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Chapter10: Junction Improvements

Chapter 10

JUNCTION IMPROVEMENTS
10.1 Introduction Junction improvements in the study area have been carried out in three major intersections with respect to geometric design. The design specifications, improvement drawings and recommendations are presented in this chapter 10.2 Design standards for Junction Improvements. It is desirable that the intersecting roads meet at or nearly at right angles. Design elements: 10.2.1 Design speed : The design speed at an intersection governs the various elements such as entry exit radii and inscribed diameter. The design speed at the intersections may vary from 30 kmph to 25 kmph. 10.2.2 Radius at entry: The radius at entry is determined by the design speed, super elevation and coefficient of friction. The radius should result in the drivers lowering their speeds to the design speed of the rotary. A range of 15 25 m is suitable for the urban areas 10.2.3 Radius at exit: The exit radius should be higher then the entry radius to enable the vehicles to gain speed while leaving the intersection. A range of 20- 35 m may be adopted in the design. A lower radius may be adopted if the design speed at the exit demands to be low because of higher pedestrian flows and site conditions 10.2.4 Width of carriageway at entry and exit: The carriageway width of the intersection legs is governed by the design year traffic entering and leaving the intersection. The width at entry and exit depends upon the carriageway width of the approach road. The carriageway width of the approach road depends on the number of lanes to be accommodated in each direction which depends on the traffic entering and leaving the intersection. The width of the exit should be always greater than or equal to the width at entry to facilitate free movement of entering traffic towards the intersection. The table 10.1 below presents the IRC recommendation on width of carriageway at entry and exit. The entry radius range in the suggested width is from 15 25 m. Table 10.1 : Width of carriageway at entry and exit: Carriageway width (m) 7 m( 2 lanes) 10.5 m( 3 lanes) 14 m (4 lanes) 21 m (6 lanes) Width of carriageway at entry and exit (m) 7m 7.5 m 10 m 15 m 10.2.7 Visibility at intersections: The safety of traffic can be ensured only if the visibility is full and unimpeded along both roads. Any obstructions should be clear of the minimum visibility triangle for a height of 1.2 m above the roadway. The visibility distance along the minor road in a priority intersection is about 4.5 9.0 m. On the major road, visibility distance of 120 150 m is to be adopted for arterial and sub arterial roads , 90 m for a collector street and 60 m for a local street. 10.2.8 Design vehicle: The design vehicle for the intersection design has to be selected based on the requirements of the future, terrain conditions, economic justification , importance of road and similar other considerations. As per IRC 3 1983 (Dimensions and weights for road design vehicles) , three trypes of commercial vehicles are recognized. : - Single unit, Semi Trailer and Truck trailer combination. The intersection has to be designed based on the dimensions and turning radii of these design vehicles. The dimensions of road design vehicles that are used in creating the standard templates are as follows. Table 10.2 : Dimensions of road design vehicles. Characteristic Width Height Length Desirable and Maximum Dimension 2.5 m 3.8 4.2 m 11 m (Single unit truck) 12 m (Single unit bus) 16 m (Truck tractor) 18 m (Truck trailer) 12.8 m (Single unit truck) 13.72 m (Semi Trailer ) 13.75 m (Semi Trailer full Trailer) 10.2.5 Entry and exit angles: Entry angles should be larger than exit angles, and it is desirable that the entry angles should be 600 if possible; the exit angles should be small, even tangential. The design with an entry angle of 600 and exit angle of 300 is considered as ideal design . 10.2.6 : Angle of intersecting roads:

Turning radius

10.2.9 Radius of curve: The design of intersections curves has a profound influence on speed. Curve radii are therefore, selected to control speed and ensure safety of operation. Generally, the approach to the design of curves falls under one of the following categories: (i) Design of curves for a minimum speed and sharpest turn (ii) Design of curves to permit different operating speeds.

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The sharpest turns are usually provided for unchannelised intersections and for curbs of urban streets at intersections. In residential streets, a curb radius of 6 m is regarded as the minimum. For junctions with commercial vehicles, a radius of 10.5 m will suffice. Where the inner edges of pavement for left turns at intersections are designed to accommodate semi trailer combinations, or where the design permits vehicles to turn at speeds of 25 kmph or more, the pavement area at the intersections may become excessively large for proper control of traffic. To avoid this a proper corner island is provided to forma separate turning roadway which is a connecting roadway for traffic turning between two intersection legs. The suggested minimum radius for the speeds are given in table 10.3 below. Table 10.3 : Suggested minimum radius for turning speeds: Design turning speed (kmph) Suggested minimum radius (m) 25 15 30 27 40 45 50 70 60 95 65 130

