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S02495296:88:, ! see front matter 0888 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd[ All rights reserved

PII] S0 2 4 9 5 2 9 6 " 8 7 # 9 9 9 1 4 8

Fatigue design of welded aluminum rectangular hollow

section joints

K[A[ Macdonald\ P[J[ Haagensen

Norwegian Unirersiiy of Science ana Technology, Deparineni of Siruciural Engineering, Tich. Birkelanasrei 1a\

N-7034 Tronahein\ Norway

Received 6 August 0887^ accepted 7 September 0887

Abstract

Fatigue design methods for welded aluminum joints are reviewed\ including various approaches to fatigue

life estimation currently adopted in design codes across a range of industrial applications[ The applicability

of these established methodologies to the fatigue design of automotive space frame structures is critically

assessed[ The hot spot stress method is identi_ed as the most promising in terms of providing a coherent

and comprehensive approach to design[ Particular problems related to implementation are considered such

as failure sites and determination of appropriate stress concentration factors from physical models\ _nite

element calculations or parametric equations[ Preliminary results from _nite element stress analyses and

fatigue tests are also presented for rectangular hollow sections welded in a T!joint con_guration[ Recom!

mendations are made for a design methodology for welded rectangular hollow!section joints in aluminum

space frames\ including use of a single hot spot SN curve[ 0888 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd[ All

rights reserved[

Keyworas. Automotive design^ Fatigue design^ SN curves^ Space frames^ Weld fatigue

0[ Introduction

Aluminium welded hollow section "RHS# joints are _nding increased use in crane and bridge

structures\ transport vehicles and in automotive structures[ Tubular structures are occasionally

fabricated using forged or cast nodes but these are more expensive to produce than welded inter!

tube connections which are consequently more common[ However\ the fatigue design basis for

welded RHS joints in aluminium is limited and no design recommendations currently exist for

such joints[ An appropriate starting platform from which to establish a fatigue design methodology

could be the experience recently gained with similar structures fabricated in steel[ In particular\

fatigue assessment based on the geometric hot spot stress range "or hot spot stress# concept could

Corresponding author[

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 003

be adopted for aluminium structures[ However\ in automotive design the material thicknesses tend

to be smaller than those used in civil engineering design and this di}erence might limit the

possibilities for transfer of data from the steel industry[

This paper gives a brief overview of fatigue assessment procedures used in the design of steel

tubular structures[ The limited SN data available for aluminium RHS joints are presented and

the need for further experimental research is outlined[

Trends in the development of design codes are also discussed in light of the fact that international

codes are rapidly harmonising through co!operation between organisations such as ISO "Inter!

national Standards Organisation#\ CEN "Comite Europeen de Normalisation# responsible for

Eurocodes\ IIW "International Institute of Welding# and API "American Petroleum Institute#[

1[ Fatigue life assessment methods for welded tubular joints

In the majority of current fatigue design codes there are two generic types of SN curve used[

In conventional welded structures involving plates and beams\ the noninal siress approach is

normally employed where the di}erent fatigue behaviour of various structural elements or details

is described by assigning to them di}erent SN curves\ termed design categories or classes\ and

combining these with nominal stresses remote from the weld[ Since fatigue failure in welded

constructions is not only related to geometry\ the direction of loading and failure site also in~uences

joint categorisation[ Examples of design categories of such basic connections are joints with butt

or _llet weld\ having di}erent design categories dependent on the stress direction[ The main

advantage of the nominal stress approach is that the SN curves for each weld category "or weld

class# include the notch e}ect of the weld as well as the e}ect of the component geometry[ The

main sources of scatter due to fabrication variables are thus included in the test data used to create

the curve[ Nominal stresses are calculated from a structural analysis and comprise the membrane

stress range\ S

m

and the bending stress range S

b

in general SS

m

S

b

[ The complexities of and

interactions between geometry and loading found in some structures\ e[g[\ in circular section

tubular joints\ give rise to a plethora of possible failure sites and here the hoi spoi siress approach

