Artificial Gravitational Lenses

Fran De Aquino
Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.
Copyright © 2012 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved.

We show that it is possible to produce gravitational lenses at laboratory scale by means of a toroidal
device which strongly intensifies the radial gravitational acceleration at its nucleus, and can make the
acceleration repulsive besides attractive. This means that a light flux through the toroid can become
convergent or divergent from its central axis. These lenses are similar to optical lenses and can be very
useful for telescopes, microscopes, and for the concentration of solar light in order to convert solar
energy into thermal energy.

Key words: Modified theories of gravity, Gravitational lenses, Solar instruments.
PACS: 04.50.Kd, 98.62.Sb, 95.55.Ev.


1. Introduction

It is known that Gravitational fields
can bend light. This effect was confirmed in
1919 during a solar eclipse, when Arthur
Eddington observed the light from stars
passing close to the sun was slightly bent, so
that stars appeared slightly out of position
[1]. Einstein realized that a massive
astronomical object can bend light making
what is called a gravitational lens. The
gravitational lensing is one of the predictions
of Einstein's general theory of relativity.
Although this phenomenon was first
mentioned in 1924 by Orest Chwolson [2],
the effect is more commonly associated with
Einstein, who published a more famous
article on the subject in 1936 [3, 4].
Here we show that it is possible to
produce gravitational lenses at laboratory
scale, by means of a toroidal device which
strongly intensifies the radial gravitational
acceleration at its nucleus, and can make the
acceleration repulsive besides attractive
*
[5].
This means that a light flux through the
toroid can becomes convergent or divergent
from its central axis. These lenses are similar
to optical lenses and can be very useful for
telescopes, microscopes, and for the
concentration of solar light in order to
convert solar energy into thermal energy.



*
De Aquino, F. (2008) Process and Device for Controlling
the Locally the Gravitational Mass and the Gravity
Acceleration, BR Patent Number: PI0805046-5, J uly 31,
2008.
2. Theory

From the quantization of gravity it
follows that the gravitational mass m
g
and
the inertial mass m
i
are correlated by means
of the following factor [5]:

( ) 1 1 1 2 1
2
0 0


























⎛ Δ
+ − = =
c m
p
m
m
i i
g
χ

where is the rest inertial mass of the
particle and
0 i
m
p Δ is the variation in the
particle’s kinetic momentum; is the speed
of light.
c
When p Δ is produced by the
absorption of a photon with wavelengthλ , it
is expressed by λ h p = Δ . In this case, Eq.
(1) becomes
( ) 2 1 1 2 1
1 1 2 1
2
0
2
0
0


















− ⎟





+ − =


















− ⎟





+ − =
λ
λ
λ
c m h
m
m
i
i
g
where c m h
i0 0
= λ is the De Broglie
wavelength for the particle with rest inertial
mass .
0 i
m
It has been shown that there is an
additional effect - Gravitational Shielding
effect - produced by a substance whose
gravitational mass was reduced or made
negative [6]. The effect extends beyond
2
substance (gravitational shielding) , up to a
certain distance from it (along the central
axis of gravitational shielding). This effect
shows that in this region the gravity
acceleration, , is reduced at the same
proportion, i.e.,
1
g
g g
1
1
χ = where
0
1
i g
m m = χ and is the gravity
acceleration before the gravitational
shielding). Consequently, after a second
gravitational shielding, the gravity will be
given by
g
g g g
2 1 1 2
2
χ χ χ = = , where
2
χ is
the value of the ratio
0 i g
m m for the second
gravitational shielding. In a generalized way,
we can write that after the nth gravitational
shielding the gravity, , will be given by
n
g

( ) 3 ...
3 2 1
g g
n
n
χ χ χ χ =

This possibility shows that, by means
of a battery of gravitational shieldings, we
can strongly intensify the gravitational
acceleration.
From Electrodynamics we know that
when an electromagnetic wave with
frequency and velocity incides on a
material with relative permittivity
f c
r
ε ,
relative magnetic permeability
r
μ and
electrical conductivity σ , its velocity is
reduced to
r
n c v = where is the index of
refraction of the material, given by [
r
n
7]