10.2.10 Speed change lanes: Drivers entering into or leaving an intersection have to necessarily change their speed. In the former case, they will reduce the speed to a safe value at which the intersection can be negotiated. In the latter case, they will increase the speed until the desired open highway speed is reached. When such deceleration or acceleration is accomplished on the road, traffic is disrupted and hazard may be caused. To avoid this, speed change lanes are provided on major intersections where the traffic on an acceleration lane is expected to be more than 1000 pcu / day. The length of deceleration lane depends upon the maneuvering speed and the deceleration characteristics. The length of an acceleration lane depends on the speed at which the drivers merge with through traffic and the acceleration characteristics. The design lengths of acceleration and deceleration lanes are given in table 10.4 below

Table 10.4 : Design lengths of Acceleration and Deceleration lanes Design speed of turning roadway curve (kmph) Minimum curve radius (m) Design speed of highway (kmph) Length of taper (m) 65 60 80 70 100 80 110 90 Design speed of highway (kmph) Length of taper (m) 65 60 80 70 100 80 110 90 Stop condition 100 130 150 165 25 15 90 120 150 165 100 210 340 465 30 40 50 60 65 27 45 79 95 130 Total length of decceleration lane, including taper (m) 85 75 60 115 110 100 85 145 140 130 120 100 160 150 145 140 115 Total length of acceleration lane, including taper (m) 75 70 190 180 150 120 320 300 270 240 180 450 420 400 370 300 75 170 90 100 120 250 80 210 175

10.2.12 Common area 10.2.11 Channelisation: The direction of traffic flow at intersections to definite paths, by means of traffic markings, islands or other means is known as channelisation. Channelisation serves for separation of conflicts, control of angle of conflict, control of speed, protection of vehicles leaving or crossing the main traffic stream, protection of pedestrians, elimination of excessive intersectional areas, blockage of prohibited movements and location of traffic control devices. An area of 5 sq. m preferably 7 sq.m is the minimum area of the island. Elongated or divisional islands should be 1.2 m wide and 3.5 to 6 m long. The edges of the island are usually offset 0.3 to 0.6 m from the edge of the carriageway. The approach noses of islands should be rounded off to a minimum radius of 0.6 0.9 m and the merging end nose should be rounded off to a radius of atleast 0.3 m. The approach to the nose should be marked for additional guidance of traffic by means of diagonal markings or chevrons. Common area which is the circumscribed circle touching the four legs of the intersection is the crucial part of the design of an intersection. If a central island is placed in terms of round about or a rotary, the radius of that island depends on the radius of entry. The diameter of the central island in case of a mini round about is one third of the circumscribed circle within the outer carriageway boundaries subjected to a minimum of 8m. However, a larger diameter of about 15 25 m may be adopted if there is enough space. The circumscribed diameter touching the four legs of the intersection depends on the traffic flowing in the intersection, design vehicle and the directional movements of traffic . Its is the length that has to be traveled by the vehicle inorder to pass in an intersection. Bigger diameter which is a high common area is recommended for a heavy traffic. However, a maximum diameter of 60 m is adopted in design. The minimum area required as common area is determined by 12 15 m radius control circles tangential both to centre line of the minor road and the side of the central reserve away from the minor road. 10.2.13 Traffic signs: At all junctions 'Kept Left' signs (directional arrows) should invariably be displayed if vehicles are required to go round them. Intersection ahead signs and speed limit signs have to be provided in all legs approaching the intersections at a distance of 30 40 m from the stop line based on the design speed. There should not be any parking activities in the common area. Hence No parking sign has to be provided. The stop signs are to be

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Chapter10: Junction Improvements

provided at a distance of 2-3 m from stop line in all legs approaching the intersections. Pedestrian crossing sign must be provided at the pedestrian crossings. 10.2. 14 : Road markings: Road markings are defined as lines, patterns , words or other devices, except signs, set into , applied or attached to the carriageway or kerbs or to objects within or adjacent to the carriageway , for controlling , warning, guiding and informing the road users.The type of carriageway marking for a particular intersection is dependant on a number of variables like speed characteristics and availability of space. The markings are divided into two categories as follows (a) Markings on approaches to intersections: Stop lines Give way lines Pedestrian crossings Markings on speed change lanes Direction arrows Protected right turn lanes (b) Markings in Intersection area Markings at rotaries Box markings Continuity lines The junction improvement drawings proposed for the Malkajgiri municipality are given in Appendix. 10.3 Typical layouts of bus bays, parking structures and truck terminals: 10.3.1 Parking structures: Parking may be proposed as On street as well as off street. While on street parking and its regulation will be an important aspect of the overall parking policy, one way of ensuring that future development of land use and building activity adequately takes care of parking needs is to promulgate zoning ordinances whereby all new ore remodeled buildings will be required to have within a cartilage a prescribed parking space. Parking demand is a function of the land use, though variations can exist within the same land use. Minimum parking standards suggested by IRC are given in table 10.5 below. Table 10.5 Design Parking space standards for different land use : S.No Land use 1. Residential (i) Detached, semi detached row houses: Plot area upto 100 sq. m Plot area from 101 to 200 sq. m Plot area from 201 to 300 sq. m Plot area from 301 to 500 sq. m Plot area from 501 to 1000 sq. m Plot area from 1000 sq. m and above Parking space standard No private or community space is required Only community parking space is required Only community parking space is required Minimum one third of the open area should be earmarked for parking Minimum one fourth of the open area should be earmarked for parking Minimum one sixth of the open area should be earmarked for parking

