A SEMINAR REPORT ON PISTONLESS PUMP FOR ROCKET

SUBMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF PUNE,PUNE IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF B.E(MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)

BY PUJAN N. SHAH EXAM. NO. B221O864 ROLL NO: 4162

A.I.S.S.M’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KENNEDY ROAD, SHIVAJINAGAR, PUNE-01

CERTIFICATE

THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT SENINAR ENTITLED PISTONLESS PUMP FOR ROCKET SUBMITTED BY PUJAN NARENDRA SHAH EXAM NO. B2210864 ROLL NO : 4162

For the partial fulfillment of curriculum Of degree of B.E.mech. University of pune. 2003-2004

Prof: Mrs. S.V.Phadkule Guide
MECHANICAL ENGG.DEPT.

Prof: V.N. Phadkule Head of Department
MECHANICAL ENGG.DEPT.

Date:

S.V.Phadkule for her enthusiastic guidance and help in successful completion of her kind of support. First and for the most. SHAH PUJAN N. It is a great pleasure for me to acknowledge the assistance and contribution of the number of individuals who helped me in presentation.I wish to record my deep gratitude and thanks to Prof: Mrs.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: It gives me immense pleasure to present before you this Seminar. .E.MECH. B.

INDEX SR NO. TIME DISADVANTAGES COCLUSION BIBLOGRAPHY PAGE NO. 1} 2} 3} 4} 5} 6} 7} 8} 9} 10} 11} 12} 13} 14} TOPICS INTRODUCTION NECESSITY DUAL PISTONLESS PUMP WORKING OF THE PUMP DIAGRAM OF PISTONLESS PUMP ADVANTAGES APPLICATIONS PERFORMANCE VALIDATION ISTALLATION IN ROCKET WORKING MODELOF THE PUMP GRAPH OF FLOW RATE VS. 1 2 2 3 4 6 7-8 9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16 17 18 .

This article discusses the working .Nasa has manufactured such kind of pump and tested it actually. It has very much less rotating parts than that of piston pumps or turbo pumps.They can be easily installed in the rocket than turbopumps.Also.ABSTRACT: Pistonless pump for rocket has been proved to be the most economical than piston pump or turbopump. it has less friction losses and there by it helps to improve the efficiency of the engine considerably. In pistonless pumps. So. advantages of pistonless pump over turbopump. piston is absent.it reduces the weight of rocket. . Pistonless pumps are 80-90% economical than that of piston pump or turbo pumps.and they found it works conveneiently.

Perhaps the most difficult barrier to entry in the liquid rocket business is the turbo pump. requiring a careful of many valves and subsystems.Beal aerospace tried to avoid the issue entirely by building a huge pressure feed booster. .if they had a low cost pump at their disposal . Their booster never flew. This pump saves up to 90% of the mass of the tanks as compared to a pressure fed system. but the engineering behind it was sound and . This pump has really proved to be a boon for rockets . and test. A turbo pump design requires a large engineering effort and is expensive to mfg. Starting a turbo pump fed rocket engine is a complex process.In fact . By this pump the rocket does not have to carry heavy load and can travel with very high speed.they might be competing against Boeing.INTRODUCTION: NASA have developed a Low cost rocket fuel pump which has Comparable performance to turbopump at 80-90% lower cost.

the maintainanace of such pump is. is difficult and require complex methods for it. They have only a drawback that they supply fuel with less pressure as compared to turbopumps. This pump has the potential to reduce the cost and increase the reliability of rocket fuel pumps by a factor of 20 to 100.built and tested a simple. If this pump gets any fault then its repairance requires long time and also it is avery hectic task.Also. THE DUAL PISTONLESS PUMP: NASA has designed. there must be such a device which overcomes all the drawbacks of the turbopump as above. The pistonless pump is the solution for the problems faced by using turbopumps. light weight pump (dual pistomless pump) for use in liquid propelled rocket where a reliable pump with minimal moving parts is needed.So. . very important factor since the rocket has to remain stable in the space.containing many rotating parts by which there are more frictional losses which more consumption of fuel there by decreasing the efficiency of the engine .NECESSECITY: The turbo pumps used in rocket are very heavy.

refilled and pressurized while the other is being emptied. the pump system consists of two pump chambers such that each one supplies fuel for ½ of each cycle. a chamber is filled from the main tank under low pressure and at a high flow rate. The chamber is then vented and cycle repeats. To achieve steady flow.A bread board pump has been tested and it works great . The system is designed so that the inlet flow rate is higher than the outlet flow rate. then the chamber is pressurized.another way is to pressurize fuel tank.WORKING: Rocket engines requires a tremendous amount of fuel high at high pressure .A high version has been designed and built and is pumping at 20 gpm and 550psi. The pump is powered by pressurized gas which acts directly on fluid. expensive tank. Pressurizing a large fuel tank requires a heavy .One way to supply fuel is to use the expensive turbopump mentioned above. the main tank is drained into a small pump chamber which is then pressurized.This allows time for one chamber to be vented . . and then the fluid is delivered to the engine at a moderate flow rate under high pressure. However suppose instead of pressurizing entire tank.Often th pump costs more than the thrust chamber. For each half of the pump system.

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it is vented.the cycle is such that.as soon as the cylinder is emptied .as shown. filled with the fuel from the main tank.As one cylinder supplies the fuel other has enough time to refill.The same cycle reapeats for the second cylinder.The high pressure tank pressurizes one cylinder of high pressure. fuel is supplied by the cylinder one by one.ie. these cylinders are pressurized by the high pressure tank. each cylinder supplies fuel for each half cycle.PISTONLESS PUMP FIGURE: As shown in the above diagram . again it gets filled up from the main tank.as shown. two cylinders are there . . This main tank is emptied in these two cylinders.

turbopumps in that the wt. forward and no precision parts are required . Of this pump is st. and the rocket is much safer because the tanks of rocket fuel do not need to be at high pressure. so the weight is low. of the complete rocket is much less.engg.This device has advantage over std.and test costs are less and the chance for catastrophic failure is less.It can be used to replace turbopumps for rocket booster opn. the unit.the pump could be started after being stored for an extended period with high reliability.This pump has the advantage over pressure fed designs in that the wt. and no lubrication issues which might cause problems with other pumps.There are less than 10 moving parts . . The design and constr. or it can be used to replace high pressure tanks for deep space propulsion.It can also be used for satellite orbit changes and station keeping.ADVANTAGES: Nearly all of the hardware in this pump consists of pressure vessels. is about the same.

this pump would allow these missions to go forward due to lower weight of the fuel tanks. to land on Europa with a hydrazine monopropellant rocket . pump fed design would save 80% of the tank weight compared to a pump fed design.the chamber could be increased . . because the pressurant would not be in contact with the propellant for more than a few seconds .APPLICATIONS: 1}DEEP SPACE PROPULSION: NASA has a need for high power propulsion to land and spacecraft on the moons of Jupitor and beyond. In addition . saving engine weight and improving performance.Further weight savings could be achieved by heating the pressurant gas more. For example.

2} X PRIZE VEHICLE FUEL PUMP APPLICATION: For X-prize competitors. a the fuel pump will reduce the cost and increase the safety and reliability of their amateur manned vehicles.When the pump is used to pump HTP. In addition .siiting on top if tons of rocket fuel at high pressure is even more so. the factor on the low pressure tanks will be similar to the cost of the high pressure tanks alone. it can decompose some of the fuel in a gas generator to run the pump. .Sitting on top of tons of rocket fuel is dangerous enough. This saves a considerable amount of weight pressurant and main tankage. Many of the competitors plan to use Hydrogen Peroxide(HTP) and jet fuel to power their rockets.

