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Muscles of the Back Region - Listed Alphabetically

Muscle erector spinae Origin iliac crest, sacrum, transverse and spinous processes of vertebrae and supraspinal ligament Insertion angles of the ribs, transverse and spinous processes of vertebrae, posterior aspect of the skull Action extends and laterally bends the trunk, neck and head Innervation segmentally innervated by dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-S5 Artery supplied segmentally by: deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa., subcostal aa., lumbar aa.

iliocostalis

iliac crest and sacrum

angles of the ribs

extends and laterally bends the trunk and neck

dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C4-S5

supplied segmentally by: deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa., subcostal aa., lumbar aa. supplied segmentally by: deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa., subcostal aa., lumbar aa. supplied segmentally by: deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa., subcostal aa., lumbar aa. supplied segmentally by: deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa., subcostal aa., lumbar aa. supplied segmentally by: deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa., subcostal aa., lumbar aa.

interspinales

upper border of spinous lower border of spinous extend trunk and neck process process above

dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5

intertransversarii

upper border of transverse process

lower border of laterally bend trunk and dorsal primary rami of transverse process above neck spinal nerves C1-L5

longissimus

transverse process at inferior vertebral levels

transverse process at extends and laterally superior vertebral levels bends the trunk, neck and mastoid process and head

dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-S1

multifidus

sacrum, transverse processes of C3-L5

spinous processes 2-4 extend and laterally bend dorsal primary rami of vertebral levels superior trunk and neck, rotate to spinal nerves C1-L5 to their origin opposite side

obliquus capitis inferior spinous process of the axis

transverse process of atlas

rotates the head to the same side

suboccipital nerve (DPR occipital a. of C1)

obliquus capitis superior transverse process of atlas

occipital bone above inferior nuchal line

extends the head, rotates suboccipital nerve (DPR occipital a. the head to the same of C1) side

rectus capitis posterior major rectus capitis posterior minor

spinous process of axis posterior tubercle of atlas

inferior nuchal line inferior nuchal line medially

extends the head, rotate suboccipital nerve (DPR occipital a. to same side of C1) extends the head suboccipital nerve (DPR occipital a. of C1)

rotatores

transverse processes

long rotatores: spines 2 rotates the vertebral vertebrae above origin; column to the opposite short rotatores: spines 1 side vertebrae above origin capitis: back of skull between nuchal lines; cervicis & thoracis: spines 4-6 vertebrae above origin

dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5

supplied segmentally by: deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa., subcostal aa., lumbar aa. supplied segmentally by: deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa., subcostal aa., lumbar aa.

semispinalis

transverse processes of C7-T12

extends the trunk and dorsal primary rami of laterally bends the trunk, spinal nerves C1-T12 rotates the trunk to the opposite side

spinalis

spinous processes at inferior vertebral levels

spinous processes at extends and laterally superior vertebral levels bends trunk and neck and base of the skull

dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C2-L3

supplied segmentally by: deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa., subcostal aa., lumbar aa. supplied segmentally by: deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa.

splenius

ligamentum nuchae and capitis: mastoid process extends and laterally spines C7-T6 & superior nuchal line bends neck and head; laterally; cervicis: rotates head to same posterior tubercles of C1- side C3 vertebrae ligamentum nuchae and mastoid process and spines of C7-T6 lateral end of the vertebrae superior nuchal line extends and laterally bends the neck and head, rotates head to the same side ligamentum nuchae and posterior tubercles of extends and laterally spines of C7-T6 the transverse processes bends neck and head, vertebrae of C1-C3 vertebrae rotates head to the same side

dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C2-C6

splenius capitis

dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C2-C6

supplied segmentally by: deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa. supplied segmentally by: deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa.

splenius cervicis

dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C2-C6

Muscles of the Upper Limbs - Listed Alphabetically


Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery

abductor digiti minimi (hand)

pisiform

base of the proximal abducts the 5th digit phalanx of the 5th digit on its ulnar side

deep branch of the ulnar ulnar a. nerve

abductor pollicis brevis

flexor retinaculum, scaphoid, trapezium

base of the proximal abducts thumb phalanx of the first digit

recurrent branch of median nerve

superficial palmar br. of the radial a.

abductor pollicis longus middle one-third of the radial side of the base of abducts the thumb at posterior surface of the the first metacarpal carpometacarpal joint radius, interosseous membrane, mid-portion of posterolateral ulna

radial nerve, deep branch

posterior interosseous a.

adductor pollicis

oblique head: capitate base of the proximal and base of the 2nd and phalanx of the thumb 3rd metacarpals; transverse head: shaft of the 3rd metacarpal

adducts the thumb

ulnar nerve, deep branch deep palmar arterial arch

anconeus

lateral epicondyle of the lateral side of the extends the forearm humerus olecranon and the upper one-fourth of the ulna short head: tip of the tuberosity of the radius coracoid process of the scapula; long head: supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula anterior surface of the coronoid process of the lower one-half of the ulna humerus and the associated intermuscular septa flexes the forearm, flexes arm (long head), supinates

nerve to anconeus, from interosseous recurrent a. the radial nerve

biceps brachii

musculocutaneous nerve brachial a. (C5,6)

brachialis

flexes the forearm

musculocutaneous nerve brachial a., radial (C5,6) recurrent a.

brachioradialis

upper two-thirds of the lateral side of the base of flexes the elbow, assists radial nerve lateral supracondylar the styloid process of in pronation & ridge of the humerus the radius supination

radial recurrent a.

coracobrachialis

coracoid process of the medial side of the scapula humerus at mid-shaft

flexes and adducts the arm

musculocutaneous nerve brachial a. (C5,6)

deltoid

lateral one-third of the deltoid tuberosity of the clavicle, acromion, the humerus lower lip of the crest of the spine of the scapula

abducts arm; anterior axillary nerve (C5,6) posterior circumflex fibers flex & medially from the posterior cord humeral a. rotate the arm; posterior of the brachial plexus fibers extend & laterally rotate the arm flex the ulnar nerve, deep branch dorsal and palmar metacarpophalangeal metacarpal aa. joint, extend the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints of digits 2-4, abduct digits 24 (abduction of digits in the hand is defined as movement away from the midline of the 3rd digit) extends the wrist; deep radial nerve radial a. abducts the hand

dorsal interosseous (hand)

four muscles, each arising from two adjacent metacarpal shafts

base of the proximal phalanx and the extensor expansion on lateral side of the 2nd digit, lateral & medial sides of the 3rd digit, and medial side of the 4th digit

extensor carpi radialis brevis

common extensor dorsum of the third tendon (lateral metacarpal bone (base) epicondyle of humerus) lower one-third of the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus dorsum of the second metacarpal bone (base)

extensor carpi radialis longus

extends the wrist; abducts the hand

radial nerve

radial a.

extensor carpi ulnaris

common extensor medial side of the base tendon & the middle of the 5th metacarpal one-half of the posterior border of the ulna

extends the wrist; adducts the hand

deep radial nerve

ulnar a.

extensor digiti minimi

common extensor tendon (lateral epicondyle of the humerus)

extensor digitorum

extensor indicis

extends the deep radial nerve metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints of the 5th digit common extensor extensor expansion of extends the deep radial nerve tendon (lateral digits 2-5 metacarpophalangeal, epicondyle of the proximal interphalangeal humerus) and distal interphalangeal joints of the 2nd-5th digits; extends wrist interosseous membrane its tendon joins the extends the index finger deep radial nerve and the posterolateral tendon of the extensor at the surface of the distal ulna digitorum to the second metacarpophalangeal, digit; both tendons insert proximal interphalangeal into the extensor and distal expansion interphalangeal joints interosseous membrane base of the proximal and the posterior surface phalanx of the thumb of the distal radius extends the thumb at the deep radial nerve metacarpophalangeal joint

joins the extensor digitorum tendon to the 5th digit and inserts into the extensor expansion

interosseous recurrent a.

interosseous recurrent a. and posterior interosseous a.

posterior interosseous a

extensor pollicis brevis

posterior interosseous a

extensor pollicis longus interosseous membrane base of the distal and middle part of the phalanx of the thumb posterolateral surface of the ulna

extends the thumb at the deep radial nerve interphalangeal joint

posterior interosseous a

flexor carpi radialis

common flexor tendon from the medial epicondyle of the humerus

base of the second and third metacarpals

flexes the wrist, abducts median nerve the hand

ulnar a.

flexor carpi ulnaris

flexor digiti minimi brevis (hand)

common flexor tendon & (ulnar head) from medial border of olecranon & upper 2/3 of the posterior border of the ulna hook of hamate & the flexor retinaculum

pisiform, hook of flexes wrist, adducts hamate, and base of 5th hand metacarpal

ulnar nerve

ulnar a.

proximal phalanx of the flexes the 5th digit carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints of the 5th digit base of the distal phalanx of digits 2-5

ulnar nerve, deep branch ulnar a.

flexor digitorum profundus

posterior border of the ulna, proximal twothirds of medial border of ulna, interosseous membrane humeroulnar head: common flexor tendon; radial head: middle 1/3 of radius flexor retinaculum, trapezium

flexes the median nerve (radial one- ulnar a., anterior metacarpophalangeal, half); ulnar nerve (ulnar interosseous a. proximal interphalangeal one-half) and distal interphalangeal joints median nerve ulnar a.

flexor digitorum superficialis

shafts of the middle phalanges of digits 2-5

flexor pollicis brevis

flexes the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints proximal phalanx of the flexes the 1st digit carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints of the thumb

recurrent branch of the superficial palmar br. of median nerve the radial a.

flexor pollicis longus

anterior surface of base of the distal radius and interosseous phalanx of the thumb membrane

flexes the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints of the thumb

median nerve

anterior interosseous a.

infraspinatus

infraspinatous fossa

greater tubercle of the humerus (middle facet)

laterally rotates the arm suprascapular nerve

suprascapular a.

interosseous, dorsal (hand)

four muscles, each arising from two adjacent metacarpal shafts

interosseous, palmar

flex the ulnar nerve, deep branch dorsal and palmar metacarpophalangeal metacarpal aa. joint, extend the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints of digits 2-4, abduct digits 24 (abduction of digits in the hand is defined as movement away from the midline of the 3rd digit) four muscles, arising base of the proximal flexes the ulnar nerve, deep branch palmar metacarpal aa. from the palmar surface phalanx and extensor metacarpophalangeal, of the shafts of expansion of the medial extends proximal and metacarpals 1, 2, 4, & 5 side of digits 1 & 2, and distal interphalangeal (the 1st palmar lateral side of digits 4 & joints and adducts digits interosseous is often 5 1, 2, 4, & 5 (adduction fused with the adductor of the digits of the hand pollicis m.) is in reference to the midline of the 3rd digit)

base of the proximal phalanx and the extensor expansion on lateral side of the 2nd digit, lateral & medial sides of the 3rd digit, and medial side of the 4th digit

latissimus dorsi

levator scapulae

vertebral spines from T7 to the sacrum, posterior third of the iliac crest, lower 3 or 4 ribs, sometimes from the inferior angle of the scapula transverse processes of C1-C4 vertebrae

floor of the intertubercular groove

extends the arm and thoracodorsal nerve rotates the arm medially (C7,8) from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus

thoracodorsal a.

lumbrical (hand)

flexor digitorum profundus tendons of digits 2-5

medial border of the scapula from the superior angle to the spine extensor expansion on the radial side of the proximal phalanx of digits 2-5

elevates the scapula

flex the metacarpophalangeal joints, extend the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints of digits 2-5

dorsal scapular nerve dorsal scapular a. (C5); the upper part of the muscle receives branches of C3 & C4 median nerve (radial 2) superficial palmar via palmar digital nerves arterial arch & ulnar nerve (ulnar 2) via deep branch

opponens digiti minimi

hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum

shaft of 5th metacarpal

opposes the 5th digit

ulnar nerve, deep branch ulnar a.

opponens pollicis

flexor retinaculum, trapezium

shaft of 1st metacarpal

opposes the thumb

recurrent branch of median nerve

superficial palmar branch of the radial a.

palmar interosseous

four muscles, arising from the palmar surface of the shafts of metacarpals 1, 2, 4, & 5 (the 1st palmar interosseous is often fused with the adductor pollicis m.)

base of the proximal phalanx and extensor expansion of the medial side of digits 1 & 2, and lateral side of digits 4 & 5

flexes the ulnar nerve, deep branch palmar metacarpal aa. metacarpophalangeal, extends proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and adducts digits 1, 2, 4, & 5 (adduction of the digits of the hand is in reference to the midline of the 3rd digit)

palmaris brevis

fascia overlying the hypothenar eminence

palmaris longus

skin of the palm near the draws the skin of the superficial br. of the ulnar border of the hand ulnar side of the hand ulnar n. toward the center of the palm common flexor tendon, palmar aponeurosis flexes the wrist median nerve from the medial epicondyle of the humerus

ulnar a.

ulnar a.

pectoralis major

medial 1/2 of the crest of the greater flexes and adducts the medial and lateral pectoral branch of the clavicle, manubrium & tubercle of the humerus arm, medially rotates the pectoral nerves (C5-T1) thoracoacromial trunk body of sternum, costal arm cartilages of ribs 2-6, sometimes from the rectus sheath of the upper abdominal wall ribs 3-5 coracoid process of the draws the scapula scapula forward, medialward, and downward anterior surface of the distal one-fourth of the radius pronates the forearm medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1) pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial trunk

pectoralis minor

pronator quadratus

medial side of the anterior surface of the distal one-fourth of the ulna

median nerve via the anterior interosseous nerve

anterior interosseous a.

pronator teres

common flexor tendon midpoint of the lateral and (deep or ulnar head) side of the shaft of the from medial side of radius coronoid process of the ulna spines of vertebrae T2T5 inferior end of the ligamentum nuchae, spines of vertebrae C7 and T1 ribs 1-8 or 9 medial border of the scapula inferior to the spine of the scapula medial border of the scapula at the root of the spine of the scapula medial border of the scapula on its costal (deep) surface

pronates the forearm

median nerve

ulnar a., anterior ulnar recurrent a.

rhomboideus major

rhomboideus minor

retracts, elevates and rotates the scapula inferiorly retracts, elevates and rotates the scapula inferiorly

dorsal scapular nerve (C5) dorsal scapular nerve (C5)

dorsal scapular a.

dorsal scapular a

serratus anterior

it draws the scapula long thoracic nerve forward; the inferior (from ventral rami C5fibers rotate the scapula C7) superiorly

lateral thoracic a.

serratus posterior inferior

thoracolumbar fascia, ribs 9-12, lateral to the spines of vertebrae T11- angles T12 and L1-L2

pulls down lower ribs

branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T9-T12

lowest posterior intercostal a., subcostal a., first two lumbar aa.

serratus posterior superior

ligamentum nuchae, spines of vertebrae C7 and T1-T3

ribs 1-4, lateral to the angles

elevates the upper ribs

branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T1-T4

posterior intercostal aa. 1-4

subclavius

first rib and its cartilage inferior surface of the clavicle

draws the clavicle (and hence the shoulder) down and forward

nerve to subclavius (C5) clavicular br. of the thoracoacromial trunk

subscapularis

supinator

medial two-thirds of the costal surface of the scapula (subscapular fossa) lateral epicondyle of the humerus, supinator crest & fossa of the ulna, radial collateral ligament, annular ligament supraspinatous fossa

lesser tubercle of the humerus

medially rotates the arm; upper and lower assists extention of the subscapular nerves arm (C5,6) supinates the forearm deep radial nerve

subscapular a.

lateral side of proximal one-third of the radius

recurrent interosseous a.

supraspinatus

greater tubercle of the abducts the arm humerus (highest facet) (initiates abduction)

suprascapular nerve suprascapular a. (C5,6) from the superior trunk of the brachial plexus

teres major

dorsal surface of the inferior angle of the scapula

teres minor

crest of the lesser adducts the arm, lower subscapular nerve circumflex scapular a. tubercle of the humerus medially rotates the arm, (C5,6) from the assists in arm extension posterior cord of the brachial plexus upper 2/3 of the lateral greater tubercle of the laterally rotates the arm axillary nerve (C5,6) circumflex scapular a. border of the scapula humerus (lowest facet) from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus

trapezius

medial third of the superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T12

lateral third of the clavicle, medial side of the acromion and the upper crest of the scapular spine, tubercle of the scapular spine

elevates and depresses the scapula (depending on which part of the muscle contracts); rotates the scapula superiorly; retracts scapula

motor: spinal accessory transverse cervical a. (XI), proprioception: C3C4

triceps brachii

long head: infraglenoid olecranon process of the extends the forearm; the radial nerve tubercle of the scapula; ulna long head extends and lateral head: adducts arm posterolateral humerus & lateral intermuscular septum; medial head: posteromedial surface of the inferior 1/2 of the humerus

deep brachial (profunda brachii) a.

Muscles of the Head and Neck - Listed Alphabetically


Muscle anterior scalene Origin Insertion anterior tubercles of the scalene tubercle of the transverse processes of first rib vertebrae C3-C6 Action Innervation elevates the first rib; brachial plexus, C5-C7 flexes and laterally bends the neck Artery ascending cervical a., a branch of the thyrocervical trunk

aryepiglottic

apex (superior part) of the arytenoid cartilage

epiglottis

draws the epiglottis posteriorly and downward during swallowing

inferior laryngeal nerve, laryngeal br. of the from recurrent laryngeal superior thyroid a. nerve, a branch of the of vagus (X) inferior laryngeal nerve, laryngeal br. of the from recurrent laryngeal superior thyroid a. nerve, a branch of the of vagus (X)

arytenoid, oblique

muscular process of the posterior surface of the draws arytenoid arytenoid cartilage contralateral arytenoid cartilages together, cartilage, near its apex adducting the vocal folds

arytenoid, transverse

posterior surface of the posterior surface of the draws arytenoid arytenoid cartilage contralateral arytenoid cartilages together, cartilage adducting the vocal folds

inferior laryngeal nerve, laryngeal br. of the from recurrent laryngeal superior thyroid a. nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (X)

auricular

buccinator

anterior: galea aponeurotica anterior to ear; superior: galea aponeurotica superior to ear; posterior: mastoid process pterygomandibular raphe, mandible, and the maxilla lateral to the molar teeth

auricle anteriorly, superiorly and posteriorly

wiggle the ears

angle of mouth and the pulls the corner of lateral portion of the mouth laterally; presses upper and lower lips the cheek against the teeth

anterior & superior: superficial temporal a., temporal branches of posterior auricular a. facial nerve (VII); posterior: posterior auricular branch of facial nerve (VII) buccal branches of the facial a. facial nerve (VII)

chondroglossus

ciliary

constrictor, inferior pharyngeal

medial side of the lesser horn and body of the hyoid bone meridional fibers: scleral spur; circular fibers: encircle the ciliary process oblique line of the thyroid cartilage, lateral surface of cricoid cartilage

ascends to blend with the intrinsic tongue musculature meridional fibers: ciliary process; circular fibers: encircle the ciliary process midline pharyngeal raphe

pulls the sides of the tongue down relaxes the suspensory ligament of the lens

hypoglossal nerve (XII) lingual a.

constricts pharyngeal cavity

parasympathetic fibers in the oculomotor nerve (III), synapsing in the ciliary ganglion vagus (X), via the pharyngeal plexus, with aid from the superior laryngeal and recurrent laryngeal nerves

ophthalmic a.

ascending pharyngeal a., superior thyroid a., inferior thyroid a.

constrictor, middle pharyngeal

lesser and greater horns midline pharyngeal of the hyoid bone and raphe the inferior part of the stylohyoid ligament medial pterygoid plate, pterygoid hamulus, pterygomandibular raphe, mylohyoid line of mandible medial part of the supercillary arch

constricts the pharyngeal vagus (X), via the cavity pharyngeal plexus

ascending pharyngeal a.

constrictor, superior pharyngeal

pharyngeal tubercle and constricts the pharyngeal vagus (X), via the midline pharyngeal cavity pharyngeal plexus raphe

ascending pharyngeal a.

corrugator

skin of the medial half of the eyebrow

pulls eyebrows together temporal branch of the medially facial nerve (VII)

supratrochlear a.

cricoarytenoid, lateral

arch of the cricoid cartilage

muscular process of the draws the muscular arytenoid cartilage process of the arytenoid cartilage anteriorly, which pivots the arytenoid cartilage and adducts the vocal folds

inferior laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal a., from the recurrent cricothyroid branch of laryngeal nerve, a branch the superior thyroid a. of the vagus nerve (X)

cricoarytenoid, posterior posterior surface of the muscular process of the draws the muscular lamina of the cricoid arytenoid cartilage process posteriorly, cartilage which pivots the arytenoid cartilage and abducts the vocal folds

inferior laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal a., from the recurrent cricothyroid branch of laryngeal nerve, a branch the superior thyroid a. of the vagus nerve (X)

cricopharyngeus

lateral surface of the cricoid cartilage

midline pharyngeal raphe

constricts the pharyngeal recurrent laryngeal cavity and the entrance nerve, a branch of the to the esophagus vagus nerve (X)

cricothyroid branch of the superior thyroid a., ascending pharyngeal a.

cricothyroid

arch of the cricoid cartilage

inferior border of the thyroid cartilage

draws the thyroid cartilage forward, lengthening the vocal ligaments

external branch of cricothyroid branch of superior laryngeal nerve, the superior thyroid a. a branch of the vagus nerve (X)

depressor anguli oris

oblique line of the mandible

angle of the mouth

pulls the corner of the mouth downward depresses the lower lip

depressor labii inferioris anterior surface of the mandible depressor septi

skin of the lower lip

maxilla near the midline nasal septum above the incisor teeth anterior belly: digastric body of the hyoid via a fossa of the mandible; fibrous loop over an posterior belly: mastoid intermediate tendon notch of the temporal bone

digastric

depresses the nasal septum; involved in flaring the nostrils elevates the hyoid bone; anterior belly: mylohyoid depresses the mandible nerve, from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V); posterior belly: facial nerve (VII)

marginal mandibular & buccal branches of the facial nerve (VII) marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve (VII) buccal branch of facial nerve (VII)

inferior labial branch of the facial a., mental a. inferior labial branch of the facial a., mental a. superior labial branch of the facial a. anterior belly: submental a.; posterior belly: occipital a.

dilator pupillae

outer margin of iris

inner margin of iris

dilates the pupil

epicranius

frontalis: galea frontalis: skin of the aponeurotica; occipitalis: eyebrows; occipitalis: superior nuchal line galea aponeurotica

elevates the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead

frontalis

galea aponeurotica

skin of the eyebrow

genioglossus

mental spine on the inner aspect of the mental symphysis

elevates the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead fans out to insert into protrudes the tongue the tongue from the tip (inferior fibers); to the base depresses tongue (middle fibers)

sympathetic fibers via short ciliary nerves, synapsing in superior cervical sympathetic ganglion frontalis: temporal branches of the facial nerve (VII); occipitalis: posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve (VII) temporal branches of the facial nerve (VII)

ophthalmic a.

frontalis: supraorbital and supratrochlear aa.; occipitalis: occipital a.

supraorbital and supratrochlear aa.

hypoglossal nerve (XII) lingual a.

geniohyoid

mental spines of the mandible

body of the hyoid bone elevates the hyoid bone; ventral primary ramus of lingual a., submental a. depresses the mandible spinal nerve C1 via fibers carried by the hypoglossal nerve spreads out into the intrinsic muscles of the tongue sclera on the inferior surface of the eyeball depresses the sides of the tongue; retracts the tongue hypoglossal nerve (XII) lingual a.

hyoglossus

inferior oblique

upper border of the greater horn of the hyoid and body of the hyoid bone floor of the orbit lateral to the lacrimal groove

elevates and abducts the oculomotor nerve (III), ophthalmic a. corneal part of the eye; inferior division rotates the superior pole of the iris laterally; when the eye is adducted, this muscle elevates the cornea

inferior pharyngeal constrictor

oblique line of the thyroid cartilage, lateral surface of cricoid cartilage

midline pharyngeal raphe

constricts pharyngeal cavity

vagus (X), via the ascending pharyngeal a., pharyngeal plexus, with superior thyroid a., aid from the superior inferior thyroid a. laryngeal and recurrent laryngeal nerves oculomotor nerve (III), ophthalmic a. inferior division

inferior rectus

common tendinous ring sclera on the inferior at the apex of the orbit surface of the eyeball

lateral cricoarytenoid

arch of the cricoid cartilage

depresses and adducts the corneal part of the eyeball; rotates the superior pole of the iris laterally muscular process of the draws the muscular arytenoid cartilage process of the arytenoid cartilage anteriorly, which pivots the arytenoid cartilage and adducts the vocal folds superior head: capsule and & articular disk of the temporomandibular joint; inferior head: neck of the mandible protracts the mandible; opens the mouth; active in grinding actions of chewing

inferior laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal a., from the recurrent cricothyroid branch of laryngeal nerve, a branch the superior thyroid a. of the vagus nerve (X)

lateral pterygoid

superior head: greater wing of the sphenoid bone; inferior head: lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate

lateral pterygoid branch pterygoid branch of the of the mandibular maxillary a. division of the trigeminal nerve (V)

lateral rectus

common tendinous ring sclera on the lateral at the apex of the orbit surface of the eyeball canine fossa of the maxilla inferior margin of the orbit angle (corner) of the mouth skin of the upper lip

abducts the corneal part abducens nerve (VI) of the eyeball elevates the angle of the buccal branch of the mouth facial nerve (VII) elevates the upper lip buccal branch of the facial nerve (VII)

ophthalmic a.

levator anguli oris

levator labii superioris

infraorbital a., superior labial branch of the facial a. infraorbital a., superior labial branch of the facial a. infraorbital a., superior labial branch of the facial a.

levator labii superioris alaque nasi

frontal process of the maxilla

ala of the nose and skin elevates the upper lip of the upper lip and flares the nostril

buccal branch of the facial nerve (VII)

levator palpebrae superioris

apex of the orbit above the optic canal

skin and fascia of upper elevates the upper eyelid oculomotor nerve (III) ophthalmic a. eyelid and the superior and sympathetics (to the tarsal plate superior tarsal portion)

levator scapulae

transverse processes of C1-4 vertebrae

medial border of the scapula from the superior angle to the spine

elevates scapula

levator veli palatini

linguae, longitudinalis

apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone and the medial surface of the auditory tube cartilage within tongue

muscles and fascia of the elevates the soft palate soft palate; palatine aponeurosis

dorsal scapular nerve (C5); the upper part of the muscle receives branches of C3 & C4 spinal nerves vagus nerve (X) via the pharyngeal plexus

dorsal scapular a.

ascending pharyngeal a.

within tongue near the apex

shapes the tongue for speech and mastication

hypoglossal nerve (XII) lingual a.

linguae, transversus

within tongue

within tongue

linguae, verticalis

within tongue

within tongue

compresses the sides of hypoglossal nerve (XII) lingual a. the tongue; shapes the tongue for speech and mastication shapes the tongue for hypoglossal nerve (XII) lingual a. speech and mastication flex the head and neck cervical plexus, ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C1-4 cervical and brachial plexus, C2-7 deep cervical a.

longus capitis

anterior tubercles of vertebrae C3-6 anterior tubercles and anterior surfaces of the bodies of vertebrae C3T3 zygomatic arch and zygomatic bone

basilar portion of the occipital bone

longus colli

anterior arch of atlas, flex neck, rotate and anterior tubercles of C5- laterally bend neck 6, anterior surfaces of bodies of vertebrae C2-4 lateral surface of the ramus and angle of the mandible elevates the mandible

deep cervical a.

masseter

nerve to the masseter, masseteric branch of the from the mandibular maxillary a. division of the trigeminal nerve (V)

medial pterygoid

medial surface of the medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate, ramus and angle of the pyramidal process of the mandible palatine bone, tuberosity of the maxilla common tendinous ring sclera on the medial at the apex of the orbit surface of the eyeball anterior surface of the skin of the chin mandible near the mental symphysis (midline) lesser and greater horns midline pharyngeal of the hyoid bone and raphe the inferior part of the stylohyoid ligament

elevates and protracts the mandible

medial pterygoid branch pterygoid branch of the of the mandibular maxillary a. division of the trigeminal nerve (V)

medial rectus

adducts the corneal part oculomotor nerve (III) of the eyeball (inferior division) elevates the lower lip and skin of chin marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve (VII)

ophthalmic a.

mentalis

mental a., inferior labial branch of the facial a.

middle pharyngeal constrictor

constricts the pharyngeal vagus (X), via the cavity pharyngeal plexus

ascending pharyngeal a.

middle scalene

posterior tubercles of upper surface of the first elevates the first rib; brachial plexus, C3-C8 the transverse processes rib behind the flexes and laterally bends of vertebrae C2-C7 subclavian artery the neck

ascending cervical a.

musculus uvulae

posterior nasal spine

mucosa of the uvula

shortens the uvula

vagus nerve (X) via pharyngeal plexus

lesser palatine a.

mylohyoid

mylohyoid line of mandible

midline raphe and body elevates the hyoid bone mylohyoid nerve from mylohyoid branch of the of the hyoid bone and the tongue; the inferior alveolar inferior alveolar a. depresses the mandible nerve, a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V) ala of the nose and midline aponeurosis ala of the nose midline aponeurosis flattens the nose, flare the nostrils flares the nostrils flattens the nose buccal branch of the facial nerve (VII) buccal branch of facial nerve (VII) buccal branch of facial nerve (VII) superior labial branch of the facial a. superior labial branch of the facial a. superior labial branch of the facial a.

nasalis

nasalis pars alaris nasalis pars transversa

maxilla above the incisor teeth and the canine teeth maxilla above the canine teeth maxilla above the incisor teeth

oblique arytenoid

muscular process of the posterior surface of the draws arytenoid arytenoid cartilage contralateral arytenoid cartilages together, cartilage, near its apex adducting the vocal folds

inferior laryngeal nerve, laryngeal br. of the from recurrent laryngeal superior thyroid a. nerve, a branch of the of vagus (X)

oblique, inferior

floor of the orbit lateral sclera on the inferior to the lacrimal groove surface of the eyeball

elevates and abducts the oculomotor nerve (III), ophthalmic a. corneal part of the eye; inferior division rotates the superior pole of the iris laterally; when the eye is adducted, this muscle elevates the cornea depresses and abducts trochlear nerve (IV) the eyeball; rotates the superior pole of the iris medially pulls the scalp posteriorly; elevates the eyebrows elevates the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve (VII) frontalis: temporal branches of the facial nerve (VII); occipitalis: posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve (VII) depresses/stabilizes the ansa cervicalis hyoid bone ophthalmic a.

oblique, superior

apex of the orbit above the optic canal

sclera on the posterior superior surface of the eyeball

occipitalis

superior nuchal line

galea aponeurotica

occipital a.

occipitofrontalis

frontalis: galea frontalis: skin of the aponeurotica; occipitalis: eyebrows; occipitalis: superior nuchal line galea aponeurotica

frontalis: supraorbital and supratrochlear aa.; occipitalis: occipital a.

omohyoid

inferior belly: upper border of the scapula medial to the scapular notch; superior belly: intermediate tendon

orbicularis oculi

orbicularis oris

inferior belly: intermediate tendon; superior belly: lower border of the hyoid bone lateral to the sternohyoid insertion orbital part: medial orbital part: skin of the orbital margin and the lateral cheek; palpebral medial palpebral part: lateral palpebral ligament; palpebral part: raphe medial palpebral ligament skin and fascia of lips skin and fascia of the and the area surrounding lips the lips

transverse cervical a.

closes the eyelids

temporal & zygomatic branches of the facial nerve (VII)

supraorbital a., supratrochlear a., infraorbital a., angular branch of the facial a.

purses the lips

buccal branch of the facial nerve (VII)

superior and inferior labial branches of the facial a., mental a., infraorbital a.

palatoglossus

palatine aponeurosis

side of the tongue, entering it from above

elevates and retracts the vagus nerve (X) via the tongue pharyngeal plexus

tonsilar branch of the facial a., ascending pharyngeal a.

palatopharyngeus

posterior margin of the bony palate and the palatine aponeurosis fascia overlying the pectoralis major and deltoid muscles

platysma

draws the corners of the mouth down; it aids in depression of the mandible posterior cricoarytenoid posterior surface of the muscular process of the draws the muscular lamina of the cricoid arytenoid cartilage process posteriorly, cartilage which pivots the arytenoid cartilage and abducts the vocal folds

posterior wall of the pharynx and the posterior margin of the thyroid cartilage inferior border of the mandible and skin of lower face

elevates the larynx

vagus nerve (X) via pharyngeal plexus

ascending pharyngeal a.

cervical branch of the facial nerve (VII)

facial a.

inferior laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal a., from the recurrent cricothyroid branch of laryngeal nerve, a branch the superior thyroid a. of the vagus nerve (X)

posterior scalene

posterior tubercles of lateral surface of the the transverse processes second rib of vertebrae C5-C7 nasal bone skin between the eyebrows superior head: capsule and & articular disk of the temporomandibular joint; inferior head: neck of the mandible

elevates the second rib; brachial plexus, C7-C8 flexes and laterally bends the neck depresses the medial temporal branch of the corners of the eyebrows facial nerve (VII) protracts the mandible; opens the mouth; active in grinding actions of chewing

ascending cervical a.

procerus

supratrochlear a.

pterygoid, lateral

superior head: greater wing of the sphenoid bone; inferior head: lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate

lateral pterygoid branch pterygoid branch of the of the mandibular maxillary a. division of the trigeminal nerve (V)

pterygoid, medial

medial surface of the medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate, ramus and angle of the pyramidal process of the mandible palatine bone, tuberosity of the maxilla

elevates and protracts the mandible

medial pterygoid branch pterygoid branch of the of the mandibular maxillary a. division of the trigeminal nerve (V)

pupillae, dilator

outer margin of iris

pupillae, sphincter

rectus capitis anterior rectus capitis lateralis

rectus, inferior

rectus, lateral

sympathetic fibers via short ciliary nerves, synapsing in superior cervical sympathetic ganglion encircles iris encircles iris constricts the pupil parasympathetic fibers of oculomotor nerve (III), synapsing in ciliary ganglion lateral mass of atlas basilar portion of flexes the head ventral primary ramus of occipital bone spinal nerve C1 transverse process of occipital bone laterally bends the head ventral primary ramus of atlas anterolateral to foramen spinal nerve C1 magnum common tendinous ring sclera on the inferior depresses and adducts oculomotor nerve (III), at the apex of the orbit surface of the eyeball the corneal part of the inferior division eyeball; rotates the superior pole of the iris laterally common tendinous ring sclera on the lateral abducts the corneal part abducens nerve (VI) at the apex of the orbit surface of the eyeball of the eyeball common tendinous ring sclera on the medial at the apex of the orbit surface of the eyeball common tendinous ring sclera on the superior at the apex of the orbit surface of the eyeball adducts the corneal part oculomotor nerve (III) of the eyeball (inferior division) elevates and adducts the eyeball; rotates the superior pole of the iris medially draws the corner of the mouth laterally elevates the larynx

inner margin of iris

dilates the pupil

ophthalmic a.

ophthalmic a.

deep cervical a. deep cervical a.

ophthalmic a.

ophthalmic a.

rectus, medial

ophthalmic a.

rectus, superior

oculomotor nerve (III), ophthalmic a. superior division

risorius

fascia of the lateral cheek

skin of the angle (corner) of the mouth

buccal branches of the facial nerve (VII) vagus nerve (X) via the pharyngeal plexus

transverse facial a., facial a. ascending pharyngeal a.

salpingopharyngeus

inferior surface of the pharyngeal wall and anteromedial end of the superior border of the auditory tube cartilage thyroid cartilage along with the palatopharyngeus m.

scalene, anterior

anterior tubercles of the scalene tubercle of the transverse processes of first rib vertebrae C3-C6

elevates the first rib; brachial plexus, C5-C7 flexes and laterally bends the neck

ascending cervical a., a branch of the thyrocervical trunk

scalene, middle

posterior tubercles of upper surface of the first elevates the first rib; brachial plexus, C3-C8 the transverse processes rib behind the flexes and laterally bends of vertebrae C2-C7 subclavian artery the neck

ascending cervical a.

scalene, posterior

posterior tubercles of lateral surface of the the transverse processes second rib of vertebrae C5-C7 greater wing of the sphenoid capsule and articular disk of the temporomandibular joint encircles iris

elevates the second rib; brachial plexus, C7-C8 flexes and laterally bends the neck pulls the articular disk forward in opening of the mouth constricts the pupil

ascending cervical a.

sphenomeniscus

lateral pterygoid branch pterygoid branch of the of mandibular division maxillary a. of trigeminal nerve (V) parasympathetic fibers ophthalmic a. of oculomotor nerve (III), synapsing in ciliary ganglion dorsal primary rami of supplied segmentally by: spinal nerves C2-6 deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa.

sphincter pupillae

encircles iris

splenius

stapedius

ligamentum nuchae and capitis: mastoid process extends and laterally spines C7-T6 & superior nuchal line bends neck and head; laterally; cervicis: rotates head to same posterior tubercles of C1- side 3 walls of the pyramidal neck of the stapes dampens vibration of eminence the stapes

facial nerve (VII)

anterior tympanic a.

sternocleidomastoid

sternal head: anterior surface of the manubrium; clavicular head: medial 1/3rd of the clavicle

mastoid process and lateral 1/2 of the superior nuchal line

draws the mastoid process down toward the same side which causes the chin to turn up toward the opposite side; acting together, the muscles of the two sides flex the neck

spinal accessory nerve sternocleidomastoid (XI), with sensory supply branch of the occipital a. from C2 & C3 (for proprioception)

sternohyoid

sternothyroid

styloglossus

posterior surfaces of both the manubrium and sternal end of the clavicle posterior surface of the manubrium below the origin of the sternohyoid m. anterior side of the styloid process

lower border of the hyoid bone, medial to the omohyoid m. insertion oblique line of the thyroid cartilage

depresses/stabilizes the ansa cervicalis hyoid bone

superior thyroid a.

depresses/stabilizes the ansa cervicalis hyoid bone

superior thyroid a.

stylohyoid

stylopharyngeus

posterolateral side of the retracts and elevates the hypoglossal nerve (XII) ascending pharyngeal a., tongue tongue ascending palatine branch of the facial a. posterior side of the splits around the elevates and retracts the facial nerve (VII) ascending pharyngeal a. styloid process intermediate tendon of hyoid bone the digastric m. to insert on the body of the hyoid bone medial side of the styloid superior border of the elevates the larynx glossopharyngeal nerve ascending pharyngeal a. process thyroid cartilage and also (IX) into the pharyngeal wall

superior oblique

apex of the orbit above the optic canal

sclera on the posterior superior surface of the eyeball

depresses and abducts trochlear nerve (IV) the eyeball; rotates the superior pole of the iris medially

ophthalmic a.

superior pharyngeal constrictor

medial pterygoid plate, pharyngeal tubercle and constricts the pharyngeal vagus (X), via the pterygoid hamulus, midline pharyngeal cavity pharyngeal plexus pterygomandibular raphe raphe, mylohyoid line of mandible

ascending pharyngeal a.

superior rectus

common tendinous ring sclera on the superior at the apex of the orbit surface of the eyeball

temporalis

temporal fossa and the temporal fascia

elevates and adducts the eyeball; rotates the superior pole of the iris medially coronoid process of the elevates the mandible; mandible and the retracts the mandible anterior surface of the (posterior fibers) ramus of the mandible

oculomotor nerve (III), ophthalmic a. superior division

tensor tympani

cartilagenous auditory manubrium of the tube and the greater malleus wing of the sphenoid bone which lies adjacent to it scaphoid fossa, lateral palatine aponeurosis wall of the auditory tube cartilage

anterior and posterior deep temporal nerves from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V) dampens vibrations of medial pterygoid branch the tympanic membrane of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V)

anterior and posterior deep temporal aa.

superior tympanic branch of the middle meningeal a.

tensor veli palatini

opens the auditory tube; mandibular division of ascending pharyngeal a. tenses the soft palate the trigeminal nerve (V)

thyroarytenoid

inner surface of the thyroid cartilage anteriorly

lateral border of the arytenoid cartilage

draws the arytenoid cartilage forward, relaxing and adducting the vocal folds

inferior laryngeal nerve, laryngeal branch of the from recurrent laryngeal superior thyroid a. nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (X)

thyroepiglottic

inner surface of the lateral surface of the thyroid cartilage near the epiglottic cartilage laryngeal prominence

draws the epiglottic cartilage downward

inferior laryngeal nerve, laryngeal branch of the from recurrent laryngeal superior thyroid a. nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (X)

thyrohyoid

oblique line of the thyroid cartilage

lower border of the hyoid bone

elevates the larynx; ansa cervicalis (via fibers superior thyroid a. depresses/stabilizes the running with the hyoid bone hypoglossal nerve that leave XII distal to the superior limb of ansa) preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the vagus (X) nerve inferior thyroid a., bronchial aa.

trachealis

posterior edge of the tracheal cartilage

posterior edge of the constricts the bronchi tracheal cartilage of and trachea other side (joins tracheal rings posteriorly)

transverse arytenoid

posterior surface of the posterior surface of the draws arytenoid arytenoid cartilage contralateral arytenoid cartilages together, cartilage adducting the vocal folds

inferior laryngeal nerve, laryngeal br. of the from recurrent laryngeal superior thyroid a. nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (X)

transverse arytenoid

posterior surface of the posterior surface of the draws arytenoid arytenoid cartilage contralateral arytenoid cartilages together, cartilage adducting the vocal folds

inferior laryngeal nerve, laryngeal br. of the from recurrent laryngeal superior thyroid a. nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (X)

vocalis

surface of the thyroid vocal ligament cartilage, vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage

relaxes segments of the vocal ligament, thereby adjusting pitch

inferior laryngeal nerve, laryngeal br. of the from the recurrent superior thyroid a. laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (X)

zygomaticus major

upper lateral surface of the zygomatic bone lower surface of the zygomatic bone

skin of the angle of the mouth

zygomaticus minor

elevates and draws the corner of the mouth laterally lateral part of the upper elevates the upper lip lip

zygomatic and buccal branches of the facial nerve (VII) buccal branch of the facial nerve (VII)

transverse facial a., facial a. transverse facial a., facial a.

