.
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10.3.6 R.O.B
There is no number ROB proposed in the route. All the level crossing (total No. 5)
except at Mathnia & Manaklao has TVU more than 1.0 lac. LC at manaklao &
Mathania has been by passed with proposed new bypass at Mathania to Manaklao.
10.3.7 Pedestrian cum median vehicular underpass.
There is no pedestrian vehicular underpass is proposed. There is no pedestrian traffic
all along the road is present except at mathania & Osian. Mathnia has been by passed
and for safety of pedestrian traffic 4 lane undivided CC road with paved pedestrian
footpath has been proposed. Schools are present on nearside of the road but cross
traffic is very less as the present PCU is also near about 5000 PCU. So, not much traffic
crosses, this may require may be after 15 years. No future provision taken in this
consideration.
10.4 Land Acquisition Cost
An average ROW width of 30m in road area and 45.0m is from bypass is required for
forming 2 lane with paved shoulders undivided carriageways, considering the
available ROW width acquisition of extra land required has been assessed and based
on local enquiry made, necessary lump sum provision has been made towards land
acquisition.
10.5 Contingencies and Supervision Charges.
Provision for contingencies at 5% and Quality control at 1% has been taken.
Supervision charges are not taken, as RSRDCC a govt. of Rajasthan board is
undertaking to operate this BOT (Annuity) project. Another new charges like,
Guaranteed commission to State Government 1%, A & F Charges 10%, Application
Fees & Front end charges 0.5% has take for this highway. The project cost has been
made towards unforeseen items and variation in the length and costs and L.A
charges, social & environmental settlement and other miscellaneous items
10.6 Construction Cost
Based on the assessed quantities for road work, bridges and culverts and adopting the
rates worked out the total cost for the entire project has been worked out i.e widening
the existing 1 Lane - 2 lane carriageway into 2 lane udivided carriageway with 1.5m
wide paved shoulders and 1.0m wide gravel shoulders on either side as Rs.154.38
Crores for Civil Works and Rs. 6.95 Crores including non-civil works and Rs. 17.09
Crores for Agency & Other charges. Total cost of the work is estimated to be Rs.
179.98 Crores. A statement showing the total cost of the work is furnished in Table
10.2







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Table 10.2 Cost Estimate

S. No. Particulars Cost (in Rs.)
1 PART : A Improvement of Existing Road 795,732,491.00
2 PART : B CD Works (Culverts / Bridges) with Drains 117,609,533.95
3 PART : C Cement Concrete Pavement 68,965,155.00
4 PART : D Road Furniture 43,560,359.28
5 PART : E Road Work for Toll Plaza, Lay Bye 45,276,703.00
6 PART : F Bye Passes 179,800,343.13
7 PART : G Improvement of Verical & Horizontal
Curves
136,125,464.00

Project Facilities
8 PART: H Toll Plaza (4 nos.) 19,594,400.00
9 PART: I Public Utility Services 30,982,462.74
10 PART: J Landscaping & Tree Plantation 18,770,500.00
Total Cost 1,456,417,412.10
Say Rs. in Lacs 14564.17
11 PART: K Add: Escalation for 1 year 0.00
12 PART: L Tender Premium @ 0% 0.00
13 PART: M Cost of contigencies 5% 728.21
14 PART: N Quality Control (1%) 145.64
15 PART: O Guarantee Commission to State Govt. (1%) 145.64
16 PART: P Cost of Land Acquisition 549.84
17 PART: Q Cost of Utility Shifting (1%) 145.64
Sub Total 16279.14
18 PART: R A & F Charges (10%) 1,627.91
19 PART: S Application Fee and Front end fee (0.5%) 81.40
Sub Total 17,988.45
20 PART : T Interest during construction 2,308.84

Grand Total 20,297.29



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In order to examine the economic and financial viability various options as stated
below have also been examine considered. The details of these various options along
with their cost are furnished in Table 10.3

Table 10.3 Different Options
Options Civil
Works
(in crores)
Non-Civil
Works
(in crores)
Agency /
Govt.
Charges
(in
crores)
Interest
during
construc
tion
(in
crores)
Total in
Crores
Option I
Entire SH 2 Lane with
paved shoulder with
initial strengthening with
50mm DBM & 40 BC
154.38 6.95 17.09 23.09 202.97
Bypasses 2 Lane with
paved shoulders
CD Works / Bridges in
new proposed Bypasses
Construction of new
Culverts / bridges in
existing alignment.