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Fran De Aquino

Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.

Copyright © 2012 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved.

We show that it is possible to produce gravitational lenses at laboratory scale by means of a toroidal

device which strongly intensifies the radial gravitational acceleration at its nucleus, and can make the

acceleration repulsive besides attractive. This means that a light flux through the toroid can become

convergent or divergent from its central axis. These lenses are similar to optical lenses and can be very

useful for telescopes, microscopes, and for the concentration of solar light in order to convert solar

energy into thermal energy.

Key words: Modified theories of gravity, Gravitational lenses, Solar instruments.

PACS: 04.50.Kd, 98.62.Sb, 95.55.Ev.

1. Introduction

It is known that Gravitational fields

can bend light. This effect was confirmed in

1919 during a solar eclipse, when Arthur

Eddington observed the light from stars

passing close to the sun was slightly bent, so

that stars appeared slightly out of position

[1]. Einstein realized that a massive

astronomical object can bend light making

what is called a gravitational lens. The

gravitational lensing is one of the predictions

of Einstein's general theory of relativity.

Although this phenomenon was first

mentioned in 1924 by Orest Chwolson [2],

the effect is more commonly associated with

Einstein, who published a more famous

article on the subject in 1936 [3, 4].

Here we show that it is possible to

produce gravitational lenses at laboratory

scale, by means of a toroidal device which

strongly intensifies the radial gravitational

acceleration at its nucleus, and can make the

acceleration repulsive besides attractive

*

[5].

This means that a light flux through the

toroid can becomes convergent or divergent

from its central axis. These lenses are similar

to optical lenses and can be very useful for

telescopes, microscopes, and for the

concentration of solar light in order to

convert solar energy into thermal energy.

*

De Aquino, F. (2008) Process and Device for Controlling

the Locally the Gravitational Mass and the Gravity

Acceleration, BR Patent Number: PI0805046-5, J uly 31,

2008.

2. Theory

From the quantization of gravity it

follows that the gravitational mass m

g

and

the inertial mass m

i

are correlated by means

of the following factor [5]:

( ) 1 1 1 2 1

2

0 0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ Δ

+ − = =

c m

p

m

m

i i

g

χ

where is the rest inertial mass of the

particle and

0 i

m

p Δ is the variation in the

particle’s kinetic momentum; is the speed

of light.

c

When p Δ is produced by the

absorption of a photon with wavelengthλ , it

is expressed by λ h p = Δ . In this case, Eq.

(1) becomes

( ) 2 1 1 2 1

1 1 2 1

2

0

2

0

0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

− ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − =

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

− ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − =

λ

λ

λ

c m h

m

m

i

i

g

where c m h

i0 0

= λ is the De Broglie

wavelength for the particle with rest inertial

mass .

0 i

m

It has been shown that there is an

additional effect - Gravitational Shielding

effect - produced by a substance whose

gravitational mass was reduced or made

negative [6]. The effect extends beyond

2

substance (gravitational shielding) , up to a

certain distance from it (along the central

axis of gravitational shielding). This effect

shows that in this region the gravity

acceleration, , is reduced at the same

proportion, i.e.,

1

g

g g

1

1

χ = where

0

1

i g

m m = χ and is the gravity

acceleration before the gravitational

shielding). Consequently, after a second

gravitational shielding, the gravity will be

given by

g

g g g

2 1 1 2

2

χ χ χ = = , where

2

χ is

the value of the ratio

0 i g

m m for the second

gravitational shielding. In a generalized way,

we can write that after the nth gravitational

shielding the gravity, , will be given by

n

g

( ) 3 ...

3 2 1

g g

n

n

χ χ χ χ =

This possibility shows that, by means

of a battery of gravitational shieldings, we

can strongly intensify the gravitational

acceleration.

From Electrodynamics we know that

when an electromagnetic wave with

frequency and velocity incides on a

material with relative permittivity

f c

r

ε ,

relative magnetic permeability

r

μ and

electrical conductivity σ , its velocity is

reduced to

r

n c v = where is the index of

refraction of the material, given by [

r

n

7]

( ) ( ) 4 1 1

2

2

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ + = = ωε σ

μ ε

r r

r

v

c

n

If ωε σ >> , f π ω 2 = , Eq. (4) reduces to

( ) 5

4

0

f

n

r

r

πε

σ μ

=

Thus, the wavelength of the incident

radiation (See Fig. 1) becomes

( ) 6

4

mod

σ μ

π λ

λ

f n n

f c

f

v

r r

= = = =

Fig. 1 – Modified Electromagnetic Wave. The

wavelength of the electromagnetic wave can be

strongly reduced, but its frequency remains the same.