(The F1 turbopump on the Saturn V put out 20 hp/lb) This pump could be run until dry.PERFORMANCE VALIDATION: A calculation of the weight of this type of pump shows that the power to weight ratio would be dominated by the pressure chamber and that it would be of the order of 8-12 hp per lb. as in the Ariane rocket. as in the NASA Fastrac. This performance is similar to state of the art gas-generator turbopump technology.. scorpious rocket or in recent rocket engine tests. . for a 5 second cycle using a composite chamber. so it would achieve better residual propellant scavenging than a turbopump. This system would require a supply of gaseous or liquid Helium which would be heated by a heat exchanger mounted on the combustion chamber before it was used to pressurize the fuel. The volume of gas required would be equivalent to a standard pressure fed design. with a small additional amount to account for ullage in the pump chambers.. The rocket engine itself could be a primarily ablative design.

The pressure and flow are quite steady. The pump system is run with a Labview based computer program. There are two floats which are used to monitor the level in each pump chamber and each chamber uses a two solenoid valves. .INSTALLATION FIGURE: A proof of concept model of the pump has been constructed out of clear plastic and tested at low pressure. one to pressurize source and on to vent the chamber. The results of the test are shown below.

And above this cylinder further assembly is mounted as shown in the first diegram. . The high pressure cylinder used for pressurizing fuel. Thus the figure shows that the installation is very easy as compared to that of the turbo pump.shown in green colour in the figure.is installed at the bottom of the rocket.The installation figure of the pistonless pump is shown in the above figure.

WORKING MODEL OF ROCKET FUEL PUMP: .

The pump shown is equipped with electronic level sensors and air cylinder actuated ball valves. The pump works as predicted and it will be easy to reconfigure it to pump LOX and jet fuel. .this type of pump will make rocket propulsion systems much more reliable and less expensive than that of the turbo jet pump.

. thus giving an uninterrupted fuel supply to the engine. As one cylinder gets emptied the other one gets filled up .FLOW AND PRESSURE DATA FOR ROCKET FUEL PUMP: The above graph shows the variation of the flow of fuel through both of the cylinders . Also. the time required for the refill of the fuel in the cynlinder is sufficient to supply fuel for next half cycle.It shows that as one cylinder gets emptied the other one gets filled up and fuel is supplied by each cylinder to the engine for each half cycle.

314. This pump is similar to one mentioned in 1960 in Exploring the Solar System by Felix Godwin p-21 p-22 and to one patented by Sobey.(3.A video of the pump in action is also available. We plan to build a couple of flight ready versions of this pump to pump LOX and kerosene and fly it on one of our Atlas vernier powered rockets This rocket will be able to acheive an altitude of over 100 miles .804) Jim Blackmon and Eric Lanning (6.213. Check this page soon for test results. H2O2. It provides 20 GPM at 600+ psi and it is made of stainless steel and Teflon to be compatible with all common rocket fuels(LOX.RP-1. The first prototype is designed to work with our Atlas Vernier. the flow and pressure will be steadier. hydrazine etc).The is steady as well and as the design is improved.978) A second generation version (patent pending) that is lower in weight (12 hp/lb) has been designed and built and is now being tested.

the 5}This gas generator lowers the Ignition start period of the engine. 1}They cannot pump to higher pressure than drive gas (area ratio is 1:1) 2}They cannot use either a staged combustion or expander cycle. 4}The generated gas must be chemically compatible with both propellants.DISADVANTAGES: The pistonless pumps has disadvantages along with such fine advantages. . 3}A gas generator cycle is also difficult to integrate with the pistonless pump.

In this . Also.rather increases efficiency of engine. it is light weight than turbo pump. The only drawback of pistonless pump is that. . it has no vibrations.no. it is much economical than turbopump.is the absence of piston.it cannot have stage combustion or expander cycle.and moreover. it has less losses and improves. of rotating parts is very less as compared to that of turbopump.CONCLUSION: The most significance of property of Pistonless pump that makes them different from that of turbo pump .So. This is the most unique technique.further.Also. that it cannot supply high pressure fuel and also. it’s installation is very easy.

xcor.flowmetrics.edu 5}www.H.Call Peterson) 4}http://www.com .com 6}www.sdsu.Boden) 2}Book Of Rocket Propulsion (By zechosloviky) 3}Mechanics Of Thermodynamics Of propulsion (By Philip Hill.kahuna.BIBLOGRAPHY: 1}Theory Of Rocket propulsion (By R.