(ii) (iii)

Flats One space for every two flats of 50 to 99 sq. m or more of floor area Special, costly developed area One space for every flat of 50 to 100 sq.m of floor area. One and half spaces for every flat of 100 to 150 sq.m of floor area. Two spaces for every flat of above 150 sq. m of floor area One space for every four dwellings

(iv)

Multi storeyed group housing scheme One space for every 70 sq.m of floor area One space for upto 200 sq. m of initial floor area. Additional spaces at the rate of one for every subsequent 200 sq. m of fraction thereof One space for every 80 sq.m of floor area One space for every 10 seats One space for every 20 seats One space for every 4 guest rooms One space for every 8 guest rooms One space for every 10 guest rooms One space for each guest rooms One space for every 10 beds

2 3 4 5 6 7

Offices Industrial premises Shops and markets Restaurants Theatres and Cinemas Hotels and Motels (i) Five and Four star hotels (ii) Three star hotels (iii) Two star hotels (iv) Motels Hospitals

When applying the above standards , the parking space requirements of a car can be considered as 3 m x 6 m when individual parking space is considered and 2.5 x 5 m when community parking is envisaged. For two wheelers, a stall 0.8 m x 2.5 m is desirable. 10.3.2 Design standards for On Street parking Facilities 10.3.2.1. Common methods of On street parking These are: 1. Parallel parking 2. 30 angle parking 3. 45 angle parking 4. 60 angle parking 5. Right angle parking. Parallel parking consumes the maximum curb length which decreases as the angle of parking increases. The minimum curb length is consumed by right angle parking, which accommodates nearly 2 times the number of vehicles as parallel parking. On the other hand, parallel parking makes the least use of the width of the street, and this is an important consideration in narrow streets. As the parking angle increases, the width of street used also increases.

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From the point of view of maneuverability, angle parking seems to be better than parallel parking which usually involves a backing motion. Delay to traffic is minimum with angle parking. As regards safety, it has been noticed that angle parking is more hazardous than parallel parking. Considering the above, it is recommended that in general parallel parking should be favored on streets. On exceptionally wide (wider than 20 m ) and low volume streets, consideration might be given for angle parking. Fig 10.1 gives some of the typical layouts and dimensions for on street parking stalls. 10.3.2.2. Off- street Parking Facilities: Considerations in locating off-street parking facilities: On Street parking can only solve a part of the parking problem of major cities. For a satisfactory answer, various types of off street facilities become unavoidable. The types of offstreet facilities become unavoidable. The types of off- street facilities commonly considered are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Surface car parks Multi storey can parks Roof parks Mechanical car parks Underground car parks.

There are certain basic considerations which govern the location of these facilities. Since these facilities are costly to provide and maintain, a comprehensive study should be done before hand to help determine the location, types and size of these facilities. Obviously, the prime consideration should be the nearness to the place of usage by the prospective customers. The proposed facility should be close to major parking generators. The facility should be served by good access streets. It is desirable to locate the facility such that no exit or entrance is within a distance of at least 50 m from an intersection.

Fig 10.1 Layouts and dimensions of on street parking stalls 10.3.2.2.1 Surface car parks Surface car parks, properly located and developed on a piece of vacant land or surrounding an office complex or super market, are very popular with the motorists. Great care is needed in their design and operation. The overall aesthetics of the area should receive due attention. A stall size of 2.5 m x 5m is probably adequate for Indian conditions , predominated by small- size cars. A variety of layouts can be possible depending upon the area. A few of them are illustrated in Fig 10.2 to 10.4.

