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HISTORY OF COMPUTER DEVELOPMENT

A computer is a machine which is used for computation. Before the invention of computer there were many devices used for calculation and computation. Starting days they started counting was done by using stones and sticks. But as the development of civilization changed the way of life, the requirements of fat calculation devices was felt by man. ABACUS - 450 BC: Abacus was the first manual calculating machine founded by chainese 2000 years ago. It is made of wooden frames with wires that have columns of beads on them. Counting is done by moving beads along the wires.

NAPIER BONES :

In 1617 a scathes mathematicians John Napier who Invented Logarithms made a set of eleven rectangular rods made of carved bones. subtraction. This set was used to multiply divide the numbers besides addition and

PASCALS CALUCULATOR:

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The first mechanical calculator was made in 1642. This was invented by a great french mathematician and philosopher, Blaise pascal. This machine was called pascals calculator and was used for the addition and subtraction.

ARITHMETICAL REPLICA:

A german mathematician, Gottfried Libyans modified pascals calculator in 1671. This new machine was capable of doing division, multiplication, addition and subtraction and as called Arithmetical Replica.

ANALYTICAL AND DIFFERENCE ENGINE:


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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE In the 19th century Charles Babbage invented the first mechanical computer. It laid the foundation of the modern computer. Charles Babbage who was a professor at Cambridge University. In 1930 an American company IBM encourages Howard Aikens to make a computer with an electrical function. The computer was very big in size was about 15 meters long and had the wiring length of about 800 kilometers. Mark-1 acquired the proper shape only in 1948 and remained in use till 1959.

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In 1946 the electronic computers were introduced. These computers over ruled the ancestors. The electronic computers were gradually upgraded and appeared in the form of a modern computers. The changes in electronic computers are categorized in generations.

ABOUT COMPUTER
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FULL FORM OF COMPUTER


C-common o-operating m-machine p-particularly u-used for t-technical e-educational and r-research

DEFINITION OF COMPUTER
A computer is a device or machine for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms.

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTER

The following sections describe several different approaches to classifying computers. These classification approaches must be used in combination to unambiguously describe a given machine.

Classification by intended use


The most obvious way to classify computing machines is by their usage. For example: Supercomputer Minisupercomputer Mainframe computer Personal computer (PC) Desktop computer Laptop computer

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE SUPERCOMPUTERS Supercomputers introduced in the 1960s.

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They are high-performance computing devices with a hardware architecture dedicated to a single problem. The speed of a supercomputer is generally measured in "FLOPS" (Floating Point Operations Per Second)

Supercomputer challenges and technologies

A supercomputer generates heat and must be cooled. Cooling most supercomputers is a major problem. Information cannot move faster than the speed of light between two parts of a supercomputer. Supercomputers consume and produce massive amounts of data in a very short period of time. Much work is needed to ensure that this information can be transferred quickly and stored/retrieved correctly.

MINI SUPERCOMPUTERS Mini super computers are emerged in the mid-1980s As scientific computing in the form they became more popular, the need for lower-cost systems that might be used at the departmental level instead of the corporate level.

Challenges of mini super computers


Supercomputers tend to cater to science and the military, while mainframes tend to target business and civilian government applications. They made the trend new products into the market.

MAINFRAMES The term arose during the early 1970s. The main frames (often referred to as "big iron") are large and "expensive". The computers used mainly by government institutions and large companies for legacy applications, typically bulk data processing. Challenges of mainframes Mainframes hide parallelism from the programmer. -5K.SURESH

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Mainframes are optimized for simple computations involving huge amounts of external data accessed from databases. Credit card processing, bank account management, market trading, and social insurance processing are tasks well suited to mainframes. Mainframes typically handle a wide variety of important, everyday tasks. Mainframes thoroughly support older software

PERSONAL COMPUTER The first generation of microcomputers were called just that, and only sold in small numbers to those able to (build them from kits or) operate them: engineers and accomplished hobbyists. The second generation micros were known as home computers. DESKTOP COMPUTERS A desktop computer is an independent personal computer that is too large to carry easily or set up quickly. It is designed to remain in the same place.

LAPTOP COMPUTERS A laptop computer (also known as notebook computer) is a small mobile personal computer, usually weighing around from 1 to 3 kilograms (2 to 7 pounds). Notebooks smaller than an A4 sheet of paper and weighing around 1 kg are sometimes called sub-notebooks and those weighing around 5 kg a desknote

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COMPUTER GENERATIONS
In our family life we talk about grand father, father, son and grand son. We call each one as Generations like elder generation & younger generation. Similarly from the day the first computer introduced there are changes in the make, design, technology and components used in. In the family of computers, if there are major changes in make, design and component it was called as new generation. Take the example of land transport Donkeys bullock carts rickshaw Auto rickshaw cars In the similar way different generations of computer are taken place.

FIRST GENERATION:
1. Made of valves because there was no transistors on circuit board. 2. Large and expensive. 3. Phone to frequent failures. 4. Consumes more electric power. 5. Operated on complex machine language. Ex: 1.ENAIC [1945] - The electronic numerical integrator and calculator. 2. EDSAC[1949] Electronic delay storage Automatic calculator. 3. UNIVAC[1951] Universal automatic computer.

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SECOND GENERATION:

The computers belonging to second generation began to appear in 1959. The second generation computers were: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Made of transistors. Smaller in size. Less expensive. It consumes very less power. Portable and easier to maintain. Operated on high level language. The transistors were smaller in size. Which leads to build small computers. DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A -8K.SURESH

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THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS :


The third generation of computers began with introduction of integrated circuits. These circuits are able to put in small area. These circuit consists of thousands of transistors, resistors and other circuit components. They were faster.

FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTERS:


The fourth generation computers are said to have the Following characteristic features. 1.Made Up of large scale integrated circuits 2 The development of microprocessor or chip. 3.The development and use of micro computers. 4.The use of LSIC 5.Greater reliability 6.Low cost 7.Large storage 8.Very small The pictorial representation of Large Scale integration Circuit is as follows.

FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS:


The computers used today belongs to the fourth generation DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A -9K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE Computers that may be developed in future are Considered to be fifth generation computers. These computers will have artificial intelligence, to Think and make decision, without mans help. Ex: ROBOT.

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ADVANTAGES OF COMPUTERS:
There are several uses of computers:

Word Processing - Word Processing software automatically corrects spelling and grammar mistakes. If the content of a document repeats you dont have to type it each time. You can use the copy and paste features. You can printout documents and make several copies. It is easier to read a word-processed document than a handwritten one. You can add images to your document.

Internet - It is a network of almost all the computers in the world. You can browse through much more information than you could do in a library. That is because computers can store enormous amounts of information. You also have very fast and convenient access to information. Through E-Mail you can communicate with a person sitting thousands of miles away in seconds. There is chat software that enables one to chat with another person on a real-time basis. Video conferencing tools are becoming readily available to the common man.

Digital video or audio composition Audio or video composition and editing have been made much easier by computers. It no longer costs thousands of dollars of equipment to compose music or make a film. Graphics engineers can use computers to generate short or full-length films or even to create three-dimensional models. Anybody owning a computer can now enter the field of media production. Special effects in science fiction and action movies are created using computers.

Desktop publishing - With desktop publishing, you can create page layouts for entire books on your personal computer. Computers in Medicine - You can diagnose diseases. You can learn the cures. Software is used in magnetic resonance imaging to examine the internal organs of the human body. Software is used for performing surgery. Computers are used to store patient data.

Mathematical Calculations - Thanks to computers, which have computing speeds of over a million calculations per second we can perform the biggest of mathematical calculations.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Banks - All financial transactions are done by computer software. They provide security, speed and convenience.

Travel - One can book air tickets or railway tickets and make hotel reservations online. Telecommunications - Software is widely used here. Also all mobile phones have software embedded in them.

Defense - There is software embedded in almost every weapon. Software is used for controlling the flight and targeting in ballistic missiles. Software is used to control access to atomic bombs. E-Learning Instead of a book it is easier to learn from an E-learning software. Gambling-You can gamble online instead of going to a casino. Examinations-You can give online exams and get instant results. You can check your examination results online. Computers in Business - Shops and supermarkets use software, which calculate the bills. Taxes can be calculated and paid online. Accounting is done using computers. One can predict future trends of business using artificial intelligence software. Software is used in major stock markets. One can do trading online. There are fully automated factories running on software.

Certificates - Different types of certificates can be generated. It is very easy to create and change layouts. ATM machines - The computer software authenticates the user and dispenses cash. Marriage - There are matrimonial sites through which one can search for a suitable groom or bride. News-There are many websites through which you can read the latest or old news. Classmates-There are many alumni websites through which you can regain contact with your classmates. Robotics - Robots are controlled by software. Washing Machines - They operate using software. Microwave Oven - They are operated by software. Planning and Scheduling - Software can be used to store contact information, generating plans, scheduling appointments and deadlines. Plagiarism - Software can examine content for plagiarism. Greeting Cards - You can send and receive greetings pertaining to different occasions.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Sports Software is used for making umpiring decisions. There are simulation software using which a sportsperson can practice his skills. Computers are also to identify flaws in techhnique.

Aeroplanes Pilots train on software, which simulates flying. Weather analysis Supercomputers are used to analyze and predict weather.

DISADVANTAGES OF COMPUTERS:
Computers can make the mind lazy. You get used to not reading a book, or researching something at the library... Just a few key-strokes and you have your answer. There are physical things like carpal tunnel syndrome and other repetititive strain disorders, and eye strain (often necessitating glasses). It takes one away from socializing with others in person. Spending too much time playing online games or chatting over the computer instead of reading books, taking walks, and doing homework. Being on a computer too much can also lead to anti-social behaviour and depression. Unemployment.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

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COMPUTER SYSTEM ORGANIZATION


The computer is defined as an electronic data processing machine. The computer can do number of operations. Among them the important operation is like storing, searching and retrieving the information. The computer will perform the following calculations: 1. Arithmetical calculations: operations. 2. Logical functions: comparision operations like [and, or,equal,not]. 3. Storing, Searching and retrieving: The records storage, searching the file and bringing them on the primary memory are such functions. ANATOMY OF THE COMPUTER The computer architecture shows the various parts of a computer system and how they are connected with each other. These are our basic parts of the computer which come into use when the computer is working. They are: 1. Input Unit 2. Central processing unit 3. Output unit INPUT UNIT: Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are arithmetical

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL The input unit accepts instructions and data from the user. A few input devices are : Keyboard, mouse, joystick, lightpen, micro phone, scanner, cd-rom drive etc. These are also called as read only devices. The computer reads the data from these devices.

KEYBOARD

LIGHT PEN

MOUSE

MICRO PHONE

JOYSTICK CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT:

SCANNER

CD-ROM

It is the brain of the computer. Entire processing will takes place. It co-ordinates all the units of the computer. It has three divisions. 1. The arithmetic and logical unit. 2. The control unit. 3. The memory DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 14 K.SURESH

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The cpu contains one IC chip( integrated- circuit chip) Which is also called a micro processor chip. 1. ARITHMETIC & LOGICAL UNIT: It is that part of the cpu which processes the data and instructions given to the computer. It carries out two types of processing: 1. Arithmetic operations - Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication,Division etc. 2. Logical operations - Comparisions, Decisions etc.

2. CONTROL UNIT: The function of the control unit is to control the flow of Data and information from the micro processor to the Various input/output devices. It receives the data and after Getting it processed by the arithmetic unit, passes it on to the required output unit. 3. MEMORY: Like human beings the computer too has memory. Computer memory is measured in bytes. In computer the information will be stored in the bits i.e 0 or 1.
1 Terabyte (T / TB) = 10^12 bytes = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes Abbreviations Table bit byte kilobit kilobyte (binary) kilobyte (decimal) Megabit Megabyte (binary) Megabyte (decimal) Gigabit Gigabyte (binary) Gigabyte (decimal) b B kb KB KB Mb MB MB Gb GB GB 0 or 1 8 bits 1000 bits 1024 bytes 1000 bytes 1000 kilobits 1024 Kilobytes 1000 Kilobytes 1000 Megabits 1024 Megabytes 1000 Megabytes

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE There are two types of memory: 1. Primary memory 2. Secondary memory 1. PRIMARY MEMORY

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This memory provides the main working space for a computer program. It is electronic in nature and therefore is a very fast medium of storing and retrieving information. The primary memory is of two kinds a. ROM (Read only memory) b. RAM (Random access memory)

a. ROM (Read only memory) Which handles the basic needs of the hardware which is involved all i/o devices. It also contains instructions to start the computer. It is a permanent memory and its contents cannot be altered and hence the name read only memory. b. RAM It is the area which the computer uses for holding the programs and their data while it is working on them. It is volatile memory and unlike ROM data cannot be retained when the power accidentally goes off or is switched off.

2. SECONDARY MEMORY

COMPACT DISC

FLOPPY DISC

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HARD DISK

MAGNETIC TAPE

This is permanent in nature and the data in this is retained even if the power goes off. The secondary memory is on floppies, hard disk and magnetic tapes. Now a days CD-ROM is also being used as a secondary memory device. Secondary memory is also known as external memory

OUTPUT UNITS
The output unit shows the result of the processing done by the computer. The output units are visual display units Monitor, Printers, Speakers, Plotter etc.

MONITOR

PRINTERS

SPEAKERS

PLOTTERS

PROCESSING IN COMPUTER: When ever we want the computer to do something, we give instructions and data to it through the various input devices/ units available to us. The CPU checks for input. If found it stores these data as well as the instructions in the primary memory. The control unit reads the instructions and asks the arithmetic unit to perform the operation on the data. After performing the necessary operation, it then transfers back the results to the primary memory which displays them on any of the output units. This is how the computer does the processing.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

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CONVERSION OF BINARY NUMBERS TO DECIMAL NUMBERS


Binary is a number system used by digital devices like computers, cd players, etc. Binary is Base 2, unlike our counting system decimal which is Base 10 (denary). In other words, Binary has only 2 different numerals (0 and 1) to denote a value, unlike Decimal which has 10 numerals (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9). Here is an example of a binary number: 10011100 As you can see it is simply a bunch of zeroes and ones, there are 8 numerals in all which make this an 8 bit binary number. Bit is short for Binary Digit, and each numeral is classed as a bit. The bit on the far right, in this case a 0, is known as the Least significant bit (LSB). The bit on the far left, in this case a 1, is known as the Most significant bit (MSB) When writing binary numbers you will need to signify that the number is binary (base 2), for example, let's take the value 101. As it is written, it would be hard to work out whether it is a binary or decimal (base 10) value. To get around this problem it is common to denote the base to which the number belongs, by writing the base value with the number, for example: DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 18 K.SURESH

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1012 is a binary number and 10110 is a decimal (denary) value. Once we know the base then it is easy to work out the value, for example: 1012 = 1*22 + 0*21 + 1*20 = 5 (five) 10110 = 1*102 + 0*101 + 1*100 = 101 (one hundred and one) Ex: Convert the following binary to decimal a. 11011 b. 10101 c. 01101

CONVERSION OF DECIMAL TO BINARY


To convert decimal to binary is also very simple, you simply divide the decimal value by 2 and then write down the remainder, repeat this process until you cannot divide by 2 anymore, for example let's take the decimal value 157: 157 2 = 78 with a remainder of 1 78 2 = 39 with a remainder of 0 39 2 = 19 with a remainder of 1 19 2 = 9 with a remainder of 1 9 2 = 4 with a remainder of 1 4 2 = 2 with a remainder of 0 2 2 = 1 with a remainder of 0 1 2 = 0 with a remainder of 1

<--- to convert write this remainder first.

Next write down the value of the remainders from bottom to top (in other words write down the bottom remainder first and work your way up the list) which gives: 10011101 = 157 Ex: convert the following into decimal to binary number a. 256 b. 517 c. 312

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HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE


There are two important things that the modern computer needs. They are hardware and software. With out software the hardware components are not used.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL The hardware represents the physical components or devices of the computer i.e the components or devices that can be seen and touched are called as hardware. These devices or components are classified as follows

HARDWARE

INPUT DEVICE

OUTPUT DEVICE

STORAGE DEVICES Ex: Hard disk, Floppy etc.

Ex: Mouse, Keyboard, Scanner etc. Ex: Monitor, Printer etc.

SOFTWARE
It is nothing but a program. A program is set of instructions which takes the input and produce the output. There are two types of softwares. 1. Application software 2. System software 1. APPLICATION SOFTWARE Computer programs designed for a specific purpose. The users can write their own program for the required application. These are also used in satellite launching. Ex: word processing, electronic spread sheet, lotus, ms-excel, paint, accounting, graphics etc.

2. SYSTEM SOFTWARE DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 21 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL The computer will be operated with the help of system software. The processing of data and operations on the data will be performed with the help of system software. Now let us know some important definitions which play an important role in the computer: ALGORITHM: A finite set of well-defined instructions for performing some task which, gives an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. PROGRAM: A set of instructions is called a program. DIRECTORY: The set of files are called directories. FILE: The set of records is called a file. RECORD: The set of data is called record.

OPERATING SYSTEMS

The most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. For large systems, the operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. It is like a traffic cop -- it makes sure that different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere with each other. The operating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system. DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 22 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE Operating systems can be classified as follows:

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Multi-user : Allows two or more users to run programs at the same time. Some operating systems permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users. Multi processing : Supports running a program on more than one CPU. Multi tasking : Allows more than one program to run concurrently. Multi threading : Allows different parts of a single program to run concurrently. Real time: Responds to input instantly. General-purpose operating systems, such as DOS and UNIX, are not real-time.

OPERATING SYSTEM TYPES As computers have progressed and developed so have the types of operating systems. Below is a basic list of the different types of operating systems and a few examples of operating systems that fall into each of the categories. Many computer operating systems will fall into more than one of the below categories.

GUI - Short for Graphical User Interface, a GUI Operating System contains graphics and icons and is commonly navigated by using a computer mouse. See our GUI dictionary definition for a complete definition. Below are some examples of GUI Operating Systems. System 7.x Windows 98 Windows CE Multi-user - A multi-user operating system allows for multiple users to use the same computer at the same time and/or different times. See our multi-user dictionary definition for a complete definition for a complete definition. Below are some examples of multi-user operating systems. Linux Unix Windows 2000 Multiprocessing - An operating system capable of supporting and utilizing more than one computer processor. Below are some examples of multiprocessing operating systems.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE Linux Unix Windows 2000

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Multitasking - An operating system that is capable of allowing multiple software processes to run at the same time. Below are some examples of multitasking operating systems. Unix Windows 2000 Multithreading - Operating systems that allow different parts of a software program to run concurrently. Operating systems that would fall into this category are: Linux Unix Windows 2000

Troubleshooting Common questions and answers to operating systems in general can be found on the below operating system question and answers. Linux / Variants, Mac OS, MS-DOS, IBM OS/2 Warp, Unix / Variants, Windows CE, Windows 3.x, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98 SE, Windows ME , Windows NT ,Windows 2000 Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7.

MEMORY MANAGEMENT:
The concept of a logical address space that is bound to a separate physical address space is central to proper memory management. Logical address generated by the CPU; also referred to as virtual address Physical address address seen by the memory unit Logical and physical addresses are the same in compile-time and load time address-binding schemes; logical (virtual) and physical addresses differ in execution-time address-binding scheme Relocatable Binding Means that the program image can reside anywhere in physical memory. Programs need real memory in which to reside. When is the location of that real - 24 K.SURESH

memory Determined? DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL . This is called mapping logical to physical addresses. . This binding can be done at compile/link time. Converts symbolic to relocatable. Data used within compiled source is offset within object module. Compiler: Load: Execution: If its known where the program will reside, then absolute code is generated. Otherwise compiler produces relocatable code. Binds relocatable to physical. Can find best physical location. The code can be moved around during execution Means flexible virtual mapping.

Binding Logical To Physical This binding can be done at compile/link time. Converts symbolic to relocatable. Data used within compiled source is offset within object module. Can be done at load time. Binds relocatable to physical. can be done at run time. Implies that the code can be moved around during execution.

The system cannot understand the language written by the user. Hence it uses the translators they are called as LANGUAGE TRANSLATORS. They are a. Assembler b. Compiler c. Interpreter ASSEMBLER: An assembler is a program which translates high level language program into machine language (os and 1s). Ex: Assembly language (8085,8086,8080 microprocessors) COMPILER: It also translates the high level language program into machine level language program and gives the errors of the entire program at a time along with line numbers. Ex: COBOL, C-language. INTERPRETER: It also translates the high level language program into machine level language program and gives the errors line by line and produces the output. DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 25 K.SURESH

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MICROSOFT OFFICE
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MS DOS
The literal definition is that MS-DOS stands for "Microsoft Disk Operating System". The answer most readers are looking for is that DOS is a command-line method of executing basically the same functions available in Windows. The main difference is the lack of wizards, the need to be precise, and the fact that DOS came first. The commands will be written in the dos prompt How to open the dos prompt ->click on the start menu-> type run -> click ok

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Now the command menu will be opened and now we can start typing commands

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DIR : C:\>DIR The results I got in C:\ were: Volume in drive C has no label. Volume Serial Number is 8C87-FFA1 Directory of C:\
04/18/2006 12:06 AM 0 AUTOEXEC.BAT 04/21/2006 04:42 PM <DIR> Batch 04/18/2006 12:06 AM CONFIG.SYS 04/18/2006 12:21 AM 32 csb.log 04/21/2006 07:45 PM 0 dir.txt 04/18/2006 12:12 AM <DIR> Documents and Settings 04/18/2006 12:45 AM <DIR> NVIDIA 04/21/2006 04:27 PM <DIR> Program Files 04/20/2006 08:01 PM <DIR> WINDOWS 4 File(s) 32 bytes 5 Dir(s) 196,047,323,136 bytes free

The items with <DIR> are directories, or folders. Anything else is a file. The column on the left is the date the files were last changed, the next column shows the time the files were modified. The number to the left of the file name is the size of the file in bytes. If there are too many directories to list on one screen, type one of the following commands: DIR /w - The /w switch makes the DIR appear in a wider format DIR /p - while /p displays the DIR one screen full at a time or

MAKE DIRECTORY DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 29 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL MKDIR [directory name] or MD [directory name], replacing [directory name] with the name of the directory you wish to go to. So, on my pc, if I want to change to C:\ CSN C:\> MKDIR CSN The prompt changes to C:\ CSN> CHANGING DIRECTORIES CHDIR [directory name] or CD [directory name], replacing [directory name] with the name of the directory you wish to go to. So, on my pc, if I want to change to C:\INDIA C:\>CD INDIA The prompt changes to C:\INDIA> OPENING FILES To access a text file, you would use the TYPE command: C:\>TYPE dir.txt and the information would display on my command screen. Note, however, that some text files may be too long for the screen. For files like this, type the following command: C:\>TYPE dir.txt | more Replacing dir.txt with the name of the file you want to display. The | key is found above the [Enter] key ([Shift] and \). When the file reaches the size of the page, it will pause, asking you to press [Enter]. Pressing [Enter] will move the page down one line. If you change your mind partway through reading the long file, Press [Ctrl] and C. You will go back to the prompt. CLEARING THE SCREEN If you don't like clutter, press CLS at any time. This command clears the screen of everything but the latest prompt. C:\>cls

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CREATING FILES

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To create a file using the Copy Con method, type at the prompt: COPY CON Newfile.txt Replace Newfile.txt with any file name and extension you choose and press [Enter]. At first, nothing will seem to happen. You will need to press [Control] and Z. The symbol ^Z will appear. Press [Enter] to confirm. What you see should resemble this when you are done: C:\>COPY CON newfile.txt ^Z 1 file(s) copied. C:\>

TO VIEW THE DATA Just type TYPE command at the prompt. C:\>TYPE newfile.txt RENAMING A FILE Type RENAME, the file's current name, and the new one. The syntax and example is this: C:\>RENAME cookstuff.txt coolstuff.txt This command also works with directories. C:\>RENAME C:\Blark bark A shorter method of renaming files is REN. It does the same thing as RENAME .It is also possible to change the extension of your file with the REN* command. Simply specify it like so: C:\>REN file.txt file.doc The file is renamed as a different file type.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

Here's where the COPY feature comes in handy. The syntax is: COPY [source] [destination] To combine specific files, do this: COPY file1.txt+file2.txt This will add all of file2.txt to the end of file1.tx MOVING FILES The MOVE command is exactly like Copy, except that the original, the source, is deleted. The syntax is: MOVE [source] [destination] REMOVING FILES It can be done with one of not one, not two, but three commands. The following three are all in correct syntax and do the exact same thing: DEL test.txt DELETE test.txt ERASE test.txt Each of these will destroy the file test.txt. Gone. Permanently*. The possible tags are: /P - Asks before deleting each file. For those times when you really want to be sure. /F - Forces read-only files to be erased as well. /S - Deletes all specified files in that folder and any subdirectories with the same name. /Q - Do not ask to delete on global wildcard.

Normally, if you choose to "DEL *.*" (deleting all files with all extensions), you are given a prompt that says DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 32 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE Are you sure?(Y/N) /A - Deletes based on attributes. DEL *.* /AR would delete only read-only files DEL *.* /AH deleted only hidden files DEL *.* /AS removes only system files DEL *.* /AA erases only archives files

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

Using the /Q switch disables this prompt for this particular delete.

DEL *.* /-H erases everything but hidden files (the "-" prefix can work with any attribute) DATE & TIME COMMAND The command will be typed at the prompt so that date and type command at the prompt C:\>date C:\>time

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

MICROSOFT WORD

WORD PROCESSING:

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K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL In order to make the changes, the entire document has to be retyped and if there are many documents of this sort, the time and effort required to retype each would be phenomenal. Such work, defined above, is called Word Processing. A word processor is a software package which helps enter and edit a document much faster than the usual minimal ways. Most of the word processors today allow much more than allowing one to enter and edit a document. The following is a list of some of the functions that are possible by using a MS-Word: Typing out the document Saving the document Opening an existing document Moving or copying paragraphs from one place in the document to another Finding the words and replacing them with another word Searching for spelling errors Printing the document etc. In this unit, you will learn to use the word processor Microsoft Word (MS Word). MS Word is windows based application and is a normally available as an icon in the Application group or the MS Office group.

1.1 OBJECTIVES After going through this unit, you will be able to Start the WORD software package. Create a document. Move and copy the text within the document. Print a document. Create bullets and numbers. Close and save the document.

1.2 STARTING WORD

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL As in the case with other windows applications, to invoke MS Word, you click on the icon Microsoft Word. In application or MS Office group the following icon will be displayed. To invoke MS Word, double click on this icon. Starting Word and Opening a document To start word and simultaneously open a word document, double-click the filename of the document in the File Manager.

Introduction Microsoft Word 2003 is the word processing application in the Microsoft Office Suite. Create professional-looking, formatted text documents with this powerful Word processing software. By the end of this lesson, learners should be able to:

Identify the parts of the Word 2003 Window Change the document view Operate the drop-down menus Identify the Task Pane

The Basics of the Word Window Let's briefly review the basic parts of the Word 2003 window before we move onto word processing. Shown below is the Microsoft Word default window. When Word is launched, a new blank document, or default window, opens in Print Layout view. Although window elements are fully explained in our Windows course, here is a brief explanation of the Word window.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

Title Bar Menu Bar Standard Toolbar Formatting Toolbar Ruler Insertion Point

- Displays the document name followed by a program name. - Contains a list of options to manage and customize documents. - Contains shortcut buttons for the most popular commands. - Contains buttons used for formatting. - Used to set margins, indents, and tabs. - The location where the next character appears.

End-of-Document Marker - Indicates the end of the document. Help Scroll bars Status Bar Task Pane View Buttons - Provides quick access to Help topics. - Used to view parts of the document. - Displays position of the insertion point and working mode buttons. - Provides easy access to commonly used menus, buttons and tools. - Changes the layout view of the document to Normal View, Web Layout View, Reading Layout View, Print Layout View, or Outline View. Office Assistant DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - Links to the Microsoft Office Help feature. - 37 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE Change in View

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

In an effort to provide various ways in which to view your work in progress and remain organized, Word 2003 offers six different views for your document. The six views are Normal View, Web Layout View, Reading Layout View, Print Layout View, Outline View, and Full Screen View. 1. Normal view is best used for typing, editing, formatting and proofreading. It provides a maximum amount of space without rulers or page numbers cluttering your view. 2. Web Layout view shows you what your text will look like on a web page. 3. Reading Layout view is best for documents that you do not need to edit. The goal of this view is to increase legibility so that the user can read the document easily. 4. Print Layout view shows you what your document will look like when it is printed. Under Print Layout view you can see all elements of the page. Print Preview shows you this as well. 5. Outline view is used to create and edit outlines. Outline view only shows the headings in a document. This view is particularly handy when making notes. 6. Full Screen view displays ONLY the document that you are working on. All the other pieces of the Word window are removed except for one button that allows you to Close View Screen. CHANGING YOUR DOCUMENT VIEW:

Click View on the menu bar. Select the view of your choice.

OR

Click one of the five buttons at the bottom left of your Word window (View Full Screen is not available in this location).

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE PULL-DOWN MENUS

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

Each Office 2003 program features a menu bar. The menu bar is made up of many different menus. Each menu contains commands that enable you to work within the program. If you have used a previous version of Microsoft Word, you may notice the menu bar in Word 2003 operates a little differently than before. Word 2003 uses pull-down menus that initially display commands that users most often need.

OPERATING THE NEW PULL-DOWN MENUS


To Open a Menu:

Click on a menu name on the menu bar. View the commands listed under the pull-down menu. With the menu open, drag the mouse pointer to a command and click on it to select the command. (As you drag your mouse pointer over the commands, each command is highlighted in blue.)

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL 1. If there is a small black triangle next to a command, hover the mouse pointer over the command with the triangle and a cascading menu with additional options will appear. Point and click to make a selection from the cascading menu.

2. Commands that are not used often in 2003 are initially hidden from the viewer. If you do not see all the commands on a menu, click on the double arrows at the bottom of the pull-down menu. You can also double-click the menu to expand it.

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K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

Using the Task Pane When opened, the task pane will appear on the right side of the Word window. The task pane provides easy access to commonly used menus, buttons and tools. By default, the Task Pane will appear when Word 2003 is first launched. If you do not see your task pane, you can view it by either selecting certain commands or by manually opening it.

To Open the Task Pane:


Click on View in the menu bar. Select TaskPane. Along the top bar of the task pane you should see small backwards and To view different task panes available to you, click on the down arrow. Once you have opened different task panes, you can navigate through To close your task pane, click the x symbol on the far right of the bar.

forwards buttons on the left as well as a down arrow on the right.

then by clicking on the left and right arrow button on the left.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

CHALLENGE!

Download and save the Personal Letter Word document to complete challenges 1 through 6. Need help?How to Download a file. After opening the document, change the view to Normal View. Practice using the pull-down menus on the menu bar. Find the Task Pane and become familiar with it. Type today's date at the beginning of the document. Save the document by selecting File >> Save from the main menu. Close the document.

Download Tips 1. Click the link to the file that you wish to download. 2. Select the Save button when the File Download dialog box appears.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE 3. The Save As dialog box will appear.

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

4. Use the drop-down arrow in the Save in: box to choose the location you wish to download the file. (i.e., Desktop, My Documents, C drive, etc.) 5. Move your cursor to the File Name: box and type what you wish to name the document (i.e., JSmithPersonalLetter). 6. Select the Save button to the right of your file name. 7. Select Open when the Download Complete dialog box appears. You are now ready to begin work on your Challenge.

Important Reminder: If you are using a public computer, such as one at a library or learning centre, you may not be able to use the same computer each time. It is very important to understand the policies on saving documents to public computers. Ask someone in charge of the public computers where you are. If you are unsure how you will keep a recent copy of the assignment, you can always email a copy of the document to yourself when you finish working on the document. DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 43 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE SAVE AND SAVE AS By the end of this lesson, learners should be able to:

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

Use Save Use Save As

Saving a New File When Saving a File for the First Time: Click File on the Menu Bar. Select Save -Ctrl+S.

Using the Standard Toolbar to Save: Choose the Save button Save As Dialog Box After selecting Save from the Menu Bar or the Standard Toolbar, the Save As Dialog Box appears. on the Standard Toolbar.

To Specify a File Location: Open the Save In: drop down list box. Choose 31/2 floppy (A:) if saving to a floppy disk. Choose (C:) if saving to your hard disk. Name your file in the File name: box. Click Save. After Naming and Saving a File Once:

Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar. Go to the File menu and choose Save. You will not get a Save As dialog box again.

OR

SAVING A FILE UNDER A NEW NAME If you wish to create an exact copy of an original document for editing or revising purposes, you should perform a Save As on the file and save it under a new name. This will guarantee that you always have a DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 44 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE saved, original copy. Follow these steps to perform a Save As:

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

Click File from the menu bar. Select Save As. The Save As Dialog Box appears. Type a new name for your file in the File name: box. Click Save.

Choose Save As to rename a document. Be careful not to overwrite your original file. FIND AND REPLACE Word 2003 allows you to search for specific words in your document as well as fonts, special characters and formats. The Find and Replace functionality can really help save you time and effort in your word processing goals. For example, consider a document you are editing that displays Word XP needs to be updated to Word 2003. Currently the document has the text, Word XP, typed again and again throughout the document. Using Find and Replace to replace Word XP with Word 2003 will save you much time and effort in your editing process. Using Find - CTRL + F

Click Edit on the menu bar Select Find. The Find and Replace dialog box appears. Type a word, phrase or format in the Find What box. Click Find Next to start the search. Word will jump to the first instance of this word and will highlight the word for easy location. Continue Clicking the Find Next button to find all other instances of this word. OR

Check the Highlight all items found in: box to find all instances of the word at the same time. Use the list box below to select all, or portions of your document.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

You can perform a more detailed search by clicking the More button on the Find and Replace dialog box:

Click Edit on the menu bar Select Find. The Find and Replace dialog box appears. Type a word, phrase or format in the Find What box. Click More to conduct a detailed search. Click the Search list box if you want to limit your search to a specific part of the document. Use the check boxes to limit your search. Click Format if you want to limit your search to words in a specific Font, Paragraph, Tab, Language, Frame, Style or Highlight. Click Special to search for punctuation marks or section breaks. Click Find Next to start the search.

Using Replace - CTRL + H


Click Edit on the menu bar. Select Replace. The Find and Replace dialog box appears. Type the word, phrase or format in the Find What: box that you are searching for. Type the word, phrase or format in the Replace With: box that will replace what is in the Find What: box. Click Find Next to conduct your search. When Word finds a word of phrase, do one of the following:
o o o

Ignore it. Click Replace. Click Replace All to replace every occurrence of the selected text with the replacement text.

Click Find Next to bypass it and find the next. Click Cancel to quit.

ALIGN TEXT USING THE ALIGNMENT BUTTONS: DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 46 -

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

Use alignment buttons to align text

Aligning Text Aligning text can be invaluable when trying to format your document to meet certain standards. Most documents have text that is left aligned. However, if you were creating a greeting card or advertisement, you might need to know how to centre align, right align or justify your text. Align Text Using the Alignment Buttons:

Select the text you want to align. Click the Align Left, Canter, Align Right, or Justify button on the Formatting toolbar.

LINE SPACING To Format Line Spacing:


Select the text you want to format. Choose Reveal Formatting on the Task Pane and click on any of the blue links under the Paragraph heading. OR

Click Format on the menu bar. Select Paragraph. The Paragraph dialog box appears. Click on the Indents and Spacing tab. In the Line spacing drop down menu, you may select single, 1.5, or double spacing. The default is single spacing.

Click OK. OR Select the text you want to format. Click on the Line Spacing button on the Formatting Menu. Select an option from the drop-down menu.

Paragraph Dialog Box DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 47 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL You can use the At Least, Exactly and Multiple options in the Paragraph Dialog Box to customize your line spacing. If you select one of these options you will need to use the At: box to further define your selection. When you make a line spacing change, it affects only the text in a paragraph that contains the insertion point.

Paragraph Spacing Just as you can add spacing between lines in your document, you can also choose spacing options between each paragraph. Typically, extra spaces are added between paragraphs, headings, or subheadings. Extra spacing between paragraphs adds emphasis and makes a document easier to read. Choose extra space:

Before each paragraph. After each paragraph. Or, before and after each paragraph.

To Specify Paragraph Spacing:


Select the text you want to format. Choose Reveal Formatting on the Task Pane and click on any of the blue links under the Paragraph heading. OR

Click Format on the menu bar.


Select Paragraph, The Paragraph dialog box appears. Click the Indents and Spacing tab.
o o

Alignment: Choose left, right, center, or justified. Indentation: Adjust the left and right margins by clicking the up and down arrows. Use the Special drop-down menu to select the first line as having the indent or to create a hanging indent. Spacing: To emphasize a block of text, click the up and down arrows. Preview: Gives an idea how your text will look.

o o

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE USING PAGE SETUP TO SPECIFY MARGINS

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

In order to change the margins (space along the top, left, right and bottom) in your document, you will need to access the Page Setup dialog box.

Click File on the menu bar. Select Page Setup. Select Margins tab in the Page Setup dialog box. OR

Choose Reveal Formatting on the Task Pane and click on the blue link, Margin, under the Section heading. You can change the margin in precise steps by clicking on the up or down arrows next to the margin that you wish to change or you may type a number in the text box next to the margin you wish to change.

Click OK.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

EDITING TABLES
Once you have created your table, you may find that you need to format text within your table, insert or delete rows and columns, or perhaps just change the appearance of your table so that it is more visually appealing. Formatting Text in Tables Fortunately, whatever you do to format text in a paragraph (make it bold green, for example), you can do to text in a table cell. Formatting text within a table can be accomplished through a variety of means, including the Formatting menu, the Tables and Borders toolbar, the Task Pane and keyboard shortcuts. Rotating Text in Tables Many advertisements, for sale signs, menus, and other creative documents use Word's text direction feature to change typical horizontal text to eye-catching vertical text. You can rotate text so it runs vertically, facing either the right or the left.

To Rotate Text in a Table Cell:


Select the cell(s) you want to rotate. Click the Change Text Direction button : on the Tables and Borders toolbar.

Clicking the Change Text Direction button once turns text to the vertically left, the second click turns text tovertically right, and the third click will bring your text back to a horizontal position.

The insertion point rotates when entering vertical text, but editing vertical text is really no different than editing horizontal text.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE Inserting and Deleting Columns and Rows

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

Estimating how many rows and columns you will need in a table is not always easy. Therefore, it is important to know how to insert and delete rows and columns in your existing table. To Add Rows to Your Table:

Move the insertion point to the last cell in the table and press Tab.

To Insert Rows in the Middle of the Table:


Place the insertion point anywhere in the table. Choose Table Insert Rows above OR Rows below.

To Delete Rows:

Select the row(s) you want to delete. Choose Table Delete Rows. OR

Right-click and choose Table To Delete Single Table Cell:


Delete

Rows from the shortcut menu.

Place the insertion point inside the cell you wish to delete. Choose Table Delete Cells from the menu bar.

The Delete Cells dialog box appears.

Click Shift cells left, Shift cells up, Delete entire row, or Delete entire column.

To Insert a Column:

Position the mouse pointer where you want to column to be located.

Choose Table

Insert

Insert Columns

to the Right or Insert Columns to the Left.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE Resizing Tables

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

You may need to adjust the size of columns, rows, and cells. To Adjust Columns, Rows, and Cell Size:

Hover the insertion point over any line in your table that borders the area you want to change. The insertion point changes to a double-headed arrow. Drag the border either left or right OR up and down.

To automatically adjust the size, select the entire Table and then choose Table AutoFit to Contents. AutoFormat

AutoFit

Just as Word offers document templates for memos, faxes, reports and other items; Word also offers templates for Tables. To use AutoFormat:

Create your table. Click anywhere in the table. Go to the toolbar and select Table and then Table AutoFormat. The Table AutoFormat dialog box appears. Scroll through the Table Styles until you find a table you like. You can preview the Table Style in the Preview Box. Check and uncheck the options in the Apply special Formats to: sections to slightly change parts of your table. Check out your changes using the Preview box. Click the New button to customize your own Table Style. Click the Modify button to change parts of an existing Table Style. Click OK.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

ADDING BORDERS Many of the tables in the AutoFormat Dialog Box use unique borders and shading options. To add these special features to your own table, you can use the Tables and Borders toolbar. To Change Line Style or Line Weight on an Existing Table:

Click the drop down arrows (next to the buttons) to view and select from the list of choices. The mouse pointer turns into a pencil Trace the line(s) you want to change. Click anywhere outside the table to change to pencil back into the I-beam.

To Change the Border Colour on an Existing Table:

Click the drop down arrow next to the Border Colour button. A colour menu appears. Select a colour. The I-beam becomes the pencil. Using the pencil, trace the border(s) that you want to colour.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE To Apply a Border:

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

Select the Line Style, Line Weight, and Border Colour you would like.

Select the cells you want bordered. Click the Outside Border button drop down menu and choose the location of your border.

Add Shading To Apply Shading:

Select or place the insertion point inside the cell(s) you want shaded.

Click the Shading Colour button drop down arrow. A shading colour menu appears. Click on a colour. Your cell(s) are automatically shaded.

CREATING AND MODIFYING DIAGRAMS AND CHARTS Word allows you to create basic diagrams using the templates in the Diagram Gallery. The six diagram types are: Organization Chart, Cycle Diagram, Radial Diagram, Pyramid Diagram, Venn Diagram, and a Target Diagram. A description of each type of diagram is included in the Diagram Gallery to help you decide which template will best meet your needs.

To Insert a Diagram From the Diagram Gallery:


Select Insert

Diagram from the main menu.

Select a diagram. Click OK. The diagram will appear in your Word document.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE To Modify a Diagram:

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

Since each diagram is completely different, the modifications you can make will differ depending on the diagram you insert. However, the tools you use to modify the diagrams are the same. You can:

Right-click any shape or text box within the diagram to modify or delete it. The menu will change depending on the item you select. OR

Modify the diagram using the Diagram Toolbar. The drop-down menus on the Diagram Toolbar will differ depending on the type of diagram you choose.

To Insert a Chart:

Select Insert from the main menu. Select Picture Chart fr

om the cascading menu. A chart and datasheet will appear in your document.

Delete the existing data in the datasheet.

Enter your own data in the datasheet.

Close the datasheet. All of your changes will appear in the chart.

Save and close the document.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

MAIL MERGE
Start the mail merge process To start the mail merge process: 1. Start Word. - A blank document opens by default. Leave it open. If you close it, the next step won't work. 2. On the Tools menu, point to Letters and Mailings, and then click Mail Merge. The Mail Merge task pane opens. By using hyperlinks in the task pane, you navigate through the mailmerge process. Choose the type of document you want to merge information into The Mail Merge task pane opens with a question about what type of merged document you are creating. After you choose, click Next at the bottom of the task pane. NOTE If you don't see the Mail Merge task pane, on the Tools menu, point to Letters and Mailings, and then click Mail Merge If you have fax support set up on your computer and a fax modem installed, you will also see Faxes in the list of document types.

Choose the main document you want to use If your main document (called the starting document in the task pane) is already open, or you are starting with a blank document, you can click Use the current document. Otherwise, click Start from a template or Start from existing document, and then locate the template or document that you want to use.

Connect to the data file DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 56 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL In this step in the mail-merge process, you connect to the data file where the unique information that you want to merge into your documents is stored. If you keep complete, up-to-date information in your Microsoft Office Outlook Contacts list, that is an excellent data file to use for customer letters or e-mail messages. Just click Select from Outlook contacts in the task pane, and then choose your Contacts folder. If you have a Microsoft Office Excel worksheet or a Microsoft Office Access database that contains your customer information, click Use an existing list, and then click Browse to locate the file. If you don't have a data file yet, click Type a new list, and then use the form that opens to create your list. The list is saved as a mailing database (.mdb) file that you can reuse. NOTE If you're creating merged e-mail messages or faxes, make sure that your data file includes a column for the e-mail address or fax number. You will need that column later in the process. Choose the records in the data file that you want to use

Just because you connect to a certain data file doesn't mean that you have to merge information from all the records (rows) in that data file into your main document.

After you connect to the data file that you want to use or create a new date file, the Mail Merge Recipients dialog box opens. You can select a subset of records for your mail merge by sorting or filtering the list.

Do any of the following:


To sort the records in a column in ascending or descending order, click the column heading. To filter the list, click the arrow beside the column heading that contains the value on which you want to filter. Then, click the value that you want. Or, if your list is long, click (Advanced) to

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL open a dialog box where you can set the value. Click (Blanks) to display only records that contain no

information or (Non blanks) to display only records that contain information.

Clear the check box next to a record to exclude that record. Use the buttons to select or exclude all the records or to find specific records.

Add fields If your main document is still blank, type the information that will appear in each copy. Then, add fields by clicking the hyperlinks in the task pane. Fields are placeholders that you insert into the main document at locations where you want unique information to appear. For example, you can click the Address block or Greeting line links in the task pane to add fields near the top of a new product letter, so that each recipient's letter contains a personalized address and greeting. Fields appear in your document within chevrons, for example,Address Block.

If you click More items in the task pane, you can add fields that match any of the columns in your data file. For example, your data file might include a column called Personal Note. By putting a Personal_Note field at the bottom of a form letter, you can further personalize each copy. You can even customize envelopes by adding a postal bar code if you are using the English (U.S.) language version of Word or electronic postage (if you have an electronic postage program installed). Match fields If you insert an address block field or a greeting line field into your document, you are prompted to choose the format that you prefer. For example, the illustration shows

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL the Greeting Line dialog box that opens when you click Greeting line in the task pane. You use the lists under Greeting line format to make your choices. If Word can't match each greeting or address element with a column from your data file, the addresses and greeting lines will not be merged correctly. To help avoid problems, click Match Fields. The Match Fields dialog box opens.

The elements of an address and greeting are listed on the left. Column headings from your data file are listed on the right. Word searches for the column that matches each element. In the illustration, Word automatically matched the data file's Surname column to Last Name. But Word was unable to match other elements. From this data file, for example, Word can't match First Name or Address 1. By using the lists on the right, you can select the column from your data file that matches the element on the left. In the illustration, the Name column now matches First Name, and the Address column matches Address 1. It's okay if Courtesy Title, Company, and Spouse First Name aren't matched, because they aren't relevant in the documents that you are creating.

When you finish adding and matching the fields in your main document, you are ready for the next step.

Preview the merge You can preview your merged documents and make changes before you actually complete the merge. To preview, do any of the following: DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 59 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Page through each merged document by using the next and previous buttons in the task pane.

Preview a specific document by clicking Find a recipient. Click Exclude this recipient if you realize you don't want to include the record that you are looking at. Click Edit recipient list to open the Mail Merge Recipients dialog box, where you can filter the list if you see records that you don't want to include. Click Previous at the bottom of the task pane to go back a step or two if you need to make other changes.

When you are satisfied with the merge results, click Next at the bottom of the task pane. Complete the merge

What you do now depends on what type of document you're creating. If you are merging letters, you can print the letters or modify them individually. If you choose to modify the letters, Word saves them all to a single file, with one letter per page. No matter what type of document you are creating, you can print, transmit, or save all or just a subset of the documents. Remember that merged documents that you save are separate from the main document. It's a good idea to save the main document itself if you plan to use it for another mail merge. When you save the main document, in addition to its content and fields, you also save its connection to the data file. The next time you open the main document, you're prompted to choose whether you want the information from the data file to be merged again into the main document.

If you click Yes, the document opens with information from the first record merged in. If you open the task pane (Tools menu, Letters and Mailings sub menu, Mail Merge command), the Select recipients step. You can click hyperlinks in the task pane to modify the include a different set of records or to connect to a different data file. Then, you bottom of the task pane to proceed with the merge. you are at data file to

can click Next at the

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL If you click No, the connection between the main document and the data file is broken. The main document becomes a standard Word document. Fields are replaced with the unique information from the first record.

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MS-POWER POINT

PowerPoint 2003 provides a special PowerPoint task pane on the right side of the screen which you can us to launch various tasks. The main functions of the PowerPoint Task Pane can be accessed by clicking in the Other Task Panes drop-down menu. If the PowerPoint Task Pane isn't visible on your work area, you can view it by clicking on the the View Menu and then Task Pane. You can also use the keystrokes Ctrl+F1 DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 62 K.SURESH

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The Getting Started PowerPoint TaskPane launches when you start PowerPoint 2003. If it isn't visible, hit Ctrl+F1 then select it in the drop-down list

PowerPoint Task Pane


Getting Started The Getting Started PowerPoint Task Pane launches when you start PowerPoint 2003.

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Clip Art You can search through hundreds of pieces of clip art in the Clip Art Task Pane. If your Web connection is live, you can also search Microsoft's Online library of clip art and images. In the search box, type in the term you are looking for and click the GO button. The clip art that is identified by the key word is displayed. A ScreenTip displays the keywords associated with the graphic, its size, and its format. Click on the thumbnail to insert the image into the current slide.

New Presentation You can create new presentations in several ways from the New Presentation Task Pane. Click on any of the new presentation methods listed in the pane. You can create a blank presentation, a presentation from a design template, from an AutoContent wizard, or from an existing presentation or photo. You can also create presentations from templates on your computer or you can search for templates online.

Slide Layout The Slide Layout Task Pane includes thumbnails of layouts you can apply to selected slides in your presentation. The slide layouts are divided into Content Layouts, Text Layouts, Text and Content Layouts, and Other Layouts You can point to a slide layout to see their Screen Tips.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL You can apply different slide layouts to selected slides in your presentation by clicking on the slide layout thumbnail or by clicking on options from the drop-down menu on each thumbnail.

Slide Design You can apply different templates to your presentation until you find the look that you like best. To apply a template to an existing presentation, you open the presentation and then use the Slide Design Task Pane to locate and select the template that you want to use. Click on the design thumbnail and PowerPoint applies the information from the design template to the Master Slides in the presentation. The text style and format, colors, and background objects change to match those of the template, but the content remains the same.

Custom Animation The Custom Animation Task Pane displays a list of the animation events that have been applied to the current slide. Each event item in the list represents an animation and is labelled with part of the text from the slide. An icon is displayed that represents the type of animation and triggers are show which begin the animation event. Number indicate the order in which the animations play and correspond to the labels associated with the animated items.

CREATE NEW POWERPOINT PRESENTATION


To create a new presentation, click File and New. The New Presentation Task Pane will appear on the right side of the window.

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From the New Presentation Task Pane, click Blank Presentation. A new blank presentation will appear in the workspace and a single thumbnail appear in the Outline/Thumbnail pane. The Same New Presentation Task Pane is also used to create new presentations in several other ways.

CREATE A NEW PRESENTATION FROM A DESIGN TEMPLATE


Click File, New. From the New Presentation Task Pane, click on From Design Template. The Task Pane will change to the Slide Design pane and thumbnails of slide designs will appear in the scrolling window. Select a slide design that you like from the window and click on the thumbnail image. The design will be applied to the new presentation in the workspace. You will also see the new slide design in the thumbnail image in the Outline/Thumbnail pane.

Your new presentation is now ready to begin adding slides.

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CREATING A NEW PRESENTATION FROM THE AUTO CONTENT WIZARD Another way to create a new presentation is to you the Auto Content Wizard. Select From AutoContent Wizard from the New Presentation Pane. A wizard will appear in the workspace and walk you through a series of questions about what kind of presentation you need. Simply answer the questions and click next each time to move on to the next section. When the wizard is finished, it will build a presentation for you according to your responses to the questions. The presentation will include several slides already built into the presentation.

CREATE A NEW PRESENTATION FROM A PHOTO OR ALBUM


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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Another way to create new presentation is to use the Create from Photo Album Tool. From the New Presentation Task Pane, click on Photo Album... The Photo Album dialog box will appear and ask you what picture you want to use for the presentation. It will offer several options for the number of pictures you want to include on the slide and the amount of text boxes to use. When you are done making your selections, PowerPoint will build a slide design based upon the photo you selected. The completed presentation design built from a photograph.

INSERT SLIDE - FROM INSERT MENU The first way to insert a new slide is to Click the Insert Menu and then New Slide. PowerPoint will insert one new slide into the presentation and display in the Slide Pane. Holding slide. INSERT A NEW SLIDE FROM THE FORMATTING TOOL BAR Another way to insert a new slide into a presentation is to Click New Slide from the Formatting Toolbar. When clicked, the new slide button also creates a new content slide that includes a title and a text box. down the Control Key and

pressing M (Ctrl+M) will also inset a new

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MS-EXCEL

Immediately you will see the screen shown below. In the right hand side of the screen, the Getting Started task pane provides help to you.

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If you are not using it at the moment, click on the Close icon to close it. The Microsoft Office Excel 2003 screen elements:

By default, Microsoft Excel workbook contains 3 blank worksheets, which are identified by tabs displaying along the bottom of the screen.

To enter text into a worksheet

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Select the cell in which you want to enter the text and then type in the text. Text entries are left aligned by default. To enter numbers into a worksheet Select the cell in which you want to enter a number and type in the number. If you want to enter a negative number, type a minus sign in front of it or enclose it in parentheses (bracket), e.g. -15 or (15). To indicate decimal places, you type a full stop such as 125.89. The numbers will be right aligned by default. To save a workbook From File menu, click Save.

If it is a new file, the Save As dialog box will appear. If necessary select a different folder that you may wish to save the file in. Enter a name in the File name: text box. Click on the Save button.

To minimize a workbook window DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 71 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Click on the Minimize button in the top right-hand corner of the workbook window.

Note: If you minimize the window, the file is not close yet. To re-open the program, just click on the 'minimized program icon' on the window taskbar.

To close a file From the File menu, click Close. You will be asked if you wish to save any changes you have made to the file. Select Yes to save, or No to ignore the changes. If you are saving a new file, the Save As dialog box will display. In the File name text box, enter a name and click on the Save button. To exit Microsoft Excel From the File menu, click Exit. If you have saved all the changes made in the active workbook files, Microsoft Excel will close. If you have not saved all the changes, the Save confirmation box will be displayed. To save the current workbook file before exiting, select Yes. To exit without saving the file, select No. To cancel the exit command, select Cancel or press Esc.

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CREATING AND OPENING WORKBOOKS

To start using Microsoft Excel, you can start with a new blank workbook or open the existing Excel file. To create a new default workbook Click on the New icon located on the Standard toolbar OR press Ctrl+N

To open a file From the File menu, click Open. From the Open dialog box as displayed, use the Look in: drop down menu to select the drive or folder that contains the file you want. To open the file you can either double-click on the file name OR select the file name by clicking on it, and then click on the Openbutton.

MICROSOFT EXCEL - DATA ENTRY TECHNIQUES

Here is the guide that shows the easy ways that you can use to enter data into the worksheet. To fill a range of cells with the same data Highlight the cells you wish to fill. Enter the information that you wish to fill the selected range with. Press Ctrl+Shift+Enter and the range will be filled.

To fill a range of cells with the 'automatic' data Highlight the cells you wish to fill. Enter the data into the cells as follow: A1: 1; A2: 2 Use the mouse to drag from cell A1 to A2.

Place your mouse in the bottom right corner of the selected cells until you see the + sign appear as follow: DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 73 K.SURESH

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Click and drag the mouse down the cells as you wish. You will see the selected range will fill with continuous numbers 3, 4, 5, 6, Note: You also can replace the above A1 and A2 cells with days of week such as Monday, Tuesday,... and months like January, February,...

MICROSOFT EXCEL - NAVIGATING IN THE WORKSHEET How you can move from one place to another in Microsoft Excel? Here is the ways: To move to a particular cell (quick way) Enter the cell that you wish to jump to into the Name Box (at the top, left of the screen). In the example shown the cell reference J50 has been entered. When you press the Enter key you will jump to the cell you entered.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE To move from cell to cell using the keyboard

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To move from cell to cell, use one of the following key or combination keys: Icon Ctrl + Ctrl + Ctrl + Ctrl + Home Ctrl + Home Ctrl + End Page Down Page Up Alt + Page Down Alt + Page Up Function One cell to the right. One cell to the left. One cell down. One cell up. To the right-hand edge of the current region. To the left-hand edge of the current region. To the bottom edge of the current region. To the top edge of the current region. To the first cell in the row. To the first cell in the worksheet. To the lowest right-hand cell in the worksheet that contains a data entry. One screen down. One screen up. One screen to the right. One screen to the left.

MICROSOFT EXCEL - SELECTION TECHNIQUES The selection techniques in Microsoft Excel allow you to select or highlight the cell(s) quickly so that you can perform the tasks such as deleting, copying, etc. To select a cell Click on the cell you wish to select.

To select a range of cells by dragging the mouse Click on the first cell in the range. Hold down the left-hand mouse button and drag over the cells you wish to include in the selection.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL To select a range of cells (making up a rectangular block) Click on the first cell of the rectangular block that you wish to select (i.e. the left top-left hand corner) Move down to the cell that marks the bottom-right corner of the rectangular block. Depress the Shift key (and keep it depress). Click once on the last cell of the required block and release the Shift key.

To select a non-contiguous range Select the first cell or range. While holding down the Ctrl key, select the next range of cells.

To select a row Click on the row heading number.

To select a column Click on the column heading letter.

To select an entire worksheet Press Ctrl+A

MICROSOFT EXCEL - INSERTING AND DELETING

Microsoft Excel offers a convenient way for you to either insert or delete cell(s), column(s), row(s), or entire worksheet. DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 76 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE To insert a row(s) into a worksheet

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Select the row you want to move down when the new row is inserted above it. To select more than one row, drag the mouse pointer across the required row headings. Right-click on the selected row(s) to display a pop-up menu. Select Insert. Any existing data will move down to accommodate the new cells.

To insert column(s) into a worksheet Select the column you want to move to the right when the new column is inserted. To select more than one column, drag the mouse pointer across the required column headings. Right-click on the selected column(s) to display a pop-up menu. Select Insert. Any existing data will move down to accommodate the new cells.

To delete a row or column Use the same techniques outlined above, but select the Delete command from the pop-up menu.

To insert cells or range of cells Select the cell where you want to insert a new cell. - 77 K.SURESH

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE From the Insert menu, click Cells.

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From the Insert dialog box, select one of the following options: Moves all cells in the column to the right and inserts a new column. Moves all cells in the row down and inserts a new row. Moves existing cells down and inserts one cell. Moves existing cells to the right and inserts one cell.

Entire column Entire row Shift cells down Shift cells right

Click on the OK.

To delete cells or ranges of cells Select the cell(s) you want to delete. From the Edit menu, click Delete. From the Delete dialog box displayed, select one of the options. Click on the OK button.

To insert a worksheet Click the sheet tab to select the worksheet where you want to insert a new one. The new worksheet will be inserted before this worksheet. From the Insert menu, click Worksheet.

To delete a worksheet Click on the sheet tab to select the worksheet you wish to delete. From the Edit menu, click Delete Sheet. Select OK to permanently delete the selected sheet.

TO ENTER A CELL OR RANGE REFERENCE BY POINTING Place the cursor in the cell where the formula will appear. Enter the formula up to the point of the cell or range reference, e.g. to enter the formula =E2+E5, only enter the = sign. DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 78 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Using the arrow keys, move the cell pointer to the first cell reference, in this case E2. The formula will track your progress and enter the current address into the formula. Enter the operand, + sign. Using the arrow keys, move the cell pointer to the second cell reference, in this case E5. If you are calculating a range of cells, hold down the Shiftkey while using the arrow keys to move to the intended cells. Press Enter to complete the formula when you have reached the cell you require.

Excel Function Functions are special commands used in formulas to perform mathematical processes. To enter functions directly into the worksheet cell Select the cell into which the formula will be entered. Insert an equal (=) sign to begin the formula. The formula toolbar buttons will appear. Enter the name of the function [e.g. SUM], followed by an opening parenthesis [(], any arguments required for the function [e.g. E2:E5], and closing parenthesis[)]. Press Enter. If there are no errors in the formula, the result of the function will be entered in the cell. If you activate the cell again, the function will be displayed in the formula bar.

To use the AutoSum function The functions can be accessed through the AutoSum icon on the Standard toolbar. The functions included in the AutoSum drop-down menu will insert the function and predict the arguments. For example, if the active cell is positioned at the bottom of the list of values, AutoSum will display a sum function with the list of the arguments. Sum -- add the contents of the list of arguments. Average -- determine the average value of the list of arguments. Count -- count the number of values in the list of arguments. Max -- return the maximum number in the list of arguments. Minreturn the minimum number in the list of arguments. DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 79 K.SURESH

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EXAMPLE: USING THE AVERAGE FUNCTION Enter the values as shown below from B1 to B5 and select the cell B6 which the formula will be entered. Click the down arrow beside the AutoSum icon on the Standard toolbar and Choose Average from the drop-down menu. If the predicted range is correct, press

the Enter key. If it is incorrect, select (click and drag) the range you want with the mouse and press the Enter key. The result will show in cell B6. You can use the same method to do other functions such as SUM, Max, etc.

TO SPECIFY A PASSWORD FOR OPENING AND MODIFYING A WORKBOOK


From the File menu, click Save As. From the Save As dialog box displayed, click on the Tools icon and from the drop down list displayed, select General Options. From the Save Options dialog box displayed, enter a password into the Password to open: text box. In future you will be required to enter this password in order to open the file.

If

you

enter

password

into

the Password to modify: text box, this gives others the ability to open, view and

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL edit a workbook, but not to save it with the same name. They must save a modified version of the work book with a different name. Click on the OK button. You will be asked to re-type the password to ensure that it is consistent. Note: (1) The check box "Always create backup" forces Excel to create a backup copy of the file every time a worksheet file is saved. The file extension BAK is used, and the backup file is saved in the same folder as the original file. (2) If the "Read-only recommended" check box is ticked, the following dialog box is displayed when the file is re-opened. Click Yes. The file is reopen but with the feature read-only. If you needed to make changes on the worksheet, you cannot save the file with the same file name. So, changing the file name allows you to save the file. To remove a password from a workbook Open the workbook containing the password you wish to remove (by entering the password when prompted). From the File menu, click Save As. From the Save As dialog box displayed, click on the Tools icon, and fromthe drop down list displayed select General Options. From the Save Options dialog box displayed, clear either or both passwords text box. Click on the OK button to close the Save Options dialog box. Click on the Save button to save the file, which will display a dialog box Click on the Yes button.

To protect a workbook From the Tools menu, point to Protection and click on Protect Workbook.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL This will display the Protect Workbook dialog box. rom the Protect Workbook dialog box displayed, you have two options: In the Password column, you can enter a password (case sensitive). Click OK. You will be asked to re-type the password to ensure that it is consistent. Click OK.

To unprotect a workbook From the Tools menu, point to Protection and click on Unprotect Workbook.

Enter the required password and click on OK.

To protect a worksheet From the Tools menu, point to Protection and click on Protect Sheet. This will displays the Protect Sheet dialog box. From the Protect Sheet dialog box displayed, you can choose any option from the lists if you ALLOW other users to modify the checked option in the work sheet. In the Password to unprotect sheet: column, you can enter a password (case sensitive). Click OK. You will be asked to re-type the password to ensure that it is consistent. Click OK.

To unprotect a worksheet From the Tools menu, point to Protection and click on UnprotectWorksheet. Enter the required password and click on OK.

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TALLY

ACCOUNTING SYSTEM: Accounting is an information process that identifies, classifies and summaries the financial events and transactions that impact on a business . DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 83 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Accounting is a reporting system that communicates relevant financial information to interested persons (stakeholders). This information allows stakeholders to assess performance, make decisions and/or control the economic resources of an enterprise. BASIC DEFINITIONS OF ACCOUNTING Accountant - a qualified person who is skilled at managing and analysing business financial records. Asset - Any type of property; anything that adds value. The assets of a business are money in the bank, accounts receivable, securities held in the name of the business, property or buildings, equipment, fixtures, merchandise for sale or being made, supplies and all things of value that the business owns. Authorised capital - the total amount of capital which a company, by its memorandum of association, is authorised to offer for subscription. See also, paid up capital. Balance sheet - A financial statement about a business at a particular point in time. It lists the business assets, liabilities and proprietorship. Capital - the total owned and borrowed funds in a business. Capital expenditure - Money spent in purchasing an asset. Cash flow - the flow of internal funds generated within the business as a result of receipts from debtors, payments to creditors, drawings and cash sales. Cashflow projection/ cash budget - How much cash your business needs to generate to cover all costs and make an acceptable profit. Company - a business owned by a group of people called shareholders, which has its own legal identity separate from its owners. Cost of goods sold - the total cost to the business of the goods sold during an accounting period. In its simplest form this is the sum of the opening stock plus all purchases less the closing stock. Creditor - a person or business to which money is owed Current assets - includes cash, short-term deposits, customers accounts, stock (includes work in progress, raw materials and finished goods), that will be converted into cash during the normal course of business, within a year.

Current liabilities - short-term debts such as bank overdraft, creditors and provisions set aside to pay taxation and other commitments (for example, holiday or long service leave) and expected to come due within one year of the Balance Sheet. DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 84 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Debt - that which is owed. If you borrow money, buy something on credit or receive more money on an account than is owed, you have a "debt. Debt capital - money from external sources used to finance a business. See also equity capital. Debtor - a person or business who owes money. Depreciation - Loss in value of assets over time. Depreciation expense - gradual reduction of the value of a fixed asset and gradual application of this cost to the expenses of a business over the useful life of the asset. Depreciation schedule - a table showing depreciable assets, the year each was purchased, its cost, the percentage by which it is depreciated each year and written down current value. Direct costs - the costs incurred, in addition to fixed costs, as a result of manufacturing a product or providing a service. Direct costs are made up of direct material, direct labour and direct manufacturing or servicing costs. Dividend - a distribution of the profits of a company among its members or shareholders. Drawings - withdrawals of assets (usually cash) from a business by a sole proprietor or a partner. Equities - stocks and shares invested in a business and not bearing fixed interest. Equity capital - money provided by the business owner/s to finance the business. Expenses - costs incurred by a business in earning income, for example, rent, advertising, wages etc. Finance - The short term funds required for the day to day operation of the business, and the capital funding from various sources required for the longer term financing of the organisation. Financial statements - formal reports prepared from accounting records describing the financial position and performance of the business. Fixed assets - the land, buildings, vehicles, materials and equipment owned by a business, which are used to earn revenue rather than being for sale. Fixed costs - Costs which remain constant whatever the level of business activity. Rent, for example, must be paid whether or not any business is accomplished.

Goodwill - the excess price asked for the sale of a business over the value of its physical assets; an intangible asset, the price of which represents a payment for the existing client base and future profits. Gross profit - the excess of net sales over cost of goods sold usually expressed as a percentage. Income - money that is being earned by the business.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Income statement - a financial document that shows how much money (sales) came in and how much money (costs) was paid out. Subtracting the costs from the sales gives you your profit and all three are shown on the income statement. Inventory - the value of all the stock of physical items that a business uses in its production process or has for sale in the ordinary course of doing business. Loan/(s) - The advance of a specified sum of money to a person or business (the borrower) by other persons or businesses, or more particularly by a specialist financial institution (the lender), which makes its profits from the interest charged on loans. Margin - the difference between the selling price and the purchase price of an item usually expressed as a percentage of the selling price. Compare mark-up. Mark-up - the price increase between buying at wholesale and selling at retail often expressed as a percentage of the wholesale or cost price. Compare margin. Net - what is left after deducting all charges (see gross). Net profit - the remainder after all expenses of an accounting period are deducted from all revenue of the same period. Net worth - the owner/s interest in a business, calculated by subtracting all liabilities from the assets of the business. Non-profit or not-for-profit business - A business that does not operate for the profit or gain of its individual members. Operating expense - all the expenses normally incurred in running a business, during an accounting period, excluding the cost of goods sold. Overdraft - a form of loan by which a person with a trading bank current account is given permission to continue making drawings on the account up to an agreed limit, after the balance has been reduced to nil. Overhead(s) - expenses which are incurred in producing a commodity or rendering a service, but which cannot conveniently be attributed to individual units of production or service. Examples are heating, lighting etc. Paid-up-capital - the total capital of a company. It comprises both shares issued for cash or for acquisition of assets and bonus shares.

Partnership(s) - a legal business relationship of two or more people who share responsibilities, resources, profits, and liabilities. DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 86 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Personal assets - the money you have in the bank, whatever is owed to you, any securities (shares) that you own, the property you own, whatever part of your home that you own, your furniture and appliances and all the miscellaneous things that you personally own Profit - total revenue less total expenses for a period of time calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles . Profit and loss statement - statement of revenue and expenses showing the profit or loss for a certain period of time. Profit margin - the amount that the price of a product or service is raised above its cost in order to provide a gross profit. Proprietary company - a business which is owned by not less than two persons and not more than 50 persons and which restricts the right of the shareholders to transfer shares. Such a business is a separate legal entity and must use the words Proprietary Limited (Pty Ltd) after it name. Proprietorship - the value of the proprietors assets in a business less any external liabilities. Rate of stock turnover (stock turn) - the ratio of cost of goods sold over average stock (at cost). This indicates how many times, on average, the entire inventory (stock) was sold and replaced during the year. Receivership - the legal condition a company is placed in when an official receiver is appointed to investigate and manage its affairs. Return on investment (ROI) - the ratio of net profit after income tax, over owners equity. Usually expressed as a percentage. Sales - the total value of goods sold or revenue from services rendered. Secured - protected or guaranteed as in the case of a loan where the lender holds the title of some asset until the borrower has repaid the loan in full. Selling - The act of disposing of a product in exchange for money. Sole trader - a person who trades by himself/herself without the use of a company structure or partners and bears alone full responsibility for the actions of the business Stakeholders - All those who have an interest in an organisation, its activities and its achievements. These may include customers, partners, employees, shareholders, owners, government, and regulators. Stock - Items produced, manufactured, acquired or purchased by a business for manufacture, sale or exchange. (physical items (inventory) that a business uses in its production process or has for sale in the ordinary course of doing business). Tangible asset - something substantial or real that is capable of being given an actual or approximate value. DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 87 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Term loan - a loan for a fixed period of more than one year and repayable by regular instalments. Trade credit - an arrangement to buy goods or services on account, that is, without making immediate cash payment. Trade discount - an allowance made by a seller to a buyer at the time of purchase, for the deduction of a percentage of the price, provided the payment is made within agreed terms. Trial balance - a list of all balances in the ledger at a given time. Turnover - The amount of money that passes through a business during a financial year. Under-capitalisation - insufficient investment of funds in a business. Unit Cost - The total costs in resource and material to produce one instance of a product or service. Unsecured loan - a loan that is not backed up by any collateral, such as a home or an automobile offered as security. Value - Worth, desirability or utility. Usually, determined as a Balance between different characteristics (such as price and benefits). Working capital - Liquid funds available to the business represented by current assets, less current liabilities. (the excess of current assets over current liabilities of any business at any time)

DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF ACCOUNTING: There are many stakeholders who are interested in the financial performance of an organisation. Each of these would prefer a customised report detailing only their area of DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 88 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL concern. Since this is not feasible, accountants have created two branches of financial information reporting: financial accounting which prepares highly regulated reports for external stakeholders who are not engaged in the day to day operations of the organisation.Management accounting which provides customised, appropriate and timely financial information to those internal managers entrusted with the day to day operations of the organisation. Both branches still uphold the underlying accounting objective - to satisfy the information needs of the user. DOUBLE ENTRY SYSTEM: Double-entry accounting is a standard accounting method that involves each transaction being recorded in at least two accounts, resulting in a debit to one or more accounts and a credit to one or more accounts. Double entry accounting provides a method for quickly checking accuracy because the sum of all accounts with debit balances should equal the sum of all credit balance accounts. The best accounting software for business uses double entry accounting; without that feature an accountant will have difficulty preparing year end and tax records. Personal finance software does not necessarily require double entry accounting, although some personal finance titles provide this feature but hide it from the user to prevent confusion. DOUBLE ENTRY ACCOUNT TYPES: Asset accounts - something you own, such as your checking account or the un mortgaged portion of your home. Liability accounts - something that you owe, like a mortgage, car loan or credit card balances. Income accounts - money you receive. Expense accounts - money you spend.

TALLY
Accounting may be of two types1- Manual Accounts 2- Computerized or financial Account

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

Manual Accounting:- All the work or calculation done on paper or in books is called manual accounting. Manual accounting is done through ledger book, cash book day book journal book etc. Computerized or financial Account :Transaction ' Entries ' (Voucher Entries) Receipt Payments (Cr) (Dr)

Sale bye cash -200 Purchase for cash - 300 Elements or Manual Accounts:o Day Book o Ledger Book o Cash Book o T.B. (Trial Balance) Dr = Cr o Capital A/c o Trading A/c o Bad debts o Cash in hand. o Cash in Bank o Profit & Loss A/c o Balance Sheet Cash Book: - Cash book is that in which we insert daily's cash transactions. This records all receipts and payments of any type in cash and through cheque. Ledger Book :- This book allows to feed, create and insert the ledger of our transactions. o Ex. - Any person name. o Any firm name. o Any company name. o Any type of expense. Day Book:- In this book we note daily transactions. It may be in cash or non cash. Every dealing from any body to any body is inserted in day book. Trial Balance :- After one day, one weak, month or a year commonly after one year we find out our Trial Balance .Our T.B. means Cr. side and Dr. side should be equal. Capital Partners Capital - 90 K.SURESH DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE Sundry creditor Assets Fixed Assets Current Assets

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

Dealing : Dealing is always done between two person first one is a seller and second is buyer. Seller - Cr. Buyer - Dr. Expenses : Expenses may be of two types Direct And Indirect expense. Loan Secured loan : The loan which is borrowed directly by any Government organization or Bank by the base of a guarantee like The Registry of your house etc. Unsecured loan: The loan which is borrowed by any Authorized non authorized or nay private person or organization is called unsecured loan. Financial Time : The period or time from which the books begin and are closed is called financial time or financial year. Start date - 1st April Close date - 31st March Closing stock : The manufactured stock in our godown which is ready to sale. Stock in hand (Godown Stock) Cash and Bank Balance Cash in hand Cash in bank Direct Exp. (Trade & Manufacturing) Indirect Exp. (Management)

Journal :The journal is used as the book of first entry for all transitions which can't be recorded in the cash book. In other words all non cash transactions should be recorded in the Journal. For practical convenience the journal is maintained by using a number of book's called the subsidiary books. For ExampleDEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 91 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

The following subsidiary books may constitute the journal for enterprises. Purchase book. Purchase return book. Sales book. Sales return book. Journal proper. TALLY 5.4 WINDOW:

1. Accounts Info:- Option to create, display, alter and delete account Group ledger accounts. Cast categories, cast contuse budgets voucher types, currencies and (also rate of recharge) 2. Inventory Info:- option to create display Alter, and delete stock group stock categories, stock items, go down budgets, voucher types and units of measure. 3. Voucher Entry:- To record all transactions (both) stock and accounts format. 4. Balance sheet:- Display prints Balance sheet (in horizontal of vertical from) to zoom in or cut from top level to voucher with option to add insert duplicate Alter or delete voucher view group summary ledger accounts etc. for different period valuation techniques.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

5. Profit and Loss A/c:- Display prints profit (in horizontal and vertical form) to zoom in or zoom out from to level to voucher with option to add insert, duplicate, Alter or delete voucher, view, group summary ledger accounts, etc different period and valuation technique. 6. Stock Summary:- Display points details of stock items to zoom in or out from primary group to formation voucher with diverse parameters. 7. Ratio Analyses:- Display print, ratio and performance analysis for management analyses. 8. Display:-Display print, Trial Balance allbook of accounts cash and bank book ledger group summary sales and purchase register Journal debit and credit not register statement of accounts. 9. Multi Account Printing:-printing prints accounts book voucher etc. Buttons at Gateway Following buttons appears in button bat (the right most panel ) at Gateway. F1- Shut company- To shut down a sleeked company is fore move from the list of selected companies advanced usage for working with multiple companies. F2- Date- To change date press f2 key and enter new current date (by default) next date becomes the current date) as shown in. F2- Period- To change financial period enter f2 and to the accounting period which can span to any period. Example- While creating computer ABC we entered 7-4-98 as financial year from and some date for book beginning form which by default creating book from 7-4-98 to 31-3-99 now in next financial year we want to enter voucher for 1-4-99. F3- Company- To make any other company as active company (from the list of selected company). F3- Create Company- To bring up company info menu which allows to select, shut down, create or Alter companies group company as shown.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

ABOUT INTERNET

INTERNET FUNDAMENTALS AND BASICS GUIDE This is a brief article on Internet fundamentals written especially for the beginner. You are encouraged to read the other detailed articles on Internet fundamentals such as email and the world wide web which would provide a stepping stone for learning web development. DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 94 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

The Internet started as a small government project in the United States of America back in 1970s. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) linked their computers to ease the transfer of data. This network came to be known as ARPANET and is the birthplace of the Internet. The Internet is now a huge global network of computers. It is not just one network but consists of thousands of other networks worldwide. No one knows how many computers are connected to the Internet because each day several new machines are added and some old ones taken off. The Internet, you see, is always in a state of flux. Numerous people and organizations around the globe own the different computers linked to the Internet. Hence, no one is actually in-charge of the Internet. Private companies (government agencies, in some countries) own the Internet backbone through which information flows and various organizations develop the technical aspects of this network. EMAIL - INTERNET FUNDAMENTALS The rapid development of the Internet can be attributed to the immense popularity of email. Email has been the most used Internet application because it has revolutionized the way we communicate. Email messages can be received almost instantly and can include images, video and sound in addition to text. Furthermore, interactive emails can be created using HTML. THE WORLD WIDE WEB FUNDAMENTALS The World Wide Web, also called WWW or simply the web, is a subset of the Internet. It brings text, images, animation, video, sound and other multimedia content, all under one roof. The Web is changing continuously by absorbing new technologies and updating the old ones. The pages on the Web, appropriately called web pages, can contain multimedia objects such as images, sound, and video in addition to text. Highly interactive web pages can be developed using HTML and a client-side language such as JavaScript or VBScript. This greatly enhances the web experience for the user. Web pages are viewed using browsers such as Internet Explorer (from Microsoft), Firefox (from Mozilla), Opera (fromOpera Software) and Netscape Communicator (from Netscape). A list of web browsers can be found in the Web page Design section of this web site. With video conferencing and wireless applications, the Internet is ready to take us to the new realm of communication and information exchange.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL The Internet is a vast resource of information and entertainment. Browsing the Internet can be a daunting task, especially for someone who has never used it before. However, if you follow these tips, your browsing experience will be much more pleasant and rewarding. GET A FAST CONNECTION Getting a fast Internet connection will make your browsing speed much faster and save precious time in the long run. DSL or Cable connections are usually sufficient to be able to stream videos and load web pages. USING THE FIND FEATURE By pressing Ctrl+F (Cmd+F if you're on a Macintosh computer), you will be able to search the page you are currently on for any text that you want. If you're trying to research a particular subject and want to skip the parts that are not applicable, the "find" feature is extremely valuable. LOGGING OUT If you have an account that you are logged into online, make sure you log out when you are done with your session. If you are using a public computer and forget to logout then anyone can see your account and potentially acquire sensitive information. Even on your personal computer, you should make it a habit to log out after you're finished with everything. DON'T USE SIMPLE PASSWORDS Using a password such as "password" or "123" will increase your chance of getting your account hacked significantly. Hackers can use brute force programs that keep trying common passwords until it logs in successfully. As a rule of thumb, make sure your password has at least one number in it and at least one upper case letter in it. URLS - WHAT IS AN URL? URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator, which means it is a uniform (same throughout the world) way to locate a resource (file or document) on the Internet. The URL specifies the address of a file and every file on the Internet has a unique address. Web software, such as your browser, use the URL to retrieve a file from the computer on which it resides. The actual URL is a set of four numbers separated by periods. An example of this would be 202.147.23.8 but as these are difficult for humans to use, addresses are represented in alphanumeric form that is more descriptive and easy to remember. Thus, the URL of my site which is URL 209.164.80.192 can also be DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 96 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL written as www.simplygraphix.com. The Internet Domain Name System translates the alphanumerical address to numeric. FORMAT OF THE URL Protocol://site address/path/filename For example, the URL of my company site is: http://www.simplygraphix.com/ and a typical page on this site would be: http://www.simplygraphix.com/portfolio/4.html

THE ABOVE URL CONSIST OF: Protocol: http Host computer name: www Domain name: simplygraphix Domain type: com Path: /portfolio File name 4.html PROTOCOLS: In addition to the http protocol (mentioned above), there are a few other protocols on the Internet. File FTP Gopher mailto : Enables a hyperlink to access a file on a local system. : Used to download files from remote machines. : Helps in accessing a gopher server. : Calls SMTP (the Simple Mail Transport Protocol) and enables a hyperlink to send an addressed email message. News telnet computer. SITE ADDRESS The site address consists of the host computer name, the domain name and the domain type. The domain name should be descriptive for easy comprehension and is usually the name of the organization or DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 97 K.SURESH : helps in accessing a USENET newsgroup. : Provides the means for a hyperlink to open a telnet session on a remote

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE company. com: specifies commercial entities net: highlights networks or network providers org: organizations (usually non-profit) edu: colleges and universities (education providers) gov: government agencies mil: military entities of the United States of America

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

There are various domain types. Some of them are listed below:

For countries other than the U.S.A., the URL can be longer as in: http://www.bioinfo.ernet.in The general format of such URLs is: machine name.domain name.domain type.country code. This represents a more localized domain name. The country code is a two-letter extension standardized by the International Standards Organization as ISO 3166. Some country codes are given below: in: India de: Germany ca: Canada jp: Japan uk: United Kingdom Domain types can also be different for different countries. For example, an educational site can have the domain name www.school.ac.uk in the United Kingdom. Thus ac (academic) is used instead of edu. Similarly com is represented as co for Indian domain names.

PATH NAME Path name specifies the hierarchic location of the said file on the computer. For instance, in http://www.simplygraphix.com/portfolio/4.html the file 4.html is located in portfolio sub directory under the server root directory. PORT DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 98 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Browsers communicate with the server using entry points called ports. Associated with each protocol is a default port number, such as HTTP defaults to port 80. The server administrator can configure the server to handle http requests at a different port. In such cases, the port number has to be supplied as a part of the URL. The port number is placed at the end of the URL after a colon.

HTML ANCHORS With HTML you can specify anchors within files. These anchors are end points to hyperlinks placed either in the same file or some other files. Anchors are placed to link to specific locations in a file. They can be a part of the URL and are represented with a hash symbol (#) followed by the link name. www.some-address.com/some-file.html#some-location

IMPORTANT WEB SITES


PHYSICS: http://www.mcasco.com/ http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/index.htm http://www.vias.org/about.html DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE http://physicsforums.com CHEMISTRY www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/virtualtextbook.html http://library.thinkquest.org/19957 http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/chemistry/ BIOLOGY http://www.exploratorium.edu/learning_studio/cow_eye/ www.exploratorium.edu/memory/braindissection/index.html www.biology-online.org www.cellsalive.com MATHEMATICS www.webmath.org www.mathforum.org/dr.math www.math.uakron.edu/%7Edpstory/e-calculus.htm www.math.hmc.edu/calculus/tutorials ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineering http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Engineering http://ocw.mit.edu http://opencontent.org/ocwfinder/ www.efunda.com www.roymech.co.uk/Useful_Tables/Form/Formula_Index.html www.macs.hw.ac.uk/~rjp/Coursewww/ http://math.hws.edu/javanotes/

JOB WEB SITES http://www.naukri.com/ http://www.monsterindia.com/ http://www.timesjobs.com/ http://www.naukrihub.com/ http://www.careerindia.com/ DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE http://www.clickjobs.com/ http://www.freshersworld.com/ SOCIAL NETWORKS http://google.co.in/ http://www.indiatimes.com/ http://www.facebook.com/ http://www.orkut.com/ http://www.youtube.com/ http://raaga.com/ http://www.cricinfo.com/ http://www.way2sms.com/ http://www.123greetings.com/ http://twitter.com/ TRAVELS http://www.redbus.in/ https://www.irctc.co.in/ http://www.yatra.com/ http://www.cleartrip.com/ http://www.makemytrip.com/

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

LIST OF SHORT CUT KEYS IN MICROSOFT WINDOWS XP

CTRL+C (Copy) CTRL+X (Cut) CTRL+V (Paste) CTRL+Z (Undo) DELETE (Delete) SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin)

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)

CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item) F2 key (Rename the selected item) CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word) CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word) CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph) CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph) CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text) SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document) CTRL+A (Select all) F3 key (Search for a file or a folder) ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item) ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program) ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object) ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window) CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents open simultaneously) ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items) ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened) F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop) F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer) SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item) ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window) CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)

ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu) Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command) F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program) RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu) LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu) - 103 K.SURESH

DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE F5 key (Update the active window)

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

BACKSPACE (View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer) ESC (Cancel the current task) SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing) CTRL+SHIFT+ESC (Open Task Manager)

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

FORMATTING THE SYSTEM

The word Format can mean quite a few things in the world of computers. You could format text in a word document, have a different file format, or in this case, format the hard drive in your computer. Sometimes you need to format your computer to ultra clean your computer. It makes it faster, new looking and gets rid of errors and viruses.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Windows XP disc is bootable and really does everything for you. (Well nearly) This means that when you insert a Windows XP disc into your computer, it should start automatically. However before you do format a computer you should backup your data. Some things to backup include: photos, my documents, favourites folder, emails, all contacts, passwords and more.Go and check out my backup list. Next is to make sure you have a system disk that came with your computer for display drivers, LAN drivers, USB, audio etc. If you do not have this there is a program calledDriver Robot which find your drivers for you after you have formattedIt is a lifesaver. Its a must have program and saves you a load of work. Even after it is has found your drivers it will alos keep them up to date later on. If you do not want to spend money you will have to find your computers drivers on the internet and download them manually. Here is where to find drivers. Drivers are one of the most important tiny bits of software that will make your computer run like its meant to. Ok, enough lecturing, lets move on to formatting Windows Xp. How to Format a computer using a Windows XP disc First you must put your Windows XP CD in the drive. Then restart your computer. When it says press any key to boot from cd, Press any key on the keyboard. I use the space bar, easy to get to. (If you can do this Go to step 6) If it doesnt ask you to press any key to boot from cd then restart your computer again. Go into the BIOS settings of your PC, usually by pressing the F1, F2, F10, or maybe the delete key. If you are not sure watch the screen at startup and it will say To enter setup press.. You have to be quick and press it. If you miss it restart again. Once you are in the bios you have to change the boot options. You have to make your cd rom the first boot option. Save and exit.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL A blue screen will appear and you are on your way..

Press Enter to setup Windows XP now. See screenshot above. If there is a copy of Windows XP on your computer and you wish to overwrite it you will have to press the escape button when prompted. (screenshot below) Do not install Windows XP in another directory unless you know what you are doing. Just overwrite the previous version as you should have backed up your data anyway.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL You should now make the partition that had windows on it blue and press D to delete the partition. It will ask if you are sure. Press L to confirm. More details ondeleting partitions. Then Press C to create another partition and Windows will estimate a size for you. If you wanted to partition your hard drive into two equal parts you would have to do some maths and then type the appropriate number in. Otherwise just going with what Windows puts there will be the minimum partition size. Press Enter to confirm size. Then it will ask you which partition you want to install Windows on. The default is C: drive. Select this by making it blue and press enter. If there are no partitions it will create one for you. Then it will ask you to format quick, normal, in fat32 or NTFS. Fat32 suits older computers so I choose a quick format with NTFS. Quick or Slow is fine. If you had errors it is better to use a slow format which can also be known as a low level format. From now on you just Follow the prompts and let it go.. The computer will restart and it will try to boot from cd againDo not press anything on the keyboard.. Just let it go through the stages of setup. You only press the ANY KEY at the start to get it to boot to the Windows XP cd. Make sure you have your serial number ready to enter in. This can be found on your coa certificate which is a sticker usually put on the side of your computer. Do not remove the Windows XP CD until the computer has started up with a new desktop and icons. Now the next process begins.. Installing your device drivers for your computer. SeeWhat are Device Drivers and why do I need them for my computer?

HOW TO ACCESS MY COMPUTER BIOS? To access any bios on any computer you must watch the startup screen on the computer. It will usually say To enter setup press. Some common keys you may have to press are F1, F2, F10, or maybe the delete key. You must press this key when the startup screen is showing. There will be a message on the bottom of the screen flashing by saying press ??? to enter setup. If you miss this you have to restart again.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

TIPS TO GETTING IN YOUR BIOS: Watch the screen when you are starting the computer. Be calm and dont worry if the computer starts before you get to press the right key and the keyboard. Restart the computer and now that you know the key to press, have your finger on it ready to push when you see the details screen. Some examples of different brands of bios software: In the screen shot below you can see a Phoenix BIOS. You need to select the boot menu at the top, then get the CD rom to the top of the list you see there make it the first boot device. to

With the American Megatrends Bios, choose Boot from the top menu, then click on Boot Device Priority. Then you see a list of devices and you need to make cd or dvd drive the first priority. To adjust these settings you will see instructions on how to control your keyboard in the right column and also in the bottom bar. Once you have entered the bios there will be a menu to choose from. Some Bios have Boot sequence as a menu item, but if they do not you have to find it under another menu name. As you can see the BIOS brands above have a boot menu. Once you have found what you are looking for, change the cd rom to be the first to boot to, then hard drive as the second. Save and Exit the bios. This is for when you format your computer. To change it back, repeat steps and change it to boot to hard drive 0. DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 109 K.SURESH will the

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL

INSTALL WINDOWS XP
This procedure demonstrates how to install Windows XP Professional. The procedure to install Windows XP home edition is very similar to the professional edition. Since Windows XP Pro is more advanced operating system, it will be used to demonstrate the installation procedure. The best way install Windows XP is to do a clean install. It is not difficult to perform a clean installation. Before you perform the installation I recommend that you check Windows XP Compatibility List to ensure that your hardware is supported by XP. If your hardware is not on the compatibility list you can check your hardware manufactures website to download the drivers for Windows XP. Save all the necessary drivers onto floppy disks or CD before you start the installation. All versions of Windows XP CD are bootable. In order to boot from CD/DVD-ROM you need to set the boot sequence. Look for the boot sequence under your BIOS setup and make sure that the first boot device is set to CD/DVD-ROM. You can then perform the following steps to install Windows XP: Step 1 - Start your PC and place your Windows XP CD in your CD/DVD-ROM drive. Your PC should automatically detect the CD and you will get a message saying "Press any key to boot from CD". Soon as computer starts booting from the CD your will get the following screen:

Step 2 - At this stage it will ask you to press F6 if you want to install a third party Raid or SCSI driver. If you are using a an IDE Hard Drive then you do not need to press F6. If you are using a SCSI or SATA Hard drive then you must press F6 otherwise Windows will not detect your Hard Drive during the installation. Please make sure you have the Raid drivers on a floppy disk. Normally the drivers are supplied on a CD which you can copy to a floppy disk ready to be installed.

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If you are not sure how to do this then please read your motherboard manuals for more information.

Step 3 - Press S to Specify that you want to install additional device.

Step 4 - You will be asked to insert the floppy disk with the Raid or SCSI drivers. Press enter after you have inserted the disk.

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Step 5 - You will see a list of Raid drivers for your HDD. Select the correct driver for your device and press enter.

Step 6 - You will then get a Windows XP Professional Setup screen. You have the option to do a new Windows install, Repair previous install or quit. Since we are doing a new install we just press Enter to continue.

Step 7 - You will be presented with the End User Licensing Agreement. Press F8 to accept and continue

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Step 8 - This step is very important. Here we will create the partition where Windows will be installed. If you have a brand new unformatted drive you will get a screen similar to below. In our case the drive size is 8190MB. We can choose to install Windows in this drive without creating a partition, hence use the entire size of the drive. If you wish to do this you can just press enter and Windows will automatically partition and format the drive as one large drive. However for this demonstration I will create two partition. The first partition will be 6000MB (C: drive) and second partition would be 2180MB (E: drive). By creating two partition we can have one which stores Windows and Applications and the other which stores our data. So in the future if anything goes wrong with our Windows install such as virus or spyware we can re-install Windows on C: drive and our data on E: drive will not be touched. Please note you can choose whatever size partition your like. For example if you have 500GB hard drive you can have two partition of 250GB each. Press C to create a partition.

Step 8 - Windows will show the total size of the hard drive and ask you how much you want to allocate for the partition you are about to create. I will choose 6000MB. You will then get the screen below. Notice it shows C: Partition 1 followed by the size 6000 MB. This indicates the partition has been created. We still have an unpartitioned space of 2189MB. Next highlight the unpartitioned space by pressing down the arrow key. Then press C to create another partition. You will see the total space available for the new partition. Just choose all the space left over, in our case 2180MB.

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Step 9 - Now you will see both partition listed. Partition 1 (C: Drive) 6000MB and Partition 2 (E: Drive) 2180MB. You will also have 8MB of unpartitioned space. Don't worry about that. Just leave it how its is. Windows normally has some unpartitioned space. You might wonder what happened to D: drive. Windows has automatically allocated D: drive to CD/DVD-ROM. Select Partition 1 (C: Drive) and press Enter.

Step 10 - Choose format the partition using NTFS file system.This is the recommended file system. If the hard drive has been formatted before then you can choose quick NTFS format. We chose NTFS because it offers many security features, supports larger drive size, and bigg

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE

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er size files.

Windows will now start formatting drive C: and start copying setup files as shown on the two images below :

Step 11 - After the setup has completed copying the files the computer will restart. Leave the XP CD in the drive but this time DO NOT press any key when the message "Press any key to boot from CD" is displayed. In few seconds setup will continue. Windows XP Setup wizard will guide you through the setup process of gathering information about your computer.

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Step 12 - Choose your region and language.

Step 13 - Type in your name and organization.

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Step 14. Enter your product key.

Step 15 - Name the computer, and enter an Administrator password. Don't forget to write down your Administrator password.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Step 16 - Enter the correct date, time and choose your time zone.

Step 17 - For the network setting choose typical and press next.

Step 18 - Choose workgroup or domain name. If you are not a member of a domain then leave the default settings and press next. Windows will restart again and adjust the display.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Step 19 - Finally Windows will start and present you with a Welcome screen. Click next to continue.

Step 20 - Choose 'help protect my PC by turning on automatic updates now' and press next.

Step 21 - Will this computer connect to the internet directly, or through a network? If you are connected to a router or LAN then choose: 'Yes, this computer will connect through a local area network or home network'. If you have dial up modem choose: 'No, this computer will connect directly to the internet'. Then click Next.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Step 22 - Ready to activate Windows? Choose yes if you wish to active Windows over the internet now. Choose no if you want to activate

Windows at a later stage.

Step 23 - Add users that will sign on to this computer and click next.

Step 24 - You will get a Thank you screen to confirm setup is complete. Click finish.

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Step 25. Log in, to your PC for the first time.

Step 26 - You now need to check the device manager to confirm that all the drivers has been loaded or if there are any conflicts. From the start menu select Start -> Settings -> Control Panel. Click on the System icon and then from the System Properties window select the Hardware tab, then click on Device Manager.

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If there are any yellow exclamation mark "!" next to any of the listed device, it means that no drivers or incorrect drivers has been loaded for that device. In our case we have a Video Controller (VGA card) which has no drivers installed. Your hardware should come with manufacturer supplied drivers. You need to install these drivers using the automatic setup program provided by the manufacturer or you need to manually install these drivers. If you do not have the drivers, check the manufacturers website to download them. To install a driver manually use the following procedure: (a) From the device manager double click on the device containing the exclamation mark. (b) This would open a device properties window. (c) Click on the Driver tab. (d) Click Update Driver button. The Wizard for updating device driver pops up as shown below:

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You now get two options. The first option provides an automatic search for the required driver. The second option allows you to specify the location of the driver. If you don't know the location of the driver choose the automatic search which would find the required driver from the manufacturer supplied CD or Floppy disk. Windows would install the required driver and may ask you to restart the system for the changes to take affect. Use this procedure to install drivers for all the devices that contain an exclamation mark. Windows is completely setup when there are no more exclamation marks in the device manager.

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HOW TO BURN THE DATA INTO DISC


1. The first step is to insert a blank CD/DVD in your drive. To ensure maximum compatibility with other computers and CD/DVD players, use an R (write once) disc as opposed to an RW (rewritable disc). You should see the screen shown at left unless you've previously used the setting to have Vista always do a particular option whenever you insert a blank disc. The option you want is Burn Files to Disc.

2. Enter a title for your disc, then click the Show Formatting Options arrow. When you do this, you will see that Vista always defaults to its proprietary Live File System format which many people report difficulties with. The option you want is Mastered.

3 . Copy Your Data Files to the CD/DVD Drive After clicking Next, you will be taken to the folder for your CD/DVD drive in Windows Explorer (probably D: or E:). Navigate to the folder that contains the file(s) that that you want to copy to the blank disc, and drag them to the corresponding drive letter. Alternatively, highlight the file(s) that you want to copy, then right click and choose your CD or DVD drive from the Send To shortcut.

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DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL 3. Click the CD/DVD Drive Letter to See What Will Be Burned. Click on the CD/DVD drive letter to see the files that are ready to be burned. They're burned yet, you're just preparing a list of copies. A system tray balloon will also appear which you can click to automatically view your CD/DVD drive. 4. You can then copy more files from other folders to CD/DVD drive for preparation to be burned. the not

5. Click the Burn to Disc Button When you're done copying all of the data files you want to burn, click the Burn to Disc button at the top which will take you to a settings screen. You should be able to leave the recording speed at the default setting, but lower it if dictated by your CD/DVD drive's manual, or if you run into difficulties. 6. Watch the Progress of the Burn After clicking Next, you will see a window that updates you on the progress of the burning. Since you have chosen the Mastered option as opposed to Live File System, the computer will do what some third party programs refer to as finalizing the disc, ensuring compatibility with all systems. 7. Check If You Want to Burn Another Copy, Then Finish. When it's done copying, the disc will eject automatically, and a window will offer you a checkbox you can click if you want to burn the same files to another disc. Click Finish, and you're done! Reinsert the disc into your computer to ensure that the copying was successful, and ideally test it out on some other computers as well. 8. Choose the Live File System Version Carefully DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 125 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Note that if you're using a CD/DVD-RW disc, and want to take advantage of the fact that the Live File System allows you to add and erase files from the disc at a later time, you still have to decide on what version of the formatting system you will use. It defaults to v2.01 which will render your disc only readable on XP and Vista machines. By clicking the Change Version link, you can switch to other version numbers which are stated to be compatiable with the older system. Many users report assorted difficulties and compatibility issues regardless of what version number they choose, and are fed up with Live File System in general. This is why it is best to choose the Mastered formatting option, and just accept the fact that you'll need to permanently burn all your data files to your CD/DVD-R in one session. If you do use Live File System, when you eject your disc after copying you will see a system tray balloon which informs you that the computer needs a few moments to close the session with the CD/DVD. Don't in any way interrupt this process, nor should you try to eject the disc while copying is taking place. 9. Consider Using a USB Flash Drive It is worth noting that there are excellent alternatives to using Vista's Live File System and CD/DVD-RW discs. USB Flash drives have become very inexpensive, and are available in large capacities. For simple data backup and transferring of files between computers, nothing is easier than just popping one in your USB port, and adding and erasing files as needed. For much larger capacity, external hard drives have also become inexpensive and much smaller, and offer the same functionality, ease of use, and compatibility as Flash drives. For files that you want on an actual CD/DVD, your best option is to master (finalize) an R (write once) disc. CD/DVD-R's have become very inexpensive, and should not result in any compatibility issues.

Windows Operating System Load a blank CD into the computer's CD burner. Open "My Computer" in Windows XP or "Computer" in Vista/7 in the "Start" or "Windows" menu. Double-click on the icon for the blank CD. DEPARTMENT OF M.C.A - 126 K.SURESH

DR. C.S.N DEGREE & P.G COLLEGE CERTIFICATE COURSE MATERIAL Drag and drop your file onto the window for the blank CD. Click "Write to CD" under CD writing tasks. The CD Writing Wizard will appear; click "OK" and the burn will begin. The disc will eject when it's complete.

Our attitude toward life determines life's attitude towards us.

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