is used to reduce the design to a common basis[ Additionally\ the di.culties encountered in de_ning

a nominal stress in complex structures also make the hot spot approach the only practicable

method[ Fatigue failure will occur at sites of high peak stress in such joints and it is assumed that

fatigue life is related to the magnitude of these peaks[ Fatigue design is accomplished by combining

knowledge of these local stress peaks*usually in the form of a stress concentration factor "SCF#

for a particular load con_guration*with an SN curve representing a simple weld without any

structural SCF[

2.1. The geoneiric hoi spoi siress approachcircular hollow-seciion (CHS) joinis

The hot spot approach has been used extensively in the o}shore industry in the analysis of

results from tests on steel tubular joints 0[ Stresses in circular hollow!section "CHS# joints arise

from three main sources]

"i# The basic stress response due to the global action of the remote applied load\ i[e[\ the stress

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 004

that can be calculated from a frame analysis disregarding the stress concentrating e}ects of

both the joint and the weld[

"ii# The geometric stresses resulting from local bending of the tube walls to maintain compatibility

between the members[

"iii# The highly local stress near the intersection lines between members[ These local stresses are

strongly in~uenced by the weld shape[

The maximum stress "or notch stress#\ located at the weld toe is the sum of the nominal stress\ the

geometric stress and the local stress components[ The geometric hot spot stress range or hot spot

stress concept has evolved as the most practical basis for fatigue design of welded joints[ It captures

the _ctitious local stress that characterises the fatigue performance of the joint\ but excludes the

very local stress perturbations caused by changes in the weld toe geometry[ Also excluded are the

e}ects of any undetectable defects[ These e}ects are included in the SN curve[ The hot spot stress

concept places di}erent structural geometries on a common basis\ enabling the use of a single

SN curve[ The hot spot stress S

h

is related to the global loads in the structure through]

S

h

SCFS

nom

"0#

where S

nom

is the nominal stress range and the stress concentration factor "SCF# is normally

obtained from either _nite element analyses or from strain gauge measurements[ It is important

that consistency with the SN curve is maintained by using the same method for estimating the

hot spot in the fatigue test as used in obtaining SCFs[ The hot spot stress method for steel CHS

joints has been validated by SN data for di}erent types of joints and loading conditions that plot

into a single scatter band 0[

There is general agreement that the hot spot is located at the weld toe but there are many

opinions as to the proper method of determining the hot spot from strain gauge measurements[ In

the early US practice for o}shore structures\ the API and AWS codes de_ned the hot spot stress

range as the total stress range measured by a strain gauge placed adjacent to the weld toe\

perpendicular to the weld[ Therefore an attempt was made to measure the maximum stress at the

weld toe\ including the notch e}ect of the weld[ Typically hot spot gauges were placed within

5 mm to 9[0zri of the weld toe with a gauge length of 2 mm\ r and i referring to the outside radius

and thickness of the instrumented member[

In the European Coal and Steel Community "ECSC# method 1\ also for o}shore steel structures\

an extrapolation is made from two strain gauges placed just outside the weld notch zone and in

the region of stress linearity to determine the geometric hot spot stress range[ This method is also

used for non!linear stress distributions[ In the Det Norske Veritas "DNV# method 2 for o}shore

structures\ many strain gauges are placed near the weld to allow for a more accurate determination

of the region of hot spot stress[ The ECSC and the DNV recommended locations for the strain

gauges are shown in Fig[ 0[ The ECSC de_nition is based on the maximum principal stress\ i[e[\

the stress components are extrapolated to the weld toe and the maximumprincipal stress calculated[

The stress normal to the weld used in the US de_nition is somewhat lower than this but in the

regions of highest stress\ the crown and saddle location the two are almost identical[

In the IIW design recommendations 3\ a non!linear "quadratic# extrapolation procedure is

recommended for cases of high local shell bending stresses caused for example by eccentric

attachments in large diameter tubes or plane plates[ The quadratic extrapolation requires a