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Fig 10.3 : Typical layouts of offstreet parking

Fig 10.2 Typical lay outs of parking areas

Fig 10.4 Typical dimensions of parking layout design

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10.3.2.2.2 Multi-storey car parks Surface parks consume too much of the precious land in the heart of the city and are not, therefore, always feasible. One of the alternatives when land is costly is to provide multi- storey car parks. Such facilities have become common and popular in many cities. Multi- storey car parks are designed for a capacity of about 400 to 500 cars. Larger capacity tends to increases the time for unparking a car. About five floors is also the upper limit for the same reason. About five floors is also the upper limit for the same reason. Some of the desirable standards for designing of the multi storey car parks are: (i) Gradient of the ramp: 1 in 10 generally and 1 in 8 for very short ramps. (ii) Clear height between floors: 2.1 m (iii) Parking stall dimensions : 2.5 m x 5m (iv) Inside radius of curves : 7m (v) Width of traffic lane on ramps and entrance : 3.75 m (vi) Gradient of sloping floors : Not steeper than 1 in 20 (vii) Loading standards : 400 kg/m2 The arrangement of the floors and the access ramps needs careful thought and a large number of alternatives are available. Ramps are preferably made one- way. If two- way, they should be divided. A simple arrangement is to have level floors and direct floor to floor ramps. Another arrangement could be with parking floors themselves continuously sloping to gain access from one level to another. Horizontal floors with separate helical entrance and exit ramps have been found to be efficient. The car parking floors, the ramps, the entrance and the exits should be well lighted. If the garage is without external walls, as is often the case, there is no need for artificial means for ventilation. Otherwise, mechanical ventilators should be provided. The operation of the multi storey car parks can be with customer parking or attendant parking or a combination of the two. Some typical layouts of multi storeyed parking are given in Fig 10.5 to 10.6 10.4 Bus bays: Properly designed bus bays recessed into the curb facilitate loading and unloading of passengers without the vehicles blocking the atream of traffic on the carriageway. The following are the guidelines for the location of the bus bays: (i) the bus stops should not be located too close to the intersections. A minimum distance of 75 m from the intersections is desirable for urban situation and for rural locations a distance of 300 m is desirable. The bus stops should be located preferably on the farther side of the intersection. Bus stops should be as far as possible so located as to disembark the passengers at safe places such as curbs or islands. For buses intending to turn right at an intersection, the stop should be sufficient away from the intersection so that the bus can be maneuvered from the curb to the extreme right lane well before the intersection. Fig 10.5 Typical Garrage layouts of multi storeyed parking The length of the recess should be about 12-15 m for a single bus with an additional length of 12 -15 m for every additional bus. The taper on either side should be about 8:1, the maximum value being 6:1.

(ii) (iii)

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Chapter10: Junction Improvements

Where L 1 = 12 m Minimum for Congested locations of single bus, add 12 m for additional bus = 15 m desirable for single bus, add 15 m for every additional bus W = 3 m minimum for congested areas = 3.5 m desirable L 2 = 6 W minimum for congested areas = 8 W desirable A layout of the bus-bay when a separate lane is provided for slow moving vehicles is given in Fig 10.8

Fig 10.6 : Typical layout of multi storeyed parking A simple design of the bus bay directly abutting the footway is given in Fig . 10.7

Fig 10.8 : Layout of bus bay with a separate lane for slow moving traffic Fig 10.7 Lay out of bus bay abutting footway
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Width W of island depends on number of passengers expected to be present at a particular time for loading and unloading purposes. No. of passengers 20 45 70 95 Width 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

The width may be increased by 0.5 m for 25 passengers thereafter. 10.5 Truck Terminals: The indiscriminate parking of trucks in the streets and upon spaces of the towns and cities has many adverse effects. The foremost is the degradation of the environment and the increased hazards to traffic. Security of the goods contained in the parked vehicles can also be a serious problem. The needs of the truck drivers who have often to drive for long hours and consequently need rest, toilet facilities and food deserve careful consideration. The right approach is to provide well designed truck terminals at the fringes of the cities. The truck terminals should be located on important arterial routes and at the confluence of a number of such routes. They should be close to major generators of commercial activity. The length of truck berths depends upon the type of trucks to be handled. Truck trailer combinations obviously need longer lengths than single unit trucks. For single unit trucks a space of 3.75 m * 7.5 m per vehicle is adequate. For truck tailer combinations lengths up to 15 m may be needed. The width of the loading platforms should be 3.5 to 4.5 m. About 600- 750 trucks can be accommodated in a parking area of one hectare. The area required for the entrance forecourt, hotel, resting place and ancillary facilities ( weigh bridge, fuelling facilities, workshop) is in addition to the parking area requirement. Typical layout of a truck terminal is given in Fig 10.9 below.

Fig 10.9 : Typical layout of a truck terminal

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