# Noise and Vibration Control

2. Damping

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Noise and Vibration Control

What is damping?

Damping is a phenomenon by which mechanical energy is dissipated (usually converted as thermal energy) in dynamic systems.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

2/54

Noise and Vibration Control

2.1 Types of damping

Three primary mechanisms of damping Internal damping – of material Structural damping – at joints and interface Fluid damping – through fluid -structure interactions Two types of external dampers can be added to a mechanical system to improve its energy dissipation characteristics: Active dampers – require external source of power Passive dampers – Does not Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

3/54

Noise and Vibration Control MATERIAL (Internal) Damping Internal damping originates from energy dissipation associated with: --microstructure defects (grain boundaries & impurities), -thermo elastic effects (caused by local temperature gradients) -eddy-current effects (ferromagnetic materials), -dislocation motion in metals, etc. Types of Internal damping: -Viscoelastic damping -Hysteretic damping

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

4/54

Noise and Vibration Control Area of hysteresis loop is energy dissipation per cycle of motion- termed as per-unit-volume damping capacity (d).

Figure 1 A typical hysteresis loop for mechanical damping [4]

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

5/54

visco elsatic parameter Damping capacity per unit volume
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
6/54
.Noise and Vibration Control
Viscoelastic model Kelvin vigot model
Stress strain relationship is given by
E – young's modulus E* .

Noise and Vibration Control
Kelvin vigot model
Subjected to harmonic sinusoidal excitation
By substituting the equations we get
dv depends on excitation frequency
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
7/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Other two models of viscoelastic models
Maxwells model
Standard linear solid model
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
8/54
.

(frequency of harmonic motion )
Damping capacity per unit vol is generally represented as dh
For this case n =2
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
9/54
.Noise and Vibration Control
Hysteretic Damping
Damping forces does not significantly depend on the frequency of oscillation of strain.

Noise and Vibration Control
Hysteretic Damping
By considering harmonic motion at frequency
The above equation 2.1 becomes
Simple model for the viscoelastic material is given by
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
10/54
.

independent of the frequency -proportional to amplitude squared.Noise and Vibration Control
Experimental results indicate that for most structural materials such as steel or Aluminium the energy loss is: .
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
11/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Well functioning shock absorber
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
12/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Poor functioning shock absorber (Primarily structural damping)
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
13/54
.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
14/54
.2 Structural damping
Structural damping is a result of the mechanical-energy dissipation caused by rubbing friction resulting from relative motion between components and by impacting or intermittent contact at the joints in a mechanical system or structure Energy dissipation caused by rubbing is usually represented by a Coulomb-friction model.Noise and Vibration Control
2. should be determined from the coefficient of restitution of the two members that are in contact. Energy dissipation caused by impacting. however.

Noise and Vibration Control
A typical hysteresis loop for structural damping
Figure 5 Some representative hysteresis loops [4] (a) Structural damping. (b) Coulomb friction. (c) Simplified structural damping model
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
15/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Structural damping
A simplified model for structural damping caused by local deformation can be given by
The corresponding hysterisis loop is given by
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
16/54
.

This resistance is the cause of mechanical-energy dissipation in fluid damping. The resulting drag force per unit area of projection on the x-z plane is denoted by fd .Noise and Vibration Control
2. It is usually expressed as
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
17/54
. Local displacement of the element relative to the surrounding fluid is denoted by q(x. The direction of relative motion is shown parallel to the y-axis in Figure .t).z.3 Fluid Damping
Consider a mechanical component moving in a fluid medium.

t) – local displacement of the element relative to surrounding fluid
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
18/54
.Noise and Vibration Control
Fluid damping -A body moving in a fluid medium.z.
Figure 6 A body moving in a fluid medium [4] Direction of relative motion – parallel to y-axis q(x.

fluid density 19/54
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
.5 cd ρ q 2 sgn ( q ) & & Where ρ .Noise and Vibration Control Mechanics of fluid damping.
Figure 7 Mechanics of fluid damping [4] Resulting drag force per unit area of projection on the x-z plane – fd fd = 0.

Noise and Vibration Control
Damping Classification
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
20/54
.

represented by vector x of n generalized coordinates xi Eqns of motion expressed in vector-matrix form:
M is mass (inertia) matrix K is Stiffness matrix f(t) is forcing function vector & d damping force vector (nonlinear function of x and x )
Where C =cm M + ck K
cm – inertial damping matrix ck – stiffness damping matrix 21/54
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
.Noise and Vibration Control
Representation of Damping in vibration Analysis
N – dof mechanical system Its motion.