Muscles of the Thoracic Region - Listed Alphabetically


Muscle diaphragm Origin xiphoid process, costal margin, fascia over the quadratus lumborum and psoas major mm.(lateral & medial arcuate ligaments), vertebral bodies L1-L3 lower border of a rib within an intercostal space Insertion central tendon of the diaphragm Action Innervation pushes the abdominal phrenic nerve (C3-C5) viscera inferiorly, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity (inspiration) Artery musculophrenic a., superior phrenic a., inferior phrenic a.

external intercostal

upper border of the rib keeps the intercostal intercostal nerves (T1below, coursing, space from blowing out T11) downward and medially or sucking in during respiration

intercostal a.

innermost intercostal

upper borders of a rib

fibers course up and medially to insert on the inferior margin of the rib above

keeps the intercostal intercostal nerves (T1space from blowing out T11) or sucking in during respiration

intercostal a.

internal intercostal

upper border of a rib

lower border of rib above, coursing up and medially

keeps the intercostal intercostal nerves (T1space from blowing out T11) or sucking in during respiration

intercostal a.

levatores costarum subcostalis

transverse processes C7- rib below its origin, T11 medial to the angle angle of ribs angle of a rib 2-3 ribs above origin

elevates the rib compresses the intercostal spaces

dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C7-T11 intercostal nerves

deep cervical a., intercostal aa. intercostal a.

transversus thoracis

posterior surface of the inner surfaces of costal sternum cartilages 2-6

compresses the thorax for forced expiration

intercostal nerves 2-6

internal thoracic a.

Muscles of the Abdominal Region - Listed Alphabetically


Muscle cremaster Origin inguinal ligament Insertion Action forms thin network of elevates testis (not well muscle fascicles around developed in females) the spermatic cord and testis (or around the distal portion of the round ligament of the uterus) Innervation genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve Artery cremasteric a., a branch of the inferior epigastric a.

dartos

subcutaneous connective skin of the scrotum and elevates testis (tenses the tissue of the scrotum penis (or labium majus skin of the pudendal and the penis (or labium and clitoris) region in the female) majus and clitoris)

postganglionic cremasteric a., posterior sympathetic nerve fibers scrotal (labial) a. arriving via the ilioinguinal nerve and the posterior scrotal nerve

external abdominal oblique

lower 8 ribs

linea alba, pubic crest & flexes and laterally bends intercostal nerves 7-11, musculophrenic a., tubercle, anterior the trunk subcostal, iliohypogastric superior epigastric a., superior iliac spine & and ilioinguinal nerves intercostal aa. 7-11, anterior half of iliac crest subcostal a., lumbar aa., superficial circumflex iliac a., deep circumflex iliac a., superficial epigastric a., inferior epigastric a., superficial external pudendal a. compresses abdominal contents iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves inferior epigastric a.

interfoveolar

transversus abdominis fibers that lie superficial to the inferior epigastric vessels

internal abdominal oblique

anterior lamina of femoral sheath, immediately distal to origin of inferior epigastric vessels thoracolumbar fascia, lower 3 or 4 ribs, linea anterior 2/3 of the iliac alba, pubic crest crest, lateral 2/3 of the inguinal ligament

flexes and laterally bends intercostal nerves 7-11, musculophrenic a., the trunk subcostal, iliohypogastric superior epigastric a., and ilioinguinal nerves intercostal aa. 7-11, subcostal a., lumbar aa., superficial circumflex iliac a., deep circumflex iliac a., superficial epigastric a., inferior epigastric a., superficial external pudendal a.

oblique, external abdominal

lower 8 ribs

linea alba, pubic crest & flexes and laterally bends intercostal nerves 7-11, musculophrenic a., tubercle, anterior the trunk subcostal, iliohypogastric superior epigastric a., superior iliac spine & and ilioinguinal nerves intercostal aa. 7-11, anterior half of iliac crest subcostal a., lumbar aa., superficial circumflex iliac a., deep circumflex iliac a., superficial epigastric a., inferior epigastric a., superficial external pudendal a.

oblique, internal abdominal

thoracolumbar fascia, lower 3 or 4 ribs, linea anterior 2/3 of the iliac alba, pubic crest crest, lateral 2/3 of the inguinal ligament

flexes and laterally bends intercostal nerves 7-11, musculophrenic a., the trunk subcostal, iliohypogastric superior epigastric a., and ilioinguinal nerves intercostal aa. 7-11, subcostal a., lumbar aa., superficial circumflex iliac a., deep circumflex iliac a., superficial epigastric a., inferior epigastric a., superficial external pudendal a. flexes the thigh; flexes & branches of the ventral laterally bends the primary rami of spinal lumbar vertebral column nerves L2-L4 flexes & laterally bends the lumbar vertebral column branches of the ventral primary rams of spinal nerves L1-L2 subcostal a., lumbar aa.

psoas major

bodies and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae

lesser trochanter of femur (with iliacus) via iliopsoas tendon

psoas minor

pyramidalis quadratus lumborum

bodies of the T12 & L1 iliopubic eminence at the vertebrae line of junction of the ilium and the superior pubic ramus pubis, anterior to the linea alba rectus abdominis posterior part of the iliac transverse processes of crest and the iliolumbar lumbar vertebrae 1-4 ligament and the 12th rib pubis and the pubic symphysis xiphoid process of the sternum and costal cartilages 5-7

lumbar aa.

draws the linea alba subcostal nerve inferiorly laterally bends the trunk, subcostal nerve and fixes the 12th rib ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L1-L4 flexes the trunk intercostal nerves 7-11 and subcostal nerve

subcostal a., inferior epigastric a. subcostal a., lumbar aa.

rectus abdominis

superior epigastric a. intercostal aa., subcostal a., inferior epigastric a.

transversus abdominis

lower 6 ribs, linea alba, pubic crest flexes and laterally bends intercostal nerves 7-11, musculophrenic a., thoracolumbar fascia, and pecten of the pubis trunk subcostal, iliohypogastric superior epigastric a., anterior 3/4 of the iliac and ilioinguinal nerves intercostal aa. 7-11, crest, lateral 1/3 of subcostal a., lumbar aa., inguinal ligament superficial circumflex iliac a., deep circumflex iliac a., superficial epigastric a., inferior epigastric a., superficial external pudendal a.

Muscles of the Pelvis and Perineum - Listed Alphabetically

Muscle anal sphincter, external

Origin Insertion Action Innervation perineal body or central encircles the anal canal; constricts the anal canal inferior rectal nerves tendinous point of the superficial fibers attach (from the pudendal perineum to the coccyx nerve)

Artery inferior rectal a.

anal sphincter, internal

encircles the anal canal

encircles the anal canal

constricts the anal canal parasympathetic fibers from S4

middle rectal a.

bulbospongiosus, in female

bulbospongiosus, in male

coccygeus

perineal body and fascia perineal membrane and compresses the of the bulb of the corpus cavernosum of vestibular bulb and vestibule the clitoris constricts the vaginal orifice central tendinous point perineal membrane, compresses the bulb of and the midline raphe dorsal surface of the the penis, compresses on the bulb of the penis corpus spongiosum, the spongy urethra deep penile fascia ischial spine side of the coccyx and elevates the pelvic floor lower sacrum contralateral muscle and fixes and stabilizes the perineal body/central perineal body/central tendinous point tendinous point fascicles are arranged roughly in three layers compresses the urinary bladder

deep branch of the perineal nerve (from pudendal nerve) deep branch of the perineal nerve (from pudendal nerve)

perineal a.

perineal a.

deep transverse perineus medial surface of the ischial ramus

branches of the ventral inferior gluteal a. primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4 deep branch of perineal internal pudendal a. nerve from pudendal nerve parasympathetic nerve superior and inferior fibers from the pelvic vesical aa. splanchnic nerves (S2-S4 spinal cord levels)

detruser of bladder

smooth muscle in the wall of the urinary bladder

iliococcygeus

arcus tendineus levator anococcygeal raphe and elevates the pelvic floor branches of the ventral ani and the ischial spine the coccyx primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4 medial surface of the corpus cavernosum and compresses the corpus ischial tuberosity and the crus of the penis/clitoris cavernosum ischiopubic ramus deep branch of the perineal nerve (from pudendal nerve)

inferior gluteal a.

ischiocavernosus

perineal a.

levator ani

posterior surface of the anococcygeal raphe and elevates the pelvic floor branches of the ventral body of the pubis, fascia coccyx primary rami of spinal of the obturator internus nerves S3-S4 m. (arcus tendineus levator ani), ischial spine

inferior gluteal a.

levator prostatae

posterior aspect of the pubis posterior aspect of the superior pubic ramis

fascia of the prostate

elevates the prostate

pubococcygeus

coccyx

branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4 elevates the pelvic floor branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4 draws the distal rectum branches of the ventral forward and superiorly; primary rami of spinal aids in voluntary nerves S3-S4 retention of feces

inferior gluteal a.

inferior gluteal a.

puborectalis

posterior aspect of the body of the pubis

unites with the puborectalis m. of other side posterior to the rectum

inferior gluteal a.

pubovaginalis

posterior aspect of the body of the pubis

sphincter ani externus

branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4 perineal body or central encircles the anal canal; constricts the anal canal inferior rectal nerves tendinous point of the superficial fibers attach (from the pudendal perineum to the coccyx nerve)

fascia of the vagina and draws the vagina perineal body forward and superiorly

inferior gluteal a.

inferior rectal a.

sphincter ani internus

encircles the anal canal

encircles the anal canal

constricts the anal canal parasympathetic fibers from S4

middle rectal a.

sphincter urethrae, in female

encircles the urethra

sphincter urethrae, in male

encircles the urethra

encircles urethra and compresses urethra and vagina; extends vagina superiorly along the urethra as far as the inferior surface of the bladder encircles urethra, compresses urethra reaches lateral surface of prostate and inferior bladder

deep branch of perineal internal pudendal a. nerve from pudendal nerve

deep branch of perineal internal pudendal a. nerve from pudendal nerve

superficial transverse perineus

medial surface of the ischial ramus

transverse perineus, deep

medial surface of the ischial ramus

contralateral muscle and the perineal body/central tendinous point contralateral muscle and perineal body/central tendinous point

fixes and stabilizes perineal body/central tendinous point fixes and stabilizes the perineal body/central tendinous point

deep branch of perineal perineal a. nerve from pudendal nerve deep branch of perineal internal pudendal a. nerve from pudendal nerve deep branch of perineal perineal a. nerve from pudendal nerve

transverse perineus, superficial

medial surface of the ischial ramus

contralateral muscle and fixes and stabilizes the perineal perineal body/central body/central tendinous tendinous point point

Muscles of the Lower Limb - Listed Alphabetically


Muscle abductor digiti minimi (foot) Origin medial and lateral sides of the tuberosity of the calcaneus medial side of the tuberosity of calcaneus Insertion Action Innervation lateral side of the base of abducts the 5th toe; lateral plantar nerve the proximal phalanx of flexes the the 5th digit metatarsophalageal joint medial side of the base abducts the great toe; medial plantar nerve of the proximal phalanx flexes the of the great toe (hallux) metatarsophalageal joint pectineal line and linea aspera (deep to the pectineus and adductor longus mm.) adducts, flexes, and medially rotates the femur anterior division of the obturator nerve Artery lateral plantar a.

abductor hallucis

medial plantar a.

adductor brevis

inferior pubic ramus

obturator a., deep femoral a.

adductor hallucis

oblique head: bases of metatarsals 2-4; transverse head: heads of metatarsals 3-5 medial portion of the superior pubic ramus ischiopubic ramus and ischial tuberosity

lateral side of base of the adducts the great toe deep branch of the proximal phalanx of the (moves it toward midline lateral plantar nerve great toe of the foot; i.e.toward the 2nd digit) linea aspera of the femur adducts, flexes, and medially rotates the femur linea aspera of the adducts, flexes, and femur; the medially rotates the ischiocondylar part femur; extends the inserts on the adductor femur (ischiocondylar tubercle of the femur part) anterior division of the obturator nerve

plantar arterial arch

adductor longus

obturator a., deep femoral a.

adductor magnus

posterior division of the obturator a., deep obturator nerve; tibial femoral a., medial nerve (ischiocondylar femoral circumflex a. part)

adductor minimus articularis genu

biceps femoris

dorsal interosseous (foot)

lower portion of the inferior pubic ramus anterior surface of the femur above the patellar surface long head: ischial tuberosity; short head: lateral lip of the linea aspera shafts of adjacent metatarsal bones

gluteal ridge and upper part of the linea aspera of the femur articular capsule of the knee

obturator a., medial adducts and laterally posterior division of the femoral circumflex a., rotates the femur obturator nerve deep femoral a. elevates the articular femoral nerve descending genicular a. capsule of the knee joint

head of fibula and lateral extends the thigh, flexes long head: tibial nerve; perforating branches of condyle of the tibia the leg short head: common the deep femoral a. fibular (peroneal) nerve bases of the proximal phalanges for digit 2 (both sides) & digits 3,4 (lateral side) abduct digits 2-4 (move deep branch of the these digits away from lateral plantar nerve midline as defined by a plane passing through the 2nd digit); flex the metatarsophalangeal joints and extend the interphalangeal joints of those digits extends toes 1-4 deep fibular (peroneal) nerve dorsal metatarsal aa.

extensor digitorum brevis

superolateral surface of extensor expansion of the calcaneus toes 1-4

dorsalis pedis a.

extensor digitorum longus

lateral condyle of the tibia, anterior surface of the fibula, lateral portion of the interosseous membrane

dorsum of the lateral 4 toes via extensor expansions (central slip inserts on base of middle phalanx, lateral slips on base of distal phalanx)

extends the deep fibular (peroneal) metatarsophalangeal, nerve proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints of the lateral 4 toes deep fibular (peroneal) nerve

anterior tibial a.

extensor hallucis brevis

superolateral surface of dorsum of base of extends the great toe the calcaneus proximal phalanx of the great toe

dorsalis pedis a.

extensor hallucis longus middle half of the base of the distal anterior surface of the phalanx of the great toe fibula and the interosseous membrane fibularis (peroneus) brevis lower one third of the lateral surface of the fibula

extends the deep fibular (peroneal) metatarsophalangeal nerve interphalangeal joints of the great toe superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve

anterior tibial a.

tuberosity of the base of extends (plantar flexes) the 5th metatarsal and everts the foot

fibular (peroneal) a.

fibularis (peroneus) longus

upper two/thirds of the after crossing the plantar extends (plantar flexes) lateral surface of the surface of the foot deep and everts the foot fibula to the intrinsic muscles, it inserts on the medial cuneiform and the base of the 1st metatarsal bone distal part of the anterior dorsum of the shaft of everts the foot surface of the fibula the 5th metatarsal bone

superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve

fibular (peroneal) a.

fibularis (peroneus) tertius

deep fibular (peroneal) nerve

anterior tibial a.

flexor digiti minimi brevis (foot)

lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit flexor digitorum brevis tuberosity of the base of the middle calcaneus, plantar phalanx of digits 2-5 aponeurosis, after splitting to allow intermuscular septae passage of the flexor digitorum longus tendons flexor digitorum longus middle half of the bases of the distal posterior surface of the phalanges of digits 2-5 tibia

base of 5th metatarsal bone

flexes the lateral plantar nerve metatarsophalangeal joint of the 5th digit flexes the medial plantar nerve metatarsophalangeal & proximal interphalangeal joints of digits 2-5

lateral plantar a.

medial and lateral plantar aa.

flexor hallucis brevis

cuboid, lateral cuneiform, medial side of the first metatarsal

flexes the metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints of digits 2-5; plantar flexes the foot medial belly: medial side flexes the of proximal phalanx of metatarsophalangeal the great toe; lateral joint of the great toe belly: lateral side of the proximal phalanx of the great toe

tibial nerve

tibial a.

medial plantar nerve medial plantar a. (lateral belly occasionally receives innervation from the lateral plantar nerve)

flexor hallucis longus

lower 2/3 of the base of the distal flexes the tibial nerve posterior surface of the phalanx of the great toe metatarsophalangeal and fibula proximal interphalangeal joints of the great toe; plantar flexes the foot

fibular (peroneal) a. and tibial a.

gastrocnemius

gemellus, inferior gemellus, superior gluteus maximus

femur; medial head: above the medial femoral condyle; lateral head: above the lateral femoral condyle ischial tuberosity ischial spine posterior gluteal line, posterior surface of sacrum and coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament external surface of the ilium between the posterior and anterior gluteal lines

dorsum of the calcaneus flexes leg; plantar flexes tibial nerve via the calcaneal foot (Achilles') tendon

sural aa. (from the popliteal a.), posterior tibial a.

obturator internus tendon obturator internus tendon upper fibers: iliotibial tract; lowermost fibers: gluteal tuberosity of the femur

laterally rotates the femur laterally rotates the femur extends the thigh; laterally rotates the femur

nerve to the quadratus femoris m. nerve to the obturator internus m. inferior gluteal nerve

inferior gluteal a. inferior gluteal a. superior and inferior gluteal aa.

gluteus medius

greater trochanter of the abducts the femur; femur medially rotates the thigh

superior gluteal nerve

superior gluteal a.

gluteus minimus

external surface of the ilium between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines

greater trochanter of the abducts the femur; femur medially rotates the thigh

superior gluteal nerve

superior gluteal a.

gracilis

pubic symphysis and the medial surface of the inferior pubic ramus tibia (via pes anserinus)

adducts the thigh, flexes anterior division of the and medially rotates the obturator nerve thigh, flexes the leg

obturator a.

iliacus

iliac fossa and iliac crest; lesser trochanter of the ala of sacrum femur iliac fossa; bodies and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae ischial tuberosity lesser trochanter of the femur

iliopsoas

flexes the thigh; if the thigh is fixed it flexes the pelvis on the thigh flexes the thigh; flexes and laterally bends the lumbar vertebral column laterally rotates the femur

femoral nerve

iliolumbar a.

inferior gemellus

obturator internus tendon

branches of the ventral iliolumbar a. primary rami of spinal nerves L2-L4; branches of the femoral nerve nerve to the quadratus inferior gluteal a. femoris m.

interosseous, dorsal (foot)

shafts of adjacent metatarsal bones

bases of the proximal phalanges for digit 2 (both sides) & digits 3,4 (lateral side)

abduct digits 2-4 (move deep branch of the these digits away from lateral plantar nerve midline as defined by a plane passing through the 2nd digit); flex the metatarsophalangeal joints and extend the interphalangeal joints of those digits deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve

dorsal metatarsal aa.

interosseous, plantar

base and medial side of metatarsals 3-5

lumbricals (foot)

tendons of the flexor digitorum longus

bases of proximal adduct digits 3-5 (move phalanges and extensor these digits toward the expansions of digits 3-5 midline of the foot as defined by a plane through the second digit); flex the metacarpophalangeal and extend interphalangeal joints of digits 3-5 medial side of the flex the extensor expansion of metatarsophalangeal digits 2-5 joint, extend the proximal interphalangeal & distal interphalangeal joints of digits 2-5

plantar metatarsal aa.

medial (1st) lumbrical: medial plantar nerve; lateral three lumbricals: lateral plantar nerve

medial and lateral plantar aa.

obturator externus

the external surface of trochanteric fossa of the laterally rotates the thigh obturator nerve the obturator membrane femur and the superior and inferior pubic rami the internal surface of greater trochanter on its laterally rotates and the obturator membrane medial surface above the abducts the thigh and margin of the trochanteric fossa obturator foramen nerve to the obturator internus m.

obturator a.

obturator internus

obturator a.

pectineus

pecten of the pubis

pectineal line of the femur

adducts, flexes, and medially rotates the thigh

femoral nerve and medial femoral possibly the anterior circumflex a. division of the obturator nerve

peroneus mm. (SEE fibularis mm.) piriformis anterior surface of sacrum base and medial side of metatarsals 3-5 upper border of greater laterally rotates and trochanter of femur abducts thigh ventral rami of S1-S2

plantar interosseous

bases of proximal adduct digits 3-5 (move deep branch of the phalanges and extensor these digits toward the lateral plantar nerve expansions of digits 3-5 midline of the foot as defined by the second digit),flex metatarsophalangeal and extend interphalangeal joints of digits 3-5 tibial nerve

plantar metatarsal aa.

plantaris

above the lateral femoral dorsum of the calcaneus flexes the leg; plantar condyle (above the medial to the calcaneal flexes the foot lateral head of tendon gastrocnemius)

popliteal a.

popliteus

lateral condyle of the femur

psoas major

bodies and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae

posterior surface of the flexes and rotates the leg tibia above soleal line medially (with the foot planted, it rotates the thigh laterally) lesser trochanter of flexes the thigh; flexes & femur (with iliacus) via laterally bends the iliopsoas tendon lumbar vertebral column flexes & laterally bends the lumbar vertebral column

tibial nerve

popliteal a.

branches of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L2-L4 branches of the ventral primary rams of spinal nerves L1-L2

subcostal a., lumbar aa.

psoas minor

quadratus femoris

quadratus plantae

bodies of the T12 & L1 iliopubic eminence at the vertebrae line of junction of the ilium and the superior pubic ramus lateral border of the quadrate line of the ischial tuberosity femur below the intertrochanteric crest anterior portion of the tendons of the flexor calcaneus and the long digitorum longus m. plantar ligament

lumbar aa.

laterally rotates the thigh nerve to the quadratus femoris m. assists the flexor digitorum longus in flexing the toes lateral plantar nerve

inferior gluteal a.

lateral plantar a.

quadriceps femoris

rectus femoris

sartorius

anterior surface of the femur and the anterior side of the medial and lateral intermuscular septa straight head: anterior inferior iliac spine; reflected head: above the superior rim of the acetabulum anterior superior iliac spine

tibial tuberosity via the patellar ligament

extends the knee; rectus femoral nerve femoris flexes the thigh

lateral circumflex femoral a., deep femoral a.

patella and tibial tuberosity (via the patellar ligament)

extends the leg, flexes the thigh

femoral nerve

lateral circumflex femoral a.

medial surface of the tibia (pes anserinus)

flexes, abducts and laterally rotates the thigh; flexes leg

femoral nerve

lateral femoral circumflex a., saphenous a. perforating branches of the deep femoral a. perforating branches of the deep femoral a.

semimembranosus semitendinosus

upper, outer surface of the ischial tuberosity lower, medial surface of ischial tuberosity (common tendon with biceps femoris m.) posterior surface of head and upper shaft of the fibula, soleal line of the tibia ischial spine

medial condyle of the tibia medial surface of tibia (via pes anserinus)

extends the thigh, flexes tibial nerve the leg extends the thigh, flexes tibial nerve the leg

soleus

dorsum of the calcaneus plantar flexes the foot via the calcaneal (Achilles') tendon laterally rotates the femur flexes, abducts, and medially rotates the thigh dorsiflexes and inverts the foot

tibial nerve

posterior tibial a.

superior gemellus tensor fasciae latae

tibialis anterior

obturator internus tendon anterior part of the iliac iliotibial tract crest, anterior superior iliac spine lateral tibial condyle and medial surface of the the upper lateral surface medial cuneiform and of the tibia the 1st metatarsal interosseous membrane, posteromedial surface of the fibula, posterolateral surface of the tibia

nerve to the obturator internus m. superior gluteal nerve

inferior gluteal a. superior gluteal a.

deep fibular (peroneal) nerve

anterior tibial a.

tibialis posterior

tuberosity of the plantar flexes the foot; navicular and medial inverts the foot cuneiform, metatarsals 24

tibial nerve

fibular (peroneal) a. and tibial a.

vastus intermedius

anterior and lateral surface of the femur

patella

extends the leg

femoral nerve

lateral femoral circumflex a.

vastus lateralis

vastus medialis

lateral intermuscular septum, lateral lip of the linea aspera and the gluteal tuberosity medial intermuscular septum, medial lip of the linea aspera

patella and medial patellar retinaculum

extends leg

femoral nerve

patella and medial patellar retinaculum

extends leg

femoral nerve

lateral femoral circumflex a., perforating branches of the deep femoral a. lateral femoral circumflex a.

Notes the erector spinae m. is separated into 3 columns of muscle: iliocostalis laterally, longissimus in an intermediate position and spinalis medially; each of these columns has multiple named parts the most lateral part of the erector spinae; it may be subdivided into lumborum, thoracis and cervicis portions these are small and fairly insignificant muscles

these are small and fairly insignificant muscles

the intermediate part of the erector spinae;it may be subdivided into thoracis, cervicis and capitis portions semispinalis, multifidus and rotatores make up the transversospinal muscle group

greater occipital nerve (DPR of C2) passes superiorly around the inferior margin of inferior oblique the suboccipital triangle is formed by obliquus capitis superior and inferior and rectus capitis posterior major

none rectus capitis posterior minor is deeper and inserts more medial than rectus capitis posterior major semispinalis, multifidus and rotatores make up the transversospinal muscle group

three parts are named based on their insertions: capitis, cervicis and thoracis; semispinalis, multifidus and rotatores make up the transversospinal muscle group most medial part of the erector spinae; may be subdivided into thoracis, cervicis and capitis portions splenius means bandage; it gets its name from its broad, flat shape

named for its shape: splenius means bandage and capitis refers to the insertion of this portion of the muscle named for its shape: splenius means bandage and cervicis refers to the insertion of this portion of the muscle

y
Notes

abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, and opponens digiti minimi are located in the hypothenar compartment of the hand abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, and opponens pollicis are located in the thenar compartment of the hand (Latin, pollicis = the thumb) the tendons of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis make the lateral border of the anatomical snuffbox (Latin, pollicis = the thumb)

deep palmar arch and deep ulnar nerve pass between the two heads of adductor pollicis, which is in the adductor-interosseous compartment (Latin, pollicis = the thumb) (Greek, anconeus = elbow)

a powerful supinator only if the elbow is flexed

a powerful flexor

although brachioradialis is innervated by the nerve for extensors (radial), its primary action is elbow flexion; the neutral position of this muscle is half way between supination and pronation (elbow flexed, thumb up) the musculocutaneous nerve passes through the coracobrachialis muscle to reach the other arm flexor mm.(biceps brachii and brachialis) the deltoid muscle is the principle abductor of the arm but due to poor mechanical advantage it cannot initiate this action; it is assisted by the supraspinatus m. bipennate muscles; remember DAB & PAD - Dorsal interosseous mm. ABduct and Palmar interosseous mm. ADduct - then you can figure out where they must insert to cause these actions (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)

works with the extensor carpi radialis longus and flexor carpi radialis in abduction of the hand (Greek, carpi= the wrist) works with the extensor carpi radialis brevis and flexor carpi radialis in abduction of the hand (Greek, carpi= the wrist) works with the flexor carpi ulnaris in adduction of the hand (Greek, carpi= the wrist)

extensor digiti minimi appears to be the ulnar-most portion of extensor digitorum

the extensor expansion inserts via a central band on the base of the middle phalanx, while lateral & medial slips insert on the distal phalanx

extensor indicis is a deep forearm extensor, whereas extensor digiti minimi is in the superficial layer of extensors

the tendons of extensor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus make the lateral border of the anatomical snuffbox, in which the radial arterial pulse can be felt (Latin, pollicis = the thumb) the tendon of extensor pollicis longus hooks around the dorsal radial tubercle; it forms the medial border of the anatomical snuffbox, in which the radial arterial pulse can be felt (Latin, pollicis = the thumb) works with the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis mm. to abduct hand (Greek, carpi = the wrist)

the ulnar nerve passes between the two heads of origin of the flexor carpi ulnaris m. (Greek, carpi = the wrist)

flexor digiti minimi brevis, abductor digiti minimi, and opponens digiti minimi are in the hypothenar compartment of the hand ulnar nerve innervates the portion of profundus that acts on digits 4 & 5 (the ulnar 2 digits)

median nerve travels distally in the forearm on the deep surface of the flexor digitorum superficialis m. flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis, and opponens pollicis are the three muscles of the thenar compartment of the hand (Latin, pollicis = the thumb) the tendon of flexor pollicis longus passes through the carpal tunnel with the other long digital flexor tendons and the median nerve (Latin, pollicis = the thumb) infraspinatus, supraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis are the rotator cuff muscles

bipennate muscles; remember DAB & PAD - Dorsal interosseous mm. ABduct and Palmar interosseous mm. ADduct - then you can figure out where they must insert to cause these actions (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)

unipennate muscles; remember PAD & DAB: Palmar interossei ADduct and Dorsal interossei ABduct, and you will be able to figure out where they must insert (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)

the inserting tendon twists so that fibers originating highest insert lowest (Latin, latissimus = broadest)

levator scapulae is named for its action (Latin, levator = to lift)

lumbricals, arise from the profundus tendons and have the same pattern of innervation as does the profundus muscle (ulnar and median nn. split the task equally) (Latin, lumbricus = earthworm)

opposition is a rotational movement of the 5th metacarpal around the long axis of its shaft; opponens digiti minimi, abductor digiti minimi, and flexor digiti minimi brevis are in the hypothenar compartment of the hand opposition is a rotational movement of the 1st metacarpal around the long axis of its shaft; opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, and flexor pollicis brevis are in the thenar compartment of the hand (Latin, pollicis = the thumb) unipennate muscles; remember PAD & DAB: Palmar interossei ADduct and Dorsal interossei ABduct, and you will be able to figure out where they must insert (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)

palmaris brevis improves the grasp

palmaris longus is absent in about 13% of forearms; it may be present on one side only

the deep fascia on its anterior surface should not be fused to the fascia of the mammary gland - if it is, this is an important clinical sign indicating breast disease

branches of medial pectoral nerve usually pierce pectoralis minor to reach the pectoralis major muscle pronator quadratus is the deepest muscle in the distal forearm; it works with pronator teres and has the same nerve supply median nerve passes between the two heads of origin of pronator teres

named for its shape

named for its shape

a lesion of long thoracic nerve will cause winging of the scapula (i.e., the medial border of the scapula falls away from the posterior chest wall and looks like an angel's wing) (Latin, serratus = to saw) a respiratory muscle, it receives ventral ramus innervation; embryonically related to the intercostal muscles, not the deep back mm. (Latin, serratus = to saw)

a respiratory muscle, it receives ventral ramus innervation; embryonically related to the intercostal muscles, not the deep back mm. (Latin, serratus = to saw) it serves an important protective function - it cushions the subclavian vessels from bone fragments in clavicular fractures subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor are the rotator cuff muscles deep radial nerve passes through the supinator to reach the posterior compartment of the forearm

supraspinatus initiates abduction of the arm, then the deltoid muscle completes the action; a member of the rotator cuff group teres major inserts beside the tendon of latissimus dorsi, and assists latissimus in its actions fixes the head of the humerus in the glenoid fossa during abduction & flexion of the arm; a member of the rotator cuff group named for its shape; trapezius is an example of a muscle that migrates during development from its level of origin (cervical) to its final position, pulling its nerve and artery along behind

long head of the triceps separates the triangular and quadrangular spaces (teres major, teres minor and the humerus are the other boundaries); all three heads of origin insert by a common tendon

ly
Notes a muscle of inspiration; an important landmark of the neck; it is located between the subclavian vein and the subclavian artery; the roots of the brachial plexus pass posterior to it; the phrenic nerve crosses its anterior surface (Greek, scalene = uneven) the mucosa is raised by the underlying aryepiglottic m. to form the aryepiglottic fold

the oblique arytenoid m. lies posterior to the transverse arytenoid m.; the arytenoideus is often considered to be one muscle with oblique and transverse fibers ( the transverse arytenoid m.lies anterior to the oblique arytenoid m.; the arytenoideus is often considered to be one muscle with oblique and transverse parts

the auricular muscles are derived from the mesenchyme of the second pharyngeal arch, as are the muscles of facial expression

although the buccinator is important in mastication, it is innervated by the buccal branch of the facial nerve and NOT by the buccal nerve from V3 (a sensory nerve) (Latin, buccinator = trumpeter) chondroglossus is often considered to be part of the hyoglossus muscle relaxation of the suspensory ligament allows the lens to thicken for accommodation (near vision) the most external of the three pharyngeal constructor mm.

of the three pharyngeal constrictors, this one is intermediate in both superior/inferior position and depth the most internal of the three pharyngeal constructor mm.

this muscle causes the furrowed brow of the worried look (Latin, corrugator= to wrinkle)

an antagonist of the posterior cricoarytenoid m.; the arteries that supply the larynx anastomose within the larynx to supply the mucous membranes and muscles

the posterior cricoarytenoid is the only ABductor of the vocal folds; the arteries that supply the larynx anastomose within the larynx to supply the mucous membranes and muscles cricopharyngeus represents the lowest fibers of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor; it is continuous with the esophagus below and marks the beginning of it this is the only intrinsic muscle of the larynx that is not supplied by the recurrent laryngeal n.; ALL other laryngeal muscles are innervated by recurrent laryngeal nerve, via its inferior laryngeal branch a "frown" muscle

this muscle is used to bare the lower incisor teeth depressor septi is considered a part of the nasalis m. the digastric m. forms two sides of the submandibular triangle; it is formed from mesenchyme derived from the first two pharyngeal arches, hence its dual innervation

none

the frontalis and occipitalis muscles are two bellies of the epicranius muscle; also known as: occipitofrontalis m.

frontalis is the anterior belly of the epicranius muscle an extrinsic muscle of the tongue; XII innervates all tongue muscles except palatoglossus [innervated by vagus (X), as are most of the palate and pharynx muscles]; genioglossus is used to test the function of cranial nerve XII thyrohyoid and geniohyoid receive ansa cervicalis fibers that travel with the hypoglossal nerve distal to the superior limb of the ansa cervicalis an extrinsic muscle of the tongue

clinicians examining the eye will ask the patient to look toward the bridge of the nose to test the function of this muscle

the most external of the three pharyngeal constructor mm.

because this muscle approaches the eyeball from a medial direction, it has a rotational action on the iris an antagonist of the posterior cricoarytenoid m.; the arteries that supply the larynx anastomose within the larynx to supply the mucous membranes and muscles

the only one of the muscles of mastication that opens the mouth; the superior head of lateral pterygoid is sometimes called sphenomeniscus due to its insertion into the disc of the temporomandibular joint (Greek, pterygoid = wing-shaped) loss of function of the abducens nerve will cause the eye to be abducted a "smile" muscle

levator labii superioris is used to bare the upper incisor teeth, as in a sneer (Latin, levator = to lift + labial = lips) (Latin, levator = to lift + labial = lips)

fibers inserting into the superior tarsal plate are called superior tarsal muscle and are smooth muscle; lesion of the sympathetic supply causes slight ptosis (drooping of the eyelid) (Latin, levator = to lift + palpebrae = eyelid) named for its action (Latin, levator = to lift)

a derivative of the fourth pharyngeal arch (Latin, levator = to lift)

an intrinsic muscle of the tongue; longitudinalis has superior and inferior subdivisions that span the length of the tongue an intrinsic muscle of the tongue whose fibers run transversely

an intrinsic muscle of the tongue whose fibers run superoinferiorly none

none

(Greek, masseter = the chewer)

this muscle mirrors the masseter m. in position and action with the ramus of the mandible between the two mm. (Greek, pterygoid = wing-shaped) this muscle directly opposes the action of the lateral rectus m.

of the three pharyngeal constrictors, this one is intermediate in both superior/inferior position and depth a muscle of respiration (inspiratory); also called scalenus medius; penetrated by the dorsal scapular n. and long thoracic n. (Greek, scalene = uneven) the soft palate and uvula resist the upward pressure of the tongue during swallowing the nerve to mylohyoid also innervates the anterior belly of digastric m.; both muscles are derivatives of the second pharygneal arch nasalis has two subsidiary parts: nasalis pars alaris and pars transversa a subdivision of the nasalis m. (Latin, pars = a part) a subdivision of the nasalis m. (Latin, pars = a part)

the oblique arytenoid m. lies posterior to the transverse arytenoid m.; the arytenoideus is often considered to be one muscle with oblique and transverse fibers clinicians examining the eye will ask the patient to look toward the bridge of the nose to test the function of this muscle

passes through a fibrocartilagenous pulley known as the trochlea; when the eye is adducted, this muscle moves the cornea inferiorly occipitalis is the posterior belly of the epicranius muscle the frontalis and occipitalis muscles are two bellies of the occipitofrontalis muscle; also known as: epicranius m.

the intermediate tendon of omohyoid is tethered to the clavicle by a fascial sling

activated involuntarily in the blink reflex; the palpebral part is active in normal blinking and the orbital part is used to forcefully close the eye the "kissing" muscle

although palatoglossus sounds like a tongue muscle (and would therefore be innervated by XII), it is a palatal muscle innervated by X palatopharyngeus is part of the inner longitudinal muscle layer of the pharynx platysma is derived from the mesenchyme of the second pharyngeal arch (Greek, platysma = a flat plate) the posterior cricoarytenoid is the only ABductor of the vocal folds; the arteries that supply the larynx anastomose within the larynx to supply the mucous membranes and muscles a muscle of respiration (inspiratory); it is the longest of the scalene muscles (Greek, scalene = uneven) (Latin, procerus = long and streched out) the only one of the muscles of mastication that opens the mouth; the superior head of lateral pterygoid is sometimes called sphenomeniscus due to its insertion into the disc of the temporomandibular joint (Greek, pterygoid = wing-shaped) this muscle mirrors the masseter m. in position and action with the ramus of the mandible between the two mm. (Greek, pterygoid = wing-shaped)

none

none

none none

because this muscle approaches the eyeball from a medial direction, it has a rotational action on the iris loss of function of the abducens nerve will cause the eye to be abducted this muscle directly opposes the action of the lateral rectus m. because this muscle approaches the eye from a medial position, it causes the iris to rotate medially risorius is active in expressions of mirth (Latin, risorius = to laugh) like other muscles of the pharyngeal wall, salpingopharyngeus is derived from the fourth pharyngeal arch

a muscle of inspiration; an important landmark of the neck; it is located between the subclavian vein and the subclavian artery; the roots of the brachial plexus pass posterior to it; the phrenic nerve crosses its anterior surface (Greek, scalene = uneven) a muscle of respiration (inspiratory); also called scalenus medius; penetrated by the dorsal scapular n. and long thoracic n. (Greek, scalene = uneven) a muscle of respiration (inspiratory); it is the longest of the scalene muscles (Greek, scalene = uneven) sphenomeniscus is another name for the superior belly of the lateral pterygoid m. none

it gets its name from its broad, flat shape (Greek, splenius = a bandage)

entirely enclosed in bone, except for its tendon; a derivative of the second pharyngeal arch

carotid sheath structures lie deep to it

sternohyoid overlies the sternothyroid and thyrohyoid mm. sternothyroid lies deep to the sternohyoid m.

an extrinsic muscle of the tongue

facial nerve innervates both the stylohyoid m. and the posterior belly of the digastric m. shortly after exiting from the stylomastoid foramen stylopharyngeus, the only muscle innervated by IX, is the only muscle of the pharyngeal wall NOT innervated by the vagus (X) nerve; it is a derivative of the third pharyngeal arch passes through a fibrocartilagenous pulley known as the trochlea; when the eye is adducted, this muscle moves the cornea inferiorly the most internal of the three pharyngeal constructor mm.

because this muscle approaches the eye from a medial position, it causes the iris to rotate medially a powerful chewing muscle; a derivative of the first pharyngeal arch