( ) ( ) 4 1 1
2
2






+ + = = ωε σ
μ ε
r r
r
v
c
n

If ωε σ >> , f π ω 2 = , Eq. (4) reduces to

( ) 5
4
0
f
n
r
r
πε
σ μ
=

Thus, the wavelength of the incident
radiation (See Fig. 1) becomes

( ) 6
4
mod
σ μ
π λ
λ
f n n
f c
f
v
r r
= = = =











Fig. 1 – Modified Electromagnetic Wave. The
wavelength of the electromagnetic wave can be
strongly reduced, but its frequency remains the same.
v =c v =c/n
r
λ =c/f
λ
mod
=v/f =c/n
r
f
n
r




If a lamina with thickness equal toξ
contains atoms/m n
3
,

then the number of
atoms per area unit is ξ n . Thus, if the
electromagnetic radiation with frequency
incides on an area of the lamina it
reaches
f S
ξ nS atoms. If it incides on the total
area of the lamina, , then the total number
of atoms reached by the radiation is
f
S
ξ
f
nS N = . The number of atoms per unit of
volume, , is given by n

( ) 7
0
A
N
n
ρ
=

where is the
Avogadro’s number;
kmole atoms N / 10 02 . 6
26
0
× =
ρ is the matter density
of the lamina (in kg/m
3
) and A is the molar
mass(kg/kmole).
When an electromagnetic wave incides
on the lamina, it strikes front atoms,
where
f
N
( )
m f f
S n N φ ≅ ,
m
φ is the “diameter” of
the atom. Thus, the electromagnetic wave
incides effectively on an area
m f
S N S= ,
where
2
4
1
m m
S πφ = is the cross section area of
one atom. After these collisions, it carries out
with the other atoms (See Fig.2).
collisions
n

3









Fig. 2 – Collisions inside the lamina.
atom
S
m
Wave


Thus, the total number of collisions in the
volume ξ S is

( )
( ) 8 ξ
φ ξ φ
S n
S n S n S n n N N
m
m m l m l collisions f collisions
=
= − + = + =


The power density, , of the radiation on the
lamina can be expressed by
D

( ) 9
m f
S N
P
S
P
D = =

We can express the total mean number
of collisions in each atom, , by means of
the following equation
1
n

( ) 10
1
N
N n
n
collisions photons total
=

Since in each collision a momentum λ h is
transferred to the atom, then the total
momentum transferred to the lamina will be
( ) λ h N n p
1
= Δ . Therefore, in accordance
with Eq. (1), we can write that

( )
( )
( )
( ) 11 1 1 2 1
1 1 2 1
2
0
2
0
1
0

























+ − =
=

























+ − =
λ
λ
λ
λ
collisions photons total
l i
l g
N n
N n
m
m

Since Eq. (8) gives ξ S n N
l collisions
= , we get
( ) (12
2
ξ S n
hf
P
N n
l collisions photons total








=
Substitution of Eq. (12) into Eq. (11) yields

( )
( )
( ) ( ) 13 1 1 2 1
2
0
2
0





































+ − =
λ
λ
ξ S n
hf
P
m
m
l
l i
l g

Substitution of P given by Eq. (9) into Eq.
(13) gives

( )
( ) ( )
( ) 14 1
1
1 2 1
2
0
2
0













































+ − =
λ
ξ
c m
S n
f
D S N
m
m
l i
l
m f
l i
l g

Substitution of ( )
m f l f
S n N φ ≅ and
m f
S N S =
into Eq. (14) results

( )
( ) ( )
( ) 15 1
1
1 2 1
2
2
0
2 2 2 3
0





































+ − =
λ
ξ φ
cf m
D S S n
m
m
l i
m m f l
l i
l g

where
( ) ( ) ( ) l l l i
V m ρ =
0
.
Now, considering that the lamina is
inside an ELF electromagnetic field with
E andB , then we can write that [8]

( )
( ) 16
2
0
2
c
E n
D
l r
μ
=

Substitution of Eq. (16) into Eq. (15) gives

( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 17 1
1
2
1 2 1
2
2 2
0 0
2 2 2 2 3
0





































+ − =
λ μ
ξ φ
f c m
E S S n n
m
m
l i
m m f l l r
l i
l g

In the case in which the area is just the
area of the cross-section of the lamina
f
S
( )
α
S ,
we obtain from Eq. (17), considering that
( ) ( )
ξ ρ
α
S m
l l i
=
0
, the following expression

( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 18 1
1
2
1 2 1
2
2 2
0
2 2 2 3
0





































+ − =
λ ρ μ
φ
α
f c
E S S n n
m
m
l
m m l l r
l i
l g

)

4
According to Eq. (6) we have
( )
( ) 19
f n
c
f
v
l r
= = =
mod
λ λ
Substitution of Eq. (19) into Eq. (18) gives

( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 20 1
4
1 2 1
2 6 2 2
0
4 4 4 2 6 4
0 ⎪



















− + − =
f c
E S S n n
m
m
l
m m
l l r
l i
l g
ρ μ
φ
α

Note that t E E
m
ω sin = .The average value
for
2
E is equal to
2
2
1
m
E because E varies
sinusoidaly ( is the maximum value
for
m
E
E ). On the other hand, 2
m rms
E E = .
Consequently we can change
4
E by ,
and the equation above can be rewritten as
follows
4
rms
E

( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 21 1
4
1 2 1
2 6 2 2
0
4 4 4 2 6 4
0




















− + − =
= =
f c
E S S n n
m
m
l
rms m m
l l r
l i
l g
ρ μ
φ
χ
α

Now consider the Artificial
Gravitational Lenses shown in Fig.3.
Basically they are rectangular toroids.
Inside them there are two dielectric rings
with 1 ≅
r
ε and an Aluminum ring with mass
density (See Fig.3). The
rectangular toroid is filled with air at ambient
temperature and 1atm. Thus, inside the tube,
the air density is
3
. 2700

= m kg ρ

( ) 22 . 2 . 1
3 −
≅ m kg
air
ρ

The number of atoms of air (Nitrogen) per
unit of volume, , according to Eq.(7), is
given by
air
n

( ) 23 / 10 16 . 5
3 25 0
m atoms
A
N
n
N
air
air
× = =
ρ

Here, the area refers to the area of the ring
inside the air toroid, with average radius
α
S
2
i e
r r r + = and heightα , i.e.,

( ) ( )
e i e i
r r r r S + = + = πα πα
α
2 2

where is the inner radius and the outer
radius of the rectangular toroid. For
i
r
e
r
mm r
i
400 = , mm r
e
650 = and mm 60 = α ,
we get

( ) ( ) 24 198 . 0
2
m r r S
e i
= + = πα
α

The parallel metallic plates (p), shown
in Fig.3 are subjected to different drop
voltages. The two sets of plates (D), placed
on the extremes of the toroid, are subjected to
( )
V V
rms D
065 3. = at Hz f 5 . 2 = , while the central
set of plates (A) is subjected to
( )
V V
rms A
623 51. = at Hz f 5 . 2 = .Since mm d 98 = ,
then the intensity of the electric field, which
passes through the 36 cylindrical air laminas
(each one with 5mm thickness) of the two
sets (D), is
( ) ( )
m V d V E
rms D rms D
/ .28 31 = =
and the intensity of the electric field, which
passes through the 9 cylindrical air laminas
of the two sets (A), is given by
( ) ( )
m V d V E
rms A rms A
/ .77 526 = =
Note that the metallic rings (5mm thickness)
are positioned in such way to block the
electric field out of the cylindrical air
laminas (also 5mm thickness). The objective
is to turn each one of these laminas into a
Gravity Control Cell (GCC) [6]. Thus, the
system shown in Fig. 3 has 4 sets of GCC.
Two with 18 GCC each and two with 9 GCC
each. The two sets with 18 GCC each are
positioned at the extremes of the tube (D).
They work as gravitational decelerator while
the other two set with 9 GCC (A) each works
as a gravitational accelerator, intensifying
the gravity acceleration produced by the
Aluminum ring. According to Eq. (3), this
gravity after the GCC becomes ,
where
th
9
0
9
9
g g χ =
( ) ( ) l i l g
m m = χ given by Eq. (21), and
can be calculated starting from the
expression of the gravitational mass of the
half-toroid of Aluminum,
0
g
( toroid g
M
2
1
)
, which is
given by
5

( )
( )
( )
( ) (25
2
1
2
1
0 0
i i e
toroid g
r
i e
M
toroid g
r r r M
whence
dz r r dM
i g
− =
− =
∫ ∫
πρα
ρα
π
)

On the other hand, we have that

( )
∫ ∫ ∫

− = − =
i g
r
i e
M
g
g
dz
r
r r G
dM
r
G
dg
π
αρ
0
2
0 0
2


whence we get

( )
( ) 26
2
r
r r r G
g
i i e

− =
παρ

which gives the value of produced by the
half-toroid at a point inside the nucleus of the
toroid, distant
g
r from the center of the cross-
section of the rectangular toroid. Thus, the
value of , due to the first half-
toroid is
0
g′ ( )
0
r r =

i
i e
r
r
r r
G g







⎛ −
− ≅ ′
2
0
0
πρα

The value of , due to the opposite half-
toroid is
0
g ′ ′

( )

























⎛ −
− ⎟





+



− ≅ ′ ′
2
0
0
2 2
2
i e i e
e
i i e
r r
r
r r
r
r r r
G g πρα

Consequently, the resultant is

( )
( )
( )








+


=

























⎛ −
− ⎟





+












⎛ −
− ≅
2
0
2
0
2
0
0
2 2
2
r r
r r r
G
r r
r
r r
r
r r r
G
r
r
r r
G g
i
i i e
i e i e
e
i i e
i
i e
πρα
πρα
πρα

In the case of , the equation above
reduces to
0
r r
i
>>
( ) 27
2
0
0 i
i e
r
r
r r
G g







⎛ −
− ≅ πρα
where is the inner radius of the toroid;
is the distance between the center of the
cross-section of the Aluminum ring and the
surface of the first GCC of the set (A);
i
r
0
r
α is
the thickness of the Aluminum ring. Here,
mm r 35
0
= and mm 60 = α (See Fig. 3 (a)).
The objective of the sets (D), with 18
GCC each, is to reduce strongly the value of
the external gravity along the rectangular
toroid of air in D region. In this case, the
value of the external gravity, , is reduced
by the factor , where
ext
g
ext d
g
18
χ
2
10

=
d
χ . For
example, if then this value is
reduced to and, after the set A, it is
increased by . Since the system is
designed for
2
/ 81 . 9 s m g
ext
=
ext d
g
18
χ
9
χ
1 . 627 − = χ , then the gravity
acceleration on the Aluminum ring
becomes ,
this value is smaller than
2 10 18 9
/ 10 47 . 1 s m g
ext d

× = χ χ
( ) [ ]
2 8 2
0 0
. 10 9 . 9
− −
× = − − ≅ s m r r r r G g
i i e
πρα .
The values of χ and
d
χ , according to
Eq. (21) are given by

6
( ) ( )
( )
( ) 24 1 10 289 1 1 2 1
1
4
1 2 1
4 6
2 6 2 2
0
4 4 4 2 6 4












− × + − =
=




















− + − =

rms A
air
rms A
m m
air air r
E
f c
E S S n n
.
ρ μ
φ
χ
α

( ) ( )
( )
( ) 25 1 10 289 1 1 2 1
1
4
1 2 1
4 6
2 6 2 2
0
4 4 4 2 6 4












− × + − =
=




















− + − =

rms D
air
rms D
m m
air air r
d
E
f c
E S S n n
.
ρ μ
φ
χ
α

where
( )
1 ≅ =
r r air r
n μ ε , since( ) ωε σ <<

;
, ,
3 25
/ 10 16 . 5 m atoms n
air
× = m
m
10
10 55 . 1

× = φ
2 20 2
10 88 . 1 4 m S
m m

× = =πφ and Hz f 5 . 2 = .
Since , ,
we get
( )
m V E
rms A
/ .77 526 =
( )
m V E
rms D
/ .28 31 =

( ) 30 1 . 627 − = χ

and

( ) 31 10
2 −

d
χ

Then the gravitational acceleration
after the 9
th
gravitational shielding is

( )
( ) 32
2
0
9
0
9
9 ⎥




⎡ −
− = =
r
r r r
G g g
i i e
πρα χ χ

It is known that gravitational fields can
bend light, and that due to this effect, a light
ray that passes very close to a body with
gravitational mass is deviated of an
angle
g
M
δ (deflection angle) given by [3]