Noise and Vibration Control
Damping Models
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
22/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Equivalent damping ratios
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
23/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
2.4 Loss factor
Damping capacity of a device is energy dissipated in a complete cycle
Specific damping capacity D is given by ratio of
Loss factor
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
24/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Loss factor is approximately given as
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
25/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Damping parameters
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
26/54
.

structural and fluid) A major difficulty arises because usually it is not possible to isolate various t types of damping( e. and fluid) from an overall measurement. Further more.g. material. damping measurements must be conducted under actual operating conditions for them to be realistic'
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
27/54
.Noise and Vibration Control
2.5 Measurement of damping
Damping can be represented by various parameters (such as specified damping capacity loss factor Q-factor and damping ratio) a and models ( such as viscous. hysteretisis . structural.

frequency-response methods.
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
28/54
. Time-Response Method and 2. where as the second type uses a frequency-response record.Noise and Vibration Control
There are two general ways by which damping measurements can be made:
1.
The basic difference between the two types of measurements is that the first type uses a time-response record of the system to estimate damping.

Noise and Vibration Control
Logarithmic method
when a single degree-of-freedom oscillatory system with viscous damping is excited by an impulse input or an initial condition excitation its response takes the form of a time delay
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
29/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Logarithmic method
Figure 8 Impulse response of a simple oscillator [4]
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
30/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Logarithmic method
damped natural frequency is given by
If the response at t = ti is denoted by y. the logarithmic decrement (per unit cycle) is given b y
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
31/54
. and the response at
Then.

Noise and Vibration Control
Logarithmic method
Damping ratio can be expressed as
“Pre radian” logarithmic decrement
Finally the equation obtained is
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
32/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Step Response Method
This is also a time-response method If a unit-step excitations applied to the single-degree-of freedom oscillatons by system of equations response is given by
Figure 9 Step response of a simple oscillator [4]
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
33/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Step Response Method
Response is given by
First peak ( peak time )
Peak time (peak value) Mp
Percentage overshoot PO
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
34/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Step Response Method
Damping ratio is computed using appropriate relation from the following equations
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
35/54
.

the energy dissipation per hysteresis loop of viscous damping is
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
36/54
.Noise and Vibration Control
Hysteresis Loop method
Depending on inertial and elastic conditions the hystersis loop will change but the work done in the conservative forces will be zero consequently work done will be equal to energy dissipated by damping only without normalizing with respect to mass.

Noise and Vibration Control
Hysteresis Loop method
The energy dissipation per hysteresis loop of hysteretic damping is
Initial max potential energy is
The loss factor of hysteretic damping is given by
the equivalent damping ratio for hysteretic damping is
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
37/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control An experimental hysteresis loop of a damping material.
Figure 10 An experimental hysteresis loop of a damping material [4]
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
38/54
.

the magnification factor is
Plot of this value and the peak value of magnitude occurs in the denominator
Resulting solution of resonant frequency is
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
39/54
.Noise and Vibration Control
Magnification Factor method
consider the single-degree-of-freedom oscillatory system with viscous damping .

Noise and Vibration Control
Magnification Factor method
Figure 11 The Magnification Factor method of damping measurement applied to a single dof system [4]
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
40/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Use of bode plots
Multi degree freedom system model damping can be estimated by bode plots
Figure 12 Magnification Factor method applied to a multi dof system [4]
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
41/54
.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
42/54
. Bandwidth (half-power) is defined as the width of the frequency-response magnitude curve when the magnitude is 1/sqrt2 times the peak value.Noise and Vibration Control
Bandwidth method
The bandwidth method of damping measurement is based on frequency response The peak magnitude is given by equation for low damping.

Noise and Vibration Control
Bandwidth method
w Frequency expressed as
w2 of quadratic equation is
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
43/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Bandwidth method
Figure 13 Bandwidth method of damping measurement applied to a single dof system [4]
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
44/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Bandwidth method
The damping ratio can be estimated by using band width in the relation
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
45/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Bandwidth method
For small ζ (in comparison to 1)
For the i th mode the damping ratio is given by:
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
46/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control Bandwidth method of damping measurement in multidegree freedom system
Figure 14 Bandwidth method of damping measurement in multi-degree freedom system
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
47/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control Effect of vibration amplitude on damping in structures.
Figure 15 Effect of vibration amplitude on damping in structures [4]
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
48/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Overview of measurement method for damping
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Overview of measurement method for damping
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
50/54
.

6 Slip / interface damping – mechanism
In many practical applications.screws and guide ways Interface damping was formally considered by Da Vinci in the early 1500s and again by columb by 1700s
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
.g. : bearings .Noise and Vibration Control
2. damping is generated by the interface of two sliding surface e. gears .

Noise and Vibration Control
Slip / interface damping – mechanism
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
52/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Interface damping
Simplified model is coulomb dry friction model
f= frictional force that opposes the motion r = normal reaction force between the sliding surfaces v= relative velocity between the sliding surfaces µ =coefficient of friction'
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
53/54
.

Noise and Vibration Control
Thank you
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
54/54
.