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 005

Fig[ 0[ Recommended location of strain gauges to measure hot spot stress in tubular joints\ ECSC "top# and DNV

"bottom# 1\ 2[

minimum of three strain gauges and is based on points on a curve\ _tted to the strain gauge

measurements by regression analysis[

The SCF is determined by several methods]

"i# Physical models using strain gauges\ as outlined above[

"ii# Finite element methods using appropriate meshes which model the overall joint geometry

without actually modelling the weld[

"iii# Parametric formulae based on either strain gauge measurements or FEM[

In the _nite element analysis\ care must be taken to obtain stresses at positions for extrapolation

that are consistent with the de_nition of the hot spot stress used[ In the IIW recommendations 3

detailed instructions are given for the FEM analysis[

The value of the SCF is critical for the accuracy of the predicted life\ and large e}orts have

therefore been made to assess available data to de_ne sets of parametric equations for use in design

codes[ In the latest Health and Safety Executive revision of the guidance for o}shore structures

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 006

4\ two sets of parametric equations are recommended for design of tubular CHS joints 5\ 6[ A

comprehensive survey of the changes in the HSE guidance has recently been presented 7[ Changes

similar to those in the HSE guidance are likely to be implemented in the API code 8 for o}shore

structures which is currently undergoing extensive revisions which are aimed at producing a new

ISO code for o}shore structures[ The new ISO code is in turn intended to become the Eurocode 2

"steel structures# fatigue clauses for o}shore structures 09[ Since there is a trend towards har!

monisation of European design rules\ the new ISO provisions in Eurocode 2 for hot spot based

fatigue assessment of tubular structures are expected to in~uence the hot spot assessment pro!

cedures in future versions of Eurocode 8 for aluminium structures 00[

The SN curve to be used with the hot spot concept is usually identical to or very similar to the

SN curve for a simple butt weld[ In the early "0873# Department of Energy guidance on which

NS 2361 01 for steel structures are based\ the T!curve for tubular joints is almost identical to the

D!curve which applies to transverse butt welds in plate structures[ This follows from the de_nition

of the hot spot stress[ For a transverse butt weld in a plate or pipe there is no geometric stress

concentration and the SCF0[ Therefore the associated hot spot stress SN curve should only

include the e}ect of the weld\ i[e[\ the SN curve for a transverse butt weld should be used[

The physical size of the joint under consideration is important because the size of the strain

gauge limits the distance from the weld to the locations of the gauge[ In thin!walled structures the

gauge has therefore to be placed farther away from the weld than has been possible in o}shore

steel joints\ and special guidance has therefore evolved for thin section welded joints[

The e}ect of plate thickness is usually handled the same way in design recommendations for the

hot spot stress method as for the nominal stress method[ A thickness penalty factor is imposed for

plate thicknesses greater than the reference thickness\ i

9

[ The penalty factor\ when applied to the

stress range\ is usually expressed as]

S

S

9

0

i

9

i 1

q

"1#

where S is the stress range at thickness i[ In most of the older rules the value of thickness exponent

q is 9[14[ However\ assessment of recent research data has indicated stronger in~uence of thickness

and in the latest HSE and API:ISO revision for o}shore structures a higher penalty factor of

q 9[29 is given[

2.2. Teciangular ana square hollow-seciion joinis

The considerable knowledge gained regarding the static response of circular hollow!section

joints is unfortunately not directly transferable to rectangular hollow!section joints because of

marked di}erences in the behaviour of the latter 02[ The sti}ness distribution in the ~at sidewalls

is di}erent from that of cylindrical shells and the brace corners near to the chord walls have a

strong in~uence on the maximum stress[ Interest in joints of this type has been con_ned to those

made in steel 03 and recommendations have been made on the selection of hot spot stress

de_nition\ parametric equations for SCFs and on appropriate SN curves for RHS joints 04[ In

contrast\ static stress and fatigue guidance for RHS joints in aluminium are absent in the literature

and little data exists[ Some fatigue test results have been reviewed 05\ but the data are not analysed

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 007

Fig[ 1[ Notch hot spot stress 06[

in terms of local or hot spot stress\ but these data nonetheless indicate that a design hot spot stress

range "FAT value# of 39 MPa would be applicable to welded square hollow!section joints[

2.3. The hoi spoi siress concepi appliea io plaie joinis

Recent fatigue design guidance for welded details in steel ship structures 06\ and similar

guidance for aluminium ships 07\ have in both cases adopted a hot spot stress approach[ This is

due mainly to the geometric complexity of the internal hull structure of modern ships that makes

it di.cult to de_ne nominal stresses[ The guidance favours the maximum local stress at the weld

toe "called the notch stress# over the extrapolated geometric stress described earlier^ see Fig[ 1[ The

e}ect of the local weld geometry is therefore included in the notch stress\ dictating that the same

e}ects are excluded from the SN curve\ which is consequently elevated above that for a butt weld

by a factor of approximately 0[4[

The notch stress concept is attractive in that it is an actual stress\ in contrast to the _ctitious

extrapolated hot spot stress already described[ In both practical and numerical applications\

however\ the notch stress approach is problematic[ The two most important parameters in~uencing

the stress concentration factor for the weld are highly variable along the weld length\ the weld toe

radius\ r\ and the weld angle a\ and these parameters can only be readily described in terms of

statistical distribution[ Therefore\ in a deterministic _nite element analysis the variations in r and

a cannot be modelled\ and some descriptive values "average or maximum# are employed as default

values[ In the DNV rules for welded steel ship structures 07 these default values are r,i 9[04

and a 34> for butt welds\ where i plate thickness[ Similar problems are encountered when the

notch stress is to be determined experimentally from strain gauge measurements since it cannot be

measured directly at the weld because the strain gauge would have to straddle the weld toe[ Instead

an extrapolated hot spot stress is obtained from strain gauges placed at distances of 9[4i and 0[4i

from the weld[ To account for the stress concentration e}ect of the weld the hot spot stress is

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 008

Fig[ 2[ The DNV design SN curves for aluminium ships 07[

multiplied by a default SCF of K

w

0[4 for the weld[ Thus the DNV notch stress approach is

e}ectively the same as the hot spot approach since a factor of 0[4 is _rst applied to the SN curve\

then it is accounted for by multiplying the hot spot stress by the same factor of 0[4[

2.4. Hoi spoi SN curres for aluniniun joinis

In the DNV guidance for welded aluminium ship structures 07 two SN curves are given for

welded joints "three curves including one for welded joints in a corrosive environment#\ as shown

in Fig[ 2[

The applied stress range is the noich siress ranqe as de_ned in Fig[ 1[ Curve I applies to base

material[ The highest curve for welds "Curve II# represents butt welds while the lower curve\ Curve

III\ which also has a steeper slope "n2[26#\ represents _llet welds as low strength "high severity#

joints[ Curve IV is for welds in a corrosive environment[ Since the slope of Curves II and III is

close to the value of n2 in the IIW guidance\ corresponding SN curves\ characterised by their

FAT value "FATstress range at N109

5

# can be obtained from the DNV curves[ The stress

range of curve III at 109

5

cycles is 34 MPa but this includes the K

w

factor of 0[4 so the

corresponding FAT value becomes 34:0[4 29 MPa[ Similarly\ the FAT value of Curve II is

44:0[4 26 MPa[ These curves can now be compared with other curves for aluminium welded

joints based on hot spot stresses[

SN data from a large number of welded aluminium plate specimens with a variety of geometries

and in thicknesses up to 5 mm have recently been collected 08 and analysed in terms of hot spot

stresses obtained either from strain gauge measurements or from _nite element analyses[ The

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 019

Fig[ 3[ SN data for small MIG welded aluminium plate specimens 08[

results plotted as hot spot stresses are summarised in Fig[ 3[ It was concluded that a weld category

curve corresponding to FAT 39 would constitute a conservative hot spot based design curve for

welded aluminium structures[

In the US the Category B curve in the Aluminum Association Design Manual has recently been

proposed 19 for use as a general design hot spot stress based design curve for welded aluminium

joints[ This is the SN curve for longitudinal butt welds[ In Eurocode 8 00 and in BS 7007 10\

the hot spot stress method is mentioned but no advice is given on the choice of SN curve[

The DNV classi_cation note for ships 07 is the only known code that uses the hot spot

stress concept for welded aluminium structures[ However\ by analogy with design codes for steel

structures where the hot spot stress SN curves are nearly identical to the curves for two sided butt

welds\ SN curves for hot spot stress fatigue design can be obtained from other codes[ SN curves

obtained in this way are compared in Table 0[

2[ Finite element analyses

The determination of the state of stress experienced by weldments is critical in design\ but

especially so where the hot spot stress method is used[ Appropriate SCFs are pivotal in analysis

experimental fatigue data for establishing hot spot SN curves and are also critical in terms of

relating structural or nominal stresses to hot spot stresses for use in fatigue design[ The work

reported here is primarily of an exploratory nature and was _rstly aimed at determining the SCF

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 010

Table 0

Possible hot spot stress SN curves for fatigue design of welded aluminium structures

Source Stress range Design Slope\ Comments

at two million category n

cycles\ S

1 mill

"MPa#

Eurocode 8 00 24 Class 24 3[9 Curve for two!sided butt welds

BS 7007 19 24 Class 24 2[1 Curve for two!sided butt welds

IIW 3 21 or 39 Fat 21 or 39 2[9 Curves for two!sided butt welds

Sharp et al[ 19 35 AA Cat[ B 3[64 Various types of welds

Partanen and Niemi 08 35 * 2[9 Various types of welds

Det Norse Varitas 07 29 or 26 Curve III or II 2[26 or 3[21 Fillet or butt welds\ respectively

Kosteas and Gietl\ 0884 05 39 * 2[4 Based on data for hollow section

joints

for welded aluminium RHS T!joints\ Fig[ 4\ under simple membrane and bending loading of the

chord member\ and secondly to establish an SN curve for this joint[

3.1. Deierninaiion of SCFs

Finite element analyses were performed using the I!Deas and Abaqus commecial codes[ Three!

dimensional solid models were used representing a quarter of the test specimen geometry by

employing symmetry planes[ Geometrically linear elastostatic analysis routines were used[ Two

sets of models were used] I!Deas based modelling of parametric variations in local weld geometry^

Abaqus based analyses of the nominal weld geometry to independently verify the SCFs determined[

The two series of analysis separately employed 09!node tetrahedral and 19!node brick elements[

Meshing rules suggested by IIW 11 were employed and the stresses for extrapolation were

also extracted in accordance with these guidelines in order to maintain consistency between FE

predictions and experimental stress analyses[

The following nominal parameters were used for the model] weld toe radius\ r 9[7 mm^ weld

angle\ a 34>^ weld throat size\ a 2 mm^ tube wall thickness\ i 2 mm[ Subjected to pure

bending of the chord member\ a weld toe SCF value of 0[82 was calculated based on extrapolation[

The site of maximum stress along the weld toe is located near to the corner of the brace member

towards the sidewall of the chord[ An entirely separate FE analysis of the same geometry using a

di}erent program and di}erent solid elements produced SCF values of 0[75 in bending and 0[40

under membrane loading[

3.2. Paraneiric siuay

In an investigation of the sensitivity of the calculated SCF to parametric variations in the weld

and section geometry\ the four parameters r\ a\ a and i were systematically varied[ Identical tube

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 011

Fig[ 4[ Specimen dimensions[

geometries were used on brace and chord members in a given analysis and during variation of i

the external dimensions remained constant[ The toe radius\ r\ was varied between 9[22[9 mm^ a

was varied from 2444>^ a ranged between 13 mm^ and i was varied between 12[4 mm[ Statistical

analysis of the resulting distribution of SCF

:

"in this case de_ning the maximum stress at the weld

toe#\ based on both maximum principal stress and axial stress component\ revealed that r and i

have the strongest in~uence\ while the SCF is only a weak function of both a and a[ Examples are

given in Fig[ 5[ Models _tted to the data produced the eqns]

SCF

:

0.689.221a9.62ie

1r

9.22ia\ "2#

SCF

s0

0.069.648a9.787ie

1r

9.05a\ "3#

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 012

Fig[ 5[ Examples of parametric variation of SCF "radius and toe angle#[

with a in radians and i\ r and a in mm[ Equation "2# refers to the axial "Z!direction# stress

component and eqn "3# refers to maximum principal stress at the weld toe[ The bounds investigated

"stated above# strictly apply as limits to these equations[ These models behave in a similar way to

established treatments for transverse _llet welds in plate 12 but\ as the joint under considerations

here is between hollow!sections\ there is strictly no valid basis on which to make a direct com!

parison[ The variation of SCF with both r and i is plotted in Fig[ 6 where it is clear that\ as could

be foreseen\ combinations of small weld toe radius and large weld angle\ weld throat and wall

thickness lead to high SCFs[ In particular\ combinations of r and i have most in~uence[

3[ Fatigue tests

Fatigue testing of T!joint specimens was performed on a series of four specimen groups covering

two weld metals "3932 and 4072#\ and as!welded and improved "toe!ground# weldments[ The

specimen geometry\ Fig[ 4\ is identical to that studied earlier using FE^ however\the unloaded

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 013

Fig[ 6[ SCF as a function of r and i[

brace member was shortened in order to facilitate testing[ The parent material extrusions were

5971[15!T4 aluminium alloy that has speci_ed minimum tensile properties of 189 MPa yield

strength and 239 MPa ultimate tensile strength[ The specimens were loaded in 3!point bending of

the chord member[ All tests were carried out at T9[0 and under constant amplitude conditions

using a 4 Hz sinusoidal waveform[ The nominal stresses were calculated from simple elastic

bending theory for the loaded cross!section[ The hot!spot stresses were determined from a simple

multiplication of the nominal stresses by an SCF of 0[72\ derived from the FE work described

earlier[ A limited number of specimens were instrumented with strain gauges on the chord\ located

close to the anticipated failure site using the IIW guidelines 3 in order to measure the hot spot

strain\ Fig[ 7[ A polynomial curve _tted to the strain data was linearly extrapolated to the weld

toe[ Good agreement was found between the hot spot stresses based on experimental "SCF0[72#

and numerical "SCF0[82# stress analyses[ Endurance data generated in the test programme are

given in Tables 14\ presented in terms of both nominal and hot spot stress ranges\ using an SCF

of 0[72[

The data exhibited no clear dependence on the _ller metal so these data were combined[ Linear

regression analysis of the test data produced the design lines "mean minus two standard deviations#

plotted in Fig[ 8] the corresponding SN constants are noted in Table 5[

Some data are available in the literature 13 for welded T!joints in aluminium hollow pro_les[

Directly relevant data reviewed by Kosteas and Gietl 05 were already expressed as local stress

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 014

Fig[ 7[ Strain gauge locations[

Table 1

Results from fatigue testing of as!welded 4072 _ller metal specimens

Nominal stress Hot spot stress Endurance

range "MPa# range "MPa# "cycles#

091[8 077[2 83[819

74[6 045[7 101[793

74[6 045[7 116[698

74[6 045[7 089[166

57[5 014[4 593[533

57[5 014[4 090[664

57[5 014[4 143[022

57[5 014[4 188[567

57[5 014[4 232[999

40[3 40[3 0068[214

ranges but the Hagstro m and Sandstro m data had to be reevaluated in terms of hot spot stress[

This involved performing an FE analysis on the test geometry used "axial loading of the brace# to

get an SCF value of 3[3[ These data are all plotted in Fig[ 09 based on hot!spot stress range with

the results of the present study for as!welded joints where it is clear that the hot spot stress approach

appears to be performing well in terms of reducing data from di}erent loading con_gurations to

a common basis[

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 015

Table 2

Results from fatigue testing of toe!ground 4072 _ller metal specimens

Nominal stress Hot spot stress Endurance

range "MPa# range "MPa# "cycles#

019[9 108[5 092[150

019[9 108[5 098[075

019[9 108[5 71[953

74[6 045[7 218[867

74[6 045[7 328[130

74[6 045[7 304[113

74[6 045[7 306[681

57[5 014[4 0897[528

Table 3

Results from fatigue testing of as!welded 3932 _ller metal specimens

Nominal stress Hot spot stress Endurance

range "MPa# range "MPa# "cycles#

096[0 085[9 52[969

096[0 085[9 88[069

74[6 045[7 086[939

74[6 045[7 066[359

53[2 045[7 052[039

53[2 006[6 307[329

53[2 006[6 571[119

53[2 006[6 374[599

53[2 006[6 498[779

53[2 006[6 0601[529

Table 4

Results from fatigue testing of toe!ground 3932 _ller metal specimens

Nominal stress Hot spot stress Endurance

range "MPa# range "MPa# "cycles#

026[9 140[1 51[837

017[9 123[1 023[455

019[9 108[5 053[748

019[9 108[5 031[661

74[6 045[7 614[241

74[6 045[7 791[853

74[6 045[7 386[485

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 016

Fig[ 8[ Fatigue test data from welded RHS T!joints[

Table 5

Fatigue test results\ SN constants for mean and design lines

Test series SN curves

Log C S

1 mill

"MPa# n

As!welded\ mean line 02[68 2[76

As!welded\ design line 02[31 58[0 2[76

Toe ground\ mean line 03[64 3[01

Toe ground\ design line 03[35 84[4 3[01

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 017

Fig[ 09[ Comparison of test data with published results\ all are design "mean1 SD# curves[

4[ Proposed design methodology

Based on an evaluation of the published literature\ the following recommendations are made

for the _rst version of a design methodology for welded aluminium space frames made of rec!

tangular hollow section joints]

5.1. Defniiion of hoi spoi siress

Use the IIW 11 de_nition[

5.2. Deierninaiion of hoi spoi siress by sirain gauge neasurenenis

Use the IIW 11 extrapolation procedure

5.3. Finiie eleneni analysis io aeiernine SCFs

Determine stress distribution by three!dimensional analysis\ determine SCFs by linear extra!

polation from two points on the curve in accordance with the IIW procedure[ Use IIW 11

guidance for FEM analysis[

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 018

5.4. Paraneiric fornulae for SCFs

Use equations proposed by van Wingerde et al[ 03 for RHS T! and K!joints as preliminary

guidance[

5.5. Hoi spoi siress aesign SN curre

Use the Partanen and Niemi curve with a stress range at 109

5

cycles of 39 MPa and a slope of

one!third[ This curve is slightly higher than the proposed DNV curves for example when corrected

for the di}erence between hot spot and notch stresses[

5[ Conclusions

Many di}erent de_nitions of hot spot stress range exist and are used in the fatigue design of

welded structures[ The guidance recently published by IIW for derivation of the hot spot stress

from strain gauge measurements and FEM analyses are recommended for use for preliminary

fatigue design of thin walled aluminium structures[

The hot spot stress SN curves for welded aluminium structures in design recommendations

that give speci_c advice are remarkably similar\ apparently converging on a design fatigue stress

range at two million cycles in the region of 2939 MPa[

The hot spot method appears well suited to welded aluminium RHS joints\ however\ the design

database needs to be expanded[ Speci_c parametric equations for SCFs need to be developed "or

adapted from existing methodologies for steel structures#[

Parametric FE analysis of a T!joint con_guration under in!plane bending of the chord showed

that combinations of small weld toe radius and large weld angle\ weld throat and wall thickness

lead to high SCFs[ In particular\ combinations of r and i have most in~uence[

Stress concentration factors determined from strain gauge measurements and FE analysis were

in good agreement[

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance of R[ M[ Edvardsen and R[ Trandum both of

whom made contributions to the work reported here as part of their M[Sc[ thesis work[

References

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0881[

1 Radenkovic D[ Stress analysis in tubular joints[ Int[ Conf[ on Steels in Marine Structures\ Paris\ 0870[

2 Gibstein MB\ Moe ET[ Fatigue of tubular joints[ In] Almar!N%ss T\ editor[ Fatigue handbook[ 0874[

3 Hobbacher A[ Fatigue design of welded joints and components[ Recommendations of IIW Joint Working Group

XIII!XV\ IIW Doc[ XIII!0428:XV!734!85[ Cambridge] Abington Publishing\ 0885[

K.H. Macaonala\ P.1. Haaqensen,Enqineerinq Failure Hnalysis 6 (1998) 113130 029

4 HSE\ Guidance on design\ construction and certi_cation[ 3th ed[ "including Feb[ 0884 amendments#[ London\

U[K[] HMSO\ 0884[

5 Efthymiou M[ Development of SCF formulae and generalised in~uence functions for use in fatigue analysis[

Proceedings of the O}shore Tubular Joint Conference[ Surrey\ U[K[\ 0877[

6 HSE\ Stress concentration factors for simple tubular joints] assessment of existing and developing of new parametric

formulae[ HSE Report OTH 80 246[ London] HMSO\ 0889[

7 Stacey A\ Sharp JV[ The revised HSE fatigue guidance[ Proceedings of the 03th International Conference on

O}shore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering[ Copenhagen\ Denmark] June 0711\ 0884[

8 API RP1A\ Recommended practice for planning\ designing and constructing _xed o}shore platforms[ 19th ed[

American Petroleum Institute\ 0882[

09 Baerheim\ M[ et al[ Proposed fatigue provisions in the new ISO code for o}shore structures[ Proceedings of the

03th International Conference on O}shore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering[ Copenhagen\ Denmark] June 07

11\ 0884[

00 CEN\ Eurocode 8] Design of aluminium structures[ Part 1] structures susceptible to fatigue[ prENV 080!1\ CEN:TC

149SC 8\ 0885[

01 Norsk standard\ NS 2361\ Prosjektering av stalkonstruksjoner[ Beregning og dimensjonering[ 1[ Utg[\ Norges

Standardiseringsforbund\ 0873[

02 van Wingerde AM et al[ Proposed revisions for fatigue design of planar welded connections made of hollow

structural sections[ Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Tubular Structures\ Nottingham\ 0882[

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Research 0884^24]601004[

04 van Wingerde AM et al[ The fatigue behaviour of K!joints made of square hollow sections[ IIW Doc[ XIII!0515!

85\ 0885[

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Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures 0885^08]620627[

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revised Jan[\ 0885[

07 Det Norse Varitas\ Class Note] Fatigue assessment of ship structures[ Report No[ 82!9321\ revised Sept[\ 0885[

08 Partanen T\ Niemi E[ Hot spot S!N curves based on fatigue tests of small MIG welded aluminium specimens[ IIW

Doc[ 0525!85\ 0885[

19 Sharp ML et al[ Fatigue design of aluminium components and structures[ McGraw!Hill\ 0885[

10 BS 7007\ Structural use of aluminium[ Part 0[ Code of practice for design[ London] British Standards Institution\

0880[

11 Niemi E[ Stress determination for fatigue analysis of welded components[ Cambridge\ U[K] Abington Publishing\

0884[

12 Niu X\ Glinka G[ The weld pro_le e}ect on stress intensity factors in weldments[ Int J Fracture 0876^24]219[

13 Hagstro m J\ Sandstro m R[ Fatigue properties of welded T!joints in thin!walled aluminium pro_les[ Proceedings of

the International Conference 4th Int[ Conf[ on Aluminium Alloys\ ICAA!4\ Grenoble\ 04 July\ 0885[ Materials

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