v =c v =c/n

r

λ =c/f

λ

mod

=v/f =c/n

r

f

n

r

If a lamina with thickness equal toξ

contains atoms/m n

3

,

then the number of

atoms per area unit is ξ n . Thus, if the

electromagnetic radiation with frequency

incides on an area of the lamina it

reaches

f S

ξ nS atoms. If it incides on the total

area of the lamina, , then the total number

of atoms reached by the radiation is

f

S

ξ

f

nS N = . The number of atoms per unit of

volume, , is given by n

( ) 7

0

A

N

n

ρ

=

where is the

Avogadro’s number;

kmole atoms N / 10 02 . 6

26

0

× =

ρ is the matter density

of the lamina (in kg/m

3

) and A is the molar

mass(kg/kmole).

When an electromagnetic wave incides

on the lamina, it strikes front atoms,

where

f

N

( )

m f f

S n N φ ≅ ,

m

φ is the “diameter” of

the atom. Thus, the electromagnetic wave

incides effectively on an area

m f

S N S= ,

where

2

4

1

m m

S πφ = is the cross section area of

one atom. After these collisions, it carries out

with the other atoms (See Fig.2).

collisions

n

3

Fig. 2 – Collisions inside the lamina.

atom

S

m

Wave

Thus, the total number of collisions in the

volume ξ S is

( )

( ) 8 ξ

φ ξ φ

S n

S n S n S n n N N

m

m m l m l collisions f collisions

=

= − + = + =

The power density, , of the radiation on the

lamina can be expressed by

D

( ) 9

m f

S N

P

S

P

D = =

We can express the total mean number

of collisions in each atom, , by means of

the following equation

1

n

( ) 10

1

N

N n

n

collisions photons total

=

Since in each collision a momentum λ h is

transferred to the atom, then the total

momentum transferred to the lamina will be

( ) λ h N n p

1

= Δ . Therefore, in accordance

with Eq. (1), we can write that

( )

( )

( )

( ) 11 1 1 2 1

1 1 2 1

2

0

2

0

1

0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

+ − =

=

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

+ − =

λ

λ

λ

λ

collisions photons total

l i

l g

N n

N n

m

m

Since Eq. (8) gives ξ S n N

l collisions

= , we get

( ) (12

2

ξ S n

hf

P

N n

l collisions photons total

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

Substitution of Eq. (12) into Eq. (11) yields

( )

( )

( ) ( ) 13 1 1 2 1

2

0

2

0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − =

λ

λ

ξ S n

hf

P

m

m

l

l i

l g

Substitution of P given by Eq. (9) into Eq.

(13) gives

( )

( ) ( )

( ) 14 1

1

1 2 1

2

0

2

0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − =

λ

ξ

c m

S n

f

D S N

m

m

l i

l

m f

l i

l g

Substitution of ( )

m f l f

S n N φ ≅ and

m f

S N S =

into Eq. (14) results

( )

( ) ( )

( ) 15 1

1

1 2 1

2

2

0

2 2 2 3

0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − =

λ

ξ φ

cf m

D S S n

m

m

l i

m m f l

l i

l g

where

( ) ( ) ( ) l l l i

V m ρ =

0

.

Now, considering that the lamina is

inside an ELF electromagnetic field with

E andB , then we can write that [8]

( )

( ) 16

2

0

2

c

E n

D

l r

μ

=

Substitution of Eq. (16) into Eq. (15) gives

( )

( )

( )

( )

( ) 17 1

1

2

1 2 1

2

2 2

0 0

2 2 2 2 3

0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − =

λ μ

ξ φ

f c m

E S S n n

m

m

l i

m m f l l r

l i

l g

In the case in which the area is just the

area of the cross-section of the lamina

f

S

( )

α

S ,

we obtain from Eq. (17), considering that

( ) ( )

ξ ρ

α

S m

l l i

=

0

, the following expression

( )

( )

( )

( )

( ) 18 1

1

2

1 2 1

2

2 2

0

2 2 2 3

0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − =

λ ρ μ

φ

α

f c

E S S n n

m

m

l

m m l l r

l i

l g

)

4

According to Eq. (6) we have

( )

( ) 19

f n

c

f

v

l r

= = =

mod

λ λ

Substitution of Eq. (19) into Eq. (18) gives

( )

( )

( )

( )

( ) 20 1

4

1 2 1

2 6 2 2

0

4 4 4 2 6 4

0 ⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

− + − =

f c

E S S n n

m

m

l

m m

l l r

l i

l g

ρ μ

φ

α

Note that t E E

m

ω sin = .The average value

for

2

E is equal to

2

2

1

m

E because E varies

sinusoidaly ( is the maximum value

for

m

E

E ). On the other hand, 2

m rms

E E = .