V3 innervates both tensor muscles of the head (tympani and veli palatini) which are derivatives of the first pharyngeal arch (Latin, tympanum = a kettle drum) remember: V3 innervates both tensor muscles (tympani and veli palatini); ALL other palatal muscles are innervated by vagus its subsidiary parts are the thyroepiglottic m. and the vocalis m.; the medial most fibers of thyroarytenoid that insert along the vocal ligament are called the vocalis muscle represents the superior fibers of thyroarytenoid muscle which fan out to the quadrangular membrane and epiglottis thyrohyoid lies deep to the sternohyoid

smooth muscle, found in the submucosal layer

the transverse arytenoid m.lies anterior to the oblique arytenoid m.; the arytenoideus is often considered to be one muscle with oblique and transverse parts the transverse arytenoid m.lies anterior to the oblique arytenoid m.; the arytenoideus is often considered to be one muscle with oblique and transverse parts represents the innermost fibers of the thyroarytenoid muscle; the cricothyroid m. grossly tenses the vocal ligaments, while the vocalis muscle provides the mechanism for fine tuning the vibrations of the vocal folds a "smile" muscle

a "smile" muscle

lly
Notes left crus attaches to the L1-L2 vertebral bodies, the right crus attaches to the L1-L3 vertebral bodies

11 in number; they extend from the tubercle of the rib to the costochondral junction; continuous with the external intercostal membrane anteriorly

innermost intercostal mm. have the same fiber direction as the internal intercostal mm., the only difference being that they lie deep to the intercostal neurovascular bundle 11 in number; they extend from the margin of the sternum to the angle of the rib; continuous posteriorly with the internal intercostal membrane these are fairly small and insignificant muscles subcostalis, transversus thoracis & innermost intercostal mm. make up the deepest intercostal muscle layer transversus thoracis, subcostalis & innermost intercostal mm. make up the innermost intercostal muscle layer

ally
Notes the cremaster m. is internal abdominal oblique muscle's contribution to the coverings of the spermatic cord and testis; the cremasteric reflex may be elicited by stroking the medial thigh (where the femoral branch of the genitofemoral n. distributes cutaneously) (Greek, cremaster = suspender) the dartos elevates the testis in response to cold (it is modified arrector pili fibers, or the goosebump muscles) (Latin, dartos = leather)

the inguinal ligament is a specialization of the external abdominal oblique aponeurosis; the external spermatic fascia is the external abdominal oblique muscle's contribution to the coverings of the testis and spermatic cord

an inconstant part of the transversus abdominis m. which may be replaced by a ligament (interfoveolar ligament) anterior fibers of internal abdominal oblique course up and medially, perpendicular to the fibers of external abdominal oblique; the cremaster muscle and fascia is the internal abdominal oblique muscle's contribution to the coverings of the testis and spermatic cord

the inguinal ligament is a specialization of the external abdominal oblique aponeurosis; the external spermatic fascia is the external abdominal oblique muscle's contribution to the coverings of the testis and spermatic cord

anterior fibers of internal abdominal oblique course up and medially, perpendicular to the fibers of external abdominal oblique; the cremaster muscle and fascia is the internal abdominal oblique muscle's contribution to the coverings of the testis and spermatic cord

the genitofemoral nerve pierces the anterior surface of the psoas major m. (Greek, psoas = the muscles of the loins) absent in 40% of cases (Greek, psoas = the muscles of the loins)

the pyramidalis m. is not always present the lateral arcuate ligament of the diaphragm crosses the anterior surface of the quadratus lumborum m. rectus sheath contains rectus abdominis and is formed by the aponeuroses of external and internal oblique and transversus abdominis mm. transversus abdominis muscle does not contribute to the coverings of the spermatic cord and testis; transversalis fascia, the deep fascia that covers the inner surface of the transversus abdominis, forms the internal spermatic fascia

cally

Notes skeletal (voluntary) muscle, as contrasted with sphincter ani internus, which is smooth (involuntary) muscle; the external anal sphincter is considered part of the pelvic diaphragm smooth muscle (involuntary), as contrasted with sphincter ani externus, which is skeletal muscle (voluntary) skeletal muscle

expels the last drops of urine from urethra; expels semen during ejaculation coccygeus and levator ani combined form the pelvic diaphragm superficial and deep transverse perineus muscles are separated by the perineal membrane muscles in the neck of bladder must contract and cause the internal urethral orifice to open before the detruser muscle can void the bladder (Latin, detruser = to push down) the combination of puborectalis, pubococcygeus and iliococcygeus is called the levator ani m. ischiocavernosus m. is closely applied to the surface of the crus penis/clitoris

the combination of puborectalis, pubococcygeus & iliococcygeus is the levator ani m.; coccygeus and levator ani combined form the pelvic diaphragm (Latin, levator = to lift) levator prostatae is part of the puborectalis m. (Latin, levator = to lift) the combination of puborectalis, pubococcygeus and iliococcygeus is called the levator ani m. the combination of puborectalis, pubococcygeus and iliococcygeus is called the levator ani m.

pubovaginalis is part of the levator ani muscle skeletal (voluntary) muscle, as contrasted with sphincter ani internus, which is smooth (involuntary) muscle; the external anal sphincter is considered part of the pelvic diaphragm smooth muscle (involuntary), as contrasted with sphincter ani externus, which is skeletal muscle (voluntary) skeletal muscle

skeletal muscle

superficial and deep transverse perineus muscles are separated by the perineal membrane superficial and deep transverse perineus muscles are separated by the perineal membrane superficial and deep transverse perineus muscles are separated by the perineal membrane

Notes abductor digiti minimi forms the lateral margin of the sole of the foot abductor hallucis forms the medial margin of the sole of the foot (Latin, hallex = great toe) anterior and posterior divisions of the obturator nerve lie on the anterior and posterior surfaces of adductor brevis the plantar arterial arch passes superior to the oblique head of adductor hallucis (Latin, hallex = great toe) the most anterior of the adductor group of muscles the ischiocondylar part of adductor magnus is a hamstring muscle by embryonic origin and action, so it is innervated by the tibial nerve

adductor minimus m. is the uppermost fibers of the adductor magnus m. articularis genu is formed by muscle fascicles deep to the vastus intermedius m. one of the "hamstring" muscles

four in number; remember DAB (Dorsal interossei ABduct) and PAD (Plantar interossei ADduct), then logic can tell you where these muscles insert (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)

the part of the extensor digitorum brevis that goes to the great toe is called the extensor hallucis brevis m. one of the muscles involved in anterior compartment syndrome

usually considered to be the medial-most part of the extensor digitorum brevis m. (Latin, hallex = great toe) one of the muscles involved in anterior compartment syndrome (Latin, hallex = great toe)

stress fracture of the base of the 5th metatarsal bone is a common runner's injury

fibularis longus lies superficial to the fibularis brevis m. in the lateral compartment of the leg

fibularis tertius is in the anterior compartment of the leg, not the lateral compartment (which contains fibularis longus and brevis) none

flexor digitorum brevis in the foot is equivalent to the flexor digitorum superficialis m. of the arm

flexor digitorum longus in the leg is equivalent to the flexor digitorum profundus m. of the arm

each tendon of insertion contains a sesamoid bone (Latin, hallex = great toe)

flexor hallucis longus is very important in the "push off" part of the normal gait (Latin, hallex = great toe)

the calcaneal tendon of the gastrocnemius and soleus is the thickest and strongest tendon in the body gemellus is a Latin word that means "little twin" gemellus is a Latin word that means "little twin" gluteus maximus is a site of intramuscular injection

the angle at which the gluteus medius tendon approaches the greater trochanter of the femur is anterior to the axis of rotation of the thigh, resulting in medial rotation the angle at which the gluteus minimus tendon approaches the greater trochanter of the femur is anterior to the axis of rotation of the thigh, resulting in medial rotation the pes anserinus is the common insertion of the gracilis, sartorius, and semitendinosus mm. (Latin, pes anserinus = goose's foot; gracilis = slender) inserts in company with the psoas major m. via the iliopsoas tendon a combination of the iliacus and psoas major mm.

Latin, gemellus = little twin

four in number; remember DAB (Dorsal interossei ABduct) and PAD (Plantar interossei ADduct), then logic can tell you where these muscles insert (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)

remember PAD (Plantar interossei ADduct) and DAB (Dorsal interossei ABduct), and logic will tell you where these muscles must insert (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)

the lumbricals of the foot have the same action on the toes that the lumbricals in the hand have on the fingers (Latin, lumbricus = earthworm)

the tendon of the obturator externus m. passes inferior to the neck of the femur to reach its insertion site the obturator internus m. leaves the pelvis by passing through the lesser sciatic foramen; the superior and inferior gemellus mm. insert on the obturator internus tendon pectineus often has a dual innervation

peroneus is the old terminology used for the fibularis mm. piriformis leaves the pelvis by passing through the greater sciatic foramen remember PAD (Plantar interossei ADduct) and DAB (Dorsal interossei ABduct), and logic will tell you where these muscles must insert (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)

plantaris has a long slender tendon that is equivalent to the tendon of the palmaris longus m. of the arm; its tendon is often called the "freshman nerve" because it is often misidentified by the freshman medical student has a round tendon of origin; popliteus unlocks the knee joint to initiate flexion of the leg the genitofemoral nerve pierces the anterior surface of the psoas major m. (Latin, psoas = the muscles of the loins) absent in 40% of cases (Latin, psoas = the muscles of the loins)

the nerve to the quadratus femoris m. also innervates the inferior gemellus m. the quadratus plantae m. changes the line of force of the flexor digitorum longus m. to bring it in line with the long axis of the foot (Latin, quadratus = square)

composed of 4 muscles: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius and vastus medialis

rectus femoris is part of the quadriceps femoris muscle

its actions put the lower limb in the traditional cross-legged seated position of a tailor (Latin, sartorius = tailor) one of the "hamstring" muscles pes anserinus is the common insertion for the gracilis, sartorius, and semitendinosus mm.

soleus and the 2 heads of gastrocnemius are sometimes called the triceps surae muscle Latin, gemellus = little twin tensor fascia latae redirects the rotational forces of the gluteus maximus m. acts as both an antagonist (dorsiflexion/plantar flexion) and a synergist (inversion) of the tibialis posterior m. acts as both an antagonist (dorsiflexion/plantar flexion) and a synergist (inversion) of the tibialis anterior m.

vastus intermedius is part of the quadriceps femoris muscle (Latin, vastus = huge)

vastus lateralis is part of the quadriceps femoris muscle (Latin, vastus = huge) vastus medialis is part of the quadriceps femoris muscle (Latin, vastus = huge)

Nerves of the Body - Listed Alphabetically


Nerve abducens accessory Source Branches pons: abducens no named branches nucleus cranial root: medulla - no named branches nucleus ambiguus; spinal root: spinal nucleus of the upper cervical spinal cord infraorbital n. dental plexus Motor Sensory GSE: lateral rectus m. none GSE: sternocleidomastoid and trapezius mm. none

alveolar, anterior superior

none

alveolar, inferior

mandibular division of the trigeminal n.(V3) infraorbital n.

alveolar, middle superior alveolar, posterior superior anococcygeal n. ansa cervicalis

maxillary n.

coccygeal plexus (S4C1) superior root (C1 and C2) and inferior root (C2 and C3) of the ansa cervicalis musculocutaneous n.

antebrachial cutaneous, lateral antebrachial cutaneous, medial antebrachial cutaneous, posterior anterior deep temporal n.

n. to mylohyoid; mylohyoid muscle inferior dental plexus; and anterior belly of mental nerve the digastric m. via n. to mylohyoid dental plexus none maxillary premolar teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus dental plexus none maxillary molar teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus no named branches none skin overlying the coccyx to infrahyoid muscles omohyoid m., none sternohyoid m., sternothyroid m., thyrohyoid m., geniohyoid m. anterior and posterior none skin of the lateral side branches of the forearm no named branches none skin of the medial side of the forearm skin of the lateral distal arm and posterior forearm no cutaneous branches

maxillary canine and incisor teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus teeth of the mandible; skin of the chin

medial cord of the brachial plexus radial n.

inferior lateral none brachial cutaneous n. no named branches temporalis m.

mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3)

anterior ethmoidal n. nasociliary n.

internal & external nasal brs.

none

mucous membrane lining the anterior ethmoid air cells and upper anterior part of the nasal cavity; skin of the lower half of the nose

anterior femoral femoral cutaneous n. anterior interosseous median n. n.

no named branches no named branches

sympathetic motor skin of the anterior innervation to skin thigh flexor pollicis longus none m., radial half of flexor digitorum profundus m., pronator quadratus m. none skin of the anterior aspect of the labium majus skin of the anterior aspect of the scrotum

anterior labial n.

ilioinguinal n.

no named branches

anterior scrotal n.

anterior cutaneous br. no named branches of the ilioinguinal n. infraorbital n. dental plexus

none

anterior superior alveolar n.

none

aorticorenal ganglion preganglionic sympathetic via the lesser thoracic splanchnic n.

brs. to the renal plexus

maxillary canine and incisor teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus vascular smooth pain from the kidney, muscle of the brs. of suprarenal gland, the renal aa. upper ureter

auriculotemporal n.

mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3)

parotid brs., articular secretomotor to the brs., anterior auricular parotid gland by brs. carrying postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the otic ganglion; [preganglionic parasympathetic fibers originate in the lesser petrosal br. of the glossopharyngeal n. (IX)] deltoid, teres minor

skin of anterior ear and the skin anterosuperior to the ear; part of the external auditory meatus; temporomandibular joint

axillary n.

brachial cutaneous, inferior lateral

posterior cord of the superior lateral brachial plexus brachial cutaneous nerve radial n. via its no named branches posterior antebrachial cutaneous be. medial cord of the brachial plexus radial no named branches

skin of the upper lateral arm skin of the lateral side of the distal arm

none

brachial cutaneous, medial brachial cutaneous, posterior brachial plexus

skin of the medial side of the arm no named branches none skin of the posterior arm ventral primary rami dorsal scapular, long muscles of the upper skin of the upper of C5-8 and T1 thoracic, n. to limb, excluding limb subclavius, trapezius suprascapular, lateral and medial pectoral, medial brachial and antebrachial cutaneous, upper, middle and lower subscapular, musculocutaneous, ulnar, median, axillary, radial no named branches no motor branches skin of the cheek, mucosa lining the cheek

none

buccal branch of the mandibular division trigeminal n. of the trigeminal n. (V3)

buccal branches of the facial n.

facial n. (VII)

no sensory branches

zygomaticus major & no sensory branches minor, buccinator, orbicularis oris, levator anguli oris, levator labii superioris & alaque nasi, risorius, procerus, nasalis rectus capitis anterior none and lateralis, longus capitis, omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid, geniohyoid omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid, longus capitis and longus colli skin behind the ear and on the neck below the mandible; proprioception from the sternocleidomastoid m.

C1 ventral primary ramus

C1 spinal n.

contributes to the superior root of the ansa cervicalis; brs. to: rectus capitis anterior and lateralis mm., longus capitis m. contributes to: superior and inferior roots of the ansa cervicalis, lesser occipital n., great auricular n., transverse cervical n.; brs. to: longus capitis & colli, sternocleidomastoid contributes to: inferior root of the ansa cervicalis, great auricular n., transverse cervical n., supraclavicular nn., phrenic n.; brs. to: longus capitis & colli, scalenus medius, levator scapulae, trapezius

C2 ventral primary ramus

C2 spinal n.

C3 ventral primary ramus

C3 spinal n.

omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, longus capitis & colli, scalenus medius, levator scapulae, respiratory diaphragm

skin of the anterolateral neck; proprioception from the sternocleidomastoid m. and the trapezius m

C4 ventral primary ramus

C4 spinal n.

contributes to: supraclavicular nn., phrenic n.; brs. to: longus colli, scalenus medius, levator scapulae, trapezius contributes to: phrenic n., long thoracic n.

longus colli, scalenus medius, levator scapulae, respiratory diaphragm

skin of the root of the neck and the upper shoulder; proprioception from the trapezius m.

C5 ventral primary ramus

C5 spinal n.

C6 ventral primary ramus

C6 spinal n.

contributes to: long thoracic n.

respiratory diaphragm, scalene mm., muscles of the shoulder and upper arm scalene mm., muscles of the lower shoulder and arm muscles of the lower shoulder, arm forearm muscles of the forearm and hand

skin of the ventral arm and ventral forearm

skin of the lateral side of the upper limb

C7 ventral primary ramus C8 ventral primary ramus cardiac plexus

C7 spinal n.

contributes to: long thoracic n. no named branches

skin of the posterior side of the upper limb skin of the medial side of the upper limb

C8 spinal n.

cardiac brs. of the no named branches vagus n. and cervical sympathetic trunk; thoracic visceral nn.

moderates heart pain from the heart muscle and lungs (parasympathetic: decreases rate and force of contraction; sympathetic: increases rate and force of contraction); vascular smooth muscle of the heart & lungs (sympathetic); smooth muscle & mucous glands of bronchial tree (parasympathetic)

cardiac, sympathetic

cervical sympathetic trunk

no named branches

heart (sympathetic: heart, bronchial tree increases rate and and lungs force of contraction, parasympathetic: decreases rate and force of contraction); bronchial tree & lungs via pulmonary plexus heart heart, bronchial tree (parasympathetic: and lungs decreases rate and force of contraction; sympathetic: increases rate and force of contraction); bronchial tree and lungs via pulmonary plexus none sensory receptors in the carotid body and carotid sinus none

cardiac, vagal

vagus n. (X)

no named branches

carotid body, n. to

glossopharyngeal n. (IX)

no named branches

carotid plexus, external

superior cervical distributes along the ganglion of the brs. of the external sympathetic trunk, via carotid artery the external carotid n. superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the internal carotid n. most distribute along the brs. of the internal carotid artery, although the deep petrosal n. is an exception because it runs a short course independent of an artery

vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscles, sweat glands of face & upper neck

carotid plexus, internal

vascular smooth none muscle of the brain, orbit, forehead, upper nasal cavity; arrector pili muscles of forehead and anterior scalp; sweat glands of the forehead; dilator pupillae m.

carotid, external

superior cervical contributes to the sympathetic ganglion external carotid plexus

vascular smooth none muscle of the internal carotid system of vessels; sweat glands, arrector pili mm. of the skin of the forehead vascular smooth none muscle of the external carotid system of vessels; sweat glands, arrector pili mm. of the skin of the face and scalp vascular smooth pain from the muscle of the brs. of stomach, liver & the celiac trunk biliary system, spleen, upper half of the duodenum & pancreas

carotid, internal

superior cervical contributes to the sympathetic ganglion internal carotid plexus

celiac ganglion

preganglionic sympathetic axons arrive via the greater thoracic splanchnic n.

postganglionic sympathetic axons distribute via the celiac plexus along brs. of the celiac trunk

cervical plexus

ventral primary rami brs. to: longus colli & of spinal nerves C1- capitis, C4 sternocleidomastoid m., trapezius m., levator scapulae m., scalenus medius m., rectus capitis anterior and lateralis mm.; superior & inferior root of the ansa cervicalis, n. to the thyrohyoid m., n. to the geniohyoid m., lesser occipital n., great auricular n., transverse cervical n., supraclavicular nn. (medial, intermediate and lateral), contributions to the phrenic n. from C3 and C4

longus colli & capitis mm., rectus capitis anterior & lateralis mm., infrahyoid mm., thyrohyoid m., geniohyoid m., respiratory diaphragm

skin of the anterolateral neck; skin of the ear and skin behind the ear

cervicofacial division facial (VII)

buccal br., marginal mandibular br., cervical br. no named branches

chorda tympani

facial (VII)

muscles of facial none expression of the lower part of the face; platysma m. secretomotor to the taste to the anterior submandibular and 2/3 of the tongue sublingual glands (it carries preganglionic parasympathetic axons to the submandibular ganglion) sphincter pupillae m., none ciliary m. of the eye

ciliary ganglion

ciliary, long

preganglionic parasympathetic axons arrive via the inferior division of the oculomotor n. (III) nasociliary

postganglionic parasympathetic axons which distribute via short ciliary nn. no named branches

none

eyeball (GSA)

ciliary, short

ciliary ganglion: multiple short ciliary sensory root - from nn. which leave the the nasociliary n. (a ciliary ganglion branch of V1); anteriorly sympathetic root from the internal carotid plexus; parasympathetic root from the inferior division of the oculomotor n. (III) posterior femoral no named branches cutaneous n. lateral cutaneous no named branches branches of the dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves S1-3 lateral cutaneous no named branches branches of the dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves S1-3 ventral primary rami anococcygeal n. of spinal nerves S4, S5, C1 sacral plexus (brs. of no named branches the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4) vestibulocochlear n. no named branches splanchnic nn. (thoracic, lumbar) plexuses to abdominal & pelvic viscera

sphincter pupillae & ciliary mm. (parasympathetic), dilator pupillae (sympathetic)

eyeball (GSA)

cluneal, inferior cluneal, middle

none none

skin of the lower part of the buttock skin of the intermediate medial portion of the buttock skin of the superomedial portion of the buttock

cluneal, superior

none

coccygeal plexus

none

skin of the region overlying the coccyx

coccygeus m., n. to

coccygeus m., levator none ani m.

cochlear n. collateral ganglia

none smooth muscle in blood vessels supplying the abdominopelvic viscera

hearing (SSA) pain from the abdominopelvic viscera

common fibular n.

sciatic n.

lateral sural cutaneous superficial fibular n.: n., superficial and muscles of the lateral deep fibular nn. compartment of the leg (fibularis longus and brevis mm.); deep fibular n.: muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg (tibialis anterior m., extensor hallucis longus m., extensor digitorum longus m., fibularis tertius m.) and muscles of the dorsum of the foot (extensor digitorum brevis m.and extensor hallucis brevis m.)

superficial fibular n.: distal 1/3 of the anterior surface of the leg, dorsum of the foot excluding the web between the great toe and the 2nd toe and distal interphalangeal segments of all toes; deep fibular n.: skin of the web between the great toe and the 2nd toe

common palmar digital nn.

median n.; superficial proper palmar digital sympathetic motor to br. of the ulnar n. nn. the skin; motor nn. to the 1st & 2nd lumbrical mm. are carried on common palmar digital brs. of the median n. medial plantar n. (1st- proper plantar digital 1st lumbrical m. 3rd); superficial br. of nn. the lateral plantar n. (4th)

skin of the palmar surfaces of the adjacent sides of two digits

common plantar digital nn.

skin of the plantar surface of the toes (except the medial side of the great toe and the lateral side of the 5th toe)

cranial nn.

nuclei located in the brain, branistem and upper cervical spinal cord

12 pairs: olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal

eye muscles, muscles of mastication, middle ear, face, tongue, pharynx, larynx, most suprahyoid muscles, sternocleidomastoid m., trapezius m., smooth muscle of the gut, cardiac muscle, bronchial smooth muscle, salivary, lacrimal and mucous glands in the head and neck; glands of digestive system

smell, vision, taste, hearing, balance, general sensation form the skin of the face, sense from viscera of the head, neck, thorax and abdomen (proximal to the splenic flexure)

deep fibular n.

common fibular n.

one proper digital br. muscles of the skin of the web anterior compartment between the great toe of the leg (tibialis and the 2nd toe anterior m., extensor hallucis longus m., extensor digitorum longus m., fibularis tertius m.) and muscles of the dorsum of the foot (extensor digitorum brevis m.and extensor hallucis brevis m.)

deep petrosal n.

internal carotid plexus

no named branches

vascular smooth none muscle of the mucous membranes of the lower nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and palate

deep radial n.

radial n.

posterior interosseous extensor carpi radialis no cutaneous n. brevis m., supinator branches m., extensor digitorum m., extensor digiti minimi m., abductor pollicis longus m., extensor pollicis longus m. extensor pollicis brevis m., extensor indicis m. no named branches posterior belly of the none digastric m. skin of the palmar surfaces of the adjacent sides of two digits

digastric m., posterior facial n. (VII) belly, n. to digital, common palmar

median n.; superficial proper palmar digital sympathetic motor to br. of the ulnar n. nn. the skin; motor nn. to the 1st & 2nd lumbrical mm. are carried on common palmar digital brs. of the median n. medial plantar n. (1st- proper plantar digital 1st lumbrical m. 3rd); superficial br. of nn. the lateral plantar n. (4th)

digital, common plantar

digital, dorsal

radial n.

no named branches

digital, proper palmar common palmar digital branches of the median n.; common palmar digital branches of the superficial br. of the ulnar n.

no named branches

skin of the plantar surface of the toes (except the medial side of the great toe and the lateral side of the 5th toe) sympathetic motor dorsal skin of the innervation to skin lateral 3 1/2 digits, except the nail bed sympathetic motor to median: palmar skin the skin and nail bed of digits 1-3 and the lateral side of 4th digit; ulnar: palmar and dorsal skin on medial side of the 4th digit and all of the 5th digit

digital, proper plantar common plantar no named branches digital; medial plantar n. (to the medial side of the great toe); superficial br. of the lateral plantar n. (to the lateral side of the 5th toe) dorsal branch of the ulnar n. ulnar n. dorsal digital

flexor hallucis brevis m. (from the proper plantar digital n. on the medial side of the great toe)

skin of the plantar surface of the toes and dorsal surface of the distal interphalangeal segment

sympathetic motor innervation to skin

skin of the dorsal surface of the medial 1 1/2 digits; skin of the medial side of the back of the hand dorsal skin of the lateral 3 1/2 digits, except the nail bed skin of the shaft of the clitoris skin of the shaft of the penis general sense (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) to the skin of the back general sense (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) one dermatome

dorsal digital n.

radial n.

no named branches

sympathetic motor innervation to skin sympathetic motor innervation to skin sympathetic motor innervation to skin to the deep back mm.; sympathetic innervation to the skin none

dorsal n., of the pudendal n. clitoris dorsal n., of the penis pudendal n.

no named branches no named branches

dorsal primary ramus first branch off of the numerous dorsal side of the spinal nerve

dorsal root

from the dorsal horn none of the spinal cord to the spinal nerve dorsal rootlets dorsal rootlets

dorsal root ganglion

none

dorsal scapular n.

brachial plexus (br. of no named branches C5 ventral primary ramus)

rhomboideus major and minor mm.; levator scapulae m.

none

esophageal plexus

right and left vagus (X) nn.; thoracic visceral brs. of the sympathetic trunk

ethmoidal, anterior

nasociliary n.

anterior and posterior preganglionic vagal trunks parasympathetic axons from the vagus n. supply smooth muscle and glands of the thoracic esophagus and abdominal gut and its derivatives proximal to the left colic flexure; postganglionic sympathetic axons from the thoracic visceral brs. supply vascular smooth muscle in the esophageal vessels internal & external none nasal brs.

vagus: GVA from the esophagus and abdominal gut proximal to the left colic flexure; thoracic visceral brs.carry pain from the esophagus

mucous membrane lining the anterior ethmoid air cells and upper anterior part of the nasal cavity; skin of the lower half of the nose mucous membrane lining the posterior ethmoid air cells and sphenoid sinus none

ethmoidal, posterior

nasociliary n.

no named branches

none

external carotid n.

superior cervical contributes to the sympathetic ganglion external carotid plexus

vascular smooth muscle of the internal carotid system of vessels; sweat glands, arrector pili mm. of the skin of the forehead

external carotid plexus

superior cervical distributes along the ganglion of the brs. of the external sympathetic trunk, via carotid artery the external carotid n.

vascular smooth none muscle, arrector pili muscles, sweat glands of face & upper neck

facial n.

pons and medulla: nucleus solitarius of medulla via nervus intermedius (SVA sensory root) from geniculate ganglion; superior salivatory nucleus (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic) of pons via nervus intermedius; facial motor nucleus of pons via motor root

greater petrosal n. (preganglionic parasympathetic to pterygopalatine ganglion, postganglionic parasympathetic travels with brs. of maxillary division of V), chorda tympani (SVA taste from anterior 2/3 of the tongue; preganglionic parasympathetic to the submandibular ganglion, postganglionic parasympathetic to the submandibular and sublingual glands), n. to stapedius, posterior auricular n., intraparotid plexus with temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular & cervical brs.

stapedius m., stylohyoid m., posterior belly of digastric m., muscles of facial expression; secretomotor to lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual, and mucous glands of the nasal and oral cavities

taste (SVA) from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue; part of the skin of the external auditory meatus

femoral cutaneous, anterior femoral cutaneous, lateral

femoral lumbar plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L2L3) sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S1-S3)

no named branches anterior & posterior brs.

sympathetic motor innervation to skin sympathetic motor innervation to skin

skin of the anterior thigh skin of the lateral thigh

femoral cutaneous, posterior

inferior cluneal nn.; perineal br.

sympathetic motor innervation to skin

skin of the lower buttock & posterior thigh

femoral

lumbar plexus anterior femoral (ventral primary rami cutaneous brs., nn. to of L2-L4) anterior thigh muscles, saphenous n. sciatic n.

fibular, common

sartorius, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, pectineus lateral sural cutaneous superficial fibular n.: n., superficial and muscles of the lateral deep fibular nn. compartment of the leg (fibularis longus and brevis mm.); deep fibular n.: muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg (tibialis anterior m., extensor hallucis longus m., extensor digitorum longus m., fibularis tertius m.) and muscles of the dorsum of the foot (extensor digitorum brevis m.and extensor hallucis brevis m.)

skin of anterior thigh, medial leg, & medial foot

superficial fibular n.: distal 1/3 of the anterior surface of the leg, dorsum of the foot excluding the web between the great toe and the 2nd toe and distal interphalangeal segments of all toes; deep fibular n.: skin of the web between the great toe and the 2nd toe

fibular, deep

common fibular n.

one proper digital br. muscles of the skin of the web anterior compartment between the great toe of the leg (tibialis and the 2nd toe anterior m., extensor hallucis longus m., extensor digitorum longus m., fibularis tertius m.) and muscles of the dorsum of the foot (extensor digitorum brevis m.and extensor hallucis brevis m.)

fibular, superficial

common fibular n.

medial dorsal cutaneous n. to the medial side of the foot; dorsal digital nn. to the lateral 3 toes

muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg (fibularis longus and brevis mm.)

frontal

ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1)

supraorbital n., supratrochlear n.

none

ganglia, collateral

splanchnic nn. (thoracic, lumbar)

plexuses to abdominal & pelvic viscera

ganglia, myenteric

preganglionic postganglionic parasympathetic via parasympathetic via anterior and posterior many short fibers vagal trunks (gut proximal to the left colic flexure) and pelvic splanchnic nn. (gut distal to the left colic flexure) splanchnic nn.

smooth muscle in blood vessels supplying the abdominopelvic viscera smooth muscle of the none gut wall

distal 1/3 of the anterior surface of the leg; dorsum of the foot excluding the skin of the web between the great toe and the 2nd toe and the distal interphalangeal segments of all toes skin of the forehead and the medial part of the upper eyelid; mucous membrane of the frontal sinus pain from the abdominopelvic viscera

ganglia, preaortic

plexuses to vascular smooth pain from abdominal and pelvic muscle of vessels that abdominopelvic viscera supply viscera abdominopelvic viscera

ganglia, submucosal of the gut

preganglionic postganglionic parasympathetic parasympathetic via arrive via branches of many short fibers the anterior and posterior vagal trunks (gut proximal to the left colic flexure) and pelvic splanchnic nn. (gut distal to the left colic flexure) preganglionic sympathetic fibers arrive via white rami communicantes of ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T1L2 postganglionic sympathetic fibers depart via gray rami communicantes to all spinal nn.; internal & external carotid nn.; cervical cardiac brs.; thoracic direct visceral brs.; greater, lesser & least thoracic splanchnic nn.; lumbar splanchnic nn.; sacral splanchnic nn. postganglionic sympathetic axons distribute via the celiac plexus along brs. of the celiac trunk postganglionic parasympathetic axons which distribute via short ciliary nn. dorsal rootlets

secretomotor to none glands in the mucosa of the gut

ganglia, sympathetic chain

dilator pupillae, pain from viscera vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscles, sweat glands, suprarenal medulla, heart, lungs and gut

ganglion, celiac

preganglionic sympathetic axons arrive via the greater thoracic splanchnic n.

ganglion, ciliary

preganglionic parasympathetic axons arrive via the inferior division of the oculomotor n. (III) ganglion, dorsal root dorsal rootlets

vascular smooth pain from the muscle of the brs. of stomach, liver & the celiac trunk biliary system, spleen, upper half of the duodenum & pancreas sphincter pupillae m., none ciliary m. of the eye

none

one dermatome

ganglion, geniculate

facial n. (VII) (chorda nervus intermedius none tympani branch) (SVA sensory root of facial n.) preganglionic sympathetic axons from the intermesenteric plexus and the 2nd lumbar splanchnic n. preganglionic parasympathetic via the lesser petrosal, from the tympanic n. of the glossopharyngeal n. (IX) preganglionic parasympathetic axons arrive via the n. of the pterygoid canal from greater petrosal n. of the facial n (VII); postganglionic sympathetic axons arrive via the n. of the pterygoid canal from the deep petrosal n. contributes to the vascular smooth inferior mesenteric muscle of brs. of the plexus; contributes to inferior mesenteric a. the superior hypogastric plexus

taste (SVA) from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue pain from descending colon and sigmoid colon; pain from upper rectum

ganglion, inferior mesenteric

ganglion, otic

postganglionic secretomotor to the parasympathetic parotid gland axons distribute with the parotid brs. of the auriculotemporal n. (from V3) postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute via the greater & lesser palatine nn., nasopalatine n., sphenopalatine n. and zygomatic n.

none

ganglion, pterygopalatine

secretomotor to: none mucous glands of the palate, nasal cavity, lacrimal gland

ganglion, semilunar

ophthalmic (V1) , maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) divisions of the trigeminal n.

sensory fibers depart none via the trigeminal n. (V)

skin of the face, mucous membranes of the nasal and oral cavities, mucous membrane of the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue (GSA only)

ganglion, spiral

fibers of the cochlear cochlear n. portion of none hair cells the vestibulocochlear n. (VIII)

hearing (SSA)

ganglion, stellate

neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord level T1

gray rami communicans to spinal nerves C8 and T1 (postganglionic sympathetic); thoracic visceral br.

vascular smooth pain from lungs muscle, arrector pili muscle, sweat glands of the C8 & T1 cutaneous distribution on chest & upper limb (C8 and T1 dermatomes); vascular smooth muscle of the lungs secretomotor to the none submandibular and sublingual glands and the small glands of the lingual mucosa

ganglion, submandibular

preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the chorda tympani (accompanying the lingual n. from the mandibular division of the trigeminal n.)

postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute either directly, or with branches of the lingual n. to the submandibular and sublingual glands

ganglion, superior mesenteric

preganglionic contributes to the sympathetic axons superior mesenteric from the celiac plexus and intermesenteric plexuses

geniculate ganglion

vascular smooth pain from the lower muscle of brs. of the half of the pancreas superior mesenteric a. and duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon and transverse colon facial n. (VII) (chorda nervus intermedius none taste (SVA) from the tympani branch) (SVA sensory root of anterior 2/3 of the facial n.) tongue

geniohyoid m., n. to

genitofemoral n.

C1 fibers from the no named branches superior root of the ansa cervicalis lumbar plexus genital br., femoral (ventral primary rami br. of spinal nerves L1L2)

geniohyoid m.

none

cremaster m.

skin of the anterior scrotum/labia majora & upper medial thigh

glossopharyngeal n.

medulla: spinal trigeminal nucleus from the superior ganglion (GVA); nucleus solitarius from the inferior ganglion (SVA); nucleus ambiguus (GVA); inferior salivatory nucleus (GVE - preganglionic parasympathetic)

tympanic nerve to the tympanic plexus and lesser petrosal n., carotid sinus n., stylopharyngeus brs., pharyngeal brs.

GSE: stylopharyngeus; GVE: secretomotor to the parotid gland (preganglionic parasympathetic via the tympanic n. to the lesser petrosal n. to the otic ganglion; postganglionic parasympathetic via the auriculotemporal n.) gluteus maximus m.

GVA: carotid body, carotid sinus, pharynx, middle ear; GSA: skin of the external ear; SVA: taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue

gluteal, inferior

sacral plexus (ventral no named branches primary rami of spinal nerves L5, S1-S2) sacral plexus (ventral superior & inferior primary rami of spinal brs. nerves L4-L5, S1) cell bodies located in none the sympathetic chain ganglia

none

gluteal, superior

gluteus medius m., none gluteus minimus m., tensor fasciae latae m. carries postganglionic none sympathetic axons to the spinal nerve; spinal nerve will carry those axons peripherally to the skin, blood vessels, etc. none skin of the ear and skin below the ear

gray ramus communicans

great auricular n.

greater occipital n.

cervical plexus mastoid n., auricular (contributions from n. the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C2&C3) dorsal primary ramus no named branches of spinal nerve C2 (medial br.)

posterior neck muscles

skin of the posterior surface of the scalp

greater palatine n.

maxillary division of posterior inferior the trigeminal n. (V2) lateral nasal brs.

none

greater petrosal n.

facial (VII)

no named branches

greater thoracic splanchnic n.

neurons in the no named branches intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord levels T5-T9; the greater thoracic splanchnic nerve appears to arise by multiple contributions from the sympathetic trunk superior hypogastric plexus inferior hypogastric plexus

secretomotor (preganglionic parasympathetic) to: lacrimal gland, mucous glands of the lower nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and palate celiac ganglion; pain from the preganglionic fibers abdominal viscera supply the adrenal medulla which releases epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood

mucous membrane of the inferior part of the lateral nasal wall; mucosa of the hard palate none

hypogastric n.

hypogastric plexus, inferior

hypogastric plexus, superior

supplies vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera hypogastric nn. and contributes branches sympathetic: supplies sacral splanchnic nn. to: uterine/vaginal vascular smooth (postganglionic plexus, vesical plexus, muscle of vessels sympathetic axons); prostatic plexus supplying the pelvic pelvic splanchnic nn. viscera; (preganglionic parasympathetic: parasympathetic supplies smooth axons from the muscle of the pelvic ventral primary rami viscera of spinal nerves S2S4) intermesenteric hypogastric nn. (right vascular smooth plexus and lumbar and left) muscle of the pelvic splanchnic nn. viscera (sympathetic) (postganglionic sympathetic axons)

pain from the pelvic viscera pain from the pelvic viscera; general visceral afferent from the pelvic viscera

pain from the pelvic viscera; general visceral afferent from the pelvic viscera

hypoglossal n.

medulla: hypoglossal no named branches; nucleus branches of the ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve C1 are carried by this nerve and are not considered to be branches of the hypoglossal nerve lumbar plexus (ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve L1) lumbar plexus (ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve L1) mandibular division of the trigeminal n.(V3) lateral and anterior cutaneous brs.

intrinsic and extrinsic none muscles of the tongue (except the palatoglossus m.)

iliohypogastric n.

muscles of the lower skin of the lower abdominal wall abdominal wall, upper hip and upper thigh skin of the lower abdominal wall and anterior scrotum/labium majus teeth of the mandible; skin of the chin

ilioinguinal n.

anterior cutaneous br. muscles of the lower (also known as: abdominal wall anterior labial/scrotal n.)

inferior alveolar n.

inferior gluteal n.

n. to mylohyoid; mylohyoid muscle inferior dental plexus; and anterior belly of mental nerve the digastric m. via n. to mylohyoid sacral plexus (ventral no named branches gluteus maximus m. none primary rami of spinal nerves L5, S1-S2) hypogastric nn. and sacral splanchnic nn. (postganglionic sympathetic axons); pelvic splanchnic nn. (preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S2S4) contributes branches to: uterine/vaginal plexus, vesical plexus, prostatic plexus sympathetic: supplies vascular smooth muscle of vessels supplying the pelvic viscera; parasympathetic: supplies smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera

inferior hypogastric plexus

pain from the pelvic viscera; general visceral afferent from the pelvic viscera

inferior laryngeal n.

recurrent laryngeal br. no named branches of the vagus n. (X)

all intrinsic muscles mucous membrane of of the larynx except the larynx below the the cricothyroid; vocal fold those muscles are: thyroarytenoid, oblique and transverse arytenoid, posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid, aryepiglottic, thyroepiglottic, vocalis; secretomotor to the mucous membrane of the larynx below the vocal fold none skin of the lateral side of the distal arm

inferior lateral radial n. via its no named branches brachial cutaneous n. posterior antebrachial cutaneous be. inferior mesenteric ganglion preganglionic sympathetic axons from the intermesenteric plexus and the 2nd lumbar splanchnic n. intermesenteric plexus

contributes to the vascular smooth inferior mesenteric muscle of brs. of the plexus; contributes to inferior mesenteric a. the superior hypogastric plexus

pain from descending colon and sigmoid colon; pain from upper rectum

inferior mesenteric plexus

multiple unnamed nn. course along the branches of the inferior mesenteric a.

sympathetic: smooth muscle of the vessels supplying the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum

pain from the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum

inferior oblique, nerve to

inferior branch of the parasympathetic root preganglionic none oculomotor n. to the ciliary ganglion parasympathetic supply to the ciliary ganglion for innervation of the sphincter pupillae m. and ciliary m.; inferior oblique m.

inferior rectal n. infraorbital n.

pudendal n.

no named branches

maxillary division of middle alveolar n., the trigeminal n.(V2) anterior superior alveolar n.

external anal sphincter none

skin of the anus mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus; upper premolar, canine and incisor teeth; maxillary gingiva; skin of the lateral nose, lower eyelid, upper lip and zygomatic region skin and conjunctiva of the medial upper and lower eyelids; skin of the lateral surface of the nose skin of the chest and abdomen anterolaterally; skin of the medial side of the upper limb (via T1T2) skin of the medial side of the arm

infratrochlear n.

nasociliary br. of the no named branches ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1)

none

intercostal n.

ventral primary rami lateral & anterior of spinal nerves T1- cutaneous brs. T11

intercostobrachial n.

also known as the no named branches lateral cutaneous br. of the ventral primary ramus of T2 cervical plexus (C3&C4) no named branches

intercostal muscles; abdominal wall muscles (via T7-T11); muscles of the forearm and hand (via T1) sympathetic motor innervation to skin

intermediate supraclavicular n.

none

skin of the root of the neck and upper chest, near the mid-clavicle pain from the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum

intermesenteric plexus

lumbar splanchnic nn. renal, testicular (or sympathetic: smooth 1 and 2 ovarian) and ureteric muscle of vessels brs. supplying the gut distal to the left colic flexure

internal carotid n.

superior cervical contributes to the sympathetic ganglion internal carotid plexus

vascular smooth none muscle of the external carotid system of vessels; sweat glands, arrector pili mm. of the skin of the face and scalp vascular smooth none muscle of the brain, orbit, forehead, upper nasal cavity; arrector pili muscles of forehead and anterior scalp; sweat glands of the forehead; dilator pupillae m. flexor pollicis longus none m., radial half of flexor digitorum profundus m., pronator quadratus m. some authors say none, others say the deep posterior forearm muscles none none

internal carotid plexus

superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the internal carotid n.

most distribute along the brs. of the internal carotid artery, although the deep petrosal n. is an exception because it runs a short course independent of an artery no named branches

interosseous, anterior median n.

interosseous, posterior

deep radial n.

no named branches

labial, anterior

ilioinguinal n.

no named branches

labial, posterior

perineal n. (a branch no named branches of the pudendal n.) ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) no named branches

lacrimal n.

skin of the anterior aspect of the labium majus none skin of the posterior aspect of the labium majus carries secretomotor skin of the lateral axons to the lacrimal portion of the upper gland eye lid and its associated conjunctiva

laryngeal, inferior

recurrent laryngeal br. no named branches of the vagus n. (X)

all intrinsic muscles mucous membrane of of the larynx except the larynx below the the cricothyroid; vocal fold those muscles are: thyroarytenoid, oblique and transverse arytenoid, posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid, aryepiglottic, thyroepiglottic, vocalis; secretomotor to the mucous membrane of the larynx below the vocal fold upper esophagus, lower pharynx, laryngeal mm. (except cricopharyngeus); smooth muscle of the trachea; secretomotor to mucosal glands in the upper esophagus, lower pharynx, larynx below the vocal fold, trachea; cardiac muscle of the heart (slows heart rate, decreases force of contraction) upper esophagus, lower pharynx, larynx below the vocal folds, GVA from heart

laryngeal, recurrent

vagus n. (X)

esophageal brs., tracheal brs., cardiac brs., pharyngeal brs., inferior laryngeal n.

laryngeal, superior

vagus n. (X)

internal br., external br.

cricothyroid m., mucous membrane of inferior pharyngeal the larynx above the constrictor m.; vocal folds secretomotor to mucosal glands of the larynx above the vocal folds

lateral antebrachial cutaneous lateral femoral cutaneous n.

musculocutaneous n. anterior and posterior none branches lumbar plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L2L3) lateral cord of the brachial plexus tibial n. anterior & posterior brs. sympathetic motor innervation to skin

skin of the lateral side of the forearm skin of the lateral thigh

lateral pectoral n. lateral plantar n.

no named branches superficial and deep branches

pectoralis major m.

lateral supraclavicular cervical plexus n. (C3&C4)

no named branches

lateral sural cutaneous common fibular n. fibular n. communicating br. least thoracic neurons in the no named branches splanchnic n. intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord level T12 lesser occipital n. ventral primary ramus no named branches of spinal nerve C2 maxillary division of no named branches the trigeminal n. (V2)

no cutaneous branches quadratus plantae m., skin of the lateral side abductor digiti of the plantar surface minimi m., flexor of the foot; skin of digiti minimi brevis the plantar surface of m., lateral 3 lumbrical the lateral 1 1/2 toes mm., adductor (and the nail bed of hallucis m., plantar & these toes) dorsal interosseous mm. none skin of the root of the neck and upper shoulder none skin of the lateral side of the leg renal plexus pain from the kidney and suprarenal gland

none

skin behind the ear

lesser palatine n.

none

mucous membrane of the soft palate and posterior hard palate

lesser petrosal n.

tympanic nerve, from otic ganglion the glossopharyngeal n. (IX)

secretomotor none (preganglionic parasympathetic) for the parotid gland

lesser thoracic splanchnic n.

neurons in the no named branches intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord levels T10-T11; the lesser thoracic splanchnic nerve appears to arise by multiple contributions from the sympathetic trunk mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches

aorticorenal ganglion; pain from the kidney and suprarenal gland

lingual n.

none

long ciliary n. long thoracic n.

nasociliary brachial plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C5C7) lower subscapular n. posterior cord of the brachial plexus (C5, C6) lumbar n. ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L1L5

no named branches no named branches

none serratus anterior m.

general sense from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue and floor of the mouth eyeball (GSA) no cutaneous branches

unnamed muscular brs. contributes to the formation of the lumbar and sacral plexuses

subscapularis m., teres major m.

no cutaneous branches

numerous: see lumbar numerous: see lumbar and sacral plexuses and sacral plexuses

lumbar plexus

ventral primary rami branches of the of spinal nerves L1- lumbar plexus: L4 iliohypogastric n., ilioinguinal n., genitofemoral n., lateral femoral cutaneous n., femoral n., obturator n., lumbosacral trunk (considered to be part of sacral plexus), brs. to the psoas major and minor mm., branches to the quadratus lumborum m.

muscles of the lower abdominal wall; cremaster m., psoas major and minor mm., quadratus lumborum m., iliacus m.; muscles of the anterior and medial thigh and hip

skin of the lower abdominal wall, skin of the anterior scrotum/labium majus, skin of the anterior and medial thigh and lateral hip

lumbar splanchnic nn. lumbar sympathetic ganglia L1-L4

no named branches

smooth muscle of vessels that supply the abdominal and pelvic viscera

pain from abdominal and pelvic viscera

lumbosacral plexus

ventral primary rami branches of the of spinal nerves L4- lumbosacral plexus: S4 iliohypogastric n., ilioinguinal n., genitofemoral n., lateral femoral cutaneous n., femoral n., obturator n., lumbosacral trunk (considered to be part of sacral plexus), brs. to the psoas major and minor mm., branches to the quadratus lumborum m., superior & inferior gluteal nn., n. to the obturator internus m., n. to the quadratus femoris m., sciatic n., n. to the piriformis m., posterior femoral cutaneous n., pudendal n., n. to the pelvic diaphragm, pelvic splanchnic nn.

muscles of the lower abdominal wall; cremaster m., psoas major and minor mm., quadratus lumborum m., iliacus m.; muscles of the anterior and medial thigh and hip, muscles of the pelvic & urogenital diaphragm, posterior hip, posterior thigh, leg and foot

skin of the lower abdominal wall, skin of the anterior scrotum/labium majus, skin of the anterior and medial thigh and lateral hip' skin of the perineum, posterior thigh, leg and foot

lumbosacral trunk

part of the ventral primary ramus of L4 united with the ventral primary ramus of L5

no named branches; it muscles of the hip contributes to the and posterior thigh formation of the sacral plexus

see sacral plexus

mandibular division of the trigeminal n.

trigeminal ganglion; motor root arises from the pons

meningeal br., medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid nn., masseteric n., anterior and posterior deep temporal nn., buccal n., auriculotemporal n., lingual n., inferior alveolar n.

SVE: mylohyoid m., anterior belly of the digastric m.; tensor tympani m., tensor veli palatini m.; muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid)

GSA: skin of the lower lip and jaw extending superiorly above level of the ear; mucous membrane of the tongue and floor of the mouth; lower teeth and gingiva of the mandibular alveolar arch

mandibular, marginal facial n. (cervicofacial no named branches division)

masseteric n.

mandibular division of the trigeminal n. trigeminal ganglion

no named branches

orbicularis oris m., none depressor anguli oris m., depressor labii inferioris m., mentalis m. masseter m. none

maxillary division of the trigeminal n.

meningeal br., none posterior superior alveolar n., pharyngeal, posterior superior medial and lateral nasal brs., nasopalatine n., greater and lesser palatine nn., zygomatic n., infraorbital n.

medial antebrachial cutaneous n. medial brachial cutaneous n. medial pectoral n.

medial cord of the brachial plexus medial cord of the brachial plexus medial cord of the brachial plexus

no named branches no named branches no named branches

none none pectoralis minor m., pectoralis major m.

GSA: skin of the upper lip, cheek, lower eyelid; mucous membrane of the palate; teeth and gingiva of the maxillary alveolar arch; the mucous membrane lining most of the nasal cavity; the mucous membrane lining the maxillary sinus skin of the medial side of the forearm skin of the medial side of the arm no cutaneous branches

medial plantar n.

tibial n.

plantar cutaneous brs.; proper plantar digital n. (medial side of the great toe); common plantar digital nn. (1st-3rd)

abductor hallucis m., flexor hallucis brevis m., flexor digitorum brevis m., 1st lumbrical m.

skin of the medial side of the plantar surface of the foot; skin of the plantar surface of the medial 3 1/2 toes (and the nail bed of these toes) skin of the root of the neck and upper chest, anteriorly skin of the posterior surface of the leg; skin of the lateral side of the foot skin of the radial half of the palm and palmar side of the lateral 3 1/2 digits (and nail bed for these digits)

medial supraclavicular cervical plexus n. (C3&C4) medial sural cutaneous n. tibial n.

no named branches

none

no named branches

none

median n.

lateral and medial anterior interosseous pronator teres m., cords of the brachial n., palmar br., flexor carpi radialis plexus recurrent (motor) br., m., palmaris longus common palmar m., flexor digitorum digital nn. (for digits 1- superficialis m., flexor 3) digitorum profundus m. (radial half), flexor pollicis longus m., pronator quadratus m., abductor pollicis brevis m., flexor pollicis brevis m., opponens pollicis m., lateral 2 lumbrical mm.

mental n.

inferior alveolar n.

no named branches

mesenteric ganglion, preganglionic inferior sympathetic axons from the intermesenteric plexus and the 2nd lumbar splanchnic n.

skin of the chin the lower lip contributes to the vascular smooth pain from descending inferior mesenteric muscle of brs. of the colon and sigmoid plexus; contributes to inferior mesenteric a. colon; pain from the superior upper rectum hypogastric plexus

none

mesenteric ganglion, preganglionic contributes to the superior sympathetic axons superior mesenteric from the celiac plexus and intermesenteric plexuses

mesenteric plexus, inferior

intermesenteric plexus

vascular smooth pain from the lower muscle of brs. of the half of the pancreas superior mesenteric a. and duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon and transverse colon multiple unnamed nn. sympathetic: smooth pain from the course along the muscle of the vessels descending colon, branches of the supplying the sigmoid colon and inferior mesenteric a. descending colon, rectum sigmoid colon and rectum sympathetic: smooth pain & GVA of the muscle of vessels parts of the gut supplying the lower named at left pancreas, lower duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon and most of the transverse colon; parasympathetic (vagus): smooth muscle in the gut wall of same distribution area latissimus dorsi m. no cutaneous branches maxillary premolar teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus skin of the lateral side of the forearm

mesenteric plexus, superior

celiac plexus, superior multiple unnamed nn. mesenteric ganglion course along the branches of the superior mesenteric a.

middle subscapular n. posterior cord of the unnamed muscular brachial plexus (C7, brs. C8) middle superior infraorbital n. dental plexus alveolar musculocutaneous n. lateral cord of the lateral antebrachial brachial plexus (C5,6) cutaneous n.

none

coracobrachialis m., biceps brachii m., brachialis m.

myenteric ganglia

preganglionic postganglionic parasympathetic via parasympathetic via anterior and posterior many short fibers vagal trunks (gut proximal to the left colic flexure) and pelvic splanchnic nn. (gut distal to the left colic flexure) preganglionic postganglionic parasympathetic via parasympathetic via anterior and posterior many short fibers vagal trunks (gut proximal to the left colic flexure) and pelvic splanchnic nn. (gut distal to the left colic flexure) inferior alveolar n., a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) no named branches

smooth muscle of the none gut wall

myenteric plexus

smooth muscle of the none gut wall

mylohyoid, n. to

mylohyoid m., anterior belly of the digastric m.

none

nasociliary n.

communicating br. to none the ciliary ganglion, long ciliary n., anterior and posterior ethmoidal nn., infratrochlear n.

nasopalatine n.

maxillary division of no named branches the trigeminal n. (V2)

none

eyeball, skin of the nose and medial sides of the eyelids; conjunctiva of the medial sides of the eyelids; mucous membranes of the upper nasal cavity, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses mucous membrane of the nasal septum; mucous membrane of the anterior portion of the palate

nervus intermedius

pons & medulla: nucleus solitarius of medulla (SVA sensory root) from geniculate ganglion; superior salivatory nucleus (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic) of pons

joins with the motor root to form the facial n. (VII); its fibers are contained in the greater petrosal n. and the chorda tympani

secretomotor to the taste from the lacrimal gland and anterior 2/3 of the mucous glands of the tongue lower nasal cavity; secretomotor to the mucosa of the maxillary sinus and palate (synapse occurs at the pterygopalatine ganglion); secretomotor to submandibular and sublingual glands (synapse occurs at the submandibular ganglion) obturator internus m., none superior gemellus m.

obturator internus m., sacral plexus (ventral n. to the superior n. to primary rami of spinal gemellus m. nerves L5-S2 ) obturator n. lumbar plexus anterior and posterior (ventral primary rami brs. of spinal nerves L2L4)

muscles of the medial skin of the lower thigh: adductor medial thigh longus m., adductor brevis m. and adductor magnus m., gracilis m., obturator externus m. posterior neck muscles skin of the posterior surface of the scalp

occipital, greater

dorsal primary ramus no named branches of spinal nerve C2 (medial br.) ventral primary ramus no named branches of spinal nerve C2 dorsal primary ramus no named branches of spinal nerve C3 (medial br.)

occipital, lesser

none

skin behind the ear

occipitalis tertius

posterior neck muscles

skin of the posterior surface of the neck

oculomotor n.

oculomotor nuclei of superior br., inferior the midbrain br. (extraocular muscles); accessory oculomotor nucleus (nucleus of Edinger-Westphal preganglionic parasympathetic)

of the pterygoid canal formed by the union of the greater petrosal n. (preganglionic parasympathetic) and the deep petrosal n.(postganglionic sympathetic)

ends in the pterygopalatine ganglion (parasympathetic)

olfactory n.

the filaments of the bipolar olfactory epithelial cells constitute the olfactory n.

second order olfactory nerve cell bodies located in the olfactory bulb

GSE: superior br.: none levator palpebrae superioris m., superior rectus m.; inferior br: medial rectus m., inferior rectus m., inferior oblique m.; GVE: ciliary m. & sphincter pupillae m. (preganglionic parasympathetic axons go to the ciliary ganglion via the parasympathetic root, postganglionic parasympathetic go from the ciliary ganglion to the eyeball via short ciliary nn.) secretomotor none (parasympathetic) to: lacrimal gland and mucous glands of nasal cavity and maxillary sinus; sympathetic innervation to vascular smooth muscle in the same region none smell (SVA)

ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n.

trigeminal ganglion

meningeal br., none lacrimal n., frontal n., nasociliary n.

(GSA) skin of the forehead, upper eyelid and nose; mucous membrane of the upper nasal cavity, frontal sinus, ethmoid air cells and sphenoid sinuses vision (SSA)

optic n.

ganglion layer of the none retina to the forebrain preganglionic parasympathetic via the lesser petrosal, from the tympanic n. of the glossopharyngeal n. (IX) maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2)

none

otic ganglion

postganglionic secretomotor to the parasympathetic parotid gland axons distribute with the parotid brs. of the auriculotemporal n. (from V3) posterior inferior lateral nasal brs. none

none

palatine, greater

palatine, lesser

maxillary division of no named branches the trigeminal n. (V2)

none

mucous membrane of the inferior part of the lateral nasal wall; mucosa of the hard palate mucous membrane of the soft palate and posterior hard palate skin of the palmar surfaces of the adjacent sides of two digits

palmar digital, common

median n.; superficial proper palmar digital sympathetic motor to br. of the ulnar n. nn. the skin; motor nn. to the 1st & 2nd lumbrical mm. are carried on common palmar digital brs. of the median n.

palmar digital, proper common palmar digital branches of the median n.; common palmar digital branches of the superficial br. of the ulnar n.

no named branches

sympathetic motor to median: palmar skin the skin and nail bed of digits 1-3 and the lateral side of 4th digit; ulnar: palmar and dorsal skin on medial side of the 4th digit and all of the 5th digit pectoralis major m. no cutaneous branches no cutaneous branches none

pectoral, lateral pectoral, medial pelvic splanchnic n.

lateral cord of the brachial plexus medial cord of the brachial plexus ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S2-S4 (cell bodies are located in the lateral horn gray of the sacral spinal cord)

no named branches no named branches

pectoralis minor m., pectoralis major m. unnamed branches smooth muscle and contribute to the glands of the gut pelvic plexus (inferior distal to the left colic hypogastric) plexus flexure; smooth muscle and glands of all pelvic viscera none

perforating cutaneous sacral plexus (ventral no named branches n. primary rami of spinal nerves S2-3) perineal n. pudendal

skin of the inferomedial buttock

posterior muscles of the scrotal/labial n., deep perineum: (muscular) br. bulbospongiosus m., ischiocavernosus m., superficial and deep transverse perineus mm., sphincter urethrae m., sphincter urethrovaginalis, compressor urethrae

skin of the posterior surface of the scrotum/labium majus

peroneal, common peroneal, deep peroneal, superficial

SEE: fibular, common SEE: fibular, deep SEE: fibular, superficial

. . .

. . .

. . .

petrosal, deep

internal carotid plexus

no named branches

vascular smooth none muscle of the mucous membranes of the lower nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and palate secretomotor none (preganglionic parasympathetic) to: lacrimal gland, mucous glands of the lower nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and palate secretomotor none (preganglionic parasympathetic) for the parotid gland vagus: all muscles of glossopharyngeal: the pharynx except mucous membrane stylopharyngeus; lining the pharynx sympathetic: smooth muscle in the pharyngeal vasculature

petrosal, greater

facial (VII)

no named branches

petrosal, lesser

tympanic nerve, from otic ganglion the glossopharyngeal n. (IX)

pharyngeal plexus

motor contributed by no named branches the vagus n. (X); sensory contributed by the glossopharyngeal n. (IX), vasomotor contributed by the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion ventral primary rami no named branches of spinal nerves C3C5 (cervical plexus)

phrenic n.

plantar digital, common

skeletal muscle of the diaphragmatic pleura; respiratory diaphragm some fibers contributed to the pericardium and to the adjacent mediastinal and costal pleurae medial plantar n. (1st- proper plantar digital 1st lumbrical m. skin of the plantar 3rd); superficial br. of nn. surface of the toes the lateral plantar n. (except the medial (4th) side of the great toe and the lateral side of the 5th toe)

plantar digital, proper common plantar no named branches digital; medial plantar n. (to the medial side of the great toe); superficial br. of the lateral plantar n. (to the lateral side of the 5th toe) plantar, lateral tibial n. superficial and deep branches

flexor hallucis brevis m. (from the proper plantar digital n. on the medial side of the great toe)

skin of the plantar surface of the toes and dorsal surface of the distal interphalangeal segment

plantar, medial

tibial n.

quadratus plantae m., abductor digiti minimi m., flexor digiti minimi brevis m., lateral 3 lumbrical mm., adductor hallucis m., plantar & dorsal interosseous mm. plantar cutaneous abductor hallucis m., brs.; proper plantar flexor hallucis brevis digital n. (medial side m., flexor digitorum of the great toe); brevis m., 1st common plantar lumbrical m. digital nn. (1st-3rd)

skin of the lateral side of the plantar surface of the foot; skin of the plantar surface of the lateral 1 1/2 toes (and the nail bed of these toes)

skin of the medial side of the plantar surface of the foot; skin of the plantar surface of the medial 3 1/2 toes (and the nail bed of these toes)

plexus, brachial

ventral primary rami dorsal scapular, long muscles of the upper skin of the upper of C5-8 and T1 thoracic, n. to limb, excluding limb subclavius, trapezius suprascapular, lateral and medial pectoral, medial brachial and antebrachial cutaneous, upper, middle and lower subscapular, musculocutaneous, ulnar, median, axillary, radial

plexus, cardiac

cardiac brs. of the no named branches vagus n. and cervical sympathetic trunk; thoracic visceral nn.

moderates heart pain from the heart muscle and lungs (parasympathetic: decreases rate and force of contraction; sympathetic: increases rate and force of contraction); vascular smooth muscle of the heart & lungs (sympathetic); smooth muscle & mucous glands of bronchial tree (parasympathetic)

plexus, cervical

ventral primary rami brs. to: longus colli & of spinal nerves C1- capitis, C4 sternocleidomastoid m., trapezius m., levator scapulae m., scalenus medius m., rectus capitis anterior and lateralis mm.; superior & inferior root of the ansa cervicalis, n. to the thyrohyoid m., n. to the geniohyoid m., lesser occipital n., great auricular n., transverse cervical n., supraclavicular nn. (medial, intermediate and lateral), contributions to the phrenic n. from C3 and C4

longus colli & capitis mm., rectus capitis anterior & lateralis mm., infrahyoid mm., thyrohyoid m., geniohyoid m., respiratory diaphragm

skin of the anterolateral neck; skin of the ear and skin behind the ear

plexus, coccygeal

ventral primary rami anococcygeal n. of spinal nerves S4, S5, C1

none

skin of the region overlying the coccyx

plexus, esophageal

right and left vagus (X) nn.; thoracic visceral brs. of the sympathetic trunk

plexus, external carotid

anterior and posterior preganglionic vagal trunks parasympathetic axons from the vagus n. supply smooth muscle and glands of the thoracic esophagus and abdominal gut and its derivatives proximal to the left colic flexure; postganglionic sympathetic axons from the thoracic visceral brs. supply vascular smooth muscle in the esophageal vessels superior cervical distributes along the vascular smooth ganglion of the brs. of the external muscle, arrector pili sympathetic trunk, via carotid artery muscles, sweat glands the external carotid n. of face & upper neck hypogastric nn. and sacral splanchnic nn. (postganglionic sympathetic axons); pelvic splanchnic nn. (preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S2S4) intermesenteric plexus contributes branches to: uterine/vaginal plexus, vesical plexus, prostatic plexus sympathetic: supplies vascular smooth muscle of vessels supplying the pelvic viscera; parasympathetic: supplies smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera

vagus: GVA from the esophagus and abdominal gut proximal to the left colic flexure; thoracic visceral brs.carry pain from the esophagus

none

plexus, inferior hypogastric

pain from the pelvic viscera; general visceral afferent from the pelvic viscera

plexus, inferior mesenteric

multiple unnamed nn. course along the branches of the inferior mesenteric a.

sympathetic: smooth muscle of the vessels supplying the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum

pain from the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum

plexus, intermesenteric

lumbar splanchnic nn. renal, testicular (or sympathetic: smooth 1 and 2 ovarian) and ureteric muscle of vessels brs. supplying the gut distal to the left colic flexure superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the internal carotid n. most distribute along the brs. of the internal carotid artery, although the deep petrosal n. is an exception because it runs a short course independent of an artery

pain from the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum

plexus, internal carotid

vascular smooth none muscle of the brain, orbit, forehead, upper nasal cavity; arrector pili muscles of forehead and anterior scalp; sweat glands of the forehead; dilator pupillae m. muscles of the lower abdominal wall; cremaster m., psoas major and minor mm., quadratus lumborum m., iliacus m.; muscles of the anterior and medial thigh and hip skin of the lower abdominal wall, skin of the anterior scrotum/labium majus, skin of the anterior and medial thigh and lateral hip

plexus, lumbar

ventral primary rami branches of the of spinal nerves L1- lumbar plexus: L4 iliohypogastric n., ilioinguinal n., genitofemoral n., lateral femoral cutaneous n., femoral n., obturator n., lumbosacral trunk (considered to be part of sacral plexus), brs. to the psoas major and minor mm., branches to the quadratus lumborum m.

plexus, lumbosacral

ventral primary rami branches of the of spinal nerves L4- lumbosacral plexus: S4 iliohypogastric n., ilioinguinal n., genitofemoral n., lateral femoral cutaneous n., femoral n., obturator n., lumbosacral trunk (considered to be part of sacral plexus), brs. to the psoas major and minor mm., branches to the quadratus lumborum m., superior & inferior gluteal nn., n. to the obturator internus m., n. to the quadratus femoris m., sciatic n., n. to the piriformis m., posterior femoral cutaneous n., pudendal n., n. to the pelvic diaphragm, pelvic splanchnic nn.

muscles of the lower abdominal wall; cremaster m., psoas major and minor mm., quadratus lumborum m., iliacus m.; muscles of the anterior and medial thigh and hip, muscles of the pelvic & urogenital diaphragm, posterior hip, posterior thigh, leg and foot

skin of the lower abdominal wall, skin of the anterior scrotum/labium majus, skin of the anterior and medial thigh and lateral hip' skin of the perineum, posterior thigh, leg and foot

plexus, myenteric

preganglionic postganglionic parasympathetic via parasympathetic via anterior and posterior many short fibers vagal trunks (gut proximal to the left colic flexure) and pelvic splanchnic nn. (gut distal to the left colic flexure)

smooth muscle of the none gut wall

plexus, pharyngeal

motor contributed by no named branches the vagus n. (X); sensory contributed by the glossopharyngeal n. (IX), vasomotor contributed by the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion inferior hypogastric (pelvic) plexus

vagus: all muscles of glossopharyngeal: the pharynx except mucous membrane stylopharyngeus; lining the pharynx sympathetic: smooth muscle in the pharyngeal vasculature

plexus, prostatic

is continuous with the sympathetic: vascular pain from the pelvic rectal and vesical smooth muscle of the viscera listed at left plexuses pelvic viscera, especially the urethra, prostate gland and ejaculatory ducts; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of the pelvic viscera, especially the urethra, prostate gland, and ejaculatory ducts parasympathetic: smooth muscle & glands of the bronchial tree; sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the lungs sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera, especially the rectum; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of the pelvic viscera, especially the rectum none

plexus, pulmonary

continuous with the no named branches cardiac plexus; thoracic visceral nn.; pulmonary brs. of vagus

plexus, rectal

inferior hypogastric (pelvic) plexus, posterior part

no named branches

pain and general sensation from the rectum

plexus, renal

intermesenteric unnamed branches plexus, aorticorenal course along the renal ganglion, least vessels thoracic splanchnic n.

sympathetic: smooth pain from the kidney, muscle of the blood renal pelvis and upper vessels supplying the ureter kidney, renal pelvis and upper ureter; parasympathetic: smooth muscle of the renal pelvis and upper ureter muscles of the pelvic diaphragm; muscles of the urogenital diaphragm; muscles of the posterior hip, posterior thigh, leg and foot skin of the perineum, posterior thigh, leg and foot (excluding the medial side of the leg and foot)

plexus, sacral

lumbosacral trunk (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L4L5), ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S1-S4

superior & inferior gluteal nn., n. to obturator internus m., n. to quadratus femoris m., sciatic n., n. to piriformis, posterior femoral cutaneous n., pudendal n., n. to pelvic diaphragm, pelvic splanchnic nn.

plexus, superior hypogastric

plexus, superior mesenteric

intermesenteric plexus and lumbar splanchnic nn. (postganglionic sympathetic axons) celiac plexus, superior mesenteric ganglion

hypogastric nn. (right vascular smooth pain from the pelvic and left) muscle of the pelvic viscera; general viscera (sympathetic) visceral afferent from the pelvic viscera multiple unnamed nn. course along the branches of the superior mesenteric a. sympathetic: smooth pain & GVA of the muscle of vessels parts of the gut supplying the lower named at left pancreas, lower duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon and most of the transverse colon; parasympathetic (vagus): smooth muscle in the gut wall of same distribution area

plexus, uterovaginal

inferior hypogastric plexus

continuous with the rectal plexus

plexus, vesical

inferior hypogastric plexus

continuous with the prostatic plexus

posterior antebrachial radial n. cutaneous n. posterior brachial cutaneous n. posterior deep temporal n. radial

inferior lateral brachial cutaneous n. no named branches no named branches

sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera, especially the uterus, uterine tubes and vagina; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of pelvic viscera, especially uterus, uterine tubes and vagina sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera, especially the urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of the pelvic viscera, especially the urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct none

pain from the pelvic viscera listed at left

pain and general sensation from the bladder, seminal vesicle and ductus deferens

none temporalis m.

mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) posterior ethmoidal n. nasociliary n.

skin of the lateral distal arm and posterior forearm skin of the posterior arm no cutaneous branches mucous membrane lining the posterior ethmoid air cells and sphenoid sinus skin of the lower buttock & posterior thigh

no named branches

none

posterior femoral cutaneous n.

sacral plexus (ventral inferior cluneal nn.; primary rami of spinal perineal br. nerves S1-S3)

sympathetic motor innervation to skin

posterior interosseous deep radial n. n.

no named branches

posterior labial n.

perineal n. (a branch no named branches of the pudendal n.) perineal n., from the pudendal n. maxillary n. no named branches

some authors say none, others say the deep posterior forearm muscles none

none

posterior scrotal n.

none

skin of the posterior aspect of the labium majus skin of the posterior aspect of the scrotum

posterior superior alveolar n. preaortic ganglia

dental plexus

splanchnic nn.

proper palmar digital common palmar nn. digital branches of the median n.; common palmar digital branches of the superficial br. of the ulnar n.

maxillary molar teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus plexuses to vascular smooth pain from abdominal and pelvic muscle of vessels that abdominopelvic viscera supply viscera abdominopelvic viscera no named branches sympathetic motor to median: palmar skin the skin and nail bed of digits 1-3 and the lateral side of 4th digit; ulnar: palmar and dorsal skin on medial side of the 4th digit and all of the 5th digit flexor hallucis brevis m. (from the proper plantar digital n. on the medial side of the great toe) skin of the plantar surface of the toes and dorsal surface of the distal interphalangeal segment

none

proper plantar digital common plantar no named branches nn. digital; medial plantar n. (to the medial side of the great toe); superficial br. of the lateral plantar n. (to the lateral side of the 5th toe)

prostatic plexus

inferior hypogastric (pelvic) plexus

is continuous with the sympathetic: vascular pain from the pelvic rectal and vesical smooth muscle of the viscera listed at left plexuses pelvic viscera, especially the urethra, prostate gland and ejaculatory ducts; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of the pelvic viscera, especially the urethra, prostate gland, and ejaculatory ducts postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute via the greater & lesser palatine nn., nasopalatine n., sphenopalatine n. and zygomatic n. secretomotor to: none mucous glands of the palate, nasal cavity, lacrimal gland

pterygopalatine ganglion

preganglionic parasympathetic axons arrive via the n. of the pterygoid canal from greater petrosal n. of the facial n (VII); postganglionic sympathetic axons arrive via the n. of the pterygoid canal from the deep petrosal n.

pudendal n.

ventral primary rami inferior rectal n., of spinal nerves S2-S4 perineal n., dorsal n. (sacral plexus) of the clitoris/penis

its branches supply: external anal sphincter, bulbospongiosus m., ischiocavernosus m., superficial & deep transverse perineus mm., sphincter urethrae m., sphincter urethrovaginalis, compressor urethrae

its branches supply: skin of the anus, posterior scrotum/labium majus, clitoris/penis

pulmonary plexus

continuous with the no named branches cardiac plexus; thoracic visceral nn.; pulmonary brs. of vagus

quadratus femoris m., sacral plexus (ventral n. to the inferior n. to primary rami of spinal gemellus m. nerves L4-L5, S1) radial n. posterior cord of the posterior brachial brachial plexus cutaneous n., inferior lateral brachial cutaneous n., posterior antebrachial cutaneous n., superficial and deep brs.

parasympathetic: none smooth muscle & glands of the bronchial tree; sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the lungs quadratus femoris m., none inferior gemellus m.

muscles of the skin of the posterior posterior arm: triceps arm, forearm and brachii m., anconeus hand m.; muscles of the posterior forearm: brachioradialis, extensor carpi ulnaris m., extensor carpi radialis longus m., extensor carpi radialis brevis m., extensor digitorum m., extensor digiti minimi m., supinator m., abductor pollicis longus m., extensor pollicis longus m., extensor pollicis brevis m., extensor indicis m.

radial, deep

radial n.

posterior interosseous extensor carpi radialis no cutaneous n. brevis m., supinator branches m., extensor digitorum m., extensor digiti minimi m., abductor pollicis longus m., extensor pollicis longus m. extensor pollicis brevis m., extensor indicis m. dorsal digital brs. sympathetic motor for the skin skin of the posterolateral wrist and hand; dorsum of the lateral 3 1/2 digits (excluding the skin over the distal phalanx/nail bed) carries postganglionic none sympathetic axons to the spinal nerve; spinal nerve will carry those axons peripherally to the skin, blood vessels, etc. axons contained within white rami communicantes will synapse on postganglionic cell bodies that will ultimately innervate the skin, viscera, glands, blood vessels, etc. to the deep back mm.; sympathetic innervation to the skin pain from viscera is carried back to the spinal cord through the white ramus communicans

radial, superficial

radial n.

ramus communicans, cell bodies located in none gray the sympathetic chain ganglia

ramus communicans, cell bodies located in none white the lateral horn gray matter of spinal cord levels T1-L2;

ramus, dorsal primary first branch off of the numerous dorsal side of the spinal nerve

general sense (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) to the skin of the back

ramus, ventral primary

first branch off of the numerous ventral side of the spinal nerve

to skeletal mm. of the neck, trunk and extremities; sympathetic innervation to the skin

general sense (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) to the skin of the trunk (except the back) and extremities; visceral pain via the white rami of the sympathetic nervous system (T1-L2)

rectal plexus

inferior hypogastric (pelvic) plexus, posterior part

no named branches

sympathetic: vascular pain and general smooth muscle of the sensation from the pelvic viscera, rectum especially the rectum; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of the pelvic viscera, especially the rectum skin of the anus upper esophagus, lower pharynx, larynx below the vocal folds, GVA from heart

rectal, inferior

pudendal n.

no named branches

recurrent laryngeal n. vagus n. (X)

external anal sphincter esophageal brs., upper esophagus, tracheal brs., cardiac lower pharynx, brs., pharyngeal brs., laryngeal mm. (except inferior laryngeal n. cricopharyngeus); smooth muscle of the trachea; secretomotor to mucosal glands in the upper esophagus, lower pharynx, larynx below the vocal fold, trachea; cardiac muscle of the heart (slows heart rate, decreases force of contraction)

renal plexus

intermesenteric unnamed branches plexus, aorticorenal course along the renal ganglion, least vessels thoracic splanchnic n.

sympathetic: smooth pain from the kidney, muscle of the blood renal pelvis and upper vessels supplying the ureter kidney, renal pelvis and upper ureter; parasympathetic: smooth muscle of the renal pelvis and upper ureter none general sense (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) none

root, dorsal

from the dorsal horn none of the spinal cord to the spinal nerve from the ventral horn none of the spinal cord to the spinal nerve

root, ventral

to skeletal mm.; preganglionic sympathetic (T1-L2)

sacral plexus

lumbosacral trunk (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L4L5), ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S1-S4

superior & inferior gluteal nn., n. to obturator internus m., n. to quadratus femoris m., sciatic n., n. to piriformis, posterior femoral cutaneous n., pudendal n., n. to pelvic diaphragm, pelvic splanchnic nn.

muscles of the pelvic diaphragm; muscles of the urogenital diaphragm; muscles of the posterior hip, posterior thigh, leg and foot

skin of the perineum, posterior thigh, leg and foot (excluding the medial side of the leg and foot)

sacral splanchnic n.

sacral sympathetic ganglia

unnamed branches vascular smooth contribute to the muscle of the pelvic pelvic plexus (inferior viscera hypogastric) plexus infrapatellar br. none

pain from the pelvic viscera

saphenous n.

femoral n.

skin of the medial side of the leg and medial side of the foot

sciatic n.

sacral plexus (ventral tibial n., common primary rami of spinal fibular (peroneal) n. nerves L4-L5 and S1S3)

semitendinosus m., semimembranosus m., biceps femoris m., ischioconylar part of the adductor magnus m.; its branches supply all muscles of the leg and foot none

its branches supply the skin of the leg and foot (excluding the medial side of leg & foot)

scrotal, anterior

anterior cutaneous br. no named branches of the ilioinguinal n. perineal n., from the pudendal n. ophthalmic (V1) , maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) divisions of the trigeminal n. no named branches

skin of the anterior aspect of the scrotum skin of the posterior aspect of the scrotum skin of the face, mucous membranes of the nasal and oral cavities, mucous membrane of the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue (GSA only)

scrotal, posterior

none

semilunar ganglion

sensory fibers depart none via the trigeminal n. (V)

short ciliary n.

ciliary ganglion: multiple short ciliary sensory root - from nn. which leave the the nasociliary n.(a ciliary ganglion branch of V1); anteriorly sympathetic root from the internal carotid plexus; parasympathetic root from the inferior division of the oculomotor n. (III)

sphincter pupillae & ciliary mm. (parasympathetic), dilator pupillae (sympathetic)

eyeball (GSA)

spinal n.

formed at the point dorsal primary ramus; where the dorsal and ventral primary ramus ventral rootlets meet; it ends where the dorsal and ventral primary rami diverge

to skeletal mm.; some levels carry preganglionic sympathetic axons (T1-L2)

general sense (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) from the entire surface of the neck, trunk and extremities; visceral pain (via the white ramus communicans and the sympathetic nervous system)

spiral ganglion

fibers of the cochlear cochlear n. portion of none hair cells the vestibulocochlear n. (VIII) neurons in the no named branches intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord levels T5-T9; the greater thoracic splanchnic nerve appears to arise by multiple contributions from the sympathetic trunk neurons in the no named branches intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord level T12 neurons in the no named branches intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord levels T10-T11; the lesser thoracic splanchnic nerve appears to arise by multiple contributions from the sympathetic trunk celiac ganglion; preganglionic fibers supply the adrenal medulla which releases epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood

hearing (SSA)

splanchnic, greater thoracic

pain from the abdominal viscera

splanchnic, least thoracic

renal plexus

pain from the kidney and suprarenal gland

splanchnic, lesser thoracic

aorticorenal ganglion; pain from the kidney and suprarenal gland

splanchnic, lumbar

lumbar sympathetic ganglia L1-L4

splanchnic, pelvic

smooth muscle of pain from abdominal vessels that supply and pelvic viscera the abdominal and pelvic viscera ventral primary rami unnamed branches smooth muscle and none of spinal nerves S2-S4 contribute to the glands of the gut (cell bodies are pelvic plexus (inferior distal to the left colic located in the lateral hypogastric) plexus flexure; smooth horn gray of the muscle and glands of sacral spinal cord) all pelvic viscera sacral sympathetic ganglia unnamed branches vascular smooth contribute to the muscle of the pelvic pelvic plexus (inferior viscera hypogastric) plexus gray rami communicans to spinal nerves C8 and T1 (postganglionic sympathetic); thoracic visceral br. pain from the pelvic viscera

no named branches

splanchnic, sacral

stellate ganglion

neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord level T1

vascular smooth pain from lungs muscle, arrector pili muscle, sweat glands of the C8 & T1 cutaneous distribution on chest & upper limb (C8 and T1 dermatomes); vascular smooth muscle of the lungs subclavius m. no cutaneous branches skin of the anterolateral abdominal wall none

subclavius m., n. to

superior trunk of the no named branches brachial plexus

subcostal n.

ventral primary ramus lateral cutaneous br., muscles of the of T12 anterior cutaneous br. abdominal wall preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the chorda tympani (accompanying the lingual n. from the mandibular division of the trigeminal n.) postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute either directly, or with branches of the lingual n. to the submandibular and sublingual glands secretomotor to the submandibular and sublingual glands and the small glands of the lingual mucosa

submandibular ganglion

submucosal ganglia of preganglionic postganglionic the gut parasympathetic parasympathetic via arrive via branches of many short fibers the anterior and posterior vagal trunks (gut proximal to the left colic flexure) and pelvic splanchnic nn. (gut distal to the left colic flexure) suboccipital n. dorsal primary ramus no named branches of spinal nerve C1

secretomotor to none glands in the mucosa of the gut

muscles of the no cutaneous suboccipital triangle: branches rectus capitis posterior major m., rectus capitis posterior minor m., obliquus capitis superior m., obliquus capitis inferior m. subscapularis m., teres major m. latissimus dorsi m. no cutaneous branches no cutaneous branches no cutaneous branches distal 1/3 of the anterior surface of the leg; dorsum of the foot excluding the skin of the web between the great toe and the 2nd toe and the distal interphalangeal segments of all toes

subscapular, lower

subscapular, middle

subscapular, upper

superficial fibular n.

posterior cord of the brachial plexus (C5, C6) posterior cord of the brachial plexus (C7, C8) posterior cord of the brachial plexus (C5, C6) common fibular n.

unnamed muscular brs. unnamed muscular brs. unnamed muscular brs. medial dorsal cutaneous n. to the medial side of the foot; dorsal digital nn. to the lateral 3 toes

subscapularis m.

muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg (fibularis longus and brevis mm.)

superficial radial n.

radial n.

dorsal digital brs.

sympathetic motor for the skin

superior gluteal n.

sacral plexus (ventral superior & inferior primary rami of spinal brs. nerves L4-L5, S1) intermesenteric plexus and lumbar splanchnic nn. (postganglionic sympathetic axons) vagus n. (X)

gluteus medius m., gluteus minimus m., tensor fasciae latae m.

skin of the posterolateral wrist and hand; dorsum of the lateral 3 1/2 digits (excluding the skin over the distal phalanx/nail bed) none

superior hypogastric plexus

hypogastric nn. (right vascular smooth pain from the pelvic and left) muscle of the pelvic viscera; general viscera (sympathetic) visceral afferent from the pelvic viscera internal br., external br. cricothyroid m., inferior pharyngeal constrictor m.; secretomotor to mucosal glands of the larynx above the vocal folds none mucous membrane of the larynx above the vocal folds

superior laryngeal n.

superior lateral brachial cutaneous superior mesenteric ganglion

axillary

no named branches

skin of the lateral side of the proximal arm

preganglionic contributes to the sympathetic axons superior mesenteric from the celiac plexus and intermesenteric plexuses

vascular smooth pain from the lower muscle of brs. of the half of the pancreas superior mesenteric a. and duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon and transverse colon

superior mesenteric plexus

celiac plexus, superior multiple unnamed nn. mesenteric ganglion course along the branches of the superior mesenteric a.

sympathetic: smooth pain & GVA of the muscle of vessels parts of the gut supplying the lower named at left pancreas, lower duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon and most of the transverse colon; parasympathetic (vagus): smooth muscle in the gut wall of same distribution area none skin of the root of the neck and upper chest, near the mid-clavicle skin of the root of the neck and upper shoulder skin of the root of the neck and upper chest, anteriorly skin of the forehead; mucous membrane of the frontal sinus no cutaneous branches skin of the medial forehead and the medial part of the upper eyelid; associated conjunctiva skin of the lateral side of the leg

supraclavicular, intermediate

cervical plexus (C3&C4)

no named branches

supraclavicular, lateral cervical plexus (C3&C4) supraclavicular, medial supraorbital n. cervical plexus (C3&C4)

no named branches

none

no named branches

none

suprascapular n.

supratrochlear n.

frontal n, from the medial and lateral brs. ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) superior trunk of the no named branches brachial plexus (C5C6) frontal n, from the no named branches ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1)

none

supraspinatus m., infraspinatus m. none

sural cutaneous, lateral

common fibular n.

fibular communicating br.

none

sural cutaneous, medial

tibial n.

no named branches

none

skin of the posterior surface of the leg; skin of the lateral side of the foot skin of the posterior surface of the lower leg; skin of the lateral side of the foot

sural n.

sympathetic chain ganglia

formed by the union of the fibular communicating br. of the lateral sural cutaneous n. and the medial sural cutaneous nn. preganglionic sympathetic fibers arrive via white rami communicantes of ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T1L2

lateral calcaneal brs., none lateral dorsal cutaneous n. of the foot

postganglionic sympathetic fibers depart via gray rami communicantes to all spinal nn.; internal & external carotid nn.; cervical cardiac brs.; thoracic direct visceral brs.; greater, lesser & least thoracic splanchnic nn.; lumbar splanchnic nn.; sacral splanchnic nn. postganglionic sympathetic depart via gray rami communicans to cervical spinal nn.; internal and external carotid nn.; cervical cardiac brs. joins the ventral primary ramus of C8 to form the inferior trunk of the brachial plexus no named branches

dilator pupillae, pain from viscera vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscles, sweat glands, suprarenal medulla, heart, lungs and gut

sympathetic chain ganglia, cervical

preganglionic sympathetic fibers arrive via white rami communicantes of ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T1T5 spinal nerve T1

dilator pupillae m.; pain from viscera vascular smooth muscle; arrector pili muscles and sweat glands of head and neck; heart and lungs

T1 ventral primary ramus

muscles of the forearm and hand

skin of the ventral arm and ventral forearm

temporal, anterior deep

mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3)

temporalis m.

no cutaneous branches

temporal, posterior deep temporofacial division of the facial n.

mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) facial n.

no named branches

temporalis m.

no cutaneous branches

temporal, zygomatic and buccal brs.

muscles of facial none expression of the upper part of the face; frontalis m., anterior and superior auricularis mm. latissimus dorsi m. no cutaneous branches skin of the plantar surface of the foot and toes; skin of the dorsal surface of the distal toes (nail bed region)

thoracodorsal n.

tibial n.

posterior cord of the unnamed muscular brachial plexus (C7, brs. C8) sciatic n. medial sural cutaneous n., medial calcaneal brs., medial and lateral plantar nn.

semimembranosus m., semitendinosus m., long head of biceps femoris m., ischiocondylar portion of adductor magnus m.; mm. of the superficial and deep posterior compartments of the leg (gastrocnemius m., soleus m., plantaris m., tibialis posterior m., flexor hallucis longus m., flexor digitorum longus m.); muscles of the plantar side of the foot none

to carotid body

glossopharyngeal n. (IX)

no named branches

sensory receptors in the carotid body and carotid sinus

to coccygeus m.

to digastric m., posterior belly

sacral plexus (brs. of no named branches the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4) facial n. (VII) no named branches

coccygeus m., levator none ani m.

posterior belly of the none digastric m.

to geniohyoid m.

C1 fibers from the no named branches superior root of the ansa cervicalis to obturator internus sacral plexus (ventral n. to the superior m. primary rami of spinal gemellus m. nerves L5-S2 ) to quadratus femoris sacral plexus (ventral n. to the inferior m. primary rami of spinal gemellus m. nerves L4-L5, S1) to subclavius m. superior trunk of the no named branches brachial plexus no named branches

geniohyoid m.

none

obturator internus m., none superior gemellus m.

quadratus femoris m., none inferior gemellus m.

subclavius m.

no cutaneous branches

transverse cervical n. cervical plexus (C2 and C3) trigeminal n. motor root arises from the trigeminal motor nucleus in the pons (SVE); sensory part arises from the trigeminal ganglion (GSA) and projects into the pons to the primary sensory nucleus of V or more inferiorly to the nucleus of the spinal root of V (medulla and upper spinal cord) trochlear n. trochlear nucleus of the midbrain

skin of the anterior surface of the neck ophthalmic, maxillary SVE: anterior belly of skin of the face; and mandibular the digastric m., mucous membranes divisions mylohyoid m., tensor of the nasal and oral veli palatini m., tensor cavities; general tympani m.; muscles sensation (GSA) to of mastication: the anterior 2/3 of temporalis m., the tongue masseter m., lateral pterygoid m., medial pterygoid m.

none

no named branches

superior oblique m. of the eye (GSE)

none

tympanic n.

glossopharyngeal n.

tympanic plexus, which gives rise to the lesser petrosal n.

secretomotor (preganglionic parasympathetic axons which will synapse in the otic ganglion) to the parotid gland

mucous membrane lining the middle ear cavity

ulnar n.

medial cord of the brachial plexus (C8, T1)

palmar cutaneous br., flexor carpi ulnaris dorsal br., superficial m., flexor digitorum and deep brs. profundus m. (ulnar half), abductor digiti minimi m., flexor digiti minimi brevis m., opponens digiti minimi m., ulnar 2 lumbrical mm., palmar and dorsal interosseous mm.

skin of the medial side of the wrist and hand; skin of the medial 1 1/2 digits

upper subscapular n. posterior cord of the brachial plexus (C5, C6) uterovaginal plexus inferior hypogastric plexus

unnamed muscular brs. continuous with the rectal plexus

subscapularis m.

no cutaneous branches

sympathetic: vascular pain from the pelvic smooth muscle of the viscera listed at left pelvic viscera, especially the uterus, uterine tubes and vagina; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of pelvic viscera, especially uterus, uterine tubes and vagina

vagus n.

medulla: dorsal motor nucleus (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic); inferior ganglion (GVA); nucleus ambiguus (SVE); superior ganglion (GSA); inferior ganglion(SVA)

auricular br., pharyngeal br., superior laryngeal, superior and inferior cervical cardiac brs., recurrent laryngeal n., thoracic cardiac brs., brs. to the pulmonary plexus, brs. to the esophageal plexus, anterior and posterior vagal trunks

SVE: intrinsic muscles of the larynx, pharynx (except stylopharyngeus), and palate (except tensor veli palatini); GVE: smooth muscle of the respiratory tree & gut (proximal to the left colic flexure), heart; secretomotor: mucous glands of the larynx, respiratory tree, pharynx and gut; secretomotor to digestive glands

GSA: skin of the external auditory meatus; GVA: viscera of head, neck, thorax & abdomen proximal to the left colic flexure; SVA: taste from the epiglottis

ventral primary ramus first branch off of the numerous ventral side of the spinal nerve

to skeletal mm. of the neck, trunk and extremities; sympathetic innervation to the skin

general sense (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) to the skin of the trunk (except the back) and extremities; visceral pain via the white rami of the sympathetic nervous system (T1-L2)

ventral root

from the ventral horn none of the spinal cord to the spinal nerve

to skeletal mm.; preganglionic sympathetic (T1-L2)

none

vesical plexus

inferior hypogastric plexus

continuous with the prostatic plexus

vestibular n. vestibulocochlear n.

pons and medulla pons & medulla: vestibular nuclei from the vestibular ganglion of the semicircular ducts; cochlear nuclei in the inferior cerebellar peduncle cell bodies located in the lateral horn gray matter of spinal cord levels T1-L2;

no named branches divides within the temporal bone into vestibular and cochlear parts

sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera, especially the urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of the pelvic viscera, especially the urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct none none

pain and general sensation from the bladder, seminal vesicle and ductus deferens

balance/propriocepti on (SSA) vestibular: balance/propriocepti on (SSA); cochlear: hearing (SSA)

white ramus communicans

none

zygomatic n.

maxillary division of zygomaticofacial & the trigeminal n. (V2) zygomaticotemporal

axons contained within white rami communicantes will synapse on postganglionic cell bodies that will ultimately innervate the skin, viscera, glands, blood vessels, etc. carries secretomotor fibers

pain from viscera is carried back to the spinal cord through the white ramus communicans

skin of the face lateral and superior to the orbit skin of face lateral to the orbit

zygomaticofacial n.

zygomatic from the no named branches maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2)

none

zygomaticotemporal n.

zygomatic from the communicating br. maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2)

carries secretomotor skin of face fibers superolateral to the orbit

d Alphabetically
Notes also known as: CN VI, 6th cranial nerve; passes through the superior orbital fissure (Latin, abducens = to draw away) also known as: CN XI, 11th cranial nerve; spinal root enters cranial cavity by passing through the foramen magnum; exits skull by passing through the jugular foramen; accessory n. is motor only; the subtrapezial plexus of nerves receives proprioceptive fibers: for the sternocleidomastoid m. from the ventral primary rami of spinal nn. C2 and C3 - for trapezius via ventral primary rami of C3 and C4 anterior superior alveolar n. is enclosed in bone its entire length

inferior alveolar n. passes through the mandibular canal; the mental n. is its terminal branch which emerges through the mental foramen

middle superior alveolar n. is enclosed in bone its entire length

posterior superior alveolar n. enters bone by passing through the small foramina on the posterior surface of the maxilla anococcygeal n. pierces the sacrotuberous ligament superior and inferior roots of the ansa cervicalis are also known as the anterior and posterior roots (Latin, ansa = handle or loop)

lateral antebrachial cutaneous n. emerges from the lateral intermuscular interval between biceps and brachialis; it is the continuation of the musculocutaneous n. medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve travels with the basilic vein for part of its course posterior antebrachial cutaneous n. passes posterior to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus a branch of the motor root of CN V; temporalis m. developed from the mesenchyme of the first pharyngeal arch

anterior ethmoidal n. passes from the orbit into the anterior ethmoidal foramen, passes through the cribriform plate, passes anteriorly on cribriform plate, then exits the cranial cavity through the ethmoid fissure into the nasal cavity (Greek, ethmoidal = sieve-like)

cutaneous nn. carry postganglionic sympathetic axons to skin courses along the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)

communicates with the genital br. of the genitofemoral n. (Latin, labial = lips) anterior scrotal n. is the continuation of the ilioinguinal n. at the superficial inguinal ring; it communicates with the genital br. of the genitofemoral n. anterior superior alveolar n. is enclosed in bone its entire length

a sympathetic ganglion; located above or near the origin of the renal a. from the abdominal aorta

two roots of the auriculotemporal n. encircle the middle meningeal a.

axillary n. is endangered by surgical neck fractures

emerges at the lateral intermuscular septum just below the deltoid m.

communicates with the intercostobrachial n. emerges medial to the long head of the triceps brachii muscle axons from spinal cord levels C5-T1 are mixed (braided) in the brachial plexus and repackaged into terminal branches so that each branch contains axons from several spinal cord segmental levels (Latin, plexus = a braid)

not a motor nerve; easily confused with the buccal branch of the facial n.

not a sensory nerve; easily confused with the buccal branch of the trigeminal n.

C1 contributes to the cervical plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch)

C2 contributes to the cervical plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch)

C3 contributes to the cervical plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch)

C4 contributes to the cervical plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch)

joins the ventral primary ramus of C6 to form the superior trunk of the brachial plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch)

joins the ventral primary ramus of C5 to form the superior trunk of the brachial plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch)

continues as the middle trunk of the brachial plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch) joins the ventral primary ramus of T1 to form the inferior trunk of the brachial plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch) cardiac plexus is continuous with the coronary and pulmonary plexuses; thoracic visceral nn. carry pain from the heart to the upper thoracic spinal cord segments resulting in pain referred to the left upper limb in the T1 and T2 dermatomes (Latin, plexus = a braid)

cervical sympathetic trunk usually gives 3 cervical cardiac brs. l (superior, middle and inferior) to the cardiac plexus

vagus n. has 2 cervical cardiac brs. (superior and inferior) and 1 or more thoracic cardiac brs.

chemoreception (blood pH) in carotid body; blood pressure receptors in carotid sinus; both located near the bifurcation of the common carotid a.; vagus n. (X) may share a role in this innervation postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck (Latin, plexus = a braid)

postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck (Latin, plexus = a braid)

there may be two or more external carotid nn. that join the external carotid plexus from the superior cervical ganglion

internal carotid n. appears to be the upward continuation of the sypathetic trunk

a sympathetic ganglion; usually 2 celiac ganglia are located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the celiac trunk; brs. of the vagal trunks pass through the celiac ganglion without synapsing

close association of the supraclavicular nn. to the phrenic n. results in pain from the respiratory diaphragm referred to the shoulder (Latin, plexus = a braid)

cervicofacial division usually forms a loop by communication with the temporofacial division of the facial n.

chorda tympani joins the lingual nerve in the infratemporal fossa and continues with it to the tongue (Latin, chorda = cord + tympanum = a kettle drum)

a parasympathetic ganglion; ciliary ganglion is located on the lateral side of the optic n. near the apex of the orbit; sensory and sympathetic axons pass through the ciliary ganglion without synapse - the sensory root is carried via the nasociliary n.and the sympathetic root arrives in the orbit via the internal carotid a. these nerves bypass the ciliary ganglion

short ciliary nn. are mixed nerves which contain sensory and 2 types of autonomic nerve fibers; postganglionic parasympathetic neurons whose axons are located in these nerves have their cell bodies located in the ciliary ganglion

(Latin, clunis = buttock) (Latin, clunis = buttock)

(Latin, clunis = buttock)

only part of the S4 ventral primary ramus is contributed to the coccygeal plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid) nerve to coccygeus enters the muscle on its pelvic surface

exits the posterior cranial fossa by passing into the internal acoustic meatus sympathetic ganglia; also known as: preaortic ganglia which include: celiac, aorticorenal, superior & inferior mesenteric; brs. of the vagal trunks pass through but do not synapse in collateral ganglia

"peroneal" is old terminology which has been replaced by "fibular"

the proper branches of these nerves also supply the dorsum of the tip of the digit (nail bed)

the dorsal surfaces of the distal tips of the toes (nail bed regions) are supplied by the proper plantar digital brs. of these nn.

details about each cranial nerve may be found elsewhere in this chart

anterior compartment syndrome - trauma to the anterior side of the leg can result in pressure buildup in the anterior compartment (from swelling or bleeding) that can damage the deep fibular n., resulting in "foot drop"

deep petrosal n. joins the greater petrosal n. to form the n. of the pterygoid canal; the deep petrosal n. contains postganglionic sympathetic axons (synapse occurred in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion)

deep radial n. passes through the supinator m.; some authors believe that the posterior interosseous n. and the deep radial n. are synonymous, others say that when the deep radial n. emerges from the supinator in the posterior forearm it becomes the posterior interosseous n., and others say that the deep radial n. does not become the posterior interosseous n. until after its last muscular br. has been given off

the anterior belly of the digastric m. is formed by mesenchyme from the 1st pharyngeal arch and is supplied by the n. to the mylohyoid m. (V3) the proper branches of these nerves also supply the dorsum of the tip of the digit (nail bed)

the dorsal surfaces of the distal tips of the toes (nail bed regions) are supplied by the proper plantar digital brs. of these nn.

the nail bed is supplied by palmar digital nn.

proper palmar digital nn. supply the dorsum of the tip of the digit (nail bed)

the nail bed is supplied by the proper plantar digital nn.

dorsal branch of the ulnar n. emerges at the level of the ulnar styloid process (Latin, ulna = elbow)

the nail bed is supplied by palmar digital nn.

the terminal branch of the pudendal n. the terminal branch of the pudendal n. a mixed nerve containing both motor and sensory fibers (Latin, ramus = a branch)

dorsal root is entirely sensory in function; it is located dorsal to the denticulate ligament

a sensory ganglion; located in the intervertebral foramen of the vertebral column on the dorsal root - one per spinal nerve; location of the cell bodies of somatic afferent (sensory) neurons dorsal scapular n. passes through the scalenus medius m.

during development of the gut, the stomach and esophagus rotate 90 to the right with the result that the left and right vagus nerves mix in the esophageal plexus and emerge as anterior and posterior vagal trunks (Latin, plexus = a braid)

anterior ethmoidal n. passes from the orbit into the anterior ethmoidal foramen, passes through the cribriform plate, passes anteriorly on cribriform plate, then exits the cranial cavity through the ethmoid fissure into the nasal cavity (Greek, ethomodial = sieve-like)

posterior ethmoidal n. exits the orbit by passing through the posterior ethmoid foramen (Greek, ethomodial = sieve-like)

there may be two or more external carotid nn. that join the external carotid plexus from the superior cervical ganglion

postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck (Latin, plexus = a braid)

also known as: CN VII, 7th cranial nerve; exits the posterior cranial fossa by passing into the internal acoustic meatus, goes through the facial canal; motor to muscles of facial expression exits the skull at the stylomastoid foramen

cutaneous nn. carry postganglionic sympathetic axons to skin cutaneous nn. carry postganglionic sympathetic axons to skin

cutaneous nn. carry postganglionic sympathetic axons to skin

passes under inguinal ligament lateral to femoral a.

"peroneal" is old terminology which has been replaced by "fibular"

anterior compartment syndrome - trauma to the anterior side of the leg can result in pressure buildup in the anterior compartment (from swelling or bleeding) that can damage the deep fibular n., resulting in "foot drop"

nail beds are supplied by nerves from the plantar surface of the foot

the most superior linear structure within the orbit

sympathetic ganglia; also known as: preaortic ganglia which include: celiac, aorticorenal, superior & inferior mesenteric; brs. of the vagal trunks pass through but do not synapse in collateral ganglia

minute ganglia located within the myenteric plexus; parasympathetic terminal ganglia

also known as: collateral ganglia which include the celiac ganglion, aorticorenal ganglion, superior mesenteric ganglion and inferior mesenteric ganglion; preganglionic parasympathetic axons of vagal trunk origin pass through the preaortic ganglia but do not synapse there

terminal parasympathetic ganglia; parasympathetic terminal ganglia; also known as: Meissner's plexus

located lateral to the vertebral bodies in the neck, thorax & abdominopelvic cavity; the ganglia plus their interconnecting fibers are also known as the sympathetic trunk; preganglionic cell bodies are located in the intermediolateral gray matter of spinal cord levels T1-L2

a sympathetic ganglion; usually 2 celiac ganglia are located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the celiac trunk; brs. of the vagal trunks pass through the celiac ganglion without synapsing (Greek, celiac = belly)

a parasympathetic ganglion; ciliary ganglion is located on the lateral side of the optic n. near the apex of the orbit; sensory and sympathetic axons pass through the ciliary ganglion without synapse - the sensory root is carried via the nasociliary n.and the sympathetic root arrives in the orbit via the internal carotid a. a sensory ganglion; located in the intervertebral foramen of the vertebral column on the dorsal root - one per spinal nerve; location of the cell bodies of somatic afferent (sensory) neurons

a sensory ganglion equivalent in histological structure and function to a dorsal root ganglion; some taste from the palate travels through the greater petrosal n. to the geniculate ganglion; located in the facial canal within the petrous portion of the temporal bone a sympathetic ganglion; located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the inferior mesenteric a.; may be a series of small, indistinguishable ganglia rather than a single large one

a parasympathetic ganglion; the otic ganglion hangs off of the mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) inferomedial to the foramen ovale

a parasympathetic ganglion; the pterygopalatine ganglion hangs off of the maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) within the pterygopalatine fossa; preganglionic axons of the greater petrosal n. synapse here; postganglionic sympathetic axons of the deep petrosal n. pass through the otic ganglion without synapsing (they synapse in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion)

a sensory ganglion equivalent in histological structure and function to a dorsal root ganglion; also known as. trigeminal or Gasserian ganglion

a sensory ganglion of the cochlear part of CN VIII

a sympathetic ganglion; stellate ganglion is formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion and the T1 ganglion of the sympathetic trunk

a parasympathetic ganglion; submandibular ganglion is suspended from the lingual n. near the deep part of the submandibular gland

a sympathetic ganglion; located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the superior mesenteric a.

a sensory ganglion equivalent in histological structure and function to a dorsal root ganglion; some taste from the palate travels through the greater petrosal n. to the geniculate ganglion; located in the facial canal within the petrous portion of the temporal bone (Latin, geniculate = to bend) nerve to the geniohyoid m. travels with the hypoglossal nerve for a short distance in the superior neck genitofemoral n. lies on the anterior surface of the psoas major in the abdomen; the genital br. passes through the deep inguinal ring and inguinal canal; brushing the thigh elicits an elevation of the testis via the cremasteric reflex

also known as: CN IX, 9th cranial nerve; the glossopharyngeal n. exits the posterior cranial fossa by passing through the jugular foramen;it may penetrate the stylopharyngeus m.

inferior gluteal n. passes through the greater sciatic foramen inferior to the piriformis m.

superior gluteal n. passes through the greater sciatic foramen superior to the piriformis m.

gray rami communicantes connect the sympathetic chain to spinal nerves at all vertebral levels (Latin, ramus = a branch)

the great auricular n. crosses the superficial surface of the sternocleidomastoid m.

muscles innervated by this nerve develop from epimeres in the embryo

greater palatine n. passes through the greater palatine canal and foramen

greater petrosal n. joins the deep petrosal n. to form the n. of the pterygoid canal; the greater petrosal n. contains: preganglionic parasympathetic axons bound for the pterygopalatine ganglion where they will synapse; it passes through the hiatus of canal of greater petrosal n. in the petrous part of the temporal bone

greater thoracic splanchnic n. passes through the crus of the respiratory diaphragm; postganglionic processes from the celiac ganglion spread down the aorta and distribute with its branches; they innervate the vascular smooth of these vessels and vascular smooth muscle of the organs supplied

paired; hypogastric n. lies inferior to the common iliac vessels; it contains postganglionic sympathetic axons inferior hypogastric plexus lies between the pelvic viscera and the pelvic wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)

superior hypogastric plexus is the continuation of the intermesenteric plexus; it crosses the pelvic brim (Latin, plexus = a braid)

also known as: CN XII, 12th cranial nerve; the hypoglossal n. exits the posterior cranial fossa by passing through the hypoglossal canal; the superior root of the ansa cervicalis travels with the hypoglossal n. for a short distance

iliohypogastric n. receives a contribution from T12 in approximately 50% of cases

ilioinguinal n. courses through the inguinal canal and superficial inguinal ring

inferior alveolar n. passes through the mandibular canal; the mental n. is its terminal branch which emerges through the mental foramen

inferior gluteal n. passes through the greater sciatic foramen inferior to the piriformis m.

inferior hypogastric plexus lies between the pelvic viscera and the pelvic wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)

inferior laryngeal n. is the continuation of the recurrent laryngeal n., the name change occurs at the cricothyroid articulation

emerges at the lateral intermuscular septum just below the deltoid m.

a sympathetic ganglion; located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the inferior mesenteric a.; may be a series of small, indistinguishable ganglia rather than a single large one

inferior mesenteric plexus contains no vagal parasympathetic fibers; pelvic splanchnic n. axons join the most distal nn. of the plexus near gut wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)

parasympathetic root carries GVE (preganglionic parasympathetic axons) to the ciliary ganglion - short ciliary nn. carry the postganglionic parasympathetic axons from the ciliary ganglion to the eyeball

inferior rectal nerve is one of the first branches of the pudendal n. infraorbital n.passes through the infraorbital groove, canal and foramen

infratrochlear n. passes inferior to the trochlea of the superior oblique m. (Latin, trochlea = a pulley)

intercostal n.travels below the posterior intercostal a. in the costal groove

intercostobrachial n. communicates with the medial brachial cutaneous nerve

pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder

intermesenteric plexus is continuous with the superior mesenteric plexus; it continues inferiorly as the inferior mesenteric plexus and superior hypogastric plexus; intermesenteric plexus does not carry vagal parasympathetic fibers; located anterior to the abdominal aorta between the superior and inferior mesenteric aa. (Latin, plexus = a braid)

internal carotid n. appears to be the upward continuation of the sypathetic trunk

postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck (Latin, plexus = a braid)

courses along the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)

there is variability in the definition of this nerve; for some, deep radial and posterior interosseous are synonymous; others define this nerve as the articular br. to the wrist from the deep radial (Latin, inter = between + os = bone) communicates with the genital br. of the genitofemoral n.

communicates with the perineal br. of the posterior femoral cutaneous n.

lacrimal n. carries the postganglionic parasympathetic axons from the zygomaticotemporal br. of the maxillary n. that originate in the pterygopalatine ganglion (Latin, lacrima = a tear)

inferior laryngeal n. is the continuation of the recurrent laryngeal n., the name change occurs at the cricothyroid articulation

right recurrent laryngeal n. loops posteriorly around the right subclavian a.; left recurrent laryngeal n. loops posteriorly around the aortic arch and ligamentum arteriosum; the inferior laryngeal br. supplies all intrinsic muscles of the larynx EXCEPT the cricothyroid m.

external br. supplies the cricothyroid m.; all other intrinsic muscles of the larynx are supplied by the recurrent laryngeal n.

lateral antebrachial cutaneous n. emerges from the lateral intermuscular interval between biceps and brachialis; it is the continuation of the musculocutaneous n. cutaneous nn. carry postganglionic sympathetic axons to skin

lateral pectoral n. communicates with the medial pectoral n. anterior to the axillary a.; it pierces the clavipectoral fascia lateral plantar n. accompanies the lateral plantar a. though the sole of the foot

pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder

contains postganglionic sympathetic axons for supply of sweat glands, arrector pili mm. and blood vessels least thoracic splanchnic n.pass through the crus of the diaphragm; it synapses in minute ganglia located in the renal plexus

lesser occipital n. arises from the cervical plexus

lesser palatine n. passes through the greater palatine canal and lesser palatine foramen

lesser petrosal n. synapses in the otic ganglion and postganglionic axons distribute to the parotid gland by joining the auriculotemporal n.

lesser thoracic splanchnic n. passes through the crus of the respiratory diaphragm; postganglionic processes from the ganglion supply vascular smooth muscle of branches of the renal a. and suprarenal aa.; kidney and suprarenal gland

lingual n. is joined by the chorda tympani (taste and preganglionic parasympathetic) from the facial n. in the infratemporal fossa; the submandibular ganglion hangs from the lingual nerve in the paralingual space these nerves bypass the ciliary ganglion located on the superficial surface of the serratus anterior m.; lesion of this nerve causes scapular winging, hence the saying "C5, 6, & 7 keep the wings from heaven" subscapularis and teres major are antagonists (medial rotation vs. lateral rotation of the humerus) lumbar nn. enter into the formation of the lumbar and sacral plexuses and do not give branches directly to muscles or skin

lumbar plexus is noted for its variable branching pattern of nerves that supply the abdominal wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)

sympathetic nerves; there are four of these on each side; lumbar splanchnic nn. contribute to preaortic abdominal plexuses (celiac, superior mesenteric, intermesenteric, superior hypogastric)

also known as: lumbar & sacral plexuses (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)

the lumbosacral trunk is not considered to be part of the lumbar plexus

also known as: V3; passes through the foramen ovale to exit the middle cranial fossa; the otic ganglion is associated with the medial side of V3 below the foramen ovale; the auriculotemporal n. carries postganglionic parasympathetic axons to the parotid gland; the submandibular ganglion is associated withe the lingual n. near the submandibular gland; postganglionic parasympathetics from the submandibular ganglion supply the submandibular gland and the sublingual gland

branches of the facial nerve innervate muscles derived from the mesenchyme of the second pharygeal arch

masseteric n. passes over the mandibular notch to reach the deep surface of the masseter m. also known as: V2; maxillary division of the trigeminal n. passes through the foramen rotundum to enter the pterygopalatine fossa; the pterygopalatine ganglion is associated with it in the pterygopalatine fossa; postganglionic parasympathetic fibers distribute with branches of the maxillary division to mucous glands of the nasal cavity and palate; the zygomatic n. & its brs. carry postganglionic parasympathetic axons to the orbit to reach the lacrimal n. and lacrimal gland

medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve travels with the basilic vein for part of its course communicates with the intercostobrachial n. medial pectoral n. communicates with the lateral pectoral n. anterior to the axillary a.; it pierces the pectoralis minor m.

medial plantar n. accompanies the medial plantar a. though the sole of the foot

pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder

unites with fibular communicating br. to form the sural n.

the median n. is motor to the flexor muscles of the forearm (except flexor carpi ulnaris and the medial 1/2 of the flexor digitorum profundus),the muscles of the thenar compartment and the lateral 2 lumbricals

mental n. passes through the mental foramen a sympathetic ganglion; located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the inferior mesenteric a.; may be a series of small, indistinguishable ganglia rather than a single large one

a sympathetic ganglion; located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the superior mesenteric a.

inferior mesenteric plexus contains no vagal parasympathetic fibers; pelvic splanchnic n. axons join the most distal nn. of the plexus near gut wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)

superior mesenteric plexus contains a mixture of vagal (preganglionic parasympathetic) axons and postganglionic sympathetic axons (Latin, plexus = a braid)

also called the thoracodorsal n.

middle superior alveolar n. is enclosed in bone its entire length

musculocutaneous n. passes through the coracobrachialis m.

minute ganglia located within the myenteric plexus; parasympathetic terminal ganglia

parasympathetic terminal ganglia are located here; also known as: Auerbach's plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid)

n. to mylohyoid arises near the lingula of the mandible; course within the mylohyoid groove of the mandible

the distribution of this nerve is indicated by its name - nasociliary

nasopalatine n. innervates the mucosa overlying the primary palate (development); it passes through two openings in bone: sphenopalatine foramen and incisive canal

nervus intermedius occupies an intermediate position between the motor root of VII and cranial n. VIII when they enter the internal acoustic meatus

nerve to obturator internus m. crosses the ischial spine and enters the ischioanal fossa by passing through the lesser sciatic foramen

obturator n. passes through the obturator canal

muscles innervated by this nerve develop from epimeres in the embryo

lesser occipital n. arises from the cervical plexus

muscles innervated by this nerve develop from epimeres in the embryo

also known as: CN III; oculomotor n. passes through the superior orbital fissure to exit the middle cranial fossa

contains: preganglionic axons of the greater petrosal n. bound for pterygopalatine ganglion where they will synapse; postganglionic sympathetic axons of the deep petrosal n. which will pass through the pterygopalatine ganglion without synapsing

also known as: CN I, 1st cranial n.; multiple olfactory filaments pass through the cribriform plate to exit the anterior cranial fossa and synapse in the olfactory bulb; the olfactory tract carries the signal from the bulb to olfactory cortex of the forebrain

also known as: V1; the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. passes through the superior orbital fissure to exit the middle cranial fossa; the lacrimal n. receives postganglionic parasympathetic axons to the lacrimal gland from the zygomaticotemporal br. of the zygomatic n.

also known as: CN II, 2nd cranial nerve; the course of the optic nerve is: through the optic canal to the optic chiasma, then the optic tract to the lateral geniculate body and optic radiation a parasympathetic ganglion; the otic ganglion hangs off of the mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) inferomedial to the foramen ovale

greater palatine n. passes through the greater palatine canal and foramen

lesser palatine n. passes through the greater palatine canal and lesser palatine foramen

the proper branches of these nerves also supply the dorsum of the tip of the digit (nail bed)

proper palmar digital nn. supply the dorsum of the tip of the digit (nail bed)

lateral pectoral n. communicates with the medial pectoral n. anterior to the axillary a.; it pierces the clavipectoral fascia medial pectoral n. communicates with the lateral pectoral n. anterior to the axillary a.; it pierces the pectoralis minor m. parasympathetic nerves; these contain preganglionic parasympathetic axons

perforating cutaneous n. pierces the sacrotuberous ligament

perineal n.branches from the pudendal n. at the posterior margin of the urogenital diaphragm

"peroneal" is old terminology which has been replaced by fibular "peroneal" is old terminology which has been replaced by fibular "peroneal" is old terminology which has been replaced by fibular

deep petrosal n. joins the greater petrosal n. to form the n. of the pterygoid canal; the deep petrosal n. contains postganglionic sympathetic axons (synapse occurred in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion)

greater petrosal n. joins the deep petrosal n. to form the n. of the pterygoid canal; the greater petrosal n. contains: preganglionic parasympathetic axons bound for the pterygopalatine ganglion where they will synapse; it passes through the hiatus of canal of greater petrosal n. in the petrous part of the temporal bone

lesser petrosal n. synapses in the otic ganglion and postganglionic axons distribute to the parotid gland by joining the auriculotemporal n.

the muscles of the pharyngeal wall are skeletal m. derived from the mesenchyme of the 4th pharyngeal arch (Latin, plexus = a braid)

phrenic n. crosses the anterior surface of the anterior scalene m. (Greek, phrenic = diaphragm)

the dorsal surfaces of the distal tips of the toes (nail bed regions) are supplied by the proper plantar digital brs. of these nn.

the nail bed is supplied by the proper plantar digital nn.

lateral plantar n. accompanies the lateral plantar a. though the sole of the foot

medial plantar n. accompanies the medial plantar a. though the sole of the foot

axons from spinal cord levels C5-T1 are mixed (braided) in the brachial plexus and repackaged into terminal branches so that each branch contains axons from several spinal cord segmental levels (Latin, plexus = a braid)

cardiac plexus is continuous with the coronary and pulmonary plexuses; thoracic visceral nn. carry pain from the heart to the upper thoracic spinal cord segments resulting in pain referred to the left upper limb in the T1 and T2 dermatomes (Latin, plexus = a braid)

close association of the supraclavicular nn. to the phrenic n. results in pain from the respiratory diaphragm referred to the shoulder (Latin, plexus = a braid)

only part of the S4 ventral primary ramus is contributed to the coccygeal plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid)

during development of the gut, the stomach and esophagus rotate 90 to the right with the result that the left and right vagus nerves mix in the esophageal plexus and emerge as anterior and posterior vagal trunks (Latin, plexus = a braid)

postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck (Latin, plexus = a braid)

inferior hypogastric plexus lies between the pelvic viscera and the pelvic wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)

inferior mesenteric plexus contains no vagal parasympathetic fibers; pelvic splanchnic n. axons join the most distal nn. of the plexus near gut wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)

intermesenteric plexus is continuous with the superior mesenteric plexus; it continues inferiorly as the inferior mesenteric plexus and superior hypogastric plexus; intermesenteric plexus does not carry vagal parasympathetic fibers; located anterior to the abdominal aorta between the superior and inferior mesenteric aa. (Latin, plexus = a braid) postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck (Latin, plexus = a braid)

lumbar plexus is noted for its variable branching pattern of nerves that supply the abdominal wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)

also known as: lumbar & sacral plexuses (Latin, plexus = a braid)

parasympathetic terminal ganglia are located here; also known as: Auerbach's plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid)

the muscles of the pharyngeal wall are skeletal m. derived from the mesenchyme of the 4th pharyngeal arch (Latin, plexus = a braid)

the autonomic nerve plexuses of the pelvis (prostatic, rectal and vesical in the male; rectal and uterovaginal in the female) are in communication with each other (Latin, plexus = a braid)

pulmonary plexus is located along the pulmonary vessels and primary bronchi in the root of the lung (Latin, plexus = a braid)

rectal plexus is continuous with the vesical plexus in the male, uterovaginal plexus in the female (Latin, plexus = a braid)

renal plexus contains postganglionic sympathetic axons and preganglionic parasympathetic axons (parasympathetic axons are of vagal origin) (Latin, plexus = a braid)

the sacral plexus is often grouped with the lumbar plexus as the "lumbosacral plexus" (Latin, plexus = a braid)

superior hypogastric plexus is the continuation of the intermesenteric plexus; it crosses the pelvic brim (Latin, plexus = a braid)

superior mesenteric plexus contains a mixture of vagal (preganglionic parasympathetic) axons and postganglionic sympathetic axons (Latin, plexus = a braid)

the uterovaginal plexus is a subsidiary plexus of the inferior hypogastric plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid)

vesical plexus is continuous with the other autonomic nerve plexuses in the pelvis and cannot be distinguished from them (Latin, plexus = a braid)

posterior antebrachial cutaneous n. passes posterior to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus emerges medial to the long head of the triceps brachii muscle a branch of the motor root of CN V; temporalis m. developed from the mesenchyme of the first pharyngeal arch posterior ethmoidal n. exits the orbit by passing through the posterior ethmoid foramen (Latin, ethmoidal = sieve -like)

cutaneous nn. carry postganglionic sympathetic axons to skin

there is variability in the definition of this nerve; for some, deep radial and posterior interosseous are synonymous; others define this nerve as the articular br. to the wrist from the deep radial (Latin, inter = between + os = bone) communicates with the perineal br. of the posterior femoral cutaneous n. (Latin, labial = lips) posterior scrotal n. communicates with the perineal br. of the posterior femoral cutaneous n. posterior superior alveolar n. enters bone by passing through the small foramina on the posterior surface of the maxilla also known as: collateral ganglia which include the celiac ganglion, aorticorenal ganglion, superior mesenteric ganglion and inferior mesenteric ganglion; preganglionic parasympathetic axons of vagal trunk origin pass through the preaortic ganglia but do not synapse there proper palmar digital nn. supply the dorsum of the tip of the digit (nail bed)

the nail bed is supplied by the proper plantar digital nn.

the autonomic nerve plexuses of the pelvis (prostatic, rectal and vesical in the male; rectal and uterovaginal in the female) are in communication with each other (Latin, plexus = a braid)

a parasympathetic ganglion; the pterygopalatine ganglion hangs off of the maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) within the pterygopalatine fossa; preganglionic axons of the greater petrosal n. synapse here; postganglionic sympathetic axons of the deep petrosal n. pass through the otic ganglion without synapsing (they synapse in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion)

pudendal n. passes through the pudendal canal formed by fascia on the medial surface of the obturator internus m.

pulmonary plexus is located along the pulmonary vessels and primary bronchi in the root of the lung (Latin, plexus = a braid)

nerve to the quadratus femoris m. passes anterior to the obturator internus tendon

all of the muscles on the posterior side of the arm and forearm are innervated by the radial n.

deep radial n. passes through the supinator m.; some authors believe that the posterior interosseous n. and the deep radial n. are synonymous, others say that when the deep radial n. emerges from the supinator in the posterior forearm it becomes the posterior interosseous n., and others say that the deep radial n. does not become the posterior interosseous n. until after its last muscular br. has been given off

superficial radial n. is located deep to the brachioradialis muscle

gray rami communicantes connect the sympathetic chain to spinal nerves at all vertebral levels (Latin, ramus = a branch)

white rami communicantes connect the sympathetic chain to spinal nerves at vertebral levels T1-L2; carries preganglionic sympathetic axons (Latin, ramus = a branch)

a mixed nerve containing both motor and sensory fibers (Latin, ramus = a branch)

a mixed nerve containing both motor and sensory fibers (Latin, ramus = a branch)

rectal plexus is continuous with the vesical plexus in the male, uterovaginal plexus in the female (Latin, plexus = a braid)

inferior rectal nerve is one of the first branches of the pudendal n. right recurrent laryngeal n. loops posteriorly around the right subclavian a.; left recurrent laryngeal n. loops posteriorly around the aortic arch and ligamentum arteriosum; the inferior laryngeal br. supplies all intrinsic muscles of the larynx EXCEPT the cricothyroid m.

renal plexus contains postganglionic sympathetic axons and preganglionic parasympathetic axons (parasympathetic axons are of vagal origin) (Latin, plexus = a braid)

dorsal root is entirely sensory in function; it is located dorsal to the denticulate ligament

entirely motor in function; located ventral to the denticulate ligament; at all spinal core levels it contains GSE for skeletal mm.; at levels T1-L2 it contains GVE (preganglionic sympathetic) for blood vessels, sweat glands, thoracic viscera, abdominal viscera, pelvic viscera the sacral plexus is often grouped with the lumbar plexus as the "lumbosacral plexus" (Latin, plexus = a braid)

sacral splanchnic nn. contain both preganglionic and postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers with postganglionic fibers predominating in number

saphenous n. travels with the great saphenous v.; it does not pass through the adductor hiatus at the knee; it passes anterior to the medial malleolus at the ankle (Latin, saphenous = clearly visible)

sciatic n. is composed of tibial and common fibular divisions; branches to muscles come from one of the two divisions, so that the sciatic n. is considered to have no direct muscular brs., only 2 terminal brs.

anterior scrotal n. is the continuation of the ilioinguinal n. at the superficial inguinal ring; it communicates with the genital br. of the genitofemoral n. posterior scrotal n. communicates with the perineal br. of the posterior femoral cutaneous n. a sensory ganglion equivalent in histological structure and function to a dorsal root ganglion; also known as. trigeminal or Gasserian ganglion

short ciliary nn. are mixed nerves which contain sensory and 2 types of autonomic nerve fibers; postganglionic parasympathetic neurons whose axons are located in these nerves have their cell bodies located in the ciliary ganglion

located at the intervertebral foramen; there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal

a sensory ganglion of the cochlear part of CN VIII

greater thoracic splanchnic n. passes through the crus of the respiratory diaphragm; postganglionic processes from the celiac ganglion spread down the aorta and distribute with its branches; they innervate the vascular smooth of these vessels and vascular smooth muscle of the organs supplied

least thoracic splanchnic n.pass through the crus of the diaphragm; it synapses in minute ganglia located in the renal plexus

lesser thoracic splanchnic n. passes through the crus of the respiratory diaphragm; postganglionic processes from the ganglion supply vascular smooth muscle of branches of the renal a. and suprarenal aa.; kidney and suprarenal gland

sympathetic nerves; there are four of these on each side; lumbar splanchnic nn. contribute to preaortic abdominal plexuses (celiac, superior mesenteric, intermesenteric, superior hypogastric) parasympathetic nerves; these contain preganglionic parasympathetic axons

sacral splanchnic nn. contain both preganglionic and postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers with postganglionic fibers predominating in number

stellate ganglion is formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion and the T1 ganglion of the sympathetic trunk (Latin, stellate = star shaped)

nerve to subclavius m. is one of two nerves to arise from the superior trunk of the brachial plexus; suprascapular n. is the other one the subcostal n. is equivalent to a posterior intercostal n. found at higher thoracic levels a terminal parasympathetic ganglion; submandibular ganglion is suspended from the lingual n. near the deep part of the submandibular gland

terminal parasympathetic ganglia; parasympathetic terminal ganglia; also known as: Meissner's plexus

spinal nerve C1 has NO cutaneous distribution

subscapularis and teres major are antagonists (medial rotation vs. lateral rotation of the humerus) also called the thoracodorsal n.

mesenchyme that forms the subscapularis is derived from somites C5 and C6 nail beds are supplied by nerves from the plantar surface of the foot

superficial radial n. is located deep to the brachioradialis muscle

superior gluteal n. passes through the greater sciatic foramen superior to the piriformis m.

superior hypogastric plexus is the continuation of the intermesenteric plexus; it crosses the pelvic brim (Latin, plexus = a braid)

external br. supplies the cricothyroid m.; all other intrinsic muscles of the larynx are supplied by the recurrent laryngeal n.

emerges at the posterior edge of the deltoid muscle

a sympathetic ganglion; located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the superior mesenteric a.

superior mesenteric plexus contains a mixture of vagal (preganglionic parasympathetic) axons and postganglionic sympathetic axons (Latin, plexus = a braid)

pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder

pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder

pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder

supraorbital nerve passes through the supraorbital foramen (notch)

suprascapular n. passes through the suprascapular notch inferior to the superior transverse scapular ligament supratrochlear n. passes superior to the trochlea (pulley) of the superior oblique m.

contains postganglionic sympathetic axons for supply of sweat glands, arrector pili mm. and blood vessels

unites with fibular communicating br. to form the sural n.

sural n. courses posterior to the lateral malleolus at the ankle with the lesser saphenous v.

located lateral to the vertebral bodies in the neck, thorax & abdominopelvic cavity; the ganglia plus their interconnecting fibers are also known as the sympathetic trunk; preganglionic cell bodies are located in the intermediolateral gray matter of spinal cord levels T1-L2

located parallel to the vertebral bodies in the neck; there are no white rami communicantes at cervical levels

T1 is the highest spinal nerve to have a white ramus communicans (Latin, ramus = a branch)

a branch of the motor root of CN V; temporalis m. developed from the mesenchyme of the first pharyngeal arch

a branch of the motor root of CN V; temporalis m. developed from the mesenchyme of the first pharyngeal arch temporofacial division of the facial n. usually forms a loop by communication anteriorly with the cervicofacial division

also called the middle subscapular n.

tibial n. is the larger of the two divisions of the sciatic n.

chemoreception (blood pH) in carotid body; blood pressure receptors in carotid sinus; both located near the bifurcation of the common carotid a.; the vagus n. (X) may share a role in this innervation nerve to coccygeus enters the muscle on its pelvic surface

the anterior belly of the digastric m. is formed by mesenchyme from the 1st pharyngeal arch and is supplied by the n. to the mylohyoid m. (V3)

nerve to the geniohyoid m. travels with the hypoglossal nerve for a short distance in the superior neck nerve to obturator internus m. crosses the ischial spine and enters the ischioanal fossa by passing through the lesser sciatic foramen

nerve to the quadratus femoris m. passes anterior to the obturator internus tendon

nerve to subclavius m. is one of two nerves to arise from the superior trunk of the brachial plexus; suprascapular n. is the other one transverse cervical n. penetrates the platysma m. but does not innervate it also known as: CN V, 5th cranial nerve; some brs. carry pre- or postganglionic parasympathetic fibers; the trigeminal n. divides into three divisions at the trigeminal ganglion; SVE supplies muscles of 1st pharyngeal arch origin

also known as: CN IV, 4th cranial nerve; the trochlear n. passes through the superior orbital fissure to exit the middle cranial fossa; it is the smallest cranial nerve and the only cranial nerve to arise from dorsum of brainstem (Latin, trochlea = a pulley) tympanic n. passes from the inferior ganglion of CN IX through the tympanic canaliculus to reach the middle ear (Latin, tympanum = a kettle drum)

ulnar n. is motor to most of the muscles of the hand (Latin, ulna = elbow)

mesenchyme that forms the subscapularis is derived from somites C5 and C6 the uterovaginal plexus is a subsidiary plexus of the inferior hypogastric plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid)

also known as: CN X, 10th cranial nerve; the vagus n. passes through the jugular foramen to exit the posterior cranial fossa; (Latin, vagus = wanderer, due to its wide distribution to the body cavities)

a mixed nerve containing both motor and sensory fibers (Latin, ramus = a branch)

entirely motor in function; located ventral to the denticulate ligament; at all spinal core levels it contains GSE for skeletal mm.; at levels T1-L2 it contains GVE (preganglionic sympathetic) for blood vessels, sweat glands, thoracic viscera, abdominal viscera, pelvic viscera

vesical plexus is continuous with the other autonomic nerve plexuses in the pelvis and cannot be distinguished from them (Latin, plexus = a braid)

vestibular n. is part of the vestibulocochlear n. also known as: CN VIII, 8th cranial nerve; auditory nerve; passes into the internal auditory meatus

white rami communicantes connect the sympathetic chain to spinal nerves at vertebral levels T1-L2; carries preganglionic sympathetic axons (Latin, ramus = a branch)

zygomatic n. carries postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion to the lacrimal gland (via the communicating br. of the zygomaticotemporal n. which joins the lacrimal n.) zygomaticofacial n. passes through the zygomaticofacial foramen

zygomaticotemporal n. carries postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion to the lacrimal gland (via the communicating br. which joins the lacrimal n.)

Arteries of the Body - Listed Alphabetically


Artery alveolar, anterior superior Source infraorbital a. Branches dental brs., mucosal brs. Supply to maxillary incisor and canine teeth; part of the maxillary sinus

alveolar, inferior

maxillary a.

lingual br., mylohyoid a., dental brs., mental a. dental brs., mucosal brs.

mandibular teeth and gingiva; mandible; mylohyoid m. maxillary premolar teeth; part of the maxillary sinus

alveolar, middle superior

infraorbital a.

alveolar, posterior maxillary a. superior angular anterior cecal anterior cerebral facial a. ileocolic a. internal carotid a.

dental brs., mucosal brs.

maxillary molar teeth; part of the maxillary sinus

no named branches

orbicularis oculi m. and lacrimal sac occasionally the appendicular a. cecum anterior communicating a., medial frontobasal a., polar frontal a., callosomarginal a., precuneal a. medial and inferior portions of the frontal lobe; medial side of the parietal lobe; corpus callosum and part of the limbic lobe; olfactory bulb and tract; optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract deltoid m.; arm muscles near the surgical neck of the humerus

anterior circumflex axillary a., 3rd part unnamed muscular branches humeral

anterior communicating

anterior cerebral a. perforating aa.

an anastomotic connection

anterior deep temporal

maxillary a.

no named branches

anterior part of temporalis m. and surrounding deep tissues

anterior ethmoidal ophthalmic a.

anterior meningeal a., anterior septal br., anterior lateral nasal br.

anterior inferior cerebellar

basilar a.

labyrinthine (usually)

anterior inferior inferior pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. pancreaticoduoden pancreaticoduoden al al a.

anterior ethmoidal air cells, frontal paranasal sinus, dura mater in the anterior cranial fossa, nasal mucosa, olfactory nerves pons (motor nucleus of cranial nerve V, chief sensory nucleus of cranial nerve V, abducens nucleus, facial nucleus, superior salivatory nucleus); cerebellum; inner ear lower duodenum and head of the pancreas

anterior inferior inferior pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. pancreaticoduoden pancreaticoduoden al al a.

lower duodendum and head of the pancreas

anterior intercostal internal thoracic a. unnamed muscular branches (upper 6 intercostal spaces), musculophrenic a. (7-10th intercostal spaces)

intercostal muscles anteriorly; skin overlying the intercostal muscles

anterior interosseous

common interosseous a.

muscular brs.; a. of the median nerve

anterior lateral malleolar

anterior tibial a.

no named branches

flexor pollicis longus m., flexor digitorum profundus m., pronator quadratus m., radius, ulna, carpal bones lateral side of the ankle

anterior medial malleolar anterior radicular

anterior tibial a.

no named branches

medial side of the ankle

they arise as they accompany the ventral meninges; spinal cord; spinal multiple branches rootlets to reach the spinal cord nerve; ventral rootlets of several vessels (vertebral, posterior intercostal, lumbar, and lateral sacral aa.) contributions pial arterial plexus received from several arteries (vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, lateral sacral aa.) infraorbital a. dental brs., mucosal brs. meninges; spinal cord; medulla (dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus, spinal accessory nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus)

anterior spinal

anterior superior alveolar

maxillary incisor and canine teeth; part of the maxillary sinus

anterior superior gastroduodenal a. pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. pancreaticoduoden al

upper duodenum and head of the pancreas

anterior tibial

popliteal a.

anterior tibial recurrent a., posterior tibial recurrent a., anterior malleolar a., medial malleolar a., lateral malleolar a., dorsalis pedis a.

anterior leg; dorsum of foot and deep foot

anterior tibial recurrent

anterior tibial a.

no named branches

anterior side of the knee and adjacent muscles

anterior tympanic

maxillary a.

no named branches

middle ear

anterior ulnar recurrent aorta, abdominal

ulnar a.

medial side of elbow and proximal ends of forearm flexor mm. the continuation of inferior phrenic aa. (2), celiac abdominal wall; gastrointestinal the descending trunk, middle suprarenal aa. (2), tract; body below the level of the thoracic aorta lumbar aa. (4 pairs), superior respiratory diaphragm mesenteric a., renal aa. (2), testicular/ovarian aa. (2), inferior mesenteric a., median sacral a., common iliac aa. (2) left ventricle of the left and right coronary aa. heart continuation of aortic arch posterior intercostal aa. 3-11, subcostal aa., left bronchial aa. (2), esophageal aa. (~3), mediastinal brs., superior phrenic aa. heart, entire body

unnamed muscular brs.

aorta, ascending

aorta, descending thoracic

thoracic wall, lungs, posterior mediastinum, body below the respiratory diaphragm

aortic arch

the continuation of brachiocephalic trunk, left the ascending common carotid a., left aorta subclavian a.

the entire body except the heart

appendicular

posterior cecal, anterior cecal or ileocolic

no named branches

vermiform appendix

arch, aortic

the continuation of brachiocephalic trunk, left the ascending common carotid a., left aorta subclavian a.

the entire body except the heart

arch, deep palmar radial a., deep br. of ulnar a.

palmar metacarpal aa. (2nd-4th), deep palm, digits including the perforating brs. dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment

arch, dorsal carpal radial a., ulnar a. arterial

dorsal metacarpal aa.

dorsum of the hand and digits, excluding the distal phalangeal segment deep foot; its plantar metatarsal brs. and their brs. supply the toes, including the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment superficial palm, palmar surface of the digits excluding thumb, dorsum of the distal phalangeal segments of digits 2-5 dorsum of the foot, excluding the pollex and the distal phalangeal segments of the digits renal cortex ductus deferens, seminal vesical; possibly supplies the ureter

arch, plantar arterial

lateral plantar a.

plantar metatarsal aa. (4)

arch, superficial palmar

ulnar a., superficial common palmar digital aa. (3) palmar br. of the radial a.

arcuate, of foot

dorsalis pedis a.

dorsal metatarsal aa. (3)

arcuate, of kidney interlobar a. artery of the ductus deferens

interlobular aa.

artery to the atrioventricular node

artery to the sinuatrial node

umbilical a.; may no named branches be a branch of the superior or inferior vesical a. right coronary a. no named branches near the point where it becomes the posterior interventricular a. right coronary a. no named branches

atrioventricular node and the surrounding myocardium

sinuatrial node and the surrounding myocardium

ascending aorta

left ventricle of the left and right coronary aa. heart

heart, entire body

ascending cervical inferior thyroid a. unnamed muscular branches

deep muscles of the neck

ascending palatine facial a.

no named branches

superior pharyngeal constrictor, soft palate, palatine tonsil

ascending pharyngeal

external carotid a. pharyngeal brs., inferior pharynx, meninges tympanic a., posterior meningeal a. right coronary a. no named branches near the point where it becomes the posterior interventricular a. maxillary a. no named branches atrioventricular node and the surrounding myocardium

atrioventricular nodal

auricular, deep

external auditory meatus, tympanic membrane

auricular, posterior external carotid a. stylomastoid br., auricular br., occipital br. axillary

part of the external ear, scalp and deeper structures posterior to the ear subclavian a. 1st part: superior thoracic a.; 2nd pectoral region, shoulder region (axillary a. is the part: thoracoacromial a., lateral and upper limb continuation of the thoracic a.; 3rd part: anterior subclavian lateral humeral circumflex a., posterior to the 1st rib) humeral circumflex a., subscapular a.

Artery basilar

Source Branches formed by the pontine brs., anterior inferior joining of the two cerebellar a., superior cerebellar vertebral aa. a., two posterior cerebral aa. (terminal brs.)

Supply to pons (motor nucleus of cranial nerve V, chief sensory nucleus of cranial nerve V, abducens nucleus, facial nucleus, superior salivatory nucleus); oculomotor nucleus; nucleus of EdingerWestphal; cerebellum; posterior cerebrum

brachial

axillary a. (brachial a. is the continuation of the axillary a. distal to the teres major m.) brachial a.

deep brachial a., superior ulnar arm, forearm and hand collateral a., nutrient a., inferior ulnar collateral a.; terminal branches are the radial a. and the ulnar a. ascending br.; terminal branches muscles and tissues of the are the middle collateral a. and posterior compartment of the radial collateral a. arm

brachial, deep

brachiocephalic trunk bronchial, left bronchial, right

aortic arch

right common carotid a., right subclavian a.

descending right bronchial a. (occasionally) thoracic aorta 3rd right posterior no named branches intercostal maxillary a. internal pudendal a. no named branches no named branches

right side of the head and neck; right upper limb and right side of the chest wall lower trachea, bronchial tree lower trachea, bronchial tree

buccal of bulb of penis

cheek and associated muscles bulb of the penis and associated tissues

of bulb of vestibule

internal pudendal a.

no named branches

bulb of the vestibule and associated tissues

Artery caroticotympanic

Source internal carotid a.

Branches no named branches

Supply to tympanic cavity

carotid, common

brachiocephalic external carotid a., internal trunk (right), aortic carotid a. arch (left)

most of the head and upper neck

carotid, external

common carotid a. superior thyroid a., ascending upper neck, face and scalp pharyngeal a., lingual a., facial a., occipital a., posterior auricular a., maxillary a., superficial temporal a. common carotid a. none in the neck; in the head: ophthalmic a., posterior communicating a., anterior cerebral a., middle cerebral a. brain; eye and orbit; forehead

carotid, internal

carpal arterial arch, radial a., ulnar a. dorsal

dorsal metacarpal aa.

dorsum of the hand and digits, excluding the distal phalangeal segment tail of the pancreas

caudal pancreatic

splenic a.

numerous small aa. that supply the pancreas

cecal, anterior cecal, posterior celiac trunk

ileocolic a. ileocolic a.

may give off the appendicular a. anterior surface of the cecum may give off the appendicular a. posterior surface of the cecum stomach, lower esophagus, liver, upper duodenum, pancreas, spleen retina

central, of retina

abdominal aorta at left gastric a., splenic a., common the level of the hepatic a. T12-L1 intervertebral disc ophthalmic a. superior nasal br., inferior nasal br., superior temporal br., inferior temporal br.

cerebellar, anterior basilar a. inferior

labyrinthine a. (usually)

cerebellar, posterior inferior

vertebral a.

posterior spinal a.

pons (motor nucleus of cranial nerve V, chief sensory nucleus of cranial nerve V, abducens nucleus, facial nucleus, superior salivatory nucleus); cerebellum; inner ear part of cerebellum; medulla (cochlear nucleus, vestibular nucleus, dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus)

cerebellar, superior basilar a.

no named branches

upper cerebellum; trochlear nucleus

cerebral, anterior

internal carotid a.

anterior communicating a., medial frontobasal a., polar frontal a., callosomarginal a., precuneal a.

cerebral arterial circle

an anastomotic circle of blood vessels formed by portions of the following vessels: posterior cerebral aa. (2); posterior communicating aa. (2); internal carotid aa. (2); anterior cerebral aa. (2); anterior communicating a.

this is an anastomotic loop; major named vessels connect here, but there are no named branches of the arterial circle

medial and inferior portions of the frontal lobe; medial side of the parietal lobe; corpus callosum and part of the limbic lobe; olfactory bulb and tract; optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract brain and midbrain

cerebral, middle

internal carotid a.

cerebral, posterior basilar a.

lateral frontobasal a.; prefrontal sulcal a.; precentral sulcal a.; central sulcal a.; anterior parietal a.; posterior parietal a.; anterior, middle and posterior temporal aa. posterior cerebral a.; anterior and posterior temporal brs.; medial occipital a.

frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, especially on their lateral surfaces

cervical, ascending inferior thyroid a. unnamed muscular branches

part of the brainstem (oculomotor nucleus, nucleus of Edinger-Westphal, trochlear nucleus); medial and inferior portions of the temporal lobe; occipital lobe deep muscles of the neck

cervical, deep

costocervical trunk unnamed muscular branches

deep muscles of the posterior neck trapezius muscle and surrounding tissues choroid plexus; optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract anterior part of eyeball

cervical, transverse thyrocervical trunk unnamed muscular branches, possibly the dorsal scapular a. choroidal ciliary, anterior internal carotid a. muscular brs. of the ophthalmic a. no named branches no named branches

ciliary, posterior

ophthalmic a.

no named branches

eyeball

circumflex

left coronary a.

marginal br., possibly posterior artery of the left ventricle ascending br., transverse br., descending br. ascending br., descending br.

posterior surface of the left ventricle lateral thigh and hip

circumflex femoral, lateral circumflex femoral, medial

deep femoral a.

deep femoral a.

medial thigh and hip

circumflex fibular anterior tibial

unnamed muscular branches

proximal portion of lateral leg

circumflex humeral, anterior

axillary a., 3rd part unnamed muscular branches

deltoid m.; arm muscles near the surgical neck of the humerus

circumflex axillary a., 3rd part unnamed muscular branches humeral, posterior

deltoid; arm muscles near the surgical neck of the humerus

circumflex iliac, deep

external iliac a.

unnamed muscular branches

iliacus muscle and the lower abdominal wall

circumflex iliac, superficial

femoral a.

unnamed muscular branches

superficial fascia of lower abdomen and thigh

circumflex scapular subscapular a.

unnamed muscular branches

teres major m., teres minor m., infraspinatus m.

clitoris, deep a. of internal pudendal a.

no named branches

corpus cavernosum of the clitoris

clitoris, dorsal a. of internal pudendal a.

no named branches

superficial structures of the clitoris

colic, left

inferior mesenteric ascending br., descending br. a.

descending colon

colic, middle

superior mesenteric

right br., left br.

transverse colon

colic, right

superior ascending br., descending br. mesenteric (or br. of) brachial a. deep brachial a. deep brachial a. unnamed muscular branches unnamed muscular branches unnamed muscular branches

ascending colon

collateral, inferior ulnar collateral, middle collateral, radial

lower medial arm medial head of triceps, anconeus lower lateral arm

collateral, superior brachial a. ulnar common carotid

unnamed muscular branches

medial arm muscles

brachiocephalic external carotid a., internal trunk (right), aortic carotid a. arch (left)

most of the head and upper neck

common hepatic

celiac trunk

gastroduodenal a., proper hepatic a.

liver, upper part of the duodenum, part of the pancreas, part of the stomach pelvis, lower limb

common iliac

abdominal aorta

external iliac a., internal iliac a.

common interosseous

ulnar a.

anterior interosseous a., posterior interosseous a.

deep structures of the forearm

common palmar digital communicating, anterior

superficial palmar proper palmar digital aa. (2) arterial arch anterior cerebral a. perforating aa.

palmar aspect two adjacent digits

an anastomotic connection

communicating, posterior

internal carotid a.

perforating aa.

an anastomotic connection

coronary, left

ascending aorta

anterior interventricular a., circumflex a.

left ventricle, left atrium, anterosuperior 2/3 of the interventricular septum

coronary, right

ascending aorta

sinuatrial nodal a., right marginal right ventricle, right atrium, a., posterior interventricular a., inferior 1/3 of the atrioventricular nodal a. interventricular septum deep muscles of the posterior neck; posterior ends of the first 2 intercostal spaces

costocervical trunk subclavian a., 2nd deep cervical a., highest part intercostal a.

cremasteric

inferior epigastric no named branches a.

cremaster m., coverings of the spermatic cord

cricothyroid

superior thyroid a. no named branches

cricothyroid m., inferior pharyngeal constrictor m. gall bladder

cystic

right hepatic a. (or no named branches superior mesenteric a., proper hepatic a., left hepatic a., gastroduodenal a.)

Artery deep brachial

Source brachial a.

Branches Supply to ascending br.; terminal branches muscles and tissues of the are the middle collateral a. and posterior compartment of the radial collateral a. arm

deep cervical

costocervical trunk unnamed muscular branches

deep muscles of the posterior neck origins of pectineus m., adductor longus m.; scrotum/labium majus hip joint, proximal thigh, posterior thigh

deep external pudendal deep femoral

femoral a.

unnamed muscular branches

femoral a.

medial circumflex femoral a., lateral circumflex femoral a., perforating aa. (3 or 4) no named branches

deep lingual deep palmar arch

lingual a. radial a., deep br. of ulnar a.

anterior tongue

palmar metacarpal aa. (2nd-4th), deep palm, digits including the perforating brs. dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment

deep plantar

dorsalis pedis

plantar metatarsal aa. (4)

deep foot; its plantar metatarsal brs. and their brs. supply the toes, including the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment corpus cavernosum of the clitoris

deep, of clitoris

internal pudendal a.

no named branches

deep, of penis

internal pudendal a.

no named branches

corpus cavernosum of the penis

descending genicular

femoral a.

saphenous br., articular brs.

skin and superficial structures of the medial aspect of the knee and upper leg

descending palatine

maxillary a.

greater palatine a., lesser palatine palate a.

digital, common palmar digital, proper palmar

superficial palmar proper palmar digital aa. (2) arterial arch common palmar digital a. no named branches

palmar aspect two adjacent digits

palmar aspect of each digit

digital, proper plantar

plantar metatarsal no named branches a., from the plantar arterial arch radial a., ulnar a. dorsal metacarpal aa.

plantar aspect of each digit

dorsal carpal arterial arch

dorsum of the hand and digits, excluding the distal phalangeal segment dorsal aspect of 1/2 digit, excluding the distal phalangeal segment dorsal aspect of 1/2 digit, excluding the distal phalangeal segment posterior tongue, palatine tonsil, soft palate dorsum of 2 adjacent digits, excluding the distal phalangeal segment dorsum of digits, excluding the distal phalangeal segment

dorsal digital, of foot dorsal digital, of hand dorsal lingual

dorsal metatarsal a. no named branches

dorsal metacarpal no named branches a. lingual a. no named branches

dorsal metacarpal

1st: radial a.; 2-4: dorsal carpal arterial arch

dorsal digital aa. (2)

dorsal metatarsal

dorsalis pedis (1st), dorsal digital aa. (2) arcuate (2nd-4th)

dorsal nasal

ophthalmic a.

no named branches

dorsum of the nose

dorsal pancreatic

splenic a.

right br., left br.

neck of the pancreas

dorsal scapular

subclavian a., 3rd part

unnamed muscular branches

levator scapulae m., rhomboideus major m., rhomboideus minor m.

dorsal, of clitoris

internal pudendal a.

no named branches

superficial tissues of the clitoris

dorsal, of penis

internal pudendal a.

no named branches

superficial tissues of the penis

dorsalis pedis

anterior tibial a.

lateral tarsal a., medial tarsal a., arcuate a., 1st dorsal metatarsal a., deep plantar a.

dorsal aspect of the foot;

ductus deferens, artery of

umbilical a.; may no named branches be a branch of the superior or inferior vesical a.

ductus deferens, seminal vesical; possibly supplies the ureter

Artery Source epigastric, inferior external iliac a.

Branches cremasteric a.

Supply to lower rectus abdominis m., pyramidalis m., lower abdominal wall superficial fascia and skin of the lower abdominal wall

epigastric, superficial

femoral a.

cutaneous brs.

epigastric, superior internal thoracic a. no named branches

upper rectus abdominis m., upper abdominal wall

esophageal

descending no named branches thoracic aorta; left gastric a.

lower 2/3rds of the thoracic esophagus

ethmoidal, anterior ophthalmic a.

anterior meningeal a., anterior septal br., anterior lateral nasal br.

ethmoidal, posterior external carotid

ophthalmic a.

no named branches

anterior ethmoidal air cells, frontal paranasal sinus, dura mater in the anterior cranial fossa, nasal mucosa, olfactory nerves posterior ethmoidal air cells; olfactory nerves

common carotid

superior thyroid a., ascending upper neck, face and scalp pharyngeal a., lingual a., facial a., occipital a., posterior auricular a., maxillary a., superficial temporal a. inferior epigastric a., deep circumflex iliac a., femoral a. lower limb

external iliac

common iliac a.

external pudendal, femoral a. deep external pudendal, femoral a. superficial

unnamed muscular branches

no named branches

origins of pectineus m., adductor longus m.; scrotum/labium majus skin and superficial fascia of the upper medial thigh, skin of the pubic region

Artery facial

facial, transverse

Source Branches external carotid a. ascending palatine a., tonsilar br., submental a., superior labial a., inferior labial a., lateral nasal a., angular a. superficial no named branches temporal a.

Supply to lower part of the palatine tonsil, submandibular gland, facial muscles and fascia parotid gland, masseter m., facial muscles and skin

femoral

external iliac a.

superficial epigastric a., thigh, leg and foot superficial circumflex iliac a., superficial external pudendal a., deep external pudendal a., deep femoral a., descending genicular a., popliteal a.

femoral, deep

femoral a.

medial circumflex femoral a., lateral circumflex femoral a., perforating aa. (3 or 4) ascending br., transverse br., descending br. ascending br., descending br.

hip joint, proximal thigh, posterior thigh

femoral, lateral circumflex femoral, medial circumflex fibular

deep femoral a.

lateral thigh and hip

deep femoral a.

medial thigh and hip

posterior tibial a.

nutrient br., lateral malleolar a., communicating br., perforating br.

muscles and fascia of the lateral leg ankle

Artery gastric, left

Source celiac a.

Branches esophageal brs.

Supply to superior part of the stomach near the lesser curvature

gastric, right

proper hepatic a.

no named branches

inferior part of the stomach near the lesser curvature

gastric, short

splenic a.

no named branches

fundus and upper part of the stomach near the greater curvature mid-part of the stomach near the greater curvature; greater omentum

gastro-omental, left splenic a.

gastric brs., omental brs.

gastro-omental, right

gastroduodenal a. gastric brs., omental brs.

lower part of the pyloric region of the stomach, right part of greater curvature of the stomach, greater omentum

gastroduodenal

genicular, descending

common hepatic a. supraduodenal aa., retroduodenal aa., posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a., anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a., right gastro-omental a. femoral a. saphenous br., articular brs.

upper duodenum, upper part of the head of the pancreas; greater curvature of the stomach on the right

skin and superficial structures of the medial aspect of the knee and upper leg

genicular, inferior lateral

popliteal a.

no named branches

lateral aspect of the knee

genicular, inferior medial

popliteal a.

no named branches

medial aspect of the knee

genicular, middle

popliteal a.

no named branches

cruciate ligaments and deep structures of the knee

genicular, superior popliteal a. lateral

no named branches

lateral aspect of knee

genicular, superior popliteal a. medial

no named branches

medial aspect of knee

gluteal, inferior

internal iliac a., anterior division

unnamed muscular branches

gluteus maximus m., hip joint

gluteal, superior

internal iliac, superficial br., deep br. posterior division

gluteus maximus m., gluteus medius m., gluteus minimus m., hip joint lower spinal cord

great anterior radicular

the spinal br. of no named branches the lower posterior intercostal a., subcostal a., or upper lumbar a., usually on left descending palatine a. no named branches

greater palatine

hard palate, palatine glands, palatine mucosa

Artery

Source

Branches

Supply to

hepatic, common

celiac trunk

gastroduodenal a., proper hepatic a.

hepatic, left

proper hepatic a.

segmental aa.

liver, upper parts of the duodenum, upper part of the pancreas, right side of the stomach left lobe of the liver, quadrate lobe of the liver, part of the caudate lobe of the liver

hepatic, proper

common hepatic a. right gastric, right & left hepatic liver, lesser curvature of the stomach proper hepatic a. cystic a., segmental aa. right lobe of the liver, part of the caudate lobe of the liver intercostal muscles of intercostal spaces 1 and 2, vertebral column, deep back muscles deltoid m.; arm muscles near the surgical neck of the humerus

hepatic, right

highest intercostal costocervical trunk posterior intercostal aa. for intercostal spaces 1-2

humeral, anterior circumflex

axillary a., 3rd part unnamed muscular branches

humeral, posterior axillary a., 3rd part unnamed muscular branches circumflex

deltoid; arm muscles near the surgical neck of the humerus

Artery ileocolic

Source superior mesenteric a. abdominal aorta

iliac, common

Branches Supply to colic br., anterior cecal br., cecum, appendix, terminal posterior cecal br., appendicular portion of the ileum a., ileal br. external iliac a., internal iliac a. pelvis, lower limb

iliac, external

common iliac a.

inferior epigastric a., deep circumflex iliac a., femoral a.

lower limb

iliac, internal

common iliac a.

anterior division gives rise to the pelvic viscera, gluteal region, hip, : umbilical a., obturator a., medial thigh uterine a., vaginal a., inferior vesical a., middle rectal a., internal pudendal a., inferior gluteal a.; posterior division gives rise to the: iliolumbar a., lateral sacral a., superior gluteal a.

iliolumbar

internal iliac a., iliac br., lumbar br. posterior division maxillary a. lingual br., mylohyoid a., dental brs., mental a. cremasteric a.

iliacus m., psoas major m., quadratus lumborum m. mandibular teeth and gingiva; mandible; mylohyoid m. lower rectus abdominis m., pyramidalis m., lower abdominal wall gluteus maximus m., hip joint

inferior alveolar

inferior epigastric

external iliac a.

inferior gluteal

internal iliac a., anterior division

unnamed muscular branches

inferior labial

facial a.

no named branches

skin, muscles, fasciae and mucosa of the lower lip internal part of the inferior larynx lateral aspect of the knee

inferior laryngeal

inferior thyroid a. no named branches

inferior lateral genicular

popliteal a.

no named branches

inferior medial genicular

popliteal a.

no named branches

medial aspect of the knee

inferior mesenteric abdominal aorta at left colic a., sigmoid aa.(2-3), the level of the L3 superior rectal a. vertebral body inferior pancreatic dorsal pancreatic, no named branches left br. inferior superior pancreaticoduoden mesenteric a. al anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a., posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. superior suprarenal aa.

splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, superior part of rectum lower part of the body of the pancreas lower duodenum, head of the pancreas

inferior phrenic

abdominal aorta

diaphragm, suprarenal gland

inferior rectal

internal pudendal a.

no named branches

anus, ischioanal fossa

inferior suprarenal renal a.

numerous unnamed branches

inferior aspect of the suprarenal gland thyroid gland, lower larynx, upper trachea, upper esophagus, deep neck muscles

inferior thyroid

thyrocervical trunk ascending cervical a., inferior laryngeal a., esophageal brs., tracheal brs., glandular brs.

inferior ulnar collateral inferior vesical

brachial a.

unnamed muscular branches

lower medial arm lower part of the urinary bladder, prostate/vagina

internal iliac a., no named branches anterior division or it may arise from the middle rectal a. maxillary a. anterior superior alveolar a., middle superior alveolar a.

infraorbital

intercostal, anterior internal thoracic a. unnamed muscular branches (upper 6 intercostal spaces), musculophrenic a. (7-10th intercostal spaces)

maxillary sinus, maxillary incisors, canine and premolar teeth, skin of the cheek below the orbit, mucosa over the maxillary alveolar arch and the adjacent cheek intercostal muscles anteriorly; skin overlying the intercostal muscles

intercostal, highest costocervical trunk posterior intercostal aa. for intercostal spaces 1-2

intercostal muscles of intercostal spaces 1 and 2, vertebral column, deep back muscles intercostal muscles, spinal cord and vertebral column, deep back muscles, skin and superficial fascia overlying the intercostal spaces

intercostal, posterior

highest intercostal posterior br., spinal br., anterior (upper 2 br., collateral br., lateral intercostal spaces), cutaneous br. descending thoracic aorta (3rd11th intercostal spaces)

internal carotid

common carotid a. none in the neck; in the head: ophthalmic a., posterior communicating a., anterior cerebral a., middle cerebral a.

brain; eye and orbit; forehead

internal iliac

common iliac a.

anterior division gives rise to the pelvic viscera, gluteal region, hip, : umbilical a., obturator a., medial thigh uterine a., vaginal a., inferior vesical a., middle rectal a., internal pudendal a., inferior gluteal a.; posterior division gives rise to the: iliolumbar a., lateral sacral a., superior gluteal a. inferior rectal a., perineal a., artery of the bulb of the clitoris/penis, urethral a., deep clitoral/penile a., dorsal clitoral/penile a. anus, muscles of the superficial and deep perineal spaces, clitoris/penis, posterior aspect of the scrotum/labium majus

internal pudendal

internal iliac a., anterior division

internal thoracic

subclavian a. (1st part)

pericardiocophrenic a., perforating brs., anterior intercostal aa., mediastinal brs., thymic brs., musculophrenic a., superior epigastric a. unnamed muscular branches

mediastinum, anterior thoracic wall, anterior abdominal wall, respiratory diaphragm

interosseous recurrent interosseous, anterior

posterior interosseous a. common interosseous a.

anconeus m., elbow joint

muscular brs.; a. of the median nerve

interosseous, common

ulnar a.

anterior interosseous a., posterior interosseous a.

flexor pollicis longus m., flexor digitorum profundus m., pronator quadratus m., radius, ulna, carpal bones deep structures of the forearm

interosseous, posterior

common interosseous a.

interosseous recurrent

intestinal

superior mesenteric a.

arterial arches

muscles of the posterior (extensor) forearm compartment: supinator m., abductor pollicis longus m., extensor pollicis longus m., extensor pollicis brevis m., extensor indicis m. jejunum, ileum

Artery labial, inferior

Source facial a.

Branches no named branches

Supply to skin, muscles, fasciae and mucosa of the lower lip posterior aspect of the labium majus skin, muscles, fasciae and mucosa of the upper lip, lower part of the anterior end of the nasal septum internal ear

labial, posterior

perineal a.

no named branches

labial, superior

facial a.

septal br.

labyrinthine

anterior inferior cerebellar a. (or basilar a.) ophthalmic a.

no named branches

lacrimal laryngeal, inferior

lateral palpebral aa. (2)

inferior thyroid a. no named branches

lacrimal gland, lateral sides of the eyelids internal part of the inferior larynx internal aspect of the superior larynx

laryngeal, superior superior thyroid a. no named branches

lateral mammary

lateral thoracic a.

no named branches

lateral side of the mammary gland

lateral nasal lateral palpebral

facial a. lacrimal a.

no named branches superior br., inferior br.

lateral side of the nose lateral sides of the upper and lower eyelids

lateral plantar

posterior tibial a.

lateral sacral

proper plantar digital a. to lateral deep foot; the plantar arterial side of 5th digit arch and its brs. supply the toes, including the distal phalangeal segment dorsally internal iliac a., spinal brs. sacrum, sacral nerve rootlets, posterior division meninges, adjacent muscles dorsalis pedis a. axillary, 2nd part no named branches unnamed muscular branches tarsal bones and joints of the lateral foot serratus anterior m., parts of adjacent muscles, skin and fascia of the anterolateral thoracic wall lower trachea, bronchial tree descending colon

lateral tarsal lateral thoracic

left bronchial left colic

descending right bronchial a. (occasionally) thoracic aorta inferior mesenteric ascending br., descending br. a.

left coronary

ascending aorta

anterior interventricular a., circumflex a.

left ventricle, left atrium, anterosuperior 2/3 of the interventricular septum

left gastric

celiac a.

esophageal brs.

superior part of the stomach near the lesser curvature

left gastro-omental splenic a.

gastric brs., omental brs.

mid-part of the stomach near the greater curvature; greater omentum

left hepatic

proper hepatic a.

segmental aa.

left lobe of the liver, quadrate lobe of the liver, part of the caudate lobe of the liver

lesser palatine

descending palatine a.

lingual

muscles of the soft palate, mucosa and glands of the soft palate, upper part of the tonsil bed external carotid a. suprahyoid br., dorsal lingual tongue, suprahyoid muscles, brs., deep lingual a., sublingual a. palatine tonsil

no named branches

lingual, deep lingual, dorsal

lingual a. lingual a.

no named branches no named branches

anterior tongue posterior tongue, palatine tonsil, soft palate

lumbar

abdominal aorta

anterior br., posterior br., spinal psoas major m., psoas minor m., br. quadratus lumborum m., spinal cord and vertebral column, deep back muscles

Artery Source malleolar, anterior anterior tibial a. lateral

Branches no named branches

Supply to lateral side of the ankle

malleolar, anterior anterior tibial a. medial malleolar, posterior fibular a. lateral malleolar, posterior posterior tibial a. medial mammary, lateral lateral thoracic a.

no named branches

medial side of the ankle

calcaneal brs.

lateral side of the ankle

no named branches

medial side of the ankle

no named branches

lateral side of the mammary gland

mammary, medial perforating brs. of no named branches the internal thoracic a. marginal formed by anastomoses of branches of the ileocolic a., right colic a., middle colic a., left colic a., sigmoid a. maxillary a. colic brs.

medial side of the mammary gland

colon

masseteric

no named branches

masseter m.

maxillary

external carotid a. deep auricular a., anterior deep face, infratemporal fossa, tympanic a., middle meningeal a., tympanic cavity, muscles of inferior alveolar a., masseteric a., mastication posterior deep temporal a., anterior deep temporal a., buccal a., posterior superior alveolar a., infraorbital a., a. of the pterygoid canal, descending palatine a., sphenopalatine a.

medial mammary

perforating brs. of no named branches the internal thoracic a. ophthalmic a. superior br., inferior br.

medial side of the mammary gland

medial palpebral

medial aspects of the upper and lower eyelids

medial plantar

posterior tibial a.

digital brs. (3)

medial side of the sole of the foot

medial tarsal

dorsalis pedis a.

no named branches

tarsal bones and joints of the medial side of the foot sacrum

median sacral

abdominal aorta

5th lumbar aa.

meningeal, middle maxillary a.

frontal br., parietal br., petrous br., superior tympanic br.

most of the dura mater (approx. 80%), bones of the cranial vault

mental

inferior alveolar a. no named branches

skin, superficial fascia and facial mm. of the chin and lower lip

mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, superior

abdominal aorta at the level of the L3 vertebral body abdominal aorta at the level of the lower 1/3 of the L1 vertebral body

left colic a., sigmoid aa.(2-3), superior rectal a.

metacarpal, dorsal 1st: radial a.; 2-4: dorsal carpal arterial arch metacarpal, palmar deep palmar arch

splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, superior part of rectum inferior pancreaticoduodenal a., inferior part of the head of the middle colic a., jejunal a., ileal a., pancreas, distal duodenum, right colic a., ileocolic a. jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon dorsal digital aa. (2) dorsum of 2 adjacent digits, excluding the distal phalangeal segment proper palmar digital aa. interosseous mm., deep hand

metatarsal, dorsal

dorsalis pedis (1st), dorsal digital aa. (2) arcuate (2nd-4th)

dorsum of digits, excluding the distal phalangeal segment

metatarsal, plantar plantar arterial arch

perforating br., plantar digital aa. interosseous mm., deep portions (2) of the foot; digits including the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment

middle cerebral

internal carotid a.

middle colic

superior mesenteric

lateral frontobasal a.; prefrontal sulcal a.; precentral sulcal a.; central sulcal a.; anterior parietal a.; posterior parietal a.; anterior, middle and posterior temporal aa. right br., left br.

frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, especially on their lateral surfaces

transverse colon

middle collateral middle genicular

deep brachial a. popliteal a.

unnamed muscular branches no named branches

medial head of triceps, anconeus cruciate ligaments and deep structures of the knee

middle meningeal maxillary a.

frontal br., parietal br., petrous br., superior tympanic br.

most of the dura mater (approx. 80%), bones of the cranial vault

middle rectal

internal iliac, anterior division infraorbital a.

no named branches

middle portion of the rectum

middle superior alveolar

dental brs., mucosal brs.

maxillary premolar teeth; part of the maxillary sinus

middle suprarenal abdominal aorta

numerous unnamed branches

medial side of the suprarenal gland

middle temporal

superficial temporal a.

no named branches

temporalis m.

musculophrenic

internal thoracic a. anterior intercostal aa.

mylohyoid

inferior alveolar a. no named branches

anterior diaphragm, anterior aspects of intercostal spaces 7-10 or 11 mylohyoid m.

Artery nasal, dorsal nasal, lateral

Source ophthalmic a. facial a.

Branches no named branches no named branches

Supply to dorsum of the nose lateral side of the nose

nodal, atrioventricular

nodal, sinuatrial

right coronary a. no named branches near the point where it becomes the posterior interventricular a. right coronary a. no named branches

atrioventricular node and the surrounding myocardium

sinuatrial node and the surrounding myocardium

Artery obturator

Source internal iliac a., anterior division

Branches Supply to pubic br., acetabular br., anterior medial thigh and hip br., posterior br.

occipital

external carotid a. sternocleidomastoid brs., auricular br., mastoid br., descending br., occipital brs.

lateral neck, posterior neck, posterior scalp

of bulb of penis

internal pudendal a.

no named branches

bulb of the penis and associated tissues

of bulb of vestibule

internal pudendal a.

no named branches

bulb of the vestibule and associated tissues

ophthalmic

internal carotid a.

central retinal a., lacrimal a., muscular brs., anterior ethmoidal a., posterior ethmoidal a., medial palpebral a., supraorbital a., supratrochlear a., dorsal nasal a.

optic nerve, optic chiasm optic tract, retina, extraocular mm., eyelids, forehead, ethmoidal air cells, lateral nasal wall, dorsum of the nose

ovarian

abdominal aorta

tubal brs., uterine brs.

ovary, uterine tube

Artery Source palatine, ascending facial a.

Branches no named branches

Supply to superior pharyngeal constrictor, soft palate, palatine tonsil

palatine, descending

maxillary a.

greater palatine a., lesser palatine palate a.

palatine, greater

descending palatine a.

no named branches

hard palate, palatine glands, palatine mucosa

palatine, lesser

descending palatine a.

no named branches

palmar arch, deep radial a., deep br. of ulnar a.

muscles of the soft palate, mucosa and glands of the soft palate, upper part of the tonsil bed palmar metacarpal aa. (2nd-4th), deep palm, digits including the perforating brs. dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment superficial palm, palmar surface of the digits excluding thumb, dorsum of the distal phalangeal segments of digits 2-5 palmar aspect two adjacent digits

palmar arch, superficial

ulnar a., superficial common palmar digital aa. (3) palmar br. of the radial a.

palmar digital, common palmar digital, proper

superficial palmar proper palmar digital aa. (2) arterial arch common palmar digital a. no named branches

palmar aspect of each digit

palmar metacarpal deep palmar arch

proper palmar digital aa.

interosseous mm., deep hand

palpebral, lateral

lacrimal a.

superior br., inferior br.

lateral sides of the upper and lower eyelids

palpebral, medial

ophthalmic a.

superior br., inferior br.

medial aspects of the upper and lower eyelids

pancreatic, caudal splenic a.

numerous small aa. that supply the pancreas

tail of the pancreas

pancreatic, dorsal

splenic a.

right br., left br.

neck of the pancreas

pancreatic, inferior dorsal pancreatic, left br. pancreatic, superior splenic a.

no named branches

lower part of the body of the pancreas superior part of the body of the pancreas body of the pancreas

no named branches

pancreatica magna splenic a.

numerous unnamed brs. within the pancreas

pancreaticoduoden inferior pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. al, anterior inferior pancreaticoduoden al a.

lower duodenum and head of the pancreas

pancreaticoduoden gastroduodenal a. pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. al, anterior superior

upper duodenum and head of the pancreas

pancreaticoduoden superior al, inferior mesenteric a.

anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a., posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a.

lower duodenum, head of the pancreas

pancreaticoduoden inferior pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. al, posterior pancreaticoduoden inferior al a.

lower duodenum and head of the pancreas

pancreaticoduoden gastroduodenal a. pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. al, posterior superior

upper duodenum and head of the pancreas

pectoral penis, deep

thoracoacromial trunk internal pudendal a.

unnamed muscular branches no named branches

pectoralis major m., pectoralis minor m. corpus cavernosum of the penis

penis, dorsal

internal pudendal a.

no named branches

superficial tissues of the penis

penis, of bulb

internal pudendal a.

no named branches

bulb of the penis and associated tissues

pericardiacophreni internal thoracic a. pericardial br., sternal br., c mediastinal br. pericardial pericardiacophreni no named branches c a. perineal internal pudendal a.

pericardial sac, pleura, diaphragm pericardial sac

posterior labial/scrotal; deep br. posterior aspect of the scrotum/labium majus; muscles of the superficial perineal space pharyngeal brs., inferior tympanic, posterior meningeal pharynx

pharyngeal, ascending

external carotid

phrenic, inferior

abdominal aorta

superior suprarenal aa.

diaphragm, suprarenal gland

phrenic, superior

descending thoracic aorta (2 small brs.)

no named branches

diaphragm

plantar arterial arch lateral plantar a.

plantar metatarsal aa. (4)

deep foot; its plantar metatarsal brs. and their brs. supply the toes, including the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment

plantar metatarsal plantar arterial arch

plantar, deep

dorsalis pedis

perforating br., plantar digital aa. interosseous mm., deep portions (2) of the foot; digits including the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment plantar metatarsal aa. (4) deep foot; its plantar metatarsal brs. and their brs. supply the toes, including the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment proper plantar digital a. to lateral deep foot; the plantar arterial side of 5th digit arch and its brs. supply the toes, including the distal phalangeal segment dorsally digital brs. (3) medial side of the sole of the foot

plantar, lateral

posterior tibial a.

plantar, medial

posterior tibial a.

popliteal

femoral a.

anterior tibial a., posterior tibial a., 5 genicular brs.

knee, leg and foot

posterior auricular external carotid a. stylomastoid br., auricular br., occipital br. posterior cecal posterior cerebral ileocolic a. basilar a.

part of the external ear, scalp and deeper structures posterior to the ear may give off the appendicular a. posterior surface of the cecum posterior cerebral a.; anterior and posterior temporal brs.; medial occipital a. part of the brainstem (oculomotor nucleus, nucleus of Edinger-Westphal, trochlear nucleus); medial and inferior portions of the temporal lobe; occipital lobe deltoid; arm muscles near the surgical neck of the humerus

posterior axillary a., 3rd part unnamed muscular branches circumflex humeral

posterior communicating

internal carotid a.

perforating aa.

an anastomotic connection

posterior deep temporal

maxillary a.

no named branches

posterior part of the temporalis m.

posterior ethmoidal posterior inferior cerebellar

ophthalmic a.

no named branches

posterior ethmoidal air cells; olfactory nerves part of cerebellum; medulla (cochlear nucleus, vestibular nucleus, dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus) lower duodenum and head of the pancreas

vertebral a.

posterior spinal a.

posterior inferior inferior pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. pancreaticoduoden pancreaticoduoden al al a.

posterior intercostal

highest intercostal posterior br., spinal br., anterior (upper 2 br., collateral br., lateral intercostal spaces), cutaneous br. descending thoracic aorta (3rd11th intercostal spaces)

intercostal muscles, spinal cord and vertebral column, deep back muscles, skin and superficial fascia overlying the intercostal spaces

posterior interosseous

common interosseous a.

interosseous recurrent

posterior labial

perineal a.

no named branches

muscles of the posterior (extensor) forearm compartment: supinator m., abductor pollicis longus m., extensor pollicis longus m., extensor pollicis brevis m., extensor indicis m. posterior aspect of the labium majus lateral side of the ankle

posterior lateral malleolar posterior medial malleolar

fibular a.

calcaneal brs.

posterior tibial a.

no named branches

medial side of the ankle

posterior radicular they arise as no named branches multiple branches of several vessels (vertebral, posterior intercostal, lumbar, and lateral sacral aa.) posterior scrotal perineal a. no named branches

meninges; spinal cord; spinal nerve; dorsal rootlets

posterior aspect of the scrotum

posterior septal

sphenopalatine a. no named branches (several small brs.)

posterior aspect of the nasal septum

posterior spinal

contributions pial arterial plexus received from several arteries (posterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, lateral sacral aa.)

spinal cord, especially the dorsal columns; medulla (nucleus cuneatus and nucleus gracilis)

posterior superior maxillary a. alveolar

dental brs., mucosal brs.

maxillary molar teeth; part of the maxillary sinus upper duodenum and head of the pancreas

posterior superior gastroduodenal a. pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. pancreaticoduoden al

posterior tibial

popliteal a.

fibular a. (peroneal), circumflex posterior and lateral leg, plantar fibular a., nutrient a. of the tibia, aspect of the foot communicating br., posterior medial malleolar brs., medial calcaneal brs., lateral plantar a., medial plantar a.

posterior tibial recurrent

anterior tibial a.

no named branches

posterior knee, popliteus m.

posterior ulnar recurrent

ulnar a.

unnamed muscular branches

medial side of the elbow, forearm flexor mm.

princeps pollicis

radial a.

two brs. to the thumb

palmar aspect of the thumb including the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment

proper hepatic

common hepatic a. right gastric, right & left hepatic liver, lesser curvature of the stomach common palmar digital a. no named branches palmar aspect of each digit

proper palmar digital

proper plantar digital

plantar metatarsal no named branches a., from the plantar arterial arch

plantar aspect of each digit

pudendal, deep external

femoral a.

unnamed muscular branches

pudendal, internal internal iliac a., anterior division

pudendal, femoral a. superficial external

inferior rectal a., perineal a., artery of the bulb of the clitoris/penis, urethral a., deep clitoral/penile a., dorsal clitoral/penile a. no named branches

origins of pectineus m., adductor longus m.; scrotum/labium majus anus, muscles of the superficial and deep perineal spaces, clitoris/penis, posterior aspect of the scrotum/labium majus skin and superficial fascia of the upper medial thigh, skin of the pubic region

pulmonary trunk

right ventricle

right pulmonary a., left pulmonary aa.

lungs

Artery quadrigeminal

Source Branches posterior cerebral no named branches

Supply to trochlear nerve; corpora quadrigemina

Artery radial

Source brachial a.

Branches radial recurrent a., palmar carpal br., superficial palmar br., dorsal carpal br., 1st dorsal metacarpal a., princeps pollicis a., radialis indicis a., deep palmar arterial arch

Supply to posterior elbow, posterior forearm, posterior hand, deep portion of palmar side of the hand, thumb

radial collateral

deep brachial a.

unnamed muscular branches

lower lateral arm

radial recurrent

radial a.

unnamed muscular branches

lateral side of the elbow and adjacent extensor muscles

radialis indicis

radial a.

no named branches

lateral (radial) side of the index finger

radicular, anterior they arise as they accompany the ventral meninges; spinal cord; spinal multiple branches rootlets to reach the spinal cord nerve; ventral rootlets of several vessels (vertebral, posterior intercostal, lumbar, and lateral sacral aa.) radicular, great anterior the spinal br. of no named branches the lower posterior intercostal a., subcostal a., or upper lumbar a., usually on left lower spinal cord

radicular, posterior they arise as no named branches multiple branches of several vessels (vertebral, posterior intercostal, lumbar, and lateral sacral aa.) rectal, inferior internal pudendal a. internal iliac, anterior division no named branches

meninges; spinal cord; spinal nerve; dorsal rootlets

anus, ischioanal fossa

rectal, middle

no named branches

middle portion of the rectum

rectal, superior

inferior mesenteric two unnamed branches a.

superior part of the rectum

recurrent, anterior anterior tibial a. tibial

no named branches

anterior side of the knee and adjacent muscles

recurrent, anterior ulnar a. ulnar recurrent, interosseous posterior interosseous a.

unnamed muscular brs.

unnamed muscular branches

medial side of elbow and proximal ends of forearm flexor mm. anconeus m., elbow joint

recurrent, posterior anterior tibial a. tibial

no named branches

posterior knee, popliteus m.

recurrent, posterior ulnar a. ulnar

unnamed muscular branches

medial side of the elbow, forearm flexor mm.

recurrent, radial

radial a.

unnamed muscular branches

lateral side of the elbow and adjacent extensor muscles

renal

abdominal aorta at the level of the upper border of the L2 vertebra

inferior suprarenal a., apical segmental a., anterior br: superior anterior segmental a., middle anterior segmental a., inferior segmental a.; posterior br.: posterior segmental a.

kidney, upper ureter, suprarenal gland

retroduodenal right colic

gastroduodenal a. multiple unnamed brs. superior ascending br., descending br. mesenteric (or br. of) ascending aorta

posterior portion of the 1st part of the duodenum ascending colon

right coronary

sinuatrial nodal a., right marginal right ventricle, right atrium, a., posterior interventricular a., inferior 1/3 of the atrioventricular nodal a. interventricular septum no named branches inferior part of the stomach near the lesser curvature

right gastric

proper hepatic a.

right gastroomental

gastroduodenal a. gastric brs., omental brs.

lower part of the pyloric region of the stomach, right part of greater curvature of the stomach, greater omentum

right hepatic

proper hepatic a.

cystic a., segmental aa.

right lobe of the liver, part of the caudate lobe of the liver

Artery sacral, lateral

Source Branches internal iliac a., spinal brs. posterior division abdominal aorta 5th lumbar aa.

Supply to sacrum, sacral nerve rootlets, meninges, adjacent muscles sacrum

sacral, median

scapular, circumflex

subscapular a.

unnamed muscular branches

teres major m., teres minor m., infraspinatus m.

scapular, dorsal

subclavian a., 3rd part

unnamed muscular branches

levator scapulae m., rhomboideus major m., rhomboideus minor m.

scrotal, posterior

perineal a.

no named branches

posterior aspect of the scrotum

septal, posterior

sphenopalatine a. no named branches (several small brs.) splenic a. no named branches

posterior aspect of the nasal septum fundus and upper part of the stomach near the greater curvature sigmoid colon

short gastric

sigmoid

inferior mesenteric ascending br., descending br. a.

sinuatrial nodal

right coronary a.

no named branches

sinuatrial node and the surrounding myocardium

sphenopalatine

maxillary a.

posterior lateral nasal brs., posterior septal brs.

spinal, anterior

contributions pial arterial plexus received from several arteries (vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, lateral sacral aa.) contributions pial arterial plexus received from several arteries (posterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, lateral sacral aa.)

posterolateral nasal wall, posteroinferior nasal septum, hard palate behind the maxillary incisor teeth meninges; spinal cord; medulla (dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus, spinal accessory nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus)

spinal, posterior

spinal cord, especially the dorsal columns; medulla (nucleus cuneatus and nucleus gracilis)

splenic

celiac trunk

stylomastoid

dorsal pancreatic a., pancreatic pancreas, spleen, greater brs., pancreatica magna a., caudal curvature of the stomach pancreatic a., short gastric aa., left gastro-omental a., splenic brs. posterior auricular no named branches tympanic cavity, mastoid air cells a.

subclavian

brachiocephalic a. 1st part: vertebral a., (right), aortic arch thyrocervical trunk, internal (left) thoracic a.; 2nd part: costocervical trunk; 3rd part: dorsal scapular a. (70%)

neck, brain, spinal cord, thyroid gland, larynx, shoulder, chest muscles, upper limb

subcostal

descending thoracic aorta

spinal br., collateral br., lateral cutaneous br.

vertebrae, spinal cord; muscles, skin & fascia of the upper abdominal wall mylohyoid m., sublingual gland, floor of the mouth

sublingual

lingual a.

no named branches

submental

facial a.

no named branches

muscles, skin and fascia under the chin; submandibular gland

subscapular

axillary a., 3rd part circumflex scapular a., thoracodorsal a.

subscapularis m., teres major m., teres minor m., infraspinatus m.

superficial epigastric

femoral a.

cutaneous brs.

superficial fascia and skin of the lower abdominal wall

superficial external femoral a. pudendal

no named branches

skin and superficial fascia of the upper medial thigh, skin of the pubic region

superficial palmar ulnar a., superficial common palmar digital aa. (3) arch palmar br. of the radial a.

superficial palm, palmar surface of the digits excluding thumb, dorsum of the distal phalangeal segments of digits 2-5

superficial temporal

external carotid a. transverse facial a.; anterior scalp of the lateral side of the auricular brs.; zygomatico-orbital head; lateral face; temporalis m. a.; middle temporal a.; frontal br.; parietal br. superior cerebellar basilar a. no named branches upper cerebellum; trochlear nucleus

superior epigastric internal thoracic a. no named branches

upper rectus abdominis m., upper abdominal wall

superior gluteal

internal iliac, superficial br., deep br. posterior division

gluteus maximus m., gluteus medius m., gluteus minimus m., hip joint skin, muscles, fasciae and mucosa of the upper lip, lower part of the anterior end of the nasal septum

superior labial

facial a.

septal br.

superior laryngeal superior thyroid a. no named branches

internal aspect of the superior larynx

superior lateral genicular

popliteal a.

no named branches

lateral aspect of knee

superior medial genicular

popliteal a.

no named branches

medial aspect of knee

superior mesenteric

abdominal aorta at inferior pancreaticoduodenal a., the level of the middle colic a., jejunal a., ileal a., lower 1/3 of the right colic a., ileocolic a. L1 vertebral body no named branches

superior pancreatic splenic a.

inferior part of the head of the pancreas, distal duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon superior part of the body of the pancreas diaphragm

superior phrenic

descending thoracic aorta (2 small brs.)

no named branches

superior rectal

inferior mesenteric two unnamed branches a.

superior part of the rectum

superior suprarenal inferior phrenic a. multiple small aa.

superior aspect of the suprarenal gland

superior thoracic

axillary a., 1st part unnamed muscular branches

muscles of intercostal spaces 1 and 2

superior thyroid

superior ulnar collateral superior vesical

external carotid a. infrahyoid br., sternocleidomastoid br., superior laryngeal a., cricothyroid br., glandular brs. brachial a. unnamed muscular branches

thyroid gland, upper part of the larynx, infrahyoid mm., sternocleidomastoid m. medial arm muscles

umbilical a.

no named branches

superior aspect of the bladder

supraduodenal

gastroduodenal a. no named branches

superior portion of the 1st part of the duodenum

supraorbital

ophthalmic a.

no named branches numerous unnamed branches

suprarenal, inferior renal a.

muscles, skin and fascia of the forehead inferior aspect of the suprarenal gland medial side of the suprarenal gland

suprarenal, middle abdominal aorta

numerous unnamed branches

suprarenal, superior

inferior phrenic a. multiple small aa.

superior aspect of the suprarenal gland

suprascapular

thyrocervical trunk muscular

supraspinatus & infraspinatus, shoulder joint

supratrochlear sural

ophthalmic a. popliteal a.

no named branches unnamed muscular aa.

muscles, skin and fascia of the medial forehead gastrocnemius m., soleus m., plantaris m.

Artery tarsal, lateral tarsal, medial

Source dorsalis pedis a. dorsalis pedis a.

Branches no named branches no named branches

Supply to tarsal bones and joints of the lateral foot tarsal bones and joints of the medial side of the foot anterior part of temporalis m. and surrounding deep tissues

temporal, anterior maxillary a. deep

no named branches

temporal, middle

superficial temporal a.

no named branches

temporalis m.

temporal, posterior maxillary a. deep

no named branches

posterior part of the temporalis m.

temporal, superficial

testicular

external carotid a. transverse facial a.; anterior scalp of the lateral side of the auricular brs.; zygomatico-orbital head; lateral face; temporalis m. a.; middle temporal a.; frontal br.; parietal br. abdominal aorta ureteric brs. testis, epididymis, lower part of the ductus deferens, ureter near its midpoint

thoracic, internal

subclavian a. (1st part)

pericardiocophrenic a., perforating brs., anterior intercostal aa., mediastinal brs., thymic brs., musculophrenic a., superior epigastric a.

mediastinum, anterior thoracic wall, anterior abdominal wall, respiratory diaphragm

thoracic, lateral

axillary a., 2nd part unnamed muscular branches

serratus anterior m., parts of adjacent muscles, skin and fascia of the anterolateral thoracic wall muscles of intercostal spaces 1 and 2

thoracic, superior

axillary a., 1st part unnamed muscular branches

thoracoacromial

axillary a., 2nd part pectoral br., clavicular br., acromial br., deltoid br. subscapular a. unnamed muscular branches inferior thyroid a., transverse cervical a., suprascapular a.

thoracodorsal

pectoralis major m., pectoralis minor m., subclavius m., deltoid m., shoulder joint latissimus dorsi m. lower neck, posterior shoulder, thyroid gland

thyrocervical trunk subclavian a., 1st part

thyroid, inferior

thyroid, superior

thyroidea ima

thyrocervical trunk ascending cervical a., inferior laryngeal a., esophageal brs., tracheal brs., glandular brs. external carotid a. infrahyoid br., sternocleidomastoid br., superior laryngeal a., cricothyroid br., glandular brs. brachiocephalic a. no named branches or aortic arch

thyroid gland, lower larynx, upper trachea, upper esophagus, deep neck muscles thyroid gland, upper part of the larynx, infrahyoid mm., sternocleidomastoid m. isthmus of the thyroid gland, upper trachea

tibial recurrent, anterior

anterior tibial a.

no named branches

anterior side of the knee and adjacent muscles

tibial recurrent, posterior

anterior tibial a.

no named branches

posterior knee, popliteus m.

tibial, anterior

popliteal a.

anterior tibial recurrent a., posterior tibial recurrent a., anterior malleolar a., medial malleolar a., lateral malleolar a., dorsalis pedis a.

anterior leg; dorsum of foot and deep foot

tibial, posterior

popliteal a.

fibular a. (peroneal), circumflex posterior and lateral leg, plantar fibular a., nutrient a. of the tibia, aspect of the foot communicating br., posterior medial malleolar brs., medial calcaneal brs., lateral plantar a., medial plantar a.

transverse cervical thyrocervical trunk unnamed muscular branches, possibly the dorsal scapular a. transverse facial superficial temporal a. no named branches

trapezius muscle and surrounding tissues parotid gland, masseter m., facial muscles and skin

trunk, brachiocephalic trunk, celiac

aortic arch

trunk, costocervical

right side of the head and neck; right upper limb and right side of the chest wall abdominal aorta at left gastric a., splenic a., common stomach, lower esophagus, liver, the level of the hepatic a. upper duodenum, pancreas, T12-L1 spleen intervertebral disc subclavian a., 2nd deep cervical a., highest deep muscles of the posterior part intercostal a. neck; posterior ends of the first 2 intercostal spaces

right common carotid a., right subclavian a.

trunk, pulmonary

right ventricle

right pulmonary a., left pulmonary aa.

lungs

tympanic, anterior maxillary a.

no named branches

middle ear

trunk, thyrocervical

subclavian a., 1st part

inferior thyroid a., transverse cervical a., suprascapular a.

lower neck, posterior shoulder, thyroid gland

Artery

Source

Branches

Supply to

ulnar

brachial a.

anterior ulnar recurrent a., medial side of the anterior posterior ulnar recurrent a., forearm, posterior forearm, common interosseous a., palmar superficial palm, fingers carpal br., dorsal carpal br., deep palmar br., superficial palmar arterial arch

ulnar collateral, inferior ulnar collateral, superior ulnar recurrent, anterior ulnar recurrent, posterior

brachial a. brachial a.

unnamed muscular branches unnamed muscular branches

lower medial arm medial arm muscles

ulnar a.

unnamed muscular brs.

ulnar a.

unnamed muscular branches

medial side of elbow and proximal ends of forearm flexor mm. medial side of the elbow, forearm flexor mm.

umbilical

internal iliac a., anterior division

superior vesical aa., a. of the ductus deferens

superior part of the bladder; ductus deferens

urethral

internal pudendal a. internal iliac a., anterior division

no named branches

penile urethra

uterine

tubal br., vaginal br.

uterus, uterine tube

Artery vaginal

vertebral

Source Branches internal iliac a., numerous unnamed branches anterior division; occasionally it arises from uterine a. subclavian a.(1st spinal brs., muscular brs., part) anterior spinal a., posterior inferior cerebellar a., medullary brs., meningeal brs., basilar a.

Supply to vagina

vesical, inferior

internal iliac a., no named branches anterior division or it may arise from the middle rectal a.

deep neck, cervical spinal cord, spinal cord; medulla (dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus, spinal accessory nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus) lower part of the urinary bladder, prostate/vagina

vesical, superior

umbilical a.

no named branches

superior aspect of the bladder

vestibule, bulb of

internal pudendal a.

no named branches

bulb of the vestibule and associated tissues

betically
Notes anterior superior alveolar a. is located between the inner and outer tables of bone of the maxilla inferior alveolar a. runs with the inferior alveolar nerve within the mandibular canal middle superior alveolar a. is located between the inner and outer tables of bone of the maxilla posterior superior alveolar a. enters the maxilla in the infratemporal fossa angular a. is the terminal branch of the facial a. anterior cecal a. supplies the ileocecal junction the anterior communicating a. unites the two anterior cerebral aa. across the midline

anterior circumflex humeral a. anastomoses with the posterior circumflex humeral a. anterior communicating a. is a short vessel of anastomosis which crosses the midline to join the paired anterior cerebral aa.; it is part of the Circle of Willis anterior deep temporal a. branches in the infratemporal fossa and runs deep to temporalis m. anterior ethmoidal a. leaves the orbit through the anterior ethmoidal foramen, then runs forward on the cribriform plate shares its region of supply with branches of the basilar a.

anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the anterior pancreatic arcade

anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the anterior pancreatic arcade there are two anterior intercostal aa. per side per intercostal space, one coursing above and one coursing below each rib

anterior interosseous a. pierces the interosseous membrane at its distal end to reach the dorsal carpal anastomosis anterior lateral malleolar a. anastomoses with the posterior lateral malleolar a. and the perforating br. of the fibular a. anterior medial malleolar a. anastomoses with the posterior medial malleolar a. anterior radicular aa. anastomose with the anterior spinal a.

anterior spinal a. anastomoses with the anterior radicular brs. of the spinal rami of the vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and lateral sacral aa.

anterior superior alveolar a. is located between the inner and outer tables of bone of the maxilla anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the anterior pancreatic arcade anterior tibial a. becomes continuous with the dorsalis pedis a.; the name change occurs at the level of the ankle joint

anterior tibial recurrent a. anastomoses with the genicular aa. to participate in the formation of the genicular anastomosis anterior tympanic a. passes through the petrotympanic fissure along with the chorda tympani n. anterior ulnar recurrent a. often arises in common with the posterior ulnar recurrent a. abdominal aorta passes posterior to the diaphragm (aortic hiatus) at the level of the T12 vertebral body

ascending aorta is the shortest part of the aorta; it continues as the aortic arch descending thoracic aorta passes posterior to the diaphragm (aortic hiatus) at the level of the T12 vertebral body; it is continuous with the abdominal aorta aortic arch continues as the descending thoracic aorta; the fibrous ligamentum arteriosum connects to the inferior surface of the aortic arch and it marks the location of the fetal ductus arteriosus aortic arch continues as the descending thoracic aorta despite its variable origin, appendicular artery is nearly constant in its course posterior to the terminal part of the ileum aortic arch continues as the descending thoracic aorta; the fibrous ligamentum arteriosum connects to the inferior surface of the aortic arch and it marks the location of the fetal ductus arteriosus aortic arch continues as the descending thoracic aorta deep palmar arterial arch receives the majority of its blood supply from the radial a.

dorsal carpal arterial arch receives the majority of its blood supply from the radial a. plantar arterial arch anastomoses with the deep plantar br. of the dorsalis pedis a.

superficial palmar arterial arch receives the majority of its blood supply from the ulnar a.

arcuate a. anastomoses with the lateral tarsal a.

arcuate aa. of the kidney are numerous artery of the ductus deferens is also known as: deferential a.

artery to the atrioventricular node is located at the junction of the coronary sulcus and the posterior interventricular sulcus artery to the sinuatrial node is important artery to locate during cardiac surgical procedures ascending aorta is the shortest part of the aorta; it continues as the aortic arch ascending cervical a. ascends on the anterior surface of the anterior scalene m. beside the phrenic n. ascending palatine a. shares supply of the tonsil bed with 4 other aa. (see also: tonsillar br. of the facial a., palatine br. of the ascending pharyngeal a., tonsillar br. of the dorsal lingual a., tonsillar br. of the descending palatine a.) ascending pharyngeal a. arises from the medial side of the external carotid a. close to the birfurcation artery to the atrioventricular node is located at the junction of the coronary sulcus and the posterior interventricular sulcus deep auricular a. is small and difficult to dissect

posterior auricular and greater occipital share their region of distribution pectoralis minor m. crosses anterior to the axillary artery and is used to delineate the 3 parts mentioned at left

Notes basilar a. contributes blood to the cerebral arterial circle

brachial a. normally terminates at the level of the elbow, but high branching may occur

deep brachial a. spirals around the shaft of the humerus in the radial groove where it is susceptible to injury in mid-shaft fractures there is only one brachiocephalic trunk there are usually two left bronchial aa. right bronchial a. may arise from the left bronchial a. buccal a. runs with the buccal branch of CN V artery of the bulb of the penis courses within the deep perineal space to enter the deep surface of the bulb artery of the bulb of the vestibule courses within the deep perineal space to enter the deep surface of the bulb

Notes caroticotympanic a. courses through the petrous portion of the temporal bone

common carotid a. bifurcates at the level of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage; the internal carotid a. and the external carotid a. are its terminal brs.; the carotid sinus and carotid body are located at the bifurcation external carotid a. is the primary blood supply to the face and superficial head; the maxillary a. and superficial temporal a. are its terminal branches internal carotid a. is the primary blood supply to the brain; it anastomoses with the vertebral aa. and the contralateral internal carotid a. in the cerebral arterial circle (of Willis); anterior and middle cerebral aa. are the terminal brs. of the internal carotid a. dorsal carpal arterial arch receives the majority of its blood supply from the radial a. caudal pancreatic a. enters the tail of the pancreas near the hilum of the spleen; it may arise from the left gastro-omental a. anterior cecal a. supplies the ileocecal junction posterior cecal a. supplies the ileocecal junction celiac trunk supplies the foregut derivatives

central a. of the retina is the sole blood supply to the retina; it has no significant collateral circulation and blockage of this vessel leads to blindness; its branches are viewed in a funduscopic exam anterior inferior cerebella a. shares its region of supply with branches of the basilar a.

posterior inferior cerebellar a. shares its region of supply with the vertebral a. and anterior spinal a. (watershed region)

there may be more than one superior cerebellar a. arising from the basilar a. on each side the anterior communicating a. unites the two anterior cerebral aa. across the midline

also known as: arterial circle of Willis

the middle cerebral a. is the direct continuation of the internal carotid a.

the two posterior cerebral aa. are the terminal brs. of the basilar a.

ascending cervical a. ascends on the anterior surface of the anterior scalene m. beside the phrenic n. deep cervical a. anastomoses with the occipital a. near the occipital bone transverse cervical a. gives rise to the dorsal scapular a. ~30% of the time choroidal a. follows the optic tract anterior ciliary aa. course deep to the conjunctiva to reach the region surrounding the iris

posterior ciliary aa. may be classified as short (supplying the posterior eyeball) and lone (supplying the anterior eyeball); short and long posterior ciliary aa. are identical in their size and course external to the eyeball circumflex a. courses in the atrioventricular (coronary) sulcus lateral circumflex femoral a. arises from the femoral a. in ~14% of cases medial circumflex femoral a. arises from the femoral a. in ~20% of cases arises from the tibial a. before the tibial a. pierces the interosseous membrane anterior circumflex humeral a. anastomoses with the posterior circumflex humeral a. posterior circumflex humeral a. anastomoses with the anterior circumflex humeral a.; it passes through the quadrangular space with the axillary nerve deep circumflex iliac a. courses along the iliac crest on the inner surface of the abdominal wall superficial circumflex iliac a. crosses the upper thigh parallel to the inguinal ligament circumflex scapular a. anastomoses with the suprascapular a. and the dorsal scapular a. to form the scapular anastomosis deep a. of the clitoris and dorsal a. of the clitoris are the terminal brs. of the internal pudendal a. dorsal a. of the clitoris and deep a. of the clitoris are the terminal brs. of the internal pudendal a. left colic a. anastomoses with the middle colic a and the sigmoid a.to form part of the marginal a. middle colic a. anastomoses with the right colic a. and the left colic a. to form part of the marginal a.

right colic a. anastomoses with the ileocolic a. and the middle colic a. to form part of the marginal a. anastomoses with the anterior ulnar recurrent a. anastomoses with the interosseous recurrent a. travels with the radial nerve; anastomoses with the radial recurrent a. travels with the ulnar nerve; anastomoses with posterior ulnar recurrent a. common carotid a. bifurcates at the level of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage; the internal carotid a. and the external carotid a. are its terminal brs.; the carotid sinus and carotid body are located at the bifurcation common hepatic a. is one of three brs. of the celiac trunk (see also: left gastric a., splenic a.) abdominal aorta bifurcates at the level of the L4 vertebral body to form the right and left common iliac aa.; the common iliac artery bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac articulation into its terminal brs. (external iliac a. and internal iliac a.) common interosseous a. supplies the deep forearm flexor and deep forearm extensor muscles common palmar digital aa. anastomose with palmar metacarpal aa. anterior communicating a. is a short vessel of anastomosis which crosses the midline to join the paired anterior cerebral aa.; it is part of the Circle of Willis a vessel of anastomosis which connects the internal carotid a. to the posterior cerebral a.; part of the cerebral arterial circle (of Willis)

left coronary a. arises superior to the left cusp of the aortic semilunar valve; during its short course, it is located in the coronary sulcus; the anterior interventricular a. and the circumflex a. are its terminal brs. right coronary a. usually provides the posterior interventricular a.; it courses within the coronary sulcus costocervical trunk is located between the anterior scalene m. and the middle scalene m.; it arches posteriorly over the cervical parietal pleura cremasteric a. is one of the contents of the spermatic cord; it anastomoses with the testicular artery distally cricothyroid a. travels with the external br. of the superior laryngeal n. cystic a. arises from the right hepatic a. in ~72% of cases; other possible origins are noted at left and are clinically relevant during gall bladder surgery

Notes deep brachial a. spirals around the shaft of the humerus in the radial groove where it is susceptible to injury in mid-shaft fractures deep cervical a. anastomoses with the occipital a. near the occipital bone deep external pudendal a. may arise from the medial circumflex femoral a. deep femoral a. is the primary blood supply to muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh deep lingual a. is the terminal br. of the lingual a. deep palmar arterial arch receives the majority of its blood supply from the radial a.

anastomoses with lateral plantar a. to form the plantar arterial arch; the branches mentioned at left arise from the plantar arterial arch deep a. of the clitoris and dorsal a. of the clitoris are the terminal brs. of the internal pudendal a. deep a. of the penis and dorsal a. of the penis are the terminal brs. of the internal pudendal a. descending genicular a. anastomoses with the genicular brs. of the popliteal a. descending palatine a. accompanies the greater palatine n. within the palatine canal common palmar digital aa. anastomose with palmar metacarpal aa. proper palmar digital aa. supply the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment and nail bed proper plantar digital aa. supply the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment and nail bed dorsal carpal arterial arch receives the majority of its blood supply from the radial a. dorsal digital aa. do not supply the nail bed dorsal digital aa. do not supply the nail bed dorsal lingual a. is only one of five arteries that supply the tonsil bed each dorsal metacarpal a. gives off a perforating br. that anastomoses with the deep palmar arterial arch each dorsal metatarsal a. gives off a perforating br. that anastomoses with the plantar arterial arch dorsal nasal a. anastomoses with the angular a.

right br.of the dorsal pancreatic a. anastomoses with the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. in the prepancreatic arcade dorsal scapular a. anastomoses with the suprascapular a. and the subscapular a. to form the scapular anastomosis; dorsal scapular a is a branch of the transverse cervical a. in ~30% of cases dorsal a. of the clitoris and deep a. of the clitoris are the terminal brs. of the internal pudendal a. dorsal a. of the penis and deep a. of the penis are the terminal brs. of the internal pudendal a. dorsalis pedis a. anastomoses with the plantar arterial arch; the anterior tibial artery continues as the dorsalis pedis - the name change occurs at the level of the ankle artery of the ductus deferens is also known as: deferential a.

Notes inferior epigastric a. anastomoses with the superior epigastric a. within the rectus abdominis m. superficial epigastric a. is one of three superficial arteries that arise from the femoral a. (see also: superficial circumflex iliac a. and superficial external pudendal a.) superior epigastric a. is the direct continuation of the internal thoracic a.; it s anastomoses with the inferior epigastric a. within the rectus abdominis m.

there are usually two (sometimes 3) esophageal brs. off of the aorta; the left gastric a. gives esophageal brs. that ascend to supply the abdominal esophagus and lowest part of the thoracic esophagus; anastomoses occur between the esophageal brs. of the aorta and left gastric a.

anterior ethmoidal a. leaves the orbit through the anterior ethmoidal foramen, then runs forward on the cribriform plate posterior ethmoidal a. leaves the orbit through the posterior ethmoidal foramen external carotid a. is the primary blood supply to the face and superficial head; the maxillary a. and superficial temporal a. are its terminal branches external iliac a. is continuous with the femoral a., the name change occurs at the inguinal ligament; the common iliac artery bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac articulation deep external pudendal a. may arise from the medial circumflex femoral a. superficial external pudendal a. is one of three superficial branches of the femoral a. near the inguinal ligament (see also: superficial circumflex iliac a., superficial epigastric a.)

Notes the angular branch of the facial a. anastomoses with the ophthalmic a. transverse facial a. anastomoses with branches of the buccal, infraorbital and facial aa. femoral a. is continuous with the popliteal a., the name change occurs at the adductor hiatus

deep femoral a. is the primary blood supply to muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh lateral circumflex femoral a. arises from the femoral a. in ~14% of cases medial circumflex femoral a. arises from the femoral a. in ~20% of cases fibular a. anastomoses at the ankle with the anterior and posterior tibial aa.; also known as: peroneal a.

Notes left gastric a. anastomoses with the right gastric a. on the lesser curvature of the stomach; it also anastomoses with the esophageal brs. of the thoracic aorta right gastric a. anastomoses with the left gastric a. on the lesser curvature of the stomach short gastric aa. reach the stomach by passing through the gastrosplenic ligament; they are usually 4-5 in number left gastro-omental a. anastomoses with the right gastro-omental a. near the greater curvature of the stomach; also known as: left gastroepiploic a. right gastro-omental a anastomoses with the left gastroomental a. near the greater curvature of the stomach; also known as: right gastroepiploic a. gastroduodenal a. supplies the lowest portion of the foregut and its derivatives

descending genicular a. anastomoses with the genicular brs. of the popliteal a.

inferior lateral genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis inferior medial genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis middle genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis superior lateral genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis superior medial genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis inferior gluteal a. participates in the formation of the cruciate anastomoses of the hip superior gluteal a. participates in the formation of the cruciate anastomoses of the hip great anterior radicular a. anastomoses with the anterior spinal a. at lower thoracic or upper lumbar spinal cord levels

greater palatine a. accompanies the greater palatine n., it is endangered by anesthetic injections for dental procedures

Notes

common hepatic a. supplies some of the foregut derivatives

left hepatic a. supplies the liver parenchyma and stroma; an aberrant left hepatic a. may arise from the left gastric a. proper hepatic a. supplies the foregut derivatives associated with the liver bud right hepatic a. supplies the liver parenchyma and stroma highest intercostal a. is also known as: supreme intercostal a.

anterior circumflex humeral a. anastomoses with the posterior circumflex humeral a. posterior circumflex humeral a. anastomoses with the anterior circumflex humeral a.; it passes through the quadrangular space with the axillary nerve

Notes colic br. of the ileocolic a. participates in the formation of the marginal a. abdominal aorta bifurcates at the level of the L4 vertebral body to form the right and left common iliac aa.; the common iliac artery bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac articulation into its terminal brs. (external iliac a. and internal iliac a.) external iliac a. is continuous with the femoral a., the name change occurs at the inguinal ligament; the common iliac artery bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac articulation common iliac artery bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac articulation to form the internal iliac a. and the external iliac a.

lumbar br. of the iliolumbar a. sends a small spinal br. into the vertebral canal inferior alveolar a. runs with the inferior alveolar nerve within the mandibular canal inferior epigastric m. anastomoses with the superior epigastric m. within the rectus abdominis m. inferior gluteal a. participates in the formation of the cruciate anastomoses of the hip inferior labial a. shares its region of distribution with branches of the mental a. inferior laryngeal a. accompanies the inferior laryngeal n. inferior lateral genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis inferior medial genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis branches of the inferior mesenteric a anastomose in the marginal artery inferior pancreatic a. may be imbedded in the substance of the gland inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. supplies both the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lower duodenum and lower part of the head of the pancreas inferior phrenic a. is the first abdominal branch of the aorta; it may arise from the celiac trunk inferior rectal a. anastomoses with the middle rectal a. and the superior rectal a. inferior suprarenal a. may anastomose with the superior suprarenal a. inferior thyroid a. gives rise to the ascending cervical a. as it arches medially

anastomoses with the anterior ulnar recurrent a. inferior vesical a. anastomoses with the middle rectal a.

infraorbital a. is one of four terminal branches of the maxillary a. (see also: descending palatine a., sphenopalatine a., posterior superior alveolar a.) there are two anterior intercostal aa. per side per intercostal space, one coursing above and one coursing below each rib

highest intercostal a. is also known as: supreme intercostal a.

posterior intercostal aa. supply the lateral and posterior portions of the intercostal space; anterior intercostal aa. supply the anterior portions of the intercostal spaces

internal carotid a. is the primary blood supply to the brain; it anastomoses with the vertebral aa. and the contralateral internal carotid a. in the cerebral arterial circle (of Willis); anterior and middle cerebral aa. are the terminal brs. of the internal carotid a. common iliac artery bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac articulation to form the internal iliac a. and the external iliac a.

internal pudendal a. is the primary blood supply to the perineum

internal thoracic a. is also known as: internal mammary a.

interosseous recurrent a. anastomoses with the middle collateral a. anterior interosseous a. pierces the interosseous membrane at its distal end to reach the dorsal carpal anastomosis common interosseous a. supplies the deep forearm flexor and deep forearm extensor muscles posterior interosseous a. passes proximal to the interosseous membrane to reach the extensor compartment of the forearm

intestinal aa. are 12-15 in number and are found in the mesentery

Notes inferior labial a. shares its region of distribution with branches of the mental a. posterior labial a. courses through the superficial perineal space superior labial a. supplies the orbicularis oris m. and the levator labii superioris m. labyrinthine a. accompanies cranial nerves VII and VIII through the internal acoustic meatus lacrimal a. accompanies the lacrimal n. inferior laryngeal a. accompanies the inferior laryngeal n. superior laryngeal a. penetrates the thyrohyoid membrane in company with the internal br. of the superior laryngeal n. mammary gland is a specialization of the skin and is supplied by superficial (cutaneous) arteries

lateral nasal a. anastomoses with the dorsal nasal a. the 2 lateral palpebral aa. anastomose with the two medial palpebral aa. to form the superior and inferior palpebral arches lateral plantar a. becomes continuous with the plantar arterial arch there are usually 2 lateral sacral aa. on each side, a superior one and an inferior one lateral tarsal a. anastomoses with the arcuate a. lateral thoracic a. is a rare case in that it enters the serratus anterior from its superficial surface there are usually two left bronchial aa. left colic a. anastomoses with the middle colic a and the sigmoid a.to form part of the marginal a. left coronary a. arises superior to the left cusp of the aortic semilunar valve; during its short course, it is located in the coronary sulcus; the anterior interventricular a. and the circumflex a. are its terminal brs. left gastric a. anastomoses with the right gastric a. on the lesser curvature of the stomach; it also anastomoses with the esophageal brs. of the thoracic aorta left gastro-omental a. anastomoses with the right gastro-omental a. near the greater curvature of the stomach; also known as: left gastroepiploic a. left hepatic a. supplies the liver parenchyma and stroma; an aberrant left hepatic a. may arise from the left gastric a. lesser palatine a. is endangered by anesthetic injections for dental procedures lingual a. is the 2nd branch off of the anterior side of the external carotid a.; it may arise in common with the facial a.

deep lingual a. is the terminal br. of the lingual a. dorsal lingual a. is only one of five arteries that supply the tonsil bed the 4 lumbar arteries on each side arise from the posterior surface of the aorta at the level of vertebrae L1-L4; they course posterior to the psoas major m.

Notes anterior lateral malleolar a. anastomoses with the posterior lateral malleolar a. and the perforating br. of the fibular a. anterior medial malleolar a. anastomoses with the posterior medial malleolar a. posterior lateral malleolar a. anastomoses with the anterior lateral malleolar a. posterior medial malleolar a. anastomoses with the anterior medial malleolar a. mammary gland is a specialization of the skin and is supplied by superficial (cutaneous) arteries mammary gland is a specialization of the skin and is supplied by superficial (cutaneous) arteries an important anastomosis for the large intestine

masseteric a. passes through the mandibular notch to enter the deep surface of the masseter m. maxillary a. may course medial or lateral to the lateral pterygoid m.

mammary gland is a specialization of the skin and is supplied by superficial (cutaneous) arteries the 2 medial palpebral aa. anastomose with the two lateral palpebral aa. to form the superior & inferior palpebral arches medial plantar a. anastomoses with the plantar metatarsal aa., but does not usually participate in formation of the plantar arterial arch medial tarsal aa. are 2-3 in number; they anastomose with the medial malleolar aa. median sacral a. appears to be the continuation of the abdominal aorta in the median plane, although it is much smaller in size middle meningeal a. passes through the foramen spinosum; it may be torn by a fracture at the pterion; it is encircled by the auriculotemporal n. mental a.passes through the mental foramen; it anastomoses with the inferior labial a.; it accompanies the mental n. branches of the inferior mesenteric a anastomose in the marginal artery superior mesenteric a. supplies the midgut derivatives; brs. of the superior mesenteric a. participate in formation of the marginal artery each dorsal metacarpal a. gives off a perforating br. that anastomoses with the deep palmar arterial arch palmar metacarpal aa. join with the common palmar digital aa. each dorsal metatarsal a. gives off a perforating br. that anastomoses with the plantar arterial arch plantar metatarsal aa.anastomose with dorsal metatarsal aa.

the middle cerebral a. is the direct continuation of the internal carotid a.

middle colic a. anastomoses with the right colic a. and the left colic a. to form part of the marginal a. anastomoses with the interosseous recurrent a. middle genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis middle meningeal a. passes through the foramen spinosum; it may be torn by a fracture at the pterion; it is encircled by the auriculotemporal n. middle rectal a. anastomoses with the inferior rectal a and the superior rectal a. middle superior alveolar a. is located between the inner and outer tables of bone of the maxilla middle suprarenal a. anastomoses with the superior suprarenal a. and the inferior suprarenal a. middle temporal a. anastomoses with the posterior br. of the deep temporal a. musculophrenic a. supplies muscles that develop in the septum transversum mylohyoid a. accompanies the mylohyoid n. to the mylohyoid m.; a rare artery because it enters the superficial surface of its target muscle

Notes dorsal nasal a. anastomoses with the angular a. lateral nasal a. anastomoses with the dorsal nasal a.

artery to the atrioventricular node is located at the junction of the coronary sulcus and the posterior interventricular sulcus sinuatrial nodal a. is an important artery to locate during cardiac surgical procedures

Notes anterior and posterior brs. pass on the anterior and posterior sides of the adductor brevis m.; aberrant obturator a. arises from the inferior epigastric a. in 30% of cases occipital a. anastomoses with the deep cervical a.; it courses with the greater occipital nerve on the posterior surface of the head artery of the bulb of the penis courses within the deep perineal space to enter the deep surface of the bulb artery of the bulb of the vestibule courses within the deep perineal space to enter the deep surface of the bulb ophthalmic a. provides the only artery to the retina (central retinal a.)

ovarian a. anastomoses with the uterine a.

Notes ascending palatine a. shares supply of the tonsil bed with 4 other aa. (see also: tonsillar br. of the facial a., palatine br. of the ascending pharyngeal a., tonsillar br. of the dorsal lingual a., tonsillar br. of the descending palatine a.) descending palatine a. accompanies the greater palatine n. within the palatine canal

greater palatine a. accompanies the greater palatine n., it is endangered by anesthetic injections for dental procedures lesser palatine a. is endangered by anesthetic injections for dental procedures deep palmar arterial arch receives the majority of its blood supply from the radial a. superficial palmar arterial arch receives the majority of its blood supply from the ulnar a.

common palmar digital aa. anastomose with palmar metacarpal aa. proper palmar digital aa. supply the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment and nail bed palmar metacarpal aa. join with the common palmar digital aa. the 2 lateral palpebral aa. anastomose with the two medial palpebral aa. to form the superior and inferior palpebral arches the 2 medial palpebral aa. anastomose with the two lateral palpebral aa. to form the superior & inferior palpebral arches caudal pancreatic a. enters the tail of the pancreas near the hilum of the spleen; it may arise from the left gastro-omental a. right br.of the dorsal pancreatic a. anastomoses with the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. in the prepancreatic arcade inferior pancreatic a. may be imbedded in the substance of the gland superior pancreatic aa. are multiple small brs. arising from the splenic a. pancreatic magna is the largest pancreatic branch to arise from the splenic a.; it enters the pancreas at the junction of its middle 1/3 and left 1/3

anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the anterior pancreatic arcade anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the anterior pancreatic arcade inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. supplies both the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lower duodenum and lower part of the head of the pancreas posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the posterior pancreatic arcade posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the posterior pancreatic arcade pectoral a. accompanies the lateral pectoral n. deep a. of the penis and dorsal a. of the penis are the terminal brs. of the internal pudendal a. dorsal a. of the penis and deep a. of the penis are the terminal brs. of the internal pudendal a. artery of the bulb of the penis courses within the deep perineal space to enter the deep surface of the bulb pericardiacophrenic a. accompanies the phrenic n. pericardial a. courses on the external surface of the pericardial sac perineal a. courses superficial to the superficial transverse perineus m.; it courses with the perineal n. arises from the medial side of the external carotid a. close to the birfurcation

inferior phrenic a. is the first abdominal branch of the aorta; it may arise from the celiac trunk superior phrenic a. anastomoses with the musculophrenic a. and the pericardiacophrenic a. plantar arterial arch anastomoses with the deep plantar br. of the dorsalis pedis a.

plantar metatarsal aa.anastomose with dorsal metatarsal aa.

anastomoses with lateral plantar a. to form the plantar arterial arch; the branches mentioned at left arise from the plantar arterial arch lateral plantar a. becomes continuous with the plantar arterial arch medial plantar a. anastomoses with the plantar metatarsal aa., but does not usually participate in formation of the plantar arterial arch the popliteal a. is the continuation of the femoral a., the name change occurs at the adductor hiatus posterior auricular and greater occipital share their region of distribution posterior cecal a. supplies the ileocecal junction the two posterior cerebral aa. are the terminal brs. of the basilar a.

posterior circumflex humeral a. anastomoses with the anterior circumflex humeral a.; it passes through the quadrangular space with the axillary nerve a vessel of anastomosis which connects the internal carotid a. to the posterior cerebral a.; part of the cerebral arterial circle (of Willis)

posterior deep temporal a. branches in the infratemporal fossa and runs deep to temporalis m. posterior ethmoidal a. leaves the orbit through the posterior ethmoidal foramen posterior inferior cerebellar a. shares its region of supply with the vertebral a. and anterior spinal a. (watershed region) posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the posterior pancreatic arcade posterior intercostal aa. supply the lateral and posterior portions of the intercostal space; anterior intercostal aa. supply the anterior portions of the intercostal spaces

posterior interosseous a. passes proximal to the interosseous membrane to reach the extensor compartment of the forearm

posterior labial a. courses through the superficial perineal space posterior lateral malleolar a. anastomoses with the anterior lateral malleolar a. posterior medial malleolar a. anastomoses with the anterior medial malleolar a. posterior radicular aa. accompany the dorsal rootlets; they anastomose with the posterior spinal aa.

posterior scrotal a. passes superficial to the superficial transverse perineus m. posterior septal a. supplies the mucous membrane of the nasal septum

paired; posterior spinal aa. anastomose with the posterior radicular brs. of the spinal rami of the vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and lateral sacral aa.

posterior superior alveolar a. enters the maxilla in the infratemporal fossa posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the posterior pancreatic arcade posterior tibial a. is the direct continuation of the popliteal a. the name change occurs at the inferior border of the popliteus m. where the popliteal a. bifurcates; the tibial a. bifurcates on the medial side of the foot to give rise to the medial plantar a. and lateral plantar a. anastomoses with the other genicular aa. to participate in the formation of the genicular anastomosis posterior ulnar recurrent a. often arises from a common trunk with the anterior ulnar recurrent a. arteria princeps pollicis is similar in function to a proper digital aa.; this artery has a large pulse which can be felt when attempting to take the pulse of a patient - use fingers to feel for the patient's pulse proper hepatic a. supplies the foregut derivatives associated with the liver bud proper palmar digital aa. supply the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment and nail bed proper plantar digital aa. supply the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment and nail bed

deep external pudendal a. may arise from the medial circumflex femoral a. internal pudendal a. is the primary blood supply to the perineum

superficial external pudendal a. is one of three superficial branches of the femoral a. near the inguinal ligament (see also: superficial circumflex iliac a., superficial epigastric a.) the pulmonary trunk carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the right and left pulmonary aa.; each pulmonary a. carries deoxygenated blood to the hilum of one lung; bronchial aa. supply oxygenated blood to the tissues of the lung as far distally in the bronchial tree as the respiratory bronchioles

Notes blockage of the quadrigeminal a. results in paralysis of the superior oblique m. of the eye

Notes radial a. provides the majority of blood supply to the deep palmar arterial arch; normally it arises at the level of the elbow but may high branching of the brachial a. may result in the radial a. arising as proximal as the axilla

travels with the radial nerve; anastomoses with the radial recurrent a. radial recurrent a. anastomoses with the radial collateral a.; it courses in the groove between the brachioradialis m. and the brachialis m. arteria radialis indicis is equivalent to a proper digital a.

anterior radicular aa. anastomose with the anterior spinal a.

great anterior radicular a. anastomoses with the anterior spinal a. at lower thoracic or upper lumbar spinal cord levels

posterior radicular aa. accompany the dorsal rootlets; they anastomose with the posterior spinal aa.

inferior rectal a. anastomoses with the middle rectal a. and the superior rectal a. middle rectal a. anastomoses with the inferior rectal a and the superior rectal a. superior rectal a. is the continuation of the inferior mesenteric a. after the sigmoid brs. are given off; it anastomoses with the middle rectal a. and the inferior rectal a. anterior tibial recurrent a. anastomoses with the genicular aa. to participate in the formation of the genicular anastomosis anterior ulnar recurrent a. often arises in common with the posterior ulnar recurrent a. interosseous recurrent a. anastomoses with the middle collateral a. anastomoses with the other genicular aa. to participate in the formation of the genicular anastomosis posterior ulnar recurrent a. often arises from a common trunk with the anterior ulnar recurrent a.

radial recurrent a. anastomoses with the radial collateral a.; it courses in the groove between the brachioradialis m. and the brachialis m. the right renal a. is longer than the left renal artery; the right renal artery passes posterior to the inferior vena cava

retroduodenal aa. arise as multiple small brs. right colic a. anastomoses with the ileocolic a. and the middle colic a. to form part of the marginal a. right coronary a. usually provides the posterior interventricular a.; it courses within the coronary sulcus right gastric a. anastomoses with the left gastric a. on the lesser curvature of the stomach right gastro-omental a anastomoses with the left gastroomental a. near the greater curvature of the stomach; also known as: right gastroepiploic a. right hepatic a. supplies the liver parenchyma and stroma

Notes there are usually 2 lateral sacral aa. on each side, a superior one and an inferior one median sacral a. appears to be the continuation of the abdominal aorta in the median plane, although it is much smaller in size circumflex scapular a. anastomoses with the suprascapular a. and the dorsal scapular a. to form the scapular anastomosis dorsal scapular a. anastomoses with the suprascapular a. and the subscapular a. to form the scapular anastomosis; dorsal scapular a is a branch of the transverse cervical a. in ~30% of cases

posterior scrotal a. passes superficial to the superficial transverse perineus m. posterior septal a. supplies the mucous membrane of the nasal septum short gastric aa. reach the stomach by passing through the gastrosplenic ligament; they are usually 4-5 in number sigmoid aa. are 2-3 in number; they anastomose with the left colic a. to help form the marginal a. sinuatrial nodal a. is an important artery to locate during cardiac surgical procedures sphenopalatine a. accompanies the nasopalatine n.

the anterior spinal a. anastomoses with the anterior radicular brs. of the spinal rami of the vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and lateral sacral aa.

paired; posterior spinal aa. anastomose with the posterior radicular brs. of the spinal rami of the vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and lateral sacral aa.

splenic a. courses through the substance of the pancreas near its superior border; splenic artery is very tortuous stylomastoid br. of the posterior auricular a. passes through the stylomastoid foramen in company with the facial n. subclavian a. is continuous with the axillary a., the name change occurs at the lateral border of the first rib; anterior scalene muscle passes anterior to the subclavian a., dividing it into 3 parts

subcostal a. is equivalent to a posterior intercostal a., but is named subcostal because it courses inferior to the 12th rib sublingual a. is one of three branches of the lingual a. (see also: dorsal lingual a., deep lingual a.) submental a. supplies the submandibular gland and the mylohyoid m. in addition to the skin and superficial fascia the circumflex scapular branch of the subscapular a.anastomoses with the suprascapular a. and the dorsal scapular a. in the scapular anastomosis superficial epigastric a. is one of three superficial arteries that arise from the femoral a. (see also: superficial circumflex iliac a. and superficial external pudendal a.) superficial external pudendal a. is one of three superficial branches of the femoral a. near the inguinal ligament (see also: superficial circumflex iliac a., superficial epigastric a.) superficial palmar arterial arch receives the majority of its blood supply from the ulnar a.

superficial temporal a. and maxillary a. are the terminal branches of the external carotid a. there may be more than one superior cerebellar a. arising from the basilar a. on each side superior epigastric a. is the direct continuation of the internal thoracic a.; it s anastomoses with the inferior epigastric a. within the rectus abdominis m. superior gluteal a. participates in the formation of the cruciate anastomoses of the hip superior labial a. supplies the orbicularis oris m. and the levator labii superioris m.

superior laryngeal a. penetrates the thyrohyoid membrane in company with the internal br. of the superior laryngeal n. superior lateral genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis superior medial genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis superior mesenteric a. supplies the midgut derivatives; brs. of the superior mesenteric a. participate in formation of the marginal artery superior pancreatic aa. are multiple small brs. arising from the splenic a. superior phrenic a. anastomoses with the musculophrenic a. and the pericardiacophrenic a. superior rectal a. is the continuation of the inferior mesenteric a. after the sigmoid brs. are given off; it anastomoses with the middle rectal a. and the inferior rectal a. superior suprarenal aa. are numerous small vessels that enter the suprarenal gland independently superior thoracic a. anastomoses with the intercostal aa. for intercostal spaces 1 and 2 superior thyroid a. is usually the first branch of the external carotid a. travels with the ulnar nerve; anastomoses with posterior ulnar recurrent a. superior vesical aa.arise from the umbilical a. proximal to where its lumen becomes obliterated

supraduodenal a. supplies branches to both the anterior and posterior surfaces of the duodenum supraorbital a. accompanies the supraorbital n. inferior suprarenal a. may anastomose with the superior suprarenal a. middle suprarenal a. anastomoses with the superior suprarenal a. and the inferior suprarenal a. superior suprarenal aa. are numerous small vessels that enter the suprarenal gland independently anastomoses with the circumflex scapular a. and the dorsal scapular a. to form the scapular anastomosis supratrochlear a. accompanies the supratrochlear n. sural aa. are often confused with the inferior genicular aa. during dissection

Notes lateral tarsal a. anastomoses with the arcuate a. medial tarsal aa. are 2-3 in number; they anastomose with the medial malleolar aa. anterior deep temporal a. branches in the infratemporal fossa and runs deep to temporalis m. middle temporal a. anastomoses with the posterior br. of the deep temporal a. posterior deep temporal a. branches in the infratemporal fossa and runs deep to temporalis m. superficial temporal a. and maxillary a. are the terminal branches of the external carotid a. testicular a. is one of the contents of the spermatic cord; the origin of the testicular a. from the aorta at the L2 vertebral level indicates the embryonic level of origin of the testis prior to its descent

internal thoracic a. is also known as: internal mammary a.

lateral thoracic a. is a rare case in that it enters the serratus anterior from its superficial surface superior thoracic a. anastomoses with the intercostal aa. for intercostal spaces 1 and 2 thoracoacromial trunk pierces the costocoracoid membrane thoracodorsal a. accompanies the thoracodorsal n. thyrocervical trunk does not give rise to the ascending cervical a.it is a branch of the inferior thyroid a. inferior thyroid a. gives rise to the ascending cervical a. as it arches medially superior thyroid a. is usually the first branch of the external carotid a. thyroidea ima a. is present in 10% of individuals; it is clinically significant because it is a midline artery in the region of tracheostomy; ima means "lowest" anterior tibial recurrent a. anastomoses with the genicular aa. to participate in the formation of the genicular anastomosis anastomoses with the other genicular aa. to participate in the formation of the genicular anastomosis anterior tibial a. becomes continuous with the dorsalis pedis a.; the name change occurs at the level of the ankle joint

posterior tibial a. is the direct continuation of the popliteal a. the name change occurs at the inferior border of the popliteus m. where the popliteal a. bifurcates; the tibial a. bifurcates on the medial side of the foot to give rise to the medial plantar a. and lateral plantar a. transverse cervical a. gives rise to the dorsal scapular a. ~30% of the time transverse facial a. anastomoses with branches of the buccal, infraorbital and facial aa. there is only one brachiocephalic trunk celiac trunk supplies the foregut derivatives

costocervical trunk is located between the anterior scalene m. and the middle scalene m.; it arches posteriorly over the cervical parietal pleura the pulmonary trunk carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the right and left pulmonary aa.; each pulmonary a. carries deoxygenated blood to the hilum of one lung; bronchial aa. supply oxygenated blood to the tissues of the lung as far distally in the bronchial tree as the respiratory bronchioles anterior tympanic a. passes through the petrotympanic fissure along with the chorda tympani n. thyrocervical trunk does not give rise to the ascending cervical a.it is a branch of the inferior thyroid a.

Notes

ulnar a. supplies the majority of blood to the superficial palmar arterial arch; it normally arises at the level of the elbow, but high branching of the brachial a. may cause the ulnar a. to arise as far proximally as the axilla anastomoses with the anterior ulnar recurrent a. travels with the ulnar nerve; anastomoses with posterior ulnar recurrent a. anterior ulnar recurrent a. often arises in common with the posterior ulnar recurrent a. posterior ulnar recurrent a. often arises from a common trunk with the anterior ulnar recurrent a. distal to the branches described at left, the lumen of the umbilical a. becomes obliterated after birth and the remnant of the vessel becomes the medial umbilical ligament urethral a. branches off of the internal pudendal a. within the deep perineal space uterine a. anastomoses with the ovarian a. and the vaginal a.; it passes superior to the ureter in the pelvis; remember the saying "water under the bridge"

Notes anastomoses with the uterine a.; participates in the formation of the azygos arteries along the lateral surface of the vagina vertebral a. anastomoses with the internal carotid a. in the cerebral arterial circle (of Willis); it courses through the transverse foramina of vertebrae C1-C6 inferior vesical a. anastomoses with the middle rectal a.

superior vesical aa.arise from the umbilical a. proximal to where its lumen becomes obliterated artery of the bulb of the vestibule courses within the deep perineal space to enter the deep surface of the bulb

Veins of the Body - Listed Alphabetically


Vein angular Tributaries Drains Into union of unites with superior labial v. to supraorbital & form facial supratrochlear antebrachial, superficial veins of median cubital or basilic median palm & anterior forearm auricular, posterior unites with post. div. of retromandibular to form external jugular azygos union of ascending sup. vena cava lumbar & subcostal; post. intercostals 11-2 (rt. sup. intercostal), hemiazygos, accessory hemiazygos, esophageal, rt. bronchial basilic dorsal veins of unites with brachial vs. to form hand medially; axillary vein superficial forearm vs., median cubital superior & inferior internal vertebral plexus petrosal sinuses Region Drained forehead, nose

palm, anterior forearm

behind ear

lateral & post. abdominal/chest wall, esophagus, bronchial tree

medial hand & forearm superficially

basilar plexus

cavernous sinus

brachiocephalic

cardiac, anterior cardiac, great cardiac, middle cardiac, small

union of left & right brachiocephalic unite head, neck, upper limb, anterior subclavian & to form sup. vena cava chest wall internal jugular; vertebral, thymic, inferior thyroid, internal thoracic, 1st post. intercostal, left sup. intercostal (to left brachiocephalic) right atrium anterior surface of right ventricle ventricular vs., left unites with oblique v. of left marginal atrium to form coronary sinus ventricular vs. coronary sinus coronary sinus heart near anterior interventricular sulcus heart near posterior interventricular sulcus heart near inferior vena cava & right coronary sulcus orbit, brain

cavernous sinuses superior sup. & inf. petrosal sinuses ophthalmic v., middle cerebral vs., sphenoparietal sinus

cephalic

cerebral, great

cerebral, inferior

cerebral, superior of clitoris, deep dorsal of clitoris, superficial dorsal confluens of sinuses

dorsal veins of axillary hand laterally; superficial vs. of forearm union of paired unites with inferior sagittal sinus internal cerebrals; to form straight sinus basal vs. superior sagittal sinus, cavernous sinus, transverse sinus, superior petrosal sinus superior sagittal sinus vesical plexus superficial & deep external pudendal vs. sup. sagittal sinus, transverse sinuses straight sinus, occipital sinus union of great cardiac v. & oblique v. of left atrium; middle cardiac, small cardiac cephalic rt. atrium

lateral hand & forearm

deep portions of cerebrum

frontal & temporal lobes inferiorly cerebral cortex superiorly erectile bodies of clitoris clitoris superficially brain

coronary sinus

heart except anterior cardiac vs. & venae cordis minimae

cubital, median cystic diploic

veins of dipoe of skull

basilic (poss. median antebrachial) directly into liver at bed of gall bladder frontal diploic, ant. & post. temporal diploic, occipital diploic are formed, draining to nearby veins or dural sinuses

hand & forearm superficially gall bladder bones of cranial vault

dorsal venous arch dorsal digital vs. great saphenous medially, small of foot saphenous laterally dorsal venous arch dorsal metacarpal cephalic laterally, basilic medially of hand vs. emissary connect scalp vs. with dural sinuses; 4 named emissary vs.: parietal, mastoid, occipital & condylar esophageal azygos & hemiazygos vs.

dorsum of digits & foot superficially dorsum of digits & hand superficially

esophagus

facial, common

union of ant. div. internal jugular of retromandibular & facial portal

face & ant. scalp

gastric, left

lesser curvature of stomach, lower esophagus

gastric, right gastro-omental, left

portal gastric & omental splenic brs.

lesser curvature of stomach greater curvature of stomach & greater omentum

gastro-omental, right hemiazygos

hemiazygos, accessory

gastric & omental superior mesenteric brs. union of left azygos ascending lumbar & subcostal vs.; left post. intercostal vs. 11-9 or 8, esophageal vs. left posterior azygos intercostal vs. 4-7 or 8, left bronchial vs., esophageal vs. inferior vena cava

greater curvature of stomach & greater omentum lower posterolateral chest wall on left side

middle posterolateral chest wall on left side

hepatic, left

hepatic, middle

hepatic, right

intercostal, posterior

intercostal, superior jugular, anterior jugular, external

lateral segment & superior portion of medial segment of left lobe of liver inferior vena cava inferior portion of medial segment of left lobe of liver, & inf. part of ant. segment of right lobe inferior vena cava posterior segment & superior portion of anterior segment of right lobe of liver spinal trib., 1st: brachiocephalic; 2nd-4th: intercostal space & muscles & posterior trib., superior intercostal; right 5thadjacent ribs, spinal cord collateral trib., 11th: azygos; left 5th-7th or 8th: segment & vertebra lateral cutaneous accessory hemiazygos; left 9thtrib. 11th: hemiazygos 2nd-4th posterior right: arch of azygos; left: left intercostal spaces 2-4 intercostal brachiocephalic submental, external jugular communicating union of posterior subclavian division of retromandibular & posterior auricular; post. external jugular, transverse cervical, suprascapular, anterior jugular anterior neck superficially head & neck, shoulder

jugular, internal

union of sigmoid brain & skull, face, viscera of & inferior petrosal neck sinus; pharyngeal vs., lingual, common facial, sternocleidomastoi d, superior & middle thyroid right: azygos; left: hemiazygos post. abdominal wall

lumbar, ascending lumbar vs. 1-4 mesenteric, inferior superior rectal, sigmoid vs., left colic

splenic (or superior mesenteric) gut from splenic flexure distally

metacarpal, dorsal dorsal digital metatarsal, dorsal oblique, of left atrium occipital sinus ophthalmic, inferior ophthalmic, superior dorsal digital

dorsal venous arch of hand dorsal venous arch of foot unites with great cardiac to form coronary sinus confluens of sinuses superior ophthalmic

digits of hand dorsally digits of foot dorsally left auricle & adjacent portion of left atrium cerebellum lower portion of orbit

ovarian pampiniform plexus

nasofrontal, ant. & cavernous sinus post. ethmoid, ciliary vs., central retinal, lacrimal, inferior ophthalmic right: inferior vena cava; left: left renal becomes testicular vein deep to deep inguinal ring

eyeball, superior portion of orbit, ethmoid sinuses

ovary & distal uterine tube, ureter testis

pancreaticoduoden al, posterior superior pancreaticoduoden ant. & post. al, inferior inferior pancreaticoduoden al pancreaticoduoden al, anterior superior paraumbilical

portal

superior mesenteric

posterior part of head of pancreas & 1st & 2nd part of duodenum posteriorly lower part of duodenum & head of pancreas

unites with right gastro-omental upper duodendum & head of to drain to superior mesenteric pancreas anteriorly umbilical part of left branch of portal vein falciform ligament, round ligament of liver

of penis, deep dorsal of penis, superficial dorsal petrosal sinus, superior petrosal sinus, inferior pharyngeal plexus portal

prostatic venous plexus superficial & deep external pudendal sigmoid sinus

erectile tissue of penis superficial tissues of penis orbit & brain

cavernous sinus

cavernous sinus

internal jugular v.

orbit & brain

internal jugular union of superior right & left branches of portal, mesenteric & into liver sinusoids splenic; post. sup. pancreaticoduoden al, right & left gastric

pharynx connects with caval drainage at 1) esophagus, 2) rectum, 3) umbilicus, 4) retroperitoneal gut structures

posterior auricular

prepyloric prostatic plexus pudendal, deep external

unites with posterior division of scalp behind ear retromandibular to form external jugular right gastric pylorus of stomach deep dorsal v. of internal iliac penis portion of femoral superficial dorsal v. of penis/clitoris penis & prostate superficial penis/clitoris, pubic region

pudendal, portion of great saphenous superficial external superficial dorsal v. of penis/clitoris pudendal, internal deep v. of internal iliac clitoris/penis, v. of bulb, post. labial/scrotal, inferior rectal pulmonary left atrium

superficial penis/clitoris, pubic region

crus & bulb of clitoris/penis, urogenital triangle, anal triangle

lungs

renal, left

renal, right retromandibular

sagittal sinus, inferior sagittal sinus, superior

left inferior vena cava ovarian/testicular, left suprarenal, poss. left inferior phrenic inferior vena cava union of ant. & post. divisions of superficial retromandibular; ant. division temporal & unites with facial to form maxillary common facial, post. division unites with post. auricular to form external jugular superior cerebral unites with great cerebral v. to vs. form straight sinus superior cerebral confluens of sinuses vs.

left ovary/testes, left ureter, left kidney, left suprarenal, left part of diaphragm

right kidney

cerebral hemispheres medially cerebral hemispheres

saphenous, greater dorsal venous arch femoral of foot mediallly, perforating communications, superficial epigastric, superficial circumflex iliac, superficial external pudendal

superficial medial lower limb, lower abdominal wall, pudendal region

saphenous, lesser

dorsal venous arch popliteal of foot laterally transverse sinuses, internal jugular v. superior petrosal sinuses

superficial lateral foot & leg

sigmoid sinuses

brain

small cardiac straight sinus

coronary sinus inf. sagittal sinus & confluens of sinuses great cerebral vein

right atrium & ventricle near inferior vena cava deep cerebrum

suprarenal

testicular

pampiniform plexus, ureteric tribs.

left: left renal, usually in joined suprarenal gland by left inferior phrenic; right: inferior vena cava left: left renal; right: inferior vena testis, ureter cava lateral thoracic or axillary lateral body wall

thoracoepigastric

thyroid, inferior thyroid, middle thyroid, superior superior laryngeal transverse sinuses confluens of sinuses, inferior cerebral vs. vena cava, inferior union of paired common iliacs; lumbar vs. 4-1, rt. ovarian/testicular, renal vs., rt. suprarenal, rt. inferior phrenic, hepatic vs.

left brachiocephalic internal jugular internal jugular sigmoid sinuses

thyroid gland inferiorly thyroid gland laterally thyroid gland superiorly brain

rt. atrium

body below diaphragm

vena cava, superior union of paired rt. atrium brachiocephalics; azygos arch pterygoid plexus descending maxillary palatine, sphenopalatine, infraorbital, posterior superior alveolar, ant. & post. deep temporal, middle meningeal, masseteric, inferior alveolar rectal plexus superior, middle & inferior rectal

body above diaphragm except for pulmonary vs. & heart meninges, nasal cavity, infratemporal fossa

rectum & anus

uterine plexus

uterine vs. to internal iliac

uterus & uterine tube

vaginal plexus vena comitans nervi hypoglossi venae cordis minimae vertebral plexus, external

vaginal v. to internal iliac or uterine lingual chambers of heart adjacent segmental vs.

connects with uterine & vesical plexus tongue walls of heart chambers vertebral column & associated muscles

vertebral plexus, internal vesical plexus

adjacent segmental vs.

spinal cord, meninges, vertebral column

superior & inferior vesical vs. to urinary bladder internal iliac

etically
Notes connects with superior & inferior ophthalmic vs. variable in size

connects with occipital

may connect with inf. vena cava; arch of azygos passes sup. to root of lung (Greek, a- = not + zygon = yoke, therefore unyoked or unpaired, as the azygos vein)

connects with deep veins of forearm

variable, connects with other small sinuses nearby at its origin, left brachiocephalic receives thoracic duct, right receives right lymphatic duct (Latin, brachio- = arm + cephalic = head)

lies within dura mater beside body of sphenoid bone

median cubital usually shunts some blood to basilic

lies on occipital bone within junction of falx cerebri & tentorium cerebelli (Latin, coronary = crown)

these multiple small vs. drain gall bladder directly into liver connect with dural sinuses & meningeal vs.

connect with esophageal brs. of left gastric, forming potential portal-caval anastomosis (esophageal varices when enlarged)

connects with esophageal vs., forming portal-caval anastomosis (esophageal varices when enlarged); a.k.a. coronary v. a.k.a. coronary v.

(Latin, jugulum = throat) (Latin, jugulum = throat)

(Latin, jugulum = throat)

connects adjacent lumbar vs. courses lateral to 4th part of duodenum

lies within dura mater at base of falx cerebelli connects with pterygoid plexus through inf. orbital fissure connects with angular v.

connects with uterine v. surrounds testicular art. to cool arterial blood reaching testis (Latin, pampiniform = tendrillike + plexus = a braid) connects with posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal connects with ant. & post. superior pancreaticoduodenal

connects with ant. inferior pancreaticoduodendal potential site of portal-caval anastomosis; blood may pass retrogradely into body wall veins near umbilicus, creating caput medusa sign

lies on petrous ridge within dura mater at attachment of tentorium cerebelli lies within dura mater at medial end of petrous temporal connects with pterygoid plexus

helpful in locating pyloric region of stomach connects with vesical plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid)

usually two pulmonary vs. per side, sup. & inf., empty into left atrium crosses abdominal aorta under the origin of superior mesenteric art.

lies on corpus callosum in free margin of falx cerebri lies superiorly within falx cerebri; lacunae receive arachnoid granulations (Greek, saphenous = clearly visible)

(Greek, saphenous = clearly visible) lies within sigmoid groove covered by dura mater (Greek, sigmoid = resembles the greek letter sigma)

lies within junction of falx cerebri & tentorium cerebelli

connects with superficial circumflex iliac & superficial epigastric, and can serve as collateral drainage

lies within attachment of tentorium cerebelli to inner cranial vault

connects with cavernous sinus & pharyngeal plexus (Greek, pterygoid = wing-shaped)

site of portal-systemic anastomosis (Latin, plexus = a braid) connects with ovarian v. & vaginal plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid) (Latin, plexus = a braid)

connects with internal vertebral plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid)

connects with external vertebral plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid) connects with prostatic & rectal plexus or uterine & vaginal plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid)