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Chapter10: Junction Improvements

Chapter 10

JUNCTION IMPROVEMENTS

10.2.9 Radius of curve: The design of intersections curves has a profound influence on speed. Curve radii are therefore, selected to control speed and ensure safety of operation. Generally, the approach to the design of curves falls under one of the following categories: (i) Design of curves for a minimum speed and sharpest turn (ii) Design of curves to permit different operating speeds.

Final Report Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment May 2007

Chapter10: Junction Improvements

The sharpest turns are usually provided for unchannelised intersections and for curbs of urban streets at intersections. In residential streets, a curb radius of 6 m is regarded as the minimum. For junctions with commercial vehicles, a radius of 10.5 m will suffice. Where the inner edges of pavement for left turns at intersections are designed to accommodate semi trailer combinations, or where the design permits vehicles to turn at speeds of 25 kmph or more, the pavement area at the intersections may become excessively large for proper control of traffic. To avoid this a proper corner island is provided to forma separate turning roadway which is a connecting roadway for traffic turning between two intersection legs. The suggested minimum radius for the speeds are given in table 10.3 below. Table 10.3 : Suggested minimum radius for turning speeds: Design turning speed (kmph) Suggested minimum radius (m) 25 15 30 27 40 45 50 70 60 95 65 130

10.2.10 Speed change lanes: Drivers entering into or leaving an intersection have to necessarily change their speed. In the former case, they will reduce the speed to a safe value at which the intersection can be negotiated. In the latter case, they will increase the speed until the desired open highway speed is reached. When such deceleration or acceleration is accomplished on the road, traffic is disrupted and hazard may be caused. To avoid this, speed change lanes are provided on major intersections where the traffic on an acceleration lane is expected to be more than 1000 pcu / day. The length of deceleration lane depends upon the maneuvering speed and the deceleration characteristics. The length of an acceleration lane depends on the speed at which the drivers merge with through traffic and the acceleration characteristics. The design lengths of acceleration and deceleration lanes are given in table 10.4 below

Table 10.4 : Design lengths of Acceleration and Deceleration lanes Design speed of turning roadway curve (kmph) Minimum curve radius (m) Design speed of highway (kmph) Length of taper (m) 65 60 80 70 100 80 110 90 Design speed of highway (kmph) Length of taper (m) 65 60 80 70 100 80 110 90 Stop condition 100 130 150 165 25 15 90 120 150 165 100 210 340 465 30 40 50 60 65 27 45 79 95 130 Total length of decceleration lane, including taper (m) 85 75 60 115 110 100 85 145 140 130 120 100 160 150 145 140 115 Total length of acceleration lane, including taper (m) 75 70 190 180 150 120 320 300 270 240 180 450 420 400 370 300 75 170 90 100 120 250 80 210 175

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Chapter10: Junction Improvements

provided at a distance of 2-3 m from stop line in all legs approaching the intersections. Pedestrian crossing sign must be provided at the pedestrian crossings. 10.2. 14 : Road markings: Road markings are defined as lines, patterns , words or other devices, except signs, set into , applied or attached to the carriageway or kerbs or to objects within or adjacent to the carriageway , for controlling , warning, guiding and informing the road users.The type of carriageway marking for a particular intersection is dependant on a number of variables like speed characteristics and availability of space. The markings are divided into two categories as follows (a) Markings on approaches to intersections: Stop lines Give way lines Pedestrian crossings Markings on speed change lanes Direction arrows Protected right turn lanes (b) Markings in Intersection area Markings at rotaries Box markings Continuity lines The junction improvement drawings proposed for the Malkajgiri municipality are given in Appendix. 10.3 Typical layouts of bus bays, parking structures and truck terminals: 10.3.1 Parking structures: Parking may be proposed as On street as well as off street. While on street parking and its regulation will be an important aspect of the overall parking policy, one way of ensuring that future development of land use and building activity adequately takes care of parking needs is to promulgate zoning ordinances whereby all new ore remodeled buildings will be required to have within a cartilage a prescribed parking space. Parking demand is a function of the land use, though variations can exist within the same land use. Minimum parking standards suggested by IRC are given in table 10.5 below. Table 10.5 Design Parking space standards for different land use : S.No Land use 1. Residential (i) Detached, semi detached row houses: Plot area upto 100 sq. m Plot area from 101 to 200 sq. m Plot area from 201 to 300 sq. m Plot area from 301 to 500 sq. m Plot area from 501 to 1000 sq. m Plot area from 1000 sq. m and above Parking space standard No private or community space is required Only community parking space is required Only community parking space is required Minimum one third of the open area should be earmarked for parking Minimum one fourth of the open area should be earmarked for parking Minimum one sixth of the open area should be earmarked for parking

(ii) (iii)

Flats One space for every two flats of 50 to 99 sq. m or more of floor area Special, costly developed area One space for every flat of 50 to 100 sq.m of floor area. One and half spaces for every flat of 100 to 150 sq.m of floor area. Two spaces for every flat of above 150 sq. m of floor area One space for every four dwellings

(iv)

Multi storeyed group housing scheme One space for every 70 sq.m of floor area One space for upto 200 sq. m of initial floor area. Additional spaces at the rate of one for every subsequent 200 sq. m of fraction thereof One space for every 80 sq.m of floor area One space for every 10 seats One space for every 20 seats One space for every 4 guest rooms One space for every 8 guest rooms One space for every 10 guest rooms One space for each guest rooms One space for every 10 beds

2 3 4 5 6 7

Offices Industrial premises Shops and markets Restaurants Theatres and Cinemas Hotels and Motels (i) Five and Four star hotels (ii) Three star hotels (iii) Two star hotels (iv) Motels Hospitals

When applying the above standards , the parking space requirements of a car can be considered as 3 m x 6 m when individual parking space is considered and 2.5 x 5 m when community parking is envisaged. For two wheelers, a stall 0.8 m x 2.5 m is desirable. 10.3.2 Design standards for On Street parking Facilities 10.3.2.1. Common methods of On street parking These are: 1. Parallel parking 2. 30 angle parking 3. 45 angle parking 4. 60 angle parking 5. Right angle parking. Parallel parking consumes the maximum curb length which decreases as the angle of parking increases. The minimum curb length is consumed by right angle parking, which accommodates nearly 2 times the number of vehicles as parallel parking. On the other hand, parallel parking makes the least use of the width of the street, and this is an important consideration in narrow streets. As the parking angle increases, the width of street used also increases.

Final Report Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment May 2007

Chapter10: Junction Improvements

From the point of view of maneuverability, angle parking seems to be better than parallel parking which usually involves a backing motion. Delay to traffic is minimum with angle parking. As regards safety, it has been noticed that angle parking is more hazardous than parallel parking. Considering the above, it is recommended that in general parallel parking should be favored on streets. On exceptionally wide (wider than 20 m ) and low volume streets, consideration might be given for angle parking. Fig 10.1 gives some of the typical layouts and dimensions for on street parking stalls. 10.3.2.2. Off- street Parking Facilities: Considerations in locating off-street parking facilities: On Street parking can only solve a part of the parking problem of major cities. For a satisfactory answer, various types of off street facilities become unavoidable. The types of offstreet facilities become unavoidable. The types of off- street facilities commonly considered are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Surface car parks Multi storey can parks Roof parks Mechanical car parks Underground car parks.

There are certain basic considerations which govern the location of these facilities. Since these facilities are costly to provide and maintain, a comprehensive study should be done before hand to help determine the location, types and size of these facilities. Obviously, the prime consideration should be the nearness to the place of usage by the prospective customers. The proposed facility should be close to major parking generators. The facility should be served by good access streets. It is desirable to locate the facility such that no exit or entrance is within a distance of at least 50 m from an intersection.

Fig 10.1 Layouts and dimensions of on street parking stalls 10.3.2.2.1 Surface car parks Surface car parks, properly located and developed on a piece of vacant land or surrounding an office complex or super market, are very popular with the motorists. Great care is needed in their design and operation. The overall aesthetics of the area should receive due attention. A stall size of 2.5 m x 5m is probably adequate for Indian conditions , predominated by small- size cars. A variety of layouts can be possible depending upon the area. A few of them are illustrated in Fig 10.2 to 10.4.

Final Report Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment May 2007

Fig 10.4 Typical dimensions of parking layout design

Final Report Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment May 2007

Chapter10: Junction Improvements

(ii) (iii)

Final Report Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment May 2007

Chapter10: Junction Improvements

Where L 1 = 12 m Minimum for Congested locations of single bus, add 12 m for additional bus = 15 m desirable for single bus, add 15 m for every additional bus W = 3 m minimum for congested areas = 3.5 m desirable L 2 = 6 W minimum for congested areas = 8 W desirable A layout of the bus-bay when a separate lane is provided for slow moving vehicles is given in Fig 10.8

Fig 10.6 : Typical layout of multi storeyed parking A simple design of the bus bay directly abutting the footway is given in Fig . 10.7

Fig 10.8 : Layout of bus bay with a separate lane for slow moving traffic Fig 10.7 Lay out of bus bay abutting footway
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Chapter10: Junction Improvements

Width W of island depends on number of passengers expected to be present at a particular time for loading and unloading purposes. No. of passengers 20 45 70 95 Width 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

The width may be increased by 0.5 m for 25 passengers thereafter. 10.5 Truck Terminals: The indiscriminate parking of trucks in the streets and upon spaces of the towns and cities has many adverse effects. The foremost is the degradation of the environment and the increased hazards to traffic. Security of the goods contained in the parked vehicles can also be a serious problem. The needs of the truck drivers who have often to drive for long hours and consequently need rest, toilet facilities and food deserve careful consideration. The right approach is to provide well designed truck terminals at the fringes of the cities. The truck terminals should be located on important arterial routes and at the confluence of a number of such routes. They should be close to major generators of commercial activity. The length of truck berths depends upon the type of trucks to be handled. Truck trailer combinations obviously need longer lengths than single unit trucks. For single unit trucks a space of 3.75 m * 7.5 m per vehicle is adequate. For truck tailer combinations lengths up to 15 m may be needed. The width of the loading platforms should be 3.5 to 4.5 m. About 600- 750 trucks can be accommodated in a parking area of one hectare. The area required for the entrance forecourt, hotel, resting place and ancillary facilities ( weigh bridge, fuelling facilities, workshop) is in addition to the parking area requirement. Typical layout of a truck terminal is given in Fig 10.9 below.

Fig 10.9 : Typical layout of a truck terminal

Final Report Integrated Transportation Planning and Traffic Management in Cantonment May 2007