Consequently we can change

4

E by ,

and the equation above can be rewritten as

follows

4

rms

E

( )

( )

( )

( )

( ) 21 1

4

1 2 1

2 6 2 2

0

4 4 4 2 6 4

0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

− + − =

= =

f c

E S S n n

m

m

l

rms m m

l l r

l i

l g

ρ μ

φ

χ

α

Now consider the Artificial

Gravitational Lenses shown in Fig.3.

Basically they are rectangular toroids.

Inside them there are two dielectric rings

with 1 ≅

r

ε and an Aluminum ring with mass

density (See Fig.3). The

rectangular toroid is filled with air at ambient

temperature and 1atm. Thus, inside the tube,

the air density is

3

. 2700

−

= m kg ρ

( ) 22 . 2 . 1

3 −

≅ m kg

air

ρ

The number of atoms of air (Nitrogen) per

unit of volume, , according to Eq.(7), is

given by

air

n

( ) 23 / 10 16 . 5

3 25 0

m atoms

A

N

n

N

air

air

× = =

ρ

Here, the area refers to the area of the ring

inside the air toroid, with average radius

α

S

2

i e

r r r + = and heightα , i.e.,

( ) ( )

e i e i

r r r r S + = + = πα πα

α

2 2

where is the inner radius and the outer

radius of the rectangular toroid. For

i

r

e

r

mm r

i

400 = , mm r

e

650 = and mm 60 = α ,

we get

( ) ( ) 24 198 . 0

2

m r r S

e i

= + = πα

α

The parallel metallic plates (p), shown

in Fig.3 are subjected to different drop

voltages. The two sets of plates (D), placed

on the extremes of the toroid, are subjected to

( )

V V

rms D

065 3. = at Hz f 5 . 2 = , while the central

set of plates (A) is subjected to

( )

V V

rms A

623 51. = at Hz f 5 . 2 = .Since mm d 98 = ,

then the intensity of the electric field, which

passes through the 36 cylindrical air laminas

(each one with 5mm thickness) of the two

sets (D), is

( ) ( )

m V d V E

rms D rms D

/ .28 31 = =

and the intensity of the electric field, which

passes through the 9 cylindrical air laminas

of the two sets (A), is given by

( ) ( )

m V d V E

rms A rms A

/ .77 526 = =

Note that the metallic rings (5mm thickness)

are positioned in such way to block the

electric field out of the cylindrical air

laminas (also 5mm thickness). The objective

is to turn each one of these laminas into a

Gravity Control Cell (GCC) [6]. Thus, the

system shown in Fig. 3 has 4 sets of GCC.

Two with 18 GCC each and two with 9 GCC

each. The two sets with 18 GCC each are

positioned at the extremes of the tube (D).

They work as gravitational decelerator while

the other two set with 9 GCC (A) each works

as a gravitational accelerator, intensifying

the gravity acceleration produced by the

Aluminum ring. According to Eq. (3), this

gravity after the GCC becomes ,

where

th

9

0

9

9

g g χ =

( ) ( ) l i l g

m m = χ given by Eq. (21), and

can be calculated starting from the

expression of the gravitational mass of the

half-toroid of Aluminum,

0

g

( toroid g

M

2

1

)

, which is

given by

5

( )

( )

( )

( ) (25

2

1

2

1

0 0

i i e

toroid g

r

i e

M

toroid g

r r r M

whence

dz r r dM

i g

− =

− =

∫ ∫

πρα

ρα

π

)

On the other hand, we have that

( )

∫ ∫ ∫

−

− = − =

i g

r

i e

M

g

g

dz

r

r r G

dM

r

G

dg

π

αρ

0

2

0 0

2

whence we get

( )

( ) 26

2

r

r r r G

g

i i e

−

− =

παρ

which gives the value of produced by the

half-toroid at a point inside the nucleus of the

toroid, distant

g

r from the center of the cross-

section of the rectangular toroid. Thus, the

value of , due to the first half-

toroid is

0

g′ ( )

0

r r =

i

i e

r

r

r r

G g

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

− ≅ ′

2

0

0

πρα

The value of , due to the opposite half-

toroid is

0

g ′ ′

( )

⎪

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

− ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

+

−

−

−

− ≅ ′ ′

2

0

0

2 2

2

i e i e

e

i i e

r r

r

r r

r

r r r

G g πρα

Consequently, the resultant is

( )

( )

( )

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

+

−

−

=

⎪

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

− ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

+

−

−

−

−

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

− ≅

2

0

2

0

2

0

0

2 2

2

r r

r r r

G

r r

r

r r

r

r r r

G

r

r

r r

G g

i

i i e

i e i e

e

i i e

i

i e

πρα

πρα

πρα

In the case of , the equation above

reduces to

0

r r

i

>>

( ) 27

2

0

0 i

i e

r

r

r r

G g

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

− ≅ πρα

where is the inner radius of the toroid;

is the distance between the center of the

cross-section of the Aluminum ring and the

surface of the first GCC of the set (A);

i

r

0

r

α is

the thickness of the Aluminum ring. Here,

mm r 35

0

= and mm 60 = α (See Fig. 3 (a)).

The objective of the sets (D), with 18

GCC each, is to reduce strongly the value of

the external gravity along the rectangular

toroid of air in D region. In this case, the

value of the external gravity, , is reduced

by the factor , where

ext

g

ext d

g

18

χ

2

10

−

=

d

χ . For

example, if then this value is

reduced to and, after the set A, it is

increased by . Since the system is

designed for

2

/ 81 . 9 s m g

ext

=

ext d

g

18

χ

9

χ

1 . 627 − = χ , then the gravity

acceleration on the Aluminum ring

becomes ,

this value is smaller than

2 10 18 9

/ 10 47 . 1 s m g

ext d

−

× = χ χ

( ) [ ]

2 8 2

0 0

. 10 9 . 9

− −

× = − − ≅ s m r r r r G g

i i e

πρα .

The values of χ and

d

χ , according to

Eq. (21) are given by

6

( ) ( )

( )

( ) 24 1 10 289 1 1 2 1

1

4

1 2 1

4 6

2 6 2 2

0

4 4 4 2 6 4

⎭

⎬

⎫

⎩

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

− × + − =

=

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

− + − =

−

rms A

air

rms A

m m

air air r

E

f c

E S S n n

.

ρ μ

φ

χ

α

( ) ( )

( )

( ) 25 1 10 289 1 1 2 1

1

4

1 2 1

4 6

2 6 2 2

0

4 4 4 2 6 4

⎭

⎬

⎫

⎩

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

− × + − =

=

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

− + − =

−

rms D

air

rms D

m m

air air r

d

E

f c

E S S n n

.

ρ μ

φ

χ

α

where

( )

1 ≅ =

r r air r

n μ ε , since( ) ωε σ <<

†

;

, ,

3 25

/ 10 16 . 5 m atoms n

air

× = m

m

10

10 55 . 1

−

× = φ

2 20 2

10 88 . 1 4 m S

m m

−

× = =πφ and Hz f 5 . 2 = .

Since , ,

we get

( )

m V E

rms A

/ .77 526 =

( )

m V E

rms D

/ .28 31 =

( ) 30 1 . 627 − = χ

and

( ) 31 10

2 −

≅

d

χ

Then the gravitational acceleration

after the 9

th

gravitational shielding is

( )

( ) 32

2

0

9

0

9

9 ⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡ −

− = =

r

r r r

G g g

i i e

πρα χ χ

It is known that gravitational fields can

bend light, and that due to this effect, a light

ray that passes very close to a body with

gravitational mass is deviated of an

angle

g

M

δ (deflection angle) given by [3]

†

The electrical conductivity of air, inside the

dielectric tube, is equal to the electrical conductivity

of Earth’s atmosphere near the land, whose average

value is m S

air

/ 10 1

14 −

× ≅ σ [9].

( ) 33

4

2

d c

GM

g

− = δ

where is the distance of closest approach. d

Here, we can obtain the expression of

δ as follows: by comparing Eq. (26) with Eq.

(25) we obtain . Substitution of

this expression into Eq. (33) leads to the

following equation

2

gr GM

g

=

( ) 34

4

2

2

d c

gr

= δ

For

0

r r = we have and equation above

can be rewritten as follows

0

g g =

( ) 35

4

2

2

0 0

d c

r g

= δ

However, considering the symmetry of the

gravitational lenses shown in Fig.3, it is easy

to see that Eq. (35) must be rewritten as

follows

( ) 36

4 4

2

2

0 0

2

2

0 0

d c

r g

d c

r g

′ ′

−

′

= δ

where d′ and d ′ ′ are respectively, the

distances of closest approach of the light ray

with respect to the two sides of the

Aluminum ring (See Fig 3 (b)).

When the gravitational lenses are

activated the value of is amplified to

, then Eq. (36) becomes

0

g

0

9

g χ

( ) 37

4 4

2

2

0 0

9

2

2

0 0

9

d c

r g

d c

r g

′ ′

−

′

=

χ χ

δ

Note that, for d d ′ ′ = ′ (light ray at the center

of the Gravitational lens) Eq. (37) gives

0 = δ ( null deflection). On the other hand, if

d d ′ ′ < ′ we have 0 > δ (the light ray is

gravitationally attracted to the inner edge of

rectangular toroid). Under these conditions,

when a light flux crosses the gravitational

lens (nucleus of the rectangular toroid), it

becomes divergent in respect to the central

axis of the toroid (See Fig. 3(c)). If

7

d d ′ ′ > ′ then Eq. (37) shows that 0 < δ (the

light ray is gravitationally repelled from the

inner edge of rectangular toroid). In this case,

when a light flux crosses the gravitational

lens, it becomes convergent in respect to the

central axis of the toroid (See Fig. 3(b)).

Substitution of the known values into

Eq. (37) yields

( ) 38

1 1

1 . 0 ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

′ ′

−

′

≅

d d

δ

Note that the values of δ can be easily

controlled simply by controlling of the value

of χ . Also note that the curvatures of the

light rays are proportional to the distances

and , similarly to the curvature of the

light rays in the optical lenses. Then it is easy

to see that these gravitational lenses can be

very useful in building of telescopes,

microscopes, and in concentrating solar light

in order to convert solar energy into thermal

energy.

d′ d ′ ′

I would like to thank Physicist André

Luis Martins (RJ , Brazil) who came up with

the original idea to build Artificial

Gravitational Lens using sets of Gravitational

Shieldings, as shown in my previous papers.

8

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 3 – Artificial Gravitational Lens. (a) Cross-section of the Artificial Gravitational Lens. (b)

Cross-section of a Convergent Gravitational Lens. The light rays are gravitationally repelled from

the inner edge of toroid (c) Cross-section of a Divergent Gravitational Lens. The light rays are

gravitationally attracted to the inner edge of toroid.

ξ =5 mm

Parallel plate capacitor (p)

(Metallic ring)

1 2 17 18

88

Dielectric rings

εr ≅ 1

D

M

g 1 2 6 9

A

Air Air

d =98 mm

α=60mm

Rectangular Toroid

Metallic ring

(5 mm thickness)

r

0

=35mm

E

D(rms)

E

A(rms)

Air

1 atm300K

Gravitational Lens

Rectangular Toroid

Rectangular Toroid

M

g D A D A M

g

D and A Sets

of

Gravitational Shieldings

D D A A M

g

M

g

Gravitational Lens

Gravitational Lens

Light

Light

g’ g’

g’ g’

Aluminum ring

r

e

r

i

d ′ ′ d′

9

References

[1] Dyson, F.W., Eddington, A.S., and Davidson, C.R.

(1920). A Determination of the Deflection of Light

by the Sun's Gravitational Field, from Observations

Made at the Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919. Phil.

Trans. Roy. Soc. A 220 (571-581): 291–333.

[2] Chwolson, O (1924). Über eine mögliche Form

fiktiver Doppelsterne. Astronomische Nachrichten

221 (20): 329.

[3] Einstein, A. (1936). Lens-like Action of a Star

by the Deviation of Light in the Gravitational

Field. Science 84 (2188): 506–7.

[4] Renn, J ., Tilman S., and Stachel, J ., (1997). The

Origin of Gravitational Lensing: A Postscript to

Einstein's 1936 Science paper. Science 275

(5297): 184–6.

[5] De Aquino, F. (2010) Mathematical Foundations of

the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity, Pacific

J ournal of Science and Technology, 11 (1), pp. 173-

232.

[6] De Aquino, F. (2010) Gravity Control by means of

Electromagnetic Field through Gas at Ultra-Low

Pressure, Pacific J ournal of Science and Technology,

11(2) November 2010, pp.178-247, Physics/0701091.

[7] Quevedo, C. P. (1977) Eletromagnetismo, McGraw-

Hill, p. 270.

[8] Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. (1968) Physics, J. Willey

& Sons, Portuguese Version, Ed. USP, p.1124.

[9] Chalmers, J .A., (1967) Atmospheric Electricity,

Pergamon press, Oxford, London; Kamsali, N. et al.,

(2011) Advanced Air Pollution, chapter 20, DOI:

10.5772/17163, edited by Farhad Nejadkoorki, Publisher:

InTech, ISBN 978-953-307-511-2, under CC BY-NC-

SA 3.0 license.

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