The electrical conductivity of air, inside the
dielectric tube, is equal to the electrical conductivity
of Earth’s atmosphere near the land, whose average
value is m S
air
/ 10 1
14 −
× ≅ σ [9].
( ) 33
4
2
d c
GM
g
− = δ

where is the distance of closest approach. d
Here, we can obtain the expression of
δ as follows: by comparing Eq. (26) with Eq.
(25) we obtain . Substitution of
this expression into Eq. (33) leads to the
following equation
2
gr GM
g
=

( ) 34
4
2
2
d c
gr
= δ

For
0
r r = we have and equation above
can be rewritten as follows
0
g g =

( ) 35
4
2
2
0 0
d c
r g
= δ

However, considering the symmetry of the
gravitational lenses shown in Fig.3, it is easy
to see that Eq. (35) must be rewritten as
follows

( ) 36
4 4
2
2
0 0
2
2
0 0
d c
r g
d c
r g
′ ′


= δ

where d′ and d ′ ′ are respectively, the
distances of closest approach of the light ray
with respect to the two sides of the
Aluminum ring (See Fig 3 (b)).
When the gravitational lenses are
activated the value of is amplified to
, then Eq. (36) becomes
0
g
0
9
g χ

( ) 37
4 4
2
2
0 0
9
2
2
0 0
9
d c
r g
d c
r g
′ ′


=
χ χ
δ

Note that, for d d ′ ′ = ′ (light ray at the center
of the Gravitational lens) Eq. (37) gives
0 = δ ( null deflection). On the other hand, if
d d ′ ′ < ′ we have 0 > δ (the light ray is
gravitationally attracted to the inner edge of
rectangular toroid). Under these conditions,
when a light flux crosses the gravitational
lens (nucleus of the rectangular toroid), it
becomes divergent in respect to the central
axis of the toroid (See Fig. 3(c)). If
7
d d ′ ′ > ′ then Eq. (37) shows that 0 < δ (the
light ray is gravitationally repelled from the
inner edge of rectangular toroid). In this case,
when a light flux crosses the gravitational
lens, it becomes convergent in respect to the
central axis of the toroid (See Fig. 3(b)).
Substitution of the known values into
Eq. (37) yields

( ) 38
1 1
1 . 0 ⎟





′ ′



d d
δ

Note that the values of δ can be easily
controlled simply by controlling of the value
of χ . Also note that the curvatures of the
light rays are proportional to the distances
and , similarly to the curvature of the
light rays in the optical lenses. Then it is easy
to see that these gravitational lenses can be
very useful in building of telescopes,
microscopes, and in concentrating solar light
in order to convert solar energy into thermal
energy.
d′ d ′ ′



I would like to thank Physicist André
Luis Martins (RJ , Brazil) who came up with
the original idea to build Artificial
Gravitational Lens using sets of Gravitational
Shieldings, as shown in my previous papers.






































































8













(a)















(b)














(c)

Fig. 3 – Artificial Gravitational Lens. (a) Cross-section of the Artificial Gravitational Lens. (b)
Cross-section of a Convergent Gravitational Lens. The light rays are gravitationally repelled from
the inner edge of toroid (c) Cross-section of a Divergent Gravitational Lens. The light rays are
gravitationally attracted to the inner edge of toroid.
ξ =5 mm
Parallel plate capacitor (p)
(Metallic ring)
1 2 17 18
88
Dielectric rings
εr ≅ 1
D
M
g 1 2 6 9
A
Air Air
d =98 mm
α=60mm
Rectangular Toroid
Metallic ring
(5 mm thickness)
r
0
=35mm
E
D(rms)
E
A(rms)
Air
1 atm300K
Gravitational Lens
Rectangular Toroid
Rectangular Toroid
M
g D A D A M
g
D and A Sets
of
Gravitational Shieldings
D D A A M
g
M
g
Gravitational Lens
Gravitational Lens
Light
Light
g’ g’
g’ g’
Aluminum ring
r
e
r
i
d ′ ′ d′

9


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Pergamon press, Oxford, London; Kamsali, N. et al.,
(2011) Advanced Air Pollution, chapter 20, DOI:
10.5772/17163, edited by Farhad Nejadkoorki, Publisher:
InTech, ISBN 978-953-307-511-2, under CC BY-NC-
SA 3.